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Cairo
Cairo
(/ˈkaɪroʊ/ KYE-roh; Arabic: القاهرة‎ Al-Qāhirah,  pronunciation (help·info)) is the capital city of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is the largest in the Middle East
Middle East
and the Arab world, and the 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex
Giza pyramid complex
and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta,[3][4] modern Cairo
Cairo
was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo
Cairo
has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life, and is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture. Cairo
Cairo
is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to GaWC.[5] Cairo
Cairo
has the oldest and largest film and music industries in the Arab world, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, Al-Azhar University. Many international media, businesses, and organizations have regional headquarters in the city; the Arab League has had its headquarters in Cairo
Cairo
for most of its existence. With a population of 6.76 million[6] spread over 453 square kilometers (175 sq mi), Cairo
Cairo
is by far the largest city in Egypt. An additional 9.5 million inhabitants live in close proximity to the city. Cairo, like many other megacities, suffers from high levels of pollution and traffic. Cairo's metro, one of two in Africa (the other being in Algiers, Algeria), ranks among the fifteen busiest in the world,[7] with over 1 billion[8] annual passenger rides. The economy of Cairo
Cairo
was ranked first in the Middle East[9] in 2005, and 43rd globally on Foreign Policy's 2010 Global Cities Index.[10]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Initial settlements 2.2 Foundation and expansion 2.3 Ottoman rule 2.4 Modern era

2.4.1 2011 Egyptian revolution 2.4.2 Post-revolutionary Cairo

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Metropolitan area 3.3 Satellite cities 3.4 Planned new capital

4 Infrastructure

4.1 Health 4.2 Education 4.3 Transportation 4.4 Other forms of transport 4.5 Sports

5 Culture

5.1 Cultural tourism in Egypt 5.2 Cairo
Cairo
Opera House 5.3 Khedivial Opera House 5.4 Cairo
Cairo
International Film Festival 5.5 Cairo
Cairo
Geniza 5.6 Religion

6 Economy

6.1 Cairo's automobile assembler and manufacturer

7 Historical sites and landmarks

7.1 Tahrir Square 7.2 Egyptian Museum 7.3 Cairo
Cairo
Tower 7.4 Old Cairo 7.5 Islamic Cairo 7.6 Citadel of Cairo 7.7 Khan El-Khalili

8 Pollution 9 International relations 10 Notable people 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

15.1 Photos and videos

Etymology[edit] Egyptians often refer to Cairo
Cairo
as Maṣr (IPA: [mɑsˤɾ]; Egyptian Arabic: مَصر‎), the Egyptian Arabic name for Egypt itself, emphasizing the city's importance for the country.[11][12] Its official name al-Qāhirah  (Arabic: القاهرة‎) means "the Vanquisher" or "the Conqueror", supposedly due to the fact that the planet Mars, an-Najm al-Qāhir (Arabic: النجم القاهر‎, "the Conquering Star"), was rising at the time when the city was founded,[13] possibly also in reference to the much awaited arrival of the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliph Al-Mu'izz who reached Cairo
Cairo
in 973 from Mahdia, the old Fatimid
Fatimid
capital.[14] The location of the ancient city is the suburb of Ain Shams (Arabic: عين شمس‎, "Sun-Eye" or "Eye of the Sun"). The ancient Egyptian name for the area is thought to be Khere-Ohe, "The Place of Combat", supposedly in reference to a mythical battle that took place between Seth and Horus.[15] Sometimes the city is informally referred to as Kayro (IPA: [ˈkæjɾo]; Egyptian Arabic: كايرو‎).[16] History[edit] See also: Timeline of Cairo
Timeline of Cairo
and History of Egypt

Louis Comfort Tiffany
Louis Comfort Tiffany
(1848–1933). On the Way between Old and New Cairo, Citadel Mosque of Mohammed Ali, and Tombs of the Mamelukes, 1872. Oil on canvas. Brooklyn Museum

Initial settlements[edit]

