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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Coordinates : 20°N 12°W / 20°N 12°W / 20; -12

Islamic Republic
Republic
of Mauritania الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية (Arabic ) _al-Jumhūrīyah al-Islāmīyah al-Mūrītānīyah_ _République islamique de Mauritanie_ (French )

Flag Seal

MOTTO: شرف إخاء عدل (Arabic) "Honor, Fraternity, Justice"

ANTHEM: نشيد وطني موريتاني _" National anthem of Mauritania "_

Location of Mauritania
Mauritania
(green) in Africa
Africa

Capital and largest city Nouakchott
Nouakchott
18°09′N 15°58′W / 18.150°N 15.967°W / 18.150; -15.967

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Arabic a

RECOGNISED NATIONAL LANGUAGES

* Hassaniya Arabic * Pulaar * Soninke * Wolof a

OTHER LANGUAGES French Zenaga Berber

RELIGION Islam

DEMONYM Mauritanian

GOVERNMENT Unitary semi-presidential republic b

• PRESIDENT Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz

• PRIME MINISTER Yahya Ould Hademine

LEGISLATURE Parliament

• LOWER HOUSE National Assembly

INDEPENDENCE

• FROM FRANCE 28 November 1960

• CURRENT CONSTITUTION OF MAURITANIA 12 July 1991

AREA

• TOTAL 1,030,000 km2 (400,000 sq mi) (28th )

• WATER (%) 0.03

POPULATION

• 2015 ESTIMATE 4,067,564

• 2013 CENSUS 3,537,368

• DENSITY 3.4/km2 (8.8/sq mi)

GDP (PPP ) 2017 estimate

• TOTAL $17.421 billion (134th )

• PER CAPITA $4,488 (140th )

GDP (NOMINAL) 2017 estimate

• TOTAL $5.063 billion (154th )

• PER CAPITA $1,304 (149th )

GINI (2008) 40.5 medium

HDI (2015) 0.513 low · 157th

CURRENCY Ouguiya (MRO )

TIME ZONE GMT (UTC +0)

DRIVES ON THE right

CALLING CODE +222

ISO 3166 CODE MR

INTERNET TLD .mr

* According to Article 6 of the Constitution: "The national languages are Arabic, Pulaar , Soninke , and Wolof ; the official language is Arabic." * Not recognized internationally (see main article).

MAURITANIA (/mɔːrɪˈteɪniə/ (_ listen ); Arabic : موريتانيا‎‎ Mūrītānyā_; Berber : Muritanya or Agawej; Wolof : _Gànnaar_; Soninke : _Murutaane_; Pulaar : _Moritani_; French : _Mauritanie_), officially the ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF MAURITANIA, is an Arab
Arab
country in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region of western Africa. It is the eleventh largest country in Africa
Africa
and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Western Sahara in the north, Algeria
Algeria
in the northeast, Mali
Mali
in the east and southeast, and Senegal
Senegal
in the southwest.

The country derives its name from the ancient Berber kingdom of Mauretania , which existed from the 3rd century BC to the 7th century in the far north of modern-day Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria
Algeria
. Approximately 90% of Mauritania's land is within the Sahara
Sahara
; consequently, the population is concentrated in the south, where precipitation is slightly higher. The capital and largest city is Nouakchott
Nouakchott
, located on the Atlantic coast, which is home to around one-third of the country's 3.5 million people. The government was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military coup d\'état led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz . On 16 April 2009, Aziz resigned from the military to run for president in the 19 July elections, which he won.

About 20% of Mauritanians live on less than US$1.25 per day. Mauritania
Mauritania
suffers from several human rights issues, including slavery , as at least 4% of the population (155,600 people) are enslaved against their will.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Ancient history * 1.2 Colonial history and present day * 1.3 Issue of Western Sahara * 1.4 Ould Daddah era (1960–1978) * 1.5 CMRN and CMSN military governments (1978–1984)

* 2 Politics and recent history

* 2.1 Ould Taya\'s rule (1984–2005) * 2.2 August 2005 military coup * 2.3 2007 presidential elections * 2.4 2008 military coup * 2.5 After the coup

* 3 Society

* 3.1 Demographics * 3.2 Religion * 3.3 Languages * 3.4 Health * 3.5 Education * 3.6 Urbanization

* 4 Administrative divisions * 5 Geography * 6 Economy

* 7 Human rights

* 7.1 Discrimination against black population * 7.2 Modern slavery

* 8 Culture * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Mauritania

ANCIENT HISTORY

The Bafours were primarily agriculturalist, and among the first Saharan people to abandon their historically nomadic lifestyle. With the gradual desiccation of the Sahara, they headed south. Many of the Berber tribes claimed Yemeni (and sometimes other Arab) origins. There is little evidence to support such claims, but a 2000 DNA
DNA
study of Yemeni people suggested there might be some ancient connection between the peoples.

Other peoples also migrated south past the Sahara
Sahara
to West Africa. In 1076, Moorish Islamic warrior monks ( Almoravid or Al Murabitun) attacked and conquered the large area of the ancient Ghana Empire . Over the next 500 years, Arabs overcame fierce resistance from the local population (Berber and non-Berber alike) to dominate Mauritania. The Dutch trading post of Arguin in 1665

The Char Bouba war (1644–74) was the unsuccessful final effort of the peoples to repel the Yemeni Maqil Arab
Arab
invaders. The invaders were led by the Beni Hassan tribe. The descendants of the Beni Hassan warriors became the upper stratum of Moorish society. Hassaniya , a Berber-influenced Arabic dialect that derives its name from the Beni Hassan, became the dominant language among the largely nomadic population.

