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Musa I Of Mali
Musa I (c. 1280—c. 1337) or Mansa Musa was the tenth Mansa, which translates to "sultan", "conqueror", or "emperor", of the wealthy West African Mali Empire. At the time of Musa's rise to the throne, the Malian Empire consisted of territory formerly belonging to the Ghana Empire in present-day southern Mauritania and in Melle (Mali) and the immediate surrounding areas. Musa held many titles, including "Emir of Melle", "Lord of the Mines of Wangara", "Conqueror of Ghanata", and at least a dozen others. Mansa Musa conquered 24 cities, each with surrounding districts containing villages and estates. During his reign Mali may have been the largest producer of gold in the world; it was at a point of exceptional demand for the commodity
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Gold Coin
A gold coin is a coin that is made mostly or entirely of gold. Most gold coins minted since 1800 are 90% gold or 22kt (11/12 fineness), but some have lower or higher content such as the 24 karat Canadian Maple Leaf bullion series. Gold in coins is typically alloyed with silver, copper or both. Traditionally (up to about the 1930s), gold coins have been circulation coins, including coin-like bracteates and dinars. Since recent decades, however, gold coins are mainly produced as bullion coins to investors and as commemorative coins to collectors. While also modern gold coins are legal tender, they are not observed in everyday financial transactions, as the metal value normally exceeds the nominal value
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Medina
Medina (/məˈdnə/; Arabic: المدينة المنورة‎, al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah, "the radiant city"; or المدينة, al-Madīnah (Hejazi pronunciation: [almaˈdiːna]), "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia. At the city's heart is al-Masjid an-Nabawi ("the Prophet's Mosque"), which is the burial place of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and is the second-holiest city in Islam after Mecca. Medina was Muhammad's destination of his Hijrah (migration) from Mecca, and became the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim Empire, under Muhammad's leadership. It served as the power base of Islam in its first century where the early Muslim community developed
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Indus River
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū or Abāsīn) is one of the longest rivers in Asia. Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovar (China), the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir (India), towards Gilgit-Baltistan and the Hindukush ranges, and then flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh. It is the longest river and national river of Pakistan. The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2---> (450,000 sq mi). Its estimated annual flow stands at around 243 km3---> (58 cu mi), twice that of the Nile River and three times that of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers combined, making it the twenty-first largest river in the world in terms of annual flow. The Zanskar is its left bank tributary in Ladakh
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Kaaba
The Kaaba (Arabic: ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـةal-kaʿbah IPA: [alˈkaʕba], "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (Arabic: ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة‎, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (Arabic: ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام‎, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is the most sacred site in Islam. It is considered by Muslims to be the Bayṫ Allāh (Arabic: بَـيْـت ٱلله‎, "House of God"), and has a similar role to the Tabernacle and Holy of Holies in Judaism. Wherever they are in the world, Muslims are expected to face the Ka'bah when performing Ṣalâṫ (Arabic: صَـلَاة‎, Islamic prayer)
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Sultan
Sultan (/ˈsʌltən/; Arabic: سلطانsulṭān, pronounced [sʊlˈtˤɑːn, solˈtˤɑːn]) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic", and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (سلطنة salṭanah). The term is distinct from king (ملك malik), despite both referring to a sovereign ruler
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Muhammad
Muhammad (Arabic: محمد‎; pronounced [muħammad]; French: Mahomet /məˈh
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Muslim
Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad
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Pilgrimage To Mecca
The Hajj (/hæ/; Arabic: حَجّḤaǧǧ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence. It is one of the five pillars of Islam, alongside Shahadah, Salat, Zakat and Sawm. The Hajj is the second largest annual gathering of Muslims in the world. The state of being physically and financially capable of performing the Hajj is called istita'ah, and a Muslim who fulfills this condition is called a mustati
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Slave
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property. A slave is unable to withdraw unilaterally from such an arrangement and works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the term chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised, de jure slavery. In a broader sense, however, the word slavery may also refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against their own will
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Camel
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back. There are three surviving species of camel: the one-humped dromedary (which makes up 94% of the world's camel population), and the two-humped Bactrian and wild Bactrian species. Camels have long been domesticated and, as livestock, they provide food (milk and meat) and textiles (fiber and felt from hair)
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Cairo
Cairo (/ˈkr/ KYE-roh; Arabic: القاهرةAl-Qāhirah, About this sound pronunciation ) is the capital city of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is the largest in the Middle East and the Arab world, and the 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta, modern Cairo was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life, and is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture
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Mosque
A mosque (/mɒsk/; from Arabic: مَـسْـجِـد‎, translit. masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims. There are strict and detailed requirements in Sunni jurisprudence (Arabic: فِـقْـه‎, fiqh) for a place of worship to be considered a mosque, with places that do not meet these requirements regarded as musallas. There are stringent restrictions on the uses of the area formally demarcated as the mosque (which is often a small portion of the larger complex), and in the Islamic Sharī‘ah (Arabic: شَـرِيْـعَـة‎, Law), after an area is formally designated as a mosque, it remains so until the Last Day. Many mosques have elaborate domes, minarets, and prayer halls, in varying styles of architecture. Mosques originated on the Arabian Peninsula, but are now found in all inhabited continents
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The Mamluk Sultanate (Arabic: سلطنة المماليكSalṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz. It lasted from the overthrow of the Ayyubid dynasty until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. Historians have traditionally broken the era of Mamlūk rule into two periods—one covering 1250–1382, the other, 1382–1517. Western historians call the former the "Baḥrī" period and the latter the "Burjī" due to the political dominance of the regimes known by these names during the respective eras
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Al-Nasir Muhammad
Al-Malik an-Nasir Nasir ad-Din Muhammad ibn Qalawun (Arabic: الملك الناصر ناصر الدين محمد بن قلاوون‎), commonly known as an-Nasir Muhammad (Arabic: الناصر محمد‎), or by his kunya: Abu al-Ma'ali (أبو المعالى) or as Ibn Qalawun (1285–1341) was the ninth Turkic Mamluk sultan of
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