A rendition of Fustat
Fustat
from A. S. Rappoport's History of Egypt

The area around present-day Cairo, especially Memphis, had long been a focal point of Ancient Egypt
Egypt
due to its strategic location just upstream from the Nile
Nile
Delta. However, the origins of the modern city are generally traced back to a series of settlements in the first millennium. Around the turn of the 4th century,[17] as Memphis was continuing to decline in importance,[18] the Romans established a fortress town along the east bank of the Nile. This fortress, known as Babylon, was the nucleus of the Roman and then the Byzantine city and is the oldest structure in the city today. It is also situated at the nucleus of the Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
community, which separated from the Roman and Byzantine churches in the late 4th century. Many of Cairo's oldest Coptic churches, including the Hanging Church, are located along the fortress walls in a section of the city known as Coptic Cairo. Following the Muslim conquest in 640 AD, the conqueror Amr ibn As settled to the north of the Babylon in an area that became known as al-Fustat. Originally a tented camp ( Fustat
Fustat
signifies "City of Tents") Fustat
Fustat
became a permanent settlement and the first capital of Islamic Egypt.

In 750, following the overthrow of the Ummayad caliphate
Ummayad caliphate
by the Abbasids, the new rulers created their own settlement to the northeast of Fustat
Fustat
which became their capital. This was known as al-Askar (the city of sections, or cantonments) as it was laid out like a military camp. A rebellion in 869 by Ahmad ibn Tulun
Ahmad ibn Tulun
led to the abandonment of Al Askar and the building of another settlement, which became the seat of government. This was al-Qatta'i ("the Quarters"), to the north of Fustat
Fustat
and closer to the river. Al Qatta'i was centred around a palace and ceremonial mosque, now known as the Mosque of ibn Tulun. In 905, the Abbasids re-asserted control of the country and their governor returned to Fustat, razing al-Qatta'i to the ground. Since 1860s, cairo expanded west as far as what is called now (Midan Opera) Foundation and expansion[edit] Further information: Egypt
Egypt
in the Middle Ages

Fresco of Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliph Al-Hakim (985–1021)

In 968, the Fatimids
Fatimids
were led by general Jawhar al-Siqilli to establish a new capital for the Fatimid
Fatimid
dynasty.[19] Egypt
Egypt
was conquered from their base in Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
and a new fortified city northeast of Fustat
Fustat
was established. It took four years to build the city, initially known as al-Manṣūriyyah,[20] which was to serve as the new capital of the caliphate. During that time, Jawhar also commissioned the construction of the al-Azhar Mosque by order of the Caliph, which developed into the third-oldest university in the world. Cairo
Cairo
would eventually become a centre of learning, with the library of Cairo
Cairo
containing hundreds of thousands of books.[21] When Caliph al-Mu'izz li Din Allah arrived from the old Fatimid
Fatimid
capital of Mahdia in Tunisia
Tunisia
in 973, he gave the city its present name, al-Qāhiratu ("The Victorious").[20] For nearly 200 years after Cairo
Cairo
was established, the administrative centre of Egypt
Egypt
remained in Fustat. However, in 1168 the Fatimids under the leadership of vizier Shawar set fire to Fustat
Fustat
to prevent Cairo's capture by the Crusaders.[22] Egypt's capital was permanently moved to Cairo, which was eventually expanded to include the ruins of Fustat
Fustat
and the previous capitals of al-Askar and al-Qatta'i. As al Qahira expanded these earlier settlements were encompassed, and have since become part of the city of Cairo
Cairo
as it expanded and spread; they are now collectively known as "Old Cairo". While the Fustat
Fustat
fire successfully protected the city of Cairo, a continuing power struggle between Shawar, King Amalric I of Jerusalem, and the Zengid
Zengid
general Shirkuh
Shirkuh
led to the downfall of the Fatimid establishment.[23] In 1169, Saladin
Saladin
was appointed as the new vizier of Egypt
Egypt
by the Fatimids
Fatimids
and two years later he seized power from the family of the last Fatimid
Fatimid
caliph, al-'Āḍid.[24] As the first Sultan of Egypt, Saladin
Saladin
established the Ayyubid dynasty, based in Cairo, and aligned Egypt
Egypt
with the Abbasids, who were based in Baghdad.[25] During his reign, Saladin
Saladin
constructed the Cairo
Cairo
Citadel, which served as the seat of the Egyptian government until the mid-19th century.