Berbers retained a niche influence by producing the majority of the region's marabouts : those who preserve and teach Islamic tradition.

COLONIAL HISTORY AND PRESENT DAY

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Imperial France
France
gradually absorbed the territories of present-day Mauritania
Mauritania
from the Senegal
Senegal
River area and northwards, starting in the late 19th century. In 1901, Xavier Coppolani took charge of the imperial mission. Through a combination of strategic alliances with Zawiya tribes, and military pressure on the Hassane warrior nomads, he managed to extend French rule over the Mauritanian emirates . Trarza , Brakna and Tagant quickly submitted to treaties with the colonial power (1903–04), but the northern emirate of Adrar held out longer, aided by the anti-colonial rebellion (or jihad ) of shaykh Maa al-Aynayn . Adrar was finally defeated militarily in 1912, and incorporated into the territory of Mauritania, which had been drawn up and planned in 1904. Mauritania
Mauritania
was part of French West Africa
Africa
from 1920.

French rule brought legal prohibitions against slavery and an end to inter-clan warfare. During the colonial period, 90% of the population remained nomadic. Many sedentary peoples, whose ancestors had been expelled centuries earlier, began to trickle back into Mauritania. The previous capital of the country, Saint-Louis was located in Senegal, so when the country gained independence in 1960, Nouakchott, at the time little more than a fortified village (_"ksar"_), was chosen as the site of the new capital of Mauritania.

After gaining independence, larger numbers of indigenous Sub-Saharan African peoples (Haalpulaar , Soninke , and Wolof ) entered Mauritania, moving into the area north of the Senegal
Senegal
River . Educated in French language and customs, many of these recent arrivals became clerks, soldiers, and administrators in the new state. This occurred as the French militarily suppressed the most intransigent Hassane tribes of the Arabized north. This changed the former balance of power, and new conflicts arose between the southern populations and Moors. Between these groups stood the Haratin
Haratin
, a very large population of Arabized slaves of sub-Saharan African origins, who lived within the Arab
Arab
society, integrated into a low-caste social position.

Modern-day slavery is still a common practice in Mauritania. According to some estimates, up to 600,000 Mauritanians, or 20% of the population, are still enslaved. A 2012 CNN
CNN
report, "Slavery's Last Stronghold," by John D. Sutter, describes and documents the ongoing slave-owning cultures. This social discrimination is applied chiefly against the "black Moors" (Haratin) in the northern part of the country, where tribal elites among "white Moors" (_Beydan_, Hassaniya-speaking Arabs and Arabized Berbers ) hold sway. Low-caste groups within the sub-Saharan African ethnic groups of the south are also sometimes enslaved. Nouakchott
Nouakchott
is the capital and the largest city of Mauritania. It is one of the largest cities in the Sahara
Sahara
.

The great Sahel droughts of the early 1970s caused massive devastation in Mauritania, exacerbating problems of poverty and conflict. The Arabized dominant elites reacted to changing circumstances, and to Arab
Arab
nationalist calls from abroad, by increasing pressure to Arabize many aspects of Mauritanian life, such as law and language. Various models for maintaining the country's cultural diversity have been suggested, but none were successfully implemented.

This ethnic discord was evident during inter-communal violence that broke out in April 1989 (the "1989 Events " and "Mauritania–Senegal Border War "), but has since subsided. Mauritania
Mauritania
expelled some 70,000 sub-Saharan African Mauritanians in the late 1980s. Ethnic tensions and the sensitive issue of slavery – past and, in some areas, present – are still powerful themes in the country's political debate. A significant number from all groups seek a more diverse, pluralistic society.

ISSUE OF WESTERN SAHARA

The International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
has concluded that in spite of some evidence of both Morocco's and Mauritania's legal ties prior to Spanish colonization, neither set of ties were sufficient to effect the application of the UN General Assembly Declaration on the Granting of Independence
Independence
to Colonial Countries and Peoples to Western Sahara .

Mauritania, along with Morocco
Morocco
, annexed the territory of Western Sahara
Sahara
in 1976, with Mauritania
Mauritania
taking the lower one-third at the request of Spain, a former imperial power. After several military losses to the Polisario – heavily armed and supported by Algeria, the regional power and rival to Morocco
Morocco
Mauritania
Mauritania
withdrew in 1979. Its claims were taken over by Morocco.

Due to economic weakness, Mauritania
Mauritania
has been a negligible player in the territorial dispute, with its official position being that it wishes for an expedient solution that is mutually agreeable to all parties. While most of Western Sahara has been occupied by Morocco, the UN still considers the Western Sahara a territory that needs to express its wishes with respect to statehood. A referendum is still supposed to be held sometime in the future, under UN auspices, to determine whether or not the indigenous Sahrawis wish to be independent, as the Sahrawi Arab
Arab
Democratic Republic
Republic
, or to be part of Morocco.

OULD DADDAH ERA (1960–1978)

Mauritania
Mauritania
became an independent nation in November 1960. In 1964 President Moktar Ould Daddah , originally installed by the French, formalized Mauritania
Mauritania
as a one-party state with a new constitution , setting up an authoritarian presidential regime. Daddah's own Parti du Peuple Mauritanien (PPM) became the ruling organization in a one-party system . The President justified this on the grounds that Mauritania was not ready for western-style multi-party democracy . Under this one-party constitution, Daddah was reelected in uncontested elections in 1976 and 1978.

He was ousted in a bloodless coup on 10 July 1978. He had brought the country to near-collapse through a disastrous war to annex the southern part of Western Sahara , framed as an attempt to create a " Greater Mauritania ".

