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Rosaceae, the rose family, is a medium-sized family of flowering plants, including 4,828 known species in 91 genera.[3][4][5] The name is derived from the type genus Rosa. Among the most species-rich genera are Alchemilla
Alchemilla
(270), Sorbus
Sorbus
(260), Crataegus (260), Cotoneaster
Cotoneaster
(260), Rubus
Rubus
(250),[5] and Prunus
Prunus
(plums, cherries, peaches, apricots, and almonds) with about 200 species.[6] However, all of these numbers should be seen as estimates – much taxonomic work remains. The family Rosaceae
Rosaceae
includes herbs, shrubs, and trees. Most species are deciduous, but some are evergreen.[7] They have a worldwide range, but are most diverse in the Northern Hemisphere. Several economically important products come from the Rosaceae, including many edible fruits (such as apples, pears, quinces, apricots, plums, cherries, peaches, raspberries, loquats, and strawberries), almonds, and ornamental trees and shrubs (such as roses, meadowsweets, photinias, firethorns, rowans, and hawthorns).[7]

Contents

1 Distribution 2 Historical Taxonomy 3 Phylogeny

3.1 Amygdaloideae
Amygdaloideae
basal 3.2 Dryadoideae
Dryadoideae
basal 3.3 Rosoideae
Rosoideae
basal

4 Characteristics

4.1 Leaves 4.2 Flowers 4.3 Fruits and seeds

5 Genera 6 Economic importance 7 References 8 External links

Distribution[edit] The Rosaceae
Rosaceae
have a cosmopolitan distribution (found nearly everywhere except for Antarctica), but are primarily concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere in regions that are not desert or tropical rainforest.[5] Historical Taxonomy[edit] The family was traditionally divided into six subfamilies: Rosoideae, Spiraeoideae, Maloideae (Pomoideae), Amygdaloideae
Amygdaloideae
(Prunoideae), Neuradoideae, and Chrysobalanoideae, and most of these were treated as families by various authors.[8][9] More recently (1971), Chrysobalanoideae was placed in Malpighiales in molecular analyses and Neuradoideae has been assigned to Malvales. Schulze-Menz, in Engler's Syllabus edited by Melchior (1964) recognized Rosoideae, Dryadoideae, Lyonothamnoideae, Spireoideae, Amygdaloideae, and Maloideae.[10] They were primarily diagnosed by the structure of the fruits. More recent work has identified that not all of these groups were monophyletic. Hutchinson (1964)[11] and Kalkman (2004) [12] recognized only tribes (17 and 21, respectively). Takhtajan (1997) delimited 21 tribes in 10 subfamilies:[2] Filipenduloideae, Rosoideae, Ruboideae, Potentilloideae, Coleogynoideae, Kerroideae, Amygdaloideae (Prunoideae), Spireoideae, Maloideae (Pyroideae), Dichotomanthoideae. A more modern model comprises three subfamilies, one of which (Rosoideae) has largely remained the same. While the boundaries of the Rosaceae
Rosaceae
are not disputed, there is not general agreement as to how many genera it contains. Areas of divergent opinion include the treatment of Potentilla
Potentilla
s.l. and Sorbus s.l.. Compounding the problem is that apomixis is common in several genera. This results in an uncertainty in the number of species contained in each of these genera, due to the difficulty of dividing apomictic complexes into species. For example, Cotoneaster
Cotoneaster
contains between 70 and 300 species, Rosa around 100 (including the taxonomically complex dog roses), Sorbus
Sorbus
100 to 200 species, Crataegus between 200 and 1,000, Alchemilla
Alchemilla
around 300 species, Potentilla roughly 500, and Rubus
Rubus
hundreds, or possibly even thousands of species. Phylogeny[edit] The phylogenetic relationships between the three subfamilies within Rosaceae
Rosaceae
are unresolved. There are three competing hypotheses:

Amygdaloideae
Amygdaloideae
basal Dryadoideae
Dryadoideae
basal Rosoideae
Rosoideae
basal

Amygdaloideae

Rosoideae

Dryadoideae

Dryadoideae

Amygdaloideae

Rosoideae

Rosoideae

Dryadoideae

Amygdaloideae

Amygdaloideae
Amygdaloideae
basal[edit] Amygdaloideae
Amygdaloideae
has been identified as the earliest branching subfamily by Chin et al. (2014),[13] Li et al. (2015),[14] Li et al. (2016),[15] and Sun et al. (2016).[16] Most recently Zhang et al. (2017) recovered these relationships using whole plastid genomes:[17]

Rosaceae

Amygdaloideae

Pyrodae

Maleae

Gillenieae

Spiraeeae

Sorbarieae

Amygdaleae

Kerriodae

Kerrieae

Exochordeae

Neillieae

Lyonothamneae

Rosoideae

Rosodae

Potentilleae

Roseae

Agrimonieae

Rubeae

Colurieae

Ulmarieae

Dryadoideae

Dryadeae

outgroup

The sister relationship between Dryadoideae
Dryadoideae
and Rosoideae
Rosoideae
is supported by the following shared morphological characters not found in Amygdaloideae: presence of stipules, separation of the hypanthium from the ovary, and the fruits are usually achenes.[17] Dryadoideae
Dryadoideae
basal[edit] Dryadoideae
Dryadoideae
has been identified as the earliest branching subfamily by Evans et al. (2002)[18] and Potter (2003).[19] Most recently Xiang et al. (2017) recovered these relationships using nuclear transcriptomes:[20]