The Cairo
Cairo
Citadel, seen above in the late 19th century, was commissioned by Saladin
Saladin
between 1176 and 1183

Cairo
Cairo
Citadel

In 1250, slave soldiers, known as the Mamluks, seized control of Egypt and like many of their predecessors established Cairo
Cairo
as the capital of their new dynasty. Continuing a practice started by the Ayyubids, much of the land occupied by former Fatimid
Fatimid
palaces was sold and replaced by newer buildings.[26] Construction projects initiated by the Mamluks pushed the city outward while also bringing new infrastructure to the centre of the city.[27] Meanwhile, Cairo flourished as a centre of Islamic scholarship and a crossroads on the spice trade route among the civilisations in Afro-Eurasia. By 1340, Cairo
Cairo
had a population of close to half a million, making it the largest city west of China.[28] Ottoman rule[edit] Further information: History of Ottoman Egypt See also: Muhammad Ali's seizure of power

Cairo
Cairo
in the 19th century

Although Cairo
Cairo
avoided Europe's stagnation during the Late Middle Ages, it could not escape the Black Death, which struck the city more than fifty times between 1348 and 1517.[29] During its initial, and most deadly waves, approximately 200,000 people were killed by the plague,[30] and, by the 15th century, Cairo's population had been reduced to between 150,000 and 300,000.[31] The city's status was further diminished after Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
discovered a sea route around the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
between 1497 and 1499, thereby allowing spice traders to avoid Cairo.[28] Cairo's political influence diminished significantly after the Ottomans supplanted Mamluk
Mamluk
power over Egypt
Egypt
in 1517. Ruling from Constantinople, Sultan Selim I
Selim I
relegated Egypt
Egypt
to a province, with Cairo
Cairo
as its capital.[32] For this reason, the history of Cairo
Cairo
during Ottoman times is often described as inconsequential, especially in comparison to other time periods.[28][33][34] However, during the 16th and 17th centuries, Cairo
Cairo
remained an important economic and cultural centre. Although no longer on the spice route, the city facilitated the transportation of Yemeni coffee and Indian textiles, primarily to Anatolia, North Africa, and the Balkans. Cairene merchants were instrumental in bringing goods to the barren Hejaz, especially during the annual hajj to Mecca.[34][35] It was during this same period that al-Azhar University reached the predominance among Islamic schools that it continues to hold today;[36][37] pilgrims on their way to hajj often attested to the superiority of the institution, which had become associated with Egypt's body of Islamic scholars.[38] By the 16th century, Cairo
Cairo
also had high-rise apartment buildings where the two lower floors were for commercial and storage purposes and the multiple stories above them were rented out to tenants.[39] Under the Ottomans, Cairo
Cairo
expanded south and west from its nucleus around the Citadel.[40] The city was the second-largest in the empire, behind Constantinople, and, although migration was not the primary source of Cairo's growth, twenty percent of its population at the end of the 18th century consisted of religious minorities and foreigners from around the Mediterranean.[41] Still, when Napoleon arrived in Cairo
Cairo
in 1798, the city's population was less than 300,000, forty percent lower than it was at the height of Mamluk—and Cairene—influence in the mid-14th century.[28][41] The French occupation was short-lived as British and Ottoman forces, including a sizeable Albanian contingent, recaptured the country in 1801. Cairo
Cairo
itself was besieged by a British and Ottoman force culminating with the French surrender on 22 June 1801.[42] The British vacated Egypt
Egypt
two years later, leaving the Ottomans, the Albanians, and the long-weakened Mamluks jostling for control of the country.[43][44] Continued civil war allowed an Albanian named Muhammad Ali Pasha to ascend to the role of commander and eventually, with the approval of the religious establishment, viceroy of Egypt
Egypt
in 1805.[45] Modern era[edit] Further information: History of Egypt
Egypt
under the Muhammad Ali dynasty and History of modern Egypt

Qasr El Nil Bridge

Plan général de la Ville du Caire, 1874

View of the 6th October Bridge
6th October Bridge
and the Cairo
Cairo
skyline.

Nile
Nile
view from the Cairo
Cairo
Marriott Hotel.