CMRN AND CMSN MILITARY GOVERNMENTS (1978–1984)

Chinguetti
Chinguetti
was a center of Islamic scholarship in West Africa.

Col. Mustafa Ould Salek 's CMRN _junta_ proved incapable of either establishing a strong base of power or extracting the country from its destabilizing conflict with the Sahrawi resistance movement, the Polisario Front . It quickly fell, to be replaced by another military government, the CMSN .

The energetic Colonel Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidallah soon emerged as its strongman. By giving up all claims to Western Sahara, he found peace with the Polisario and improved relations with its main backer, Algeria. But relations with Morocco, the other party to the conflict, and its European ally France
France
deteriorated. Instability continued, and Haidallah's ambitious reform attempts foundered. His regime was plagued by attempted coups and intrigue within the military establishment. It became increasingly contested due to his harsh and uncompromising measures against opponents; many dissidents were jailed, and some executed. In 1981 slavery was legally abolished, making Mauritania
Mauritania
the last country in the world to do so.

POLITICS AND RECENT HISTORY

Main article: Politics of Mauritania

OULD TAYA\'S RULE (1984–2005)

In December 1984, Haidallah was deposed by Colonel Maaouya Ould Sid\'Ahmed Taya , who, while retaining tight military control, relaxed the political climate. Ould Taya moderated Mauritania's previous pro-Algerian stance, and re-established ties with Morocco
Morocco
during the late 1980s. He deepened these ties during the late 1990s and early 2000s as part of Mauritania's drive to attract support from Western states and Western-aligned Arab
Arab
states. Mauritania
Mauritania
has not rescinded its recognition of Polisario's Western Saharan exile government, and remains on good terms with Algeria. Its position on the Western Sahara conflict is, since the 1980s, one of strict neutrality.

Ordinance 83.127, enacted 5 June 1983, started the process of nationalization of all land not clearly the property of a documented owner, thus abolishing the traditional system of land tenure. Potential nationalization was based on the concept of "dead land", i.e., property which has not been developed or on which obvious development cannot be seen. A practical effect was government seizure of traditional communal grazing lands. :42, 60

Political parties , illegal during the military period, were legalized again in 1991. By April 1992, as civilian rule returned, 16 major political parties had been recognized; 12 major political parties were active in 2004. The _Parti Républicain Démocratique et Social _ (PRDS), formerly led by President Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya, dominated Mauritanian politics after the country's first multi-party elections in April 1992, following the approval by referendum of the current constitution in July 1991. President Taya won elections in 1992 and 1997. Most opposition parties boycotted the first legislative election in 1992. For nearly a decade the parliament was dominated by the PRDS. The opposition participated in municipal elections in January–February 1994, and in subsequent Senate elections – most recently in April 2004 – and gained representation at the local level, as well as three seats in the Senate.

This period was marked by extensive ethnic violence and human rights abuses . Between 1990 and 1991, a campaign of particularly extreme violence took place against a background of Arabization , interference with blacks' association rights, expropriation, expatriation and slavery. The slaves were mostly black.

In October 1987, the government allegedly uncovered a tentative coup d\'état by a group of black army officers, backed, according to the authorities, by Senegal
Senegal
. Fifty-one officers were arrested and subjected to interrogation and torture. Heightened ethnic tensions were the catalyst for the Mauritania– Senegal
Senegal
Border War , which started as a result of a conflict in Diawara between Moorish Mauritanian herders and Senegalese farmers over grazing rights. On 9 April 1989, Mauritanian guards killed two Senegalese.

Following the incident, several riots erupted in Bakel , Dakar
Dakar
and other towns in Senegal, directed against the mainly Arabized Mauritanians who dominated the local retail business. The rioting, added to already existing tensions, led to a campaign within the country of terror against black Mauritanians, who are often seen as 'Senegalese' by Beidanes, regardless of their nationality. As conflict with Senegal
Senegal
continued into 1990/91, the Mauritanian government engaged in or encouraged acts of violence and seizures of property directed against blacks. The war culminated in an international airlift agreed to by Senegal
Senegal
and Mauritania
Mauritania
under international pressure to prevent further violence. The Mauritanian Government expelled tens of thousands of black Mauritanians. Most of these so-called 'Senegalese' had no ties to Senegal, and many still reside in refugee camps in Mali
Mali
and Senegal. The exact number of expulsions is not known but the United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimates that, as of June 1991, 52,995 Mauritanian refugees were living in Senegal
Senegal
and at least 13,000 in Mali. :27

From November 1990 to February 1991, between 500 and 600 Fula and Soninke political prisoners were executed or tortured to death by Mauritanian government forces. They were among 3,000 to 5,000 blacks — predominantly soldiers and civil servants — arrested between October 1990 and mid-January 1991. Some Mauritanian exiles believe that the number was as high as 5,000 on the basis of alleged involvement in an attempt to overthrow the government.