Rosaceae

Amygdaloideae

Pyrodae

Maleae

Gillenieae

Kerriodae

Kerrieae

Exochordeae

Sorbarieae

Amygdaleae

Lyonothamneae

Spiraeeae

Neillieae

Rosoideae

Rosodae

Agrimonieae

Potentilleae

Roseae

Colurieae

Rubeae

Ulmarieae

Dryadoideae

Dryadeae

outgroup

Rosoideae
Rosoideae
basal[edit] Amygdaloideae
Amygdaloideae
has been identified as the earliest branching subfamily by Morgan et al. (1994),[21] Evans (1999),[22] Potter et al. (2002),[23] Potter et al. (2007),[24] Töpel et al. (2012),[25] and Chen et al. (2016).[26] The following is taken from Potter et al. (2007):[24]

Rosaceae

Rosoideae

Rosodae

Agrimonieae

Potentilleae

Roseae

Colurieae

Rubeae

Ulmarieae

Amygdaloideae

Sorbarieae

Pyrodae

Maleae

Gillenieae

Spiraeeae

Kerriodae

Kerrieae

Exochordeae

Amygdaleae

Neillieae

Lyonothamneae

Dryadoideae

Dryadeae

outgroup

The sister relationship between Amygdaloideae
Amygdaloideae
and Dryadoideae
Dryadoideae
is supported by the following shared biochemical characters not found in Rosoideae: production of cyanogenic glycosides and production of sorbitol.[17] Characteristics[edit] Rosaceae
Rosaceae
can be trees, shrubs, or herbaceous plants. The herbs are mostly perennials, but some annuals also exist.[27] Leaves[edit] The leaves are generally arranged spirally, but have an opposite arrangement in some species. They can be simple or pinnately compound (either odd- or even-pinnate). Compound leaves appear in around 30 genera. The leaf margin is most often serrate. Paired stipules are generally present, and are a primitive feature within the family, independently lost in many groups of Amygdaloideae
Amygdaloideae
(previously called Spiraeoideae).[24] The stipules are sometimes adnate (attached surface to surface)[28] to the petiole. Glands or extrafloral nectaries may be present on leaf margins or petioles. Spines may be present on the midrib of leaflets and the rachis of compound leaves. Flowers[edit] Flowers of plants in the rose family are generally described as "showy".[29] They are actinomorphic (i.e. radially symmetrical) and almost always hermaphroditic. Rosaceae
Rosaceae
generally have five sepals, five petals, and many spirally arranged stamens. The bases of the sepals, petals, and stamens are fused together to form a characteristic cup-like structure called a hypanthium. They can be arranged in racemes, spikes, or heads; solitary flowers are rare. Fruits and seeds[edit] The fruits occur in many varieties and were once considered the main characters for the definition of subfamilies amongst Rosaceae, giving rise to a fundamentally artificial subdivision. They can be follicles, capsules, nuts, achenes, drupes (Prunus), and accessory fruits, like the pome of an apple, or the hip of a rose. Many fruits of the family are edible, but their seeds often contain amygdalin, which can release cyanide during digestion if the seed is damaged.[30] Genera[edit] Main article: List of Rosaceae
Rosaceae
genera Identified clades include:

Subfamily Rosoideae: Traditionally composed of those genera bearing aggregate fruits that are made up of small achenes or drupelets, and often the fleshy part of the fruit (e.g. strawberry) is the receptacle or the stalk bearing the carpels. The circumscription is now narrowed (excluding, for example, the Dryadoideae), but it still remains a diverse group containing five or six tribes and 20 or more genera, including rose, Rubus
Rubus
(blackberry, raspberry), Fragaria
Fragaria
(strawberry), Potentilla, and Geum. Subfamily Amygdaloideae: Within this group remains an identified clade with a pome fruit, traditionally known as subfamily Maloideae (or Pyroideae) which included genera such as apple, Cotoneaster, and Crataegus
Crataegus
(hawthorn). To separate it at the subfamily level would leave the remaining genera as a paraphyletic group, so it has been expanded to include the former Spiraeoideae and Amygdaloideae.[24] The subfamily has sometimes been referred to by the name "Spiraeoideae", but this is not permitted by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. Subfamily Dryadoideae: Fruits are achenes with hairy styles, and includes five genera (Dryas, Cercocarpus, Chamaebatia, Cowania, and Purshia), most species of which form root nodules which host nitrogen-fixing bacteria from the genus Frankia.

Economic importance[edit] The rose family is arguably one of the six most economically important crop plant families,[31] and includes apples, pears, quinces, medlars, loquats, almonds, peaches, apricots, plums, cherries, strawberries, blackberries, raspberries, sloes, and roses among the crop plants belonging to the family. Many genera are also highly valued ornamental plants. These include trees and shrubs (Cotoneaster, Chaenomeles, Crataegus, Dasiphora, Exochorda, Kerria, Photinia, Physocarpus, Prunus, Pyracantha, Rhodotypos, Rosa, Sorbus, Spiraea), herbaceous perennials (Alchemilla, Aruncus, Filipendula, Geum, Potentilla, Sanguisorba), alpine plants (Dryas, Geum, Potentilla) and climbers (Rosa).[7] However, several genera are also introduced noxious weeds in some parts of the world, costing money to be controlled. These invasive plants can have negative impacts on the diversity of local ecosystems once established. Such naturalised pests include Acaena, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Pyracantha, and Rosa.[7] References[edit]

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Consortium. (2016). "Tree of life for the genera of Chinese vascular plants". J Syst Evol. 54 (4): 277–306. doi:10.1111/jse.12219. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ " Rosaceae
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rosaceae.

Rosaceae
Rosaceae
at the DELTA Online Families of Flowering Plants

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q46299 EoL: 8097 EPPO: 1ROSF FloraBase: 22834 FNA: 10776 FoC: 10776 Fossilworks: 54647 GBIF: 5015 GRIN: 972 IPNI: 30000200-2 ITIS: 24538 NCBI: 3745 Tropicos: 42000176 VASCAN: 207 Watson & Dallwitz: rosa

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