Until his death in 1848, Muhammad Ali Pasha instituted a number of social and economic reforms that earned him the title of founder of modern Egypt.[46][47] However, while Muhammad Ali initiated the construction of public buildings in the city,[48] those reforms had minimal effect on Cairo's landscape.[49] Bigger changes came to Cairo under Isma'il Pasha
Isma'il Pasha
(r. 1863–1879), who continued the modernisation processes started by his grandfather. Drawing inspiration from Paris, Isma'il envisioned a city of maidans and wide avenues; due to financial constraints, only some of them, in the area now composing Downtown Cairo, came to fruition.[50] Isma'il also sought to modernize the city, which was merging with neighboring settlements, by establishing a public works ministry, bringing gas and lighting to the city, and opening a theater and opera house.[51][52] The immense debt resulting from Isma'il's projects provided a pretext for increasing European control, which culminated with the British invasion in 1882.[28] The city's economic centre quickly moved west toward the Nile, away from the historic Islamic Cairo
Islamic Cairo
section and toward the contemporary, European-style areas built by Isma'il.[53][54] Europeans accounted for five percent of Cairo's population at the end of the 19th century, by which point they held most top governmental positions.[55] The British occupation was intended to be temporary, but it lasted well into the 20th century. Nationalists staged large-scale demonstrations in Cairo
Cairo
in 1919,[28] five years after Egypt
Egypt
had been declared a British protectorate.[56] Nevertheless, while this led to Egypt's independence in 1922, British troops remained in the country until 1956. During this time, urban Cairo, spurred by new bridges and transport links, continued to expand to include the upscale neighbourhoods of Garden City, Zamalek, and Heliopolis.[57] Between 1882 and 1937, the population of Cairo
Cairo
more than tripled—from 347,000 to 1.3 million[58]—and its area increased from 10 to 163 square kilometres (4 to 63 sq mi).[59] The city was devastated during the 1952 riots known as the Cairo
Cairo
Fire or Black Saturday, which saw the destruction of nearly 700 shops, movie theatres, casinos and hotels in Downtown Cairo.[60] The British departed Cairo
Cairo
following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, but the city's rapid growth showed no signs of abating. Seeking to accommodate the increasing population, President Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
redeveloped Maidan Tahrir and the Nile
Nile
Corniche, and improved the city's network of bridges and highways.[61] Meanwhile, additional controls of the Nile
Nile
fostered development within Gezira Island and along the city's waterfront. The metropolis began to encroach on the fertile Nile Delta, prompting the government to build desert satellite towns and devise incentives for city-dwellers to move to them.[62] Cairo's population has doubled since the 1960s, reaching close to seven million (with an additional ten million in its urban area). Concurrently, Cairo
Cairo
has established itself as a political and economic hub for North Africa
North Africa
and the Arab world, with many multinational businesses and organisations, including the Arab League, operating out of the city. In 1992, Cairo
Cairo
was hit by an earthquake causing 545 deaths, 6,512 injuries and 50,000 people homeless.[63]

A protester holding an Egyptian flag during the protests that started on 25 January 2011

2011 Egyptian revolution[edit] Main article: 2011 Egyptian Revolution Cairo's Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
was the focal point of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution against former president Hosni Mubarak.[64] Over 2 million protesters were at Cairo's Tahrir square. More than 50,000 protesters first occupied the square on 25 January, during which the area's wireless services were reported to be impaired.[65] In the following days Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
continued to be the primary destination for protests in Cairo[66] as it took place following a popular uprising that began on Tuesday, 25 January 2011 and is still continuing as of February 2012. The uprising was mainly a campaign of non-violent civil resistance, which featured a series of demonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, and labour strikes. Millions of protesters from a variety of socio-economic and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of the regime of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. Despite being predominantly peaceful in nature, the revolution was not without violent clashes between security forces and protesters, with at least 846 people killed and 6,000 injured. The uprising took place in Cairo, Alexandria, and in other cities in Egypt, following the Tunisian revolution that resulted in the overthrow of the long-time Tunisian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. On 11 February, following weeks of determined popular protest and pressure, Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
resigned from office. Post-revolutionary Cairo[edit] Under the rule of President el-Sisi, in March 2015 plans were announced for another yet-unnamed planned city to be built further east of the existing satellite city of New Cairo, intended to serve as the new capital of Egypt.[67] Geography[edit]

The river Nile
Nile
flows through Cairo, here contrasting ancient customs of daily life with the modern city of today

Aerial view looking south, with the Zamalek
Zamalek
and Gezira districts on Gezira Island, surrounded by the Nile.