The government initiated a military investigation but never released the results. In order to guarantee immunity for those responsible and to block any attempts at accountability for past abuses, the Parliament declared an amnesty in June 1993 covering all crimes committed by the armed forces, security forces as well as civilians, between April 1989 and April 1992. The government offered compensation to families of victims, which a few accepted in lieu of settlement. Despite this amnesty, some Mauritanians have denounced the involvement of the government in the arrests and killings. :87

In the late 1980s, Ould Taya had established close co-operation with Iraq
Iraq
, and pursued a strongly Arab
Arab
nationalist line. Mauritania
Mauritania
grew increasingly isolated internationally, and tensions with Western countries grew dramatically after it took a pro-Iraqi position during the 1991 Gulf War . During the mid-to late 1990s, Mauritania
Mauritania
shifted its foreign policy to one of increased co-operation with the US and Europe. It was rewarded with diplomatic normalization and aid projects. On 28 October 1999, Mauritania
Mauritania
joined Egypt, Palestine, and Jordan
Jordan
as the only members of the Arab
Arab
League to officially recognize Israel. Ould Taya also started co-operating with the United States in anti-terrorism activities, a policy which was criticized by some human rights organizations. (See also Foreign relations of Mauritania .) Road from Nouakchott
Nouakchott
to the Mauritanian–Senegalese border

A group of current and former Army officers launched a violent and unsuccessful coup attempt on 8 June 2003. The leaders of the attempted coup were never caught. Mauritania's presidential election , its third since adopting the democratic process in 1992, took place on 7 November 2003. Six candidates, including Mauritania's first female and first Haratine (descended from former slaves ) candidates, represented a wide variety of political goals and backgrounds. Incumbent President Maaouya Ould Sid\'Ahmed Taya won reelection with 67.02% of the popular vote, according to the official figures, with Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla finishing second.

AUGUST 2005 MILITARY COUP

On 3 August 2005, a military coup led by Colonel Ely Ould Mohamed Vall ended Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya's twenty-one years of rule. Taking advantage of Taya's attendance at the funeral of Saudi King Fahd , the military, including members of the presidential guard, seized control of key points in the capital Nouakchott
Nouakchott
. The coup proceeded without loss of life. Calling themselves the Military Council for Justice and Democracy, the officers released the following statement: "The national armed forces and security forces have unanimously decided to put a definitive end to the oppressive activities of the defunct authority, which our people have suffered from during the past years."

The Military Council later issued another statement naming Colonel Vall as president and director of the national police force, the _Sûreté Nationale_. Vall, once regarded as a firm ally of the now-ousted president, had aided Taya in the coup that had originally brought him to power, and had later served as his security chief. Sixteen other officers were listed as members of the Council.

Though cautiously watched by the international community, the coup came to be generally accepted, with the military _junta_ organizing elections within a promised two-year timeline. In a referendum on 26 June 2006, Mauritanians overwhelmingly (97%) approved a new constitution which limited the duration of a president's stay in office. The leader of the _junta_, Col. Vall, promised to abide by the referendum and relinquish power peacefully. Mauritania's establishment of relations with Israel
Israel
– it is one of only three Arab
Arab
states to recognize Israel
Israel
– was maintained by the new regime, despite widespread criticism from the opposition. They considered that position as a legacy of the Taya regime's attempts to curry favor with the West.

Parliamentary and municipal elections in Mauritania
Mauritania
took place on 19 November and 3 December 2006.

2007 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS

Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi

Mauritania's first fully democratic presidential elections took place on 11 March 2007. The elections effected the final transfer from military to civilian rule following the military coup in 2005. This was the first time since Mauritania
Mauritania
gained independence in 1960 that it elected a president in a multi-candidate election.

The elections were won in a second round of voting by Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi , with Ahmed Ould Daddah a close second.

2008 MILITARY COUP

Main article: 2008 Mauritanian coup d\'état

On 6 August 2008, the head of the presidential guards took over the president's palace in Nouakchott, a day after 48 lawmakers from the ruling party resigned in protest of President Abdallahi's policies. The army surrounded key government facilities, including the state television building, after the president fired senior officers, one of them the head of the presidential guards. The President, Prime Minister Yahya Ould Ahmed Waghef , and Mohamed Ould R'zeizim, Minister of Internal Affairs, were arrested.

The coup was co-ordinated by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz , former chief of staff of the Mauritanian Army and head of the presidential guard, who had recently been fired. Mauritania's presidential spokesman, Abdoulaye Mamadouba, said the President, Prime Minister, and Interior Minister had been arrested by renegade Senior Mauritanian army officers and were being held under house arrest at the presidential palace in the capital. In the apparently successful and bloodless coup, Abdallahi's daughter, Amal Mint Cheikh Abdallahi, said: "The security agents of the BASEP (Presidential Security Battalion) came to our home and took away my father." The coup plotters, all dismissed in a presidential decree shortly beforehand, included Abdel Aziz, General Muhammad Ould Al-Ghazwani, General Philippe Swikri, and Brigadier General (Aqid) Ahmad Ould Bakri.

AFTER THE COUP

Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz in his hometown, Akjoujt , on 15 March 2009

A Mauritanian lawmaker, Mohammed Al Mukhtar, claimed that many of the country's people supported the takeover of a government that had become "an authoritarian regime" under a president who had "marginalized the majority in parliament." The coup was also backed by Abdallahi's rival in the 2007 election, Ahmed Ould Daddah. However, Abdel Aziz's regime was isolated internationally, and became subject to diplomatic sanctions and the cancellation of some aid projects. It found few supporters (among them Morocco, Libya
Libya
and Iran), while Algeria, the United States, France
France
and other European countries criticized the coup, and continued to refer to Abdallahi as the legitimate president of Mauritania. Domestically, a group of parties coalesced around Abdallahi to continue protesting the coup, which caused the junta to ban demonstrations and crack down on opposition activists. International and internal pressure eventually forced the release of Abdallahi, who was instead placed under house arrest in his home village. The new government broke off relations with Israel. In March 2010, Mauritania's female foreign minister Mint Hamdi Ould Mouknass announced that Mauritania
Mauritania
had cut ties with Israel
Israel
in a "complete and definitive way."

After the coup, Abdel Aziz insisted on holding new presidential elections to replace Abdallahi, but was forced to reschedule them due to internal and international opposition. During the spring of 2009, the junta negotiated an understanding with some opposition figures and international parties. As a result, Abdallahi formally resigned under protest, as it became clear that some opposition forces had defected from him and most international players, notably including France
France
and Algeria, now aligned with Abdel Aziz. The United States continued to criticize the coup, but did not actively oppose the elections.

Abdallahi's resignation allowed the election of Abdel Aziz as civilian president, on 18 July, by a 52% majority. Many of Abdallahi's former supporters criticized this as a political ploy and refused to recognize the results. They argued that the election had been falsified due to junta control, and complained that the international community had let down the opposition. Despite complaints, the elections were almost unanimously accepted by Western, Arab
Arab
and African countries, which lifted sanctions and resumed relations with Mauritania. By late summer, Abdel Aziz appeared to have secured his position and to have gained widespread international and internal support. Some figures, such as Senate
Senate
chairman Messaoud Ould Boulkheir , continued to refuse the new order and call for Abdel Aziz's resignation.

In February 2011, the waves of the Arab
Arab
Spring spread to Mauritania
Mauritania
, where thousands of people took to the streets of the capital.

In November 2014, Mauritania
Mauritania
was invited as a non-member guest nation to the G20 summit in Brisbane.

SOCIETY

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Mauritania A Moorish family in the Adrar Plateau .

As of 2013 , Mauritania
Mauritania
has a population of approximately 3,537,368 inhabitants. The local population is divided into three main ethnic tiers: Bidhan , Haratin
Haratin
, and West Africans . The Bidhan or Moors represent around 30% of residents. They speak Hassaniya Arabic and are primarily of Arab-Berber origin. The Haratin
Haratin
constitute roughly 40% of the population. They are descendants of former slaves, and also speak Arabic. The remaining 30% of the population largely consists of various ethnic groups of West African descent. Among these are the Niger-Congo -speaking Halpulaar (Fulbe), Soninke , Bamara and Wolof .

RELIGION

MAURITANIA RELIGIONS

Islam   99%

Christianity   1%

Further information: Religion in Mauritania Camel market in Nouakchott
Nouakchott

Mauritania
Mauritania
is nearly 100% Muslim, with most inhabitants adhering to the Sunni denomination. The minority Sufi brotherhood, the Tijaniyah , has had great influence not only in the country, but in Senegal
Senegal
and Morocco
Morocco
as well. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Nouakchott
Nouakchott
, founded in 1965, serves the 4,500 Catholics in Mauritania. There are extreme restrictions on freedom of religion and belief in Mauritania; it is one of thirteen countries in the world which punishes atheism by death.

LANGUAGES

The predominant spoken languages in Mauritania
Mauritania
are Pulaar , Soninke , Hassaniya Arabic , Wolof , Bambara and French (widely used in the media and among educated classes, see African French ). Modern Standard Arabic is the official language.

HEALTH

Main article: Health in Mauritania

Life expectancy at birth was 61.14 years (2011 estimate). Per capita expenditure on health was 43 US$ (PPP) in 2004. Public expenditure was 2% of the GDP in 2004 and private 0.9% of the GDP in 2004. In the early 21st century, there were 11 physicians per 100,000 people. Infant mortality is 60.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 estimate).

The obesity rate among Mauritanian women is high, perhaps in part due to the local standards of beauty, in which obese women are considered beautiful while thin women are considered sickly.

EDUCATION

Main article: Education in Mauritania

Since 1999, all teaching in the first year of primary school is in Literary Arabic ; French is introduced in the second year, and is used to teach all scientific courses. The use of English is increasing.

Mauritania
Mauritania
has the University of Nouakchott
Nouakchott
and other institutions of higher education, but the majority of highly educated Mauritanians have studied outside the country. Public expenditure on education was at 10.1% of 2000–2007 government expenditure.

URBANIZATION

* v * t * e

Largest cities or towns in Mauritania http://citypopulation.de/Mauritania-Cities.html

RANK NAME REGION POP.

Nouakchott
Nouakchott

Nouadhibou 1 Nouakchott
Nouakchott
Nouakchott
Nouakchott
958,399

Kiffa

2 Nouadhibou Dakhlet Nouadhibou 118,167

3 Kiffa Assaba 50,026

4 Mbera Hodh Ech Chargui 47,725

5 Kaédi Gorgol 45,539

6 Zouérat Tiris Zemmour 44,469

7 Rosso
Rosso
Traza 33,581

8 Sélibaby Guidimaka 26,420

9 Atar Adrar 25,190

10 Aïoun Hodh El Gharbi 22,796

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Main articles: Regions of Mauritania and Departments of Mauritania

The government bureaucracy is composed of traditional ministries, special agencies, and parastatal companies. The Ministry of Interior spearheads a system of regional governors and prefects modeled on the French system of local administration. Under this system, Mauritania is divided into 15 regions (_wilaya _ or _régions_).

Control is tightly concentrated in the executive branch of the central government, but a series of national and municipal elections since 1992 have produced limited decentralization . These regions are subdivided into 44 departments (_moughataa_). The regions and capital district (in alphabetical order) and their capitals are:

REGION CAPITAL #

Adrar Atar 1

Assaba Kiffa 2

Brakna Aleg 3

Dakhlet Nouadhibou Nouadhibou 4

Gorgol Kaédi 5

Guidimaka Sélibaby 6

Hodh Ech Chargui Néma 7

Hodh El Gharbi Ayoun el Atrous 8

Inchiri Akjoujt 9

Nouakchott-Nord Dar-Naim 10

Nouakchott-Ouest Tevragh-Zeina 10

Nouakchott-Sud Arafat 10

Tagant Tidjikdja 11

Tiris Zemmour Zouérat 12

Trarza Rosso
Rosso
13

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Mauritania Mountains in the Adrar region. Desert scenes are characteristic of the Mauritanian landscape. Bareina , a village in southwestern Mauritania
Mauritania

At 1,030,000 square kilometres (397,685 sq mi), 90% of which is desert, Mauritania
Mauritania
is the world's 29th-largest country (after Bolivia ). It is comparable in size to Egypt
Egypt
. It lies mostly between latitudes 14° and 26°N , and longitudes 5° and 17°W (small areas are east of 5° and west of 17°).

Mauritania
Mauritania
is generally flat, with vast arid plains broken by occasional ridges and cliff-like outcroppings. A series of scarps face south-west, longitudinally bisecting these plains in the center of the country. The scarps also separate a series of sandstone plateaus, the highest of which is the Adrar Plateau , reaching an elevation of 500 meters (1,640 ft). Spring-fed oases lie at the foot of some of the scarps.

Isolated peaks, often rich in minerals, rise above the plateaus; the smaller peaks are called guelbs and the larger ones kedias. The concentric Guelb er Richat (also known as the Richat Structure) is a prominent feature of the north-central region. Kediet ej Jill , near the city of Zouîrât , has an elevation of 915 meters (3,002 ft) and is the highest peak.

Approximately three quarters of Mauritania
Mauritania
is desert or semi-desert. As a result of extended, severe drought, the desert has been expanding since the mid-1960s. To the west, between the ocean and the plateaus, are alternating areas of clayey plains (regs) and sand dunes (ergs), some of which shift from place to place, gradually moved by high winds. The dunes generally increase in size and mobility toward the north.

ECONOMY

Main articles: Economy of Mauritania and Transport in Mauritania Graphical depiction of Mauritania's product exports in 28 color-coded categories

Despite being rich in natural resources, Mauritania
Mauritania
has a low GDP. A majority of the population still depends on agriculture and livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and many subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in the 1970s and 1980s. Mauritania
Mauritania
has extensive deposits of iron ore, which account for almost 50% of total exports. Gold and copper mining companies are opening mines in the interior.

The country's first deepwater port opened near Nouakchott
Nouakchott
in 1986. In recent years, drought and economic mismanagement have resulted in a buildup of foreign debt. In March 1999, the government signed an agreement with a joint World Bank
World Bank
- International Monetary Fund mission on a $54 million enhanced structural adjustment facility (ESAF). The economic objectives have been set for 1999–2002. Privatization remains one of the key issues. Mauritania
Mauritania
is unlikely to meet ESAF's annual GDP growth objectives of 4%–5%.

Oil was discovered in Mauritania
Mauritania
in 2001 in the offshore Chinguetti field . Although potentially significant for the Mauritanian economy, its overall influence is difficult to predict. Mauritania
Mauritania
has been described as a "desperately poor desert nation, which straddles the Arab
Arab
and African worlds and is Africa's newest, if small-scale, oil producer." There may be additional oil reserves inland in the Taoudeni basin , although the harsh environment will make extraction expensive.

United Arab
Arab
Emirates government, via its pilot green city Masdar, announced it will install new solar plants in the city of Atar which will supply an additional 16.6 megawatts of electricity. The plants will power about 39,000 homes and save 27,850 tonnes of carbon emissions per year.

HUMAN RIGHTS

Main article: Human rights in Mauritania

The Abdallahi government was widely perceived as corrupt and restricted access to government information. Sexism, racism, female genital mutilation , child labour, human trafficking , and the political marginalization of largely southern-based ethnic groups continued to be problems. Homosexuality is illegal and is a capital offense in Mauritania.

Following the 2008 coup, the military government of Mauritania
Mauritania
faced severe international sanctions and internal unrest. Amnesty International accused it of practicing coordinated torture against criminal and political detainees. Amnesty has accused the Mauritanian legal system, both before and after the 2008 coup, of functioning with complete disregard for legal procedure, fair trial, or humane imprisonment. The organization has said that the Mauritanian government has practiced institutionalized and continuous use of torture throughout its post-independence history, under all its leaders.

DISCRIMINATION AGAINST BLACK POPULATION

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Since independence, critics have said that Mauritania's society has been characterised by discrimination against black populations, mainly Fula and Soninké. These ethnic groups have been seen to contest the political, economic, and social dominance of Moors
Moors
. Mauritanian blacks allegedly face discrimination in employment in the civil service, the administration of justice before regular and religious courts, access to loans and credits from banks and state-owned enterprise, and opportunities for education and vocational training. Armed groups such as the now-exiled FLAM have carried out low-level rebellions in the southern part of Mauritania
Mauritania
because of these continuing discriminatory practices.

MODERN SLAVERY

Main article: Slavery in Mauritania

Still today, masters lend their slaves' labor to other individuals, female slaves are sexually exploited and children are made to work and rarely receive an education. Slavery particularly affects women and children, who are the most vulnerable among the vulnerable. Women of child-bearing age have a harder time emancipating because they are producers of slave labor and perceived as extremely valuable. ”

— From U.S. Dept. of State report on _Slavery in Mauritania,_ 2009

Slavery persists in Mauritania. In 1905, the French colonial administration declared an end of slavery in Mauritania, with very little success. Although nominally abolished in 1981, it was not illegal to own slaves until 2007. According to the US State Department _2010 Human Rights Report_, abuses in Mauritania
Mauritania
include:

...mistreatment of detainees and prisoners; security force impunity; lengthy pretrial detention; harsh prison conditions; arbitrary arrests; limits on freedom of the press and assembly; corruption; discrimination against women; female genital mutilation (FGM); child marriage; political marginalization of southern-based ethnic groups; racial and ethnic discrimination; slavery and slavery-related practices; and child labor.

The report continues: "Government efforts were not sufficient to enforce the antislavery law. No cases have been successfully prosecuted under the antislavery law despite the fact that 'de facto' slavery exists in Mauritania."

Only one person, Oumoulmoumnine Mint Bakar Vall, has been prosecuted for owning slaves and she was sentenced to six months in jail in January 2011. In 2012, it was estimated that 10% to 20% of the population of Mauritania
Mauritania
(between 340,000 and 680,000 people) live in slavery.

According to the Global Slavery Index 2014 compiled by Walk Free Foundation , there are an estimated 155,600 enslaved people in Mauritania, ranking it 31st of 167 countries by absolute number of slaves, and 1st by prevalence, with 4% of the population. The Government ranks 121 of 167 on its response to combating all forms of modern slavery .

The government of Mauritania
Mauritania
denies that slavery continues in the country. In an interview, the Mauritanian Minister of rural development, Brahim Ould M\'Bareck Ould Med El Moctar , responded to accusations of human rights abuse by stating:

I must tell you that in Mauritania, freedom is total: freedom of thought, equality – of all men and women of Mauritania... in all cases, especially with this government, this is in the past. There are probably former relationships – slavery relationships and familial relationships from old days and of the older generations, maybe, or descendants who wish to continue to be in relationships with descendants of their old masters, for familial reasons, or out of affinity, and maybe also for economic interests. But (slavery) is something that is totally finished. All people are free in Mauritania and this phenomenon no longer exists. And I believe that I can tell you that no one profits from this commerce.

Obstacles to ending slavery in Mauritania
Mauritania
include:

* The difficulty of enforcing any laws in the country's vast desert * Poverty that limits opportunities for slaves to support themselves if freed * Belief that slavery is part of the natural order of this society.

In November 2016, an appeals court in Mauritania
Mauritania
overturned the jail convictions of three anti-slavery activists and reduced the sentences of 10 others for their alleged role in a riot in June, Amnesty International said. Another court had originally sentenced the 15 human rights activists and members of the Resurgence of the Abolitionist Movement (IRA) to 15 years in prison.

CULTURE

Qur\'an collection in a library in Chinguetti
Chinguetti
See also: Mauritanian cuisine , Music of Mauritania , Sport in Mauritania , Islam in Mauritania , and Status of religious freedom in Mauritania

Filming for several documentaries and films has taken place in Mauritania, including _ Fort Saganne _ (1984), _ The Fifth Element
The Fifth Element
_ (1997), _The Books Under the Sand _ (1997), _Life without Death _ (1997), _ Winged Migration _ (2001), _Heremakono _ (2002), and _Timbuktu _ (2014).

SEE ALSO

* Index of Mauritania-related articles * Outline of Mauritania

* Mauritania
Mauritania
portal

NOTES

* ^ "États généraux de l\'Éducation nationale en Mauritanie". _Le Quotidien de Nouakchott_. 13 November 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "1: Répartition spatiale de la population" (PDF). Recensement Général de la Population et de l’Habitat (RGPH) 2013 (Report) (in French). National Statistical Office of Mauritania. July 2015. p. v. Retrieved 20 December 2015. * ^ File
File
POP/1-1: Total population (both sexes combined) by major area, region and country, annually for 1950–2100 (thousands). _World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision_ (Report). United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. July 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Mauritania". International Monetary Fund. * ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011. * ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017. * ^ _Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa
Africa
and the Middle East_. Facts On File, Inc. 2009. p. 448. ISBN 143812676X . The Islamic Republic
Republic
of Mauritania, situated in western North Africa
Africa
* ^ Seddon, David (2004). _A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East_. We have, by contrast, chosen to include the predominantly Arabic-speaking countries of western North Africa
Africa
(the Maghreb), including Mauritania
Mauritania
(which is a member of the Arab
Arab
Maghreb Union)... * ^ Branine, Mohamed (2011). _Managing Across Cultures: Concepts, Policies and Practices_. p. 437. The Magrebian countries or the Arab countries of western North Africa
Africa
(Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia)... * ^ "Coup Leader Wins Election Amid Outcry in Mauritania". _The New York Times _. Nouakchott, Mauritania. Associated Press (AP). 19 July 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2014. * ^ "UNDP: Human development indices – Table 3: Human and income poverty (Population living below national poverty line (2000–07))" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 4 July 2010. * ^ Gould, Wendy Rose (18 January 2011). "Female Genital Mutilation Banned By Islamic Leaders in Mauritania". news.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. * ^ Muzaffar Husain Syed; Syed Saud Akhtar; B D Usmani (2011). _Concise History of Islam_. Vij Books India. * ^ Chaabani, H.; Sanchez-Mazas, A.; Sallami SF (2000). "Genetic differentiation of Yemeni people according to rhesus and Gm polymorphisms". _Annales de Génétique_. 43 (3–4): 155–62. PMID 11164198 . doi :10.1016/S0003-3995(00)01023-6 . * ^ "Mauritania: History". _www.infoplease.com_. Retrieved 2017-01-16. * ^ Pazzanita, Anthony G. (2008). _Historical Dictionary of Mauritania_. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6265-4 . page 369. * ^ "Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law", BBC News. 9 August 2007. * ^ Yasser, Abdel Nasser Ould (2008). Sage, Jesse; Kasten, Liora, eds. _Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery_. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-7493-8 . * ^ * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Mauritania", _Country Report on Human Rights Practices, 1993_, Department of State, 30 January 1994 * ^ Lindstrom, Channe (October–November 2002). "Report on the Situation of Refugees in Mauritania: Findings of a three week exploratory study" (PDF). American University of Cairo. p. 21. * ^ "Crackdown courts U.S. approval". CNN. 24 November 2003. Archived from the original on 7 April 2008. Retrieved 6 August 2008. * ^ "MAURITANIA: New wave of arrests presented as crackdown on Islamic extremists". IRIN Africa. 12 May 2005. Retrieved 6 August 2008. * ^ " Mauritania
Mauritania
officers \'seize power\'". BBC News. 4 August 2005. Retrieved 6 August 2008. * ^ " Mauritania
Mauritania
vote \'free and fair\'". BBC News. 12 March 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2008. * ^ "48 lawmakers resign from ruling party in Mauritania". _Tehran Times _. 6 August 2008. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008.

* ^ "Coup in Mauritania
Mauritania
as president, PM arrested". Google. AFP. 6 August 2008. Archived from the original on 9 August 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2010. * ^ "Troops stage \'coup\' in Mauritania". BBC News. 6 August 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2010. * ^ "Coup under way in Mauritania: president\'s office". Archived from the original on 12 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-06. . ap.google.com * ^ McElroy, Damien (6 August 2008). " Mauritania
Mauritania
president under house arrest as army stages coup". _The Daily Telegraph_. UK. Retrieved 4 July 2010. * ^ Vinsinfo. "themedialine.org, Generals Seize Power in Mauritanian Coup". Themedialine.org. Retrieved 4 July 2010. * ^ Mohamed, Ahmed. "Renegade army officers stage coup in Mauritania". Archived from the original on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-06. . ap.google.com (6 August 2008) * ^ " Mauritania
Mauritania
Affirms Break with Israel". Voice of America News. 21 March 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2010. * ^ Adams, Richard (25 February 2011). "Libya\'s turmoil". _The Guardian_. London. * ^ " The World Factbook Africa
Africa
– Mauritania". CIA. Retrieved 21 October 2016. * ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mr.html * ^ _A_ _B_ "CIA – The World Factbook – Mauritania". Retrieved 7 November 2010. * ^ Evans, Robert (9 December 2012). "Atheists around world suffer persecution, discrimination: report". _Reuters_. Retrieved 7 January 2015. * ^ "People-in-Country Profile, _"Serer of Mauritania"_ – Joshua project". Retrieved 25 March 2012. * ^ "Mauritania: Encyclopædia Britannica". Retrieved 27 February 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "Human Development Report 2009 – Mauritania". Hdrstats.undp.org. Retrieved 4 July 2010. * ^ " Mauritania
Mauritania
struggles with love of fat women". MSNBC. 16 April 2007. Retrieved 5 September 2012. * ^ "Education system in Mauritania". Bibl.u-szeged.hu. Retrieved 4 July 2010. * ^ Mauritania
Mauritania
junta promises free elections. thestar.com (7 August 2008). * ^ "Taoudeni Basin Overview". Baraka Petroleum. Archived from the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2009. * ^ "UAE installs eight solar energy plants in Mauritania". * ^ Mauritania. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2007, US State Department, 11 March 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2012. * ^ "LGBT relationships are illegal in 74 countries, research finds". _The Independent_. 17 May 2016. * ^ \'Prisoner torture rising\' in Mauritania, SAPA/AP, 3 December 2008. * ^ Mauritania: Prisoner Confessions Extracted Through Torture Says Amnesty International, IRIN: 3 December 2008 * ^ Sillah, Ebrimah. Mauritania: \'Chains Are Jewellery for Men\', Inter Press Service, 3 December 2008. * ^ Mauritania: Torture at the heart of the state. Amnesty International. 3 December 2008. Index Number: AFR 38/009/2008. * ^ "Slavery in Mauritania: an overview and action plan", United States Embassy in Nouakchott, 3 November 2009. * ^ John D. Sutter (March 2012). "Slavery\'s Last Stronghold". CNN. Retrieved 25 June 2017. * ^ 2010 Human Rights Report: Mauritania. State.gov (8 April 2011). Retrieved 20 March 2012. * ^ " Mauritania
Mauritania
woman gets six months in jail for slavery". bbc.co.uk. 17 January 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Slavery\'s last stronghold. CNN.com (16 March 2012). Retrieved 20 March 2012. * ^ Global Slavery Index 2014 http://www.globalslaveryindex.org/. Walk Free Foundation , p 3 Retrieved 5 November 2014. * ^ "Mauritanian minister responds to accusations that slavery is rampant". _CNN_. 17 March 2012. * ^ " Mauritania
Mauritania
court frees 10 anti-slavery activists – Amnesty".

REFERENCES

* US State Department * Encyclopædia Britannica, Mauritania
Mauritania
– Country Page

FURTHER READING

* Foster, Noel (2010). _Mauritania: The Struggle for Democracy_. Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 978-1935049302 . * Hudson, Peter (1991). _Travels in Mauritania_. Flamingo. ISBN 978-0006543589 . * Murphy, Joseph E (1998). _ Mauritania
Mauritania
in Photographs_. Crossgar Press. ISBN 978-1892277046 . * "Slavery’s last stronghold". CNN. Retrieved 3 February 2014. * Pazzanita, Anthony G (2008). _Historical Dictionary of Mauritania_. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0810855960 . * Ruf, Urs (2001). _Ending Slavery: Hierarchy, Dependency and Gender in Central Mauritania_. Transcript Verlag. ISBN 978-3933127495 . * Sene, Sidi (2011). _The Ignored Cries of Pain and Injustice from Mauritania_. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1426971617 .

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