Cairo
Cairo
is located in northern Egypt, known as Lower Egypt, 165 kilometres (100 mi) south of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and 120 kilometres (75 mi) west of the Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
and Suez
Suez
Canal.[68] The city is along the Nile
Nile
River, immediately south of the point where the river leaves its desert-bound valley and branches into the low-lying Nile Delta
Nile Delta
region. Although the Cairo
Cairo
metropolis extends away from the Nile
Nile
in all directions, the city of Cairo
Cairo
resides only on the east bank of the river and two islands within it on a total area of 453 square kilometres (175 sq mi).[69][70] Until the mid-19th century, when the river was tamed by dams, levees, and other controls, the Nile
Nile
in the vicinity of Cairo
Cairo
was highly susceptible to changes in course and surface level. Over the years, the Nile
Nile
gradually shifted westward, providing the site between the eastern edge of the river and the Mokattam
Mokattam
highlands on which the city now stands. The land on which Cairo
Cairo
was established in 969 (present-day Islamic Cairo) was located underwater just over three hundred years earlier, when Fustat
Fustat
was first built.[71] Low periods of the Nile
Nile
during the 11th century continued to add to the landscape of Cairo; a new island, known as Geziret al-Fil, first appeared in 1174, but eventually became connected to the mainland. Today, the site of Geziret al-Fil is occupied by the Shubra
Shubra
district. The low periods created another island at the turn of the 14th century that now composes Zamalek
Zamalek
and Gezira. Land reclamation
Land reclamation
efforts by the Mamluks and Ottomans further contributed to expansion on the east bank of the river.[72] Because of the Nile's movement, the newer parts of the city—Garden City, Downtown Cairo, and Zamalek—are located closest to the riverbank.[73] The areas, which are home to most of Cairo's embassies, are surrounded on the north, east, and south by the older parts of the city. Old Cairo, located south of the centre, holds the remnants of Fustat
Fustat
and the heart of Egypt's Coptic Christian community, Coptic Cairo. The Boulaq
Boulaq
district, which lies in the northern part of the city, was born out of a major 16th-century port and is now a major industrial centre. The Citadel is located east of the city centre around Islamic Cairo, which dates back to the Fatimid
Fatimid
era and the foundation of Cairo. While western Cairo
Cairo
is dominated by wide boulevards, open spaces, and modern architecture of European influence, the eastern half, having grown haphazardly over the centuries, is dominated by small lanes, crowded tenements, and Islamic architecture. Northern and extreme eastern parts of Cairo, which include satellite towns, are among the most recent additions to the city, as they developed in the late-20th and early-21st centuries to accommodate the city's rapid growth. The western bank of the Nile
Nile
is commonly included within the urban area of Cairo, but it composes the city of Giza
Giza
and the Giza
Giza
Governorate. Giza
Giza
has also undergone significant expansion over recent years, and today the city, although still a suburb of Cairo, has a population of 2.7 million.[70] The Cairo Governorate
Cairo Governorate
was just north of the Helwan Governorate
Helwan Governorate
from 2008 when some Cairo's southern districts, including Maadi
Maadi
and New Cairo, were split off and annexed into the new governorate,[74] to 2011 when the Helwan Governorate was reincorporated into the Cairo
Cairo
Governorate.

A panorama of the Nile
Nile
in central Cairo
Cairo
showing the east side of Gezira Island, located in the middle of the Nile, with the Cairo
Cairo
Tower in the middle, the 6th October Bridge
6th October Bridge
on the far right and Qasr El Nil Bridge on the left

Climate[edit] In Cairo, and along the Nile
Nile
River Valley, the climate is a hot desert climate (BWh according to the Köppen climate classification system[75]). Wind storms can be frequent, bringing Saharan dust into the city, sometimes from March to May (see Khamasin) and the air often becomes uncomfortably dry. High temperatures in winter range from 14 to 22 °C (57 to 72 °F), while night-time lows drop to below 11 °C (52 °F), often to 5 °C (41 °F). In summer, the highs rarely surpass 40 °C (104 °F), and lows drop to about 20 °C (68 °F). Rainfall is sparse and only happens in the colder months, but sudden showers do cause harsh flooding. The winter months have high humidity due to its coastal location. Snowfall is extremely rare; a small amount of graupel, widely believed to be snow, fell on Cairo's easternmost suburbs on 13 December 2013, the first time Cairo's area received this kind of precipitation in many decades.[76] Dewpoints in the hottest months range from 13.9 °C (57 °F) in June to 18.3 °C (65 °F) in August.[77]

Climate data for Cairo

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 31 (88) 34.2 (93.6) 37.9 (100.2) 43.2 (109.8) 47.8 (118) 46.4 (115.5) 42.6 (108.7) 43.4 (110.1) 43.7 (110.7) 41 (106) 37.4 (99.3) 30.2 (86.4) 47.8 (118)

Average high °C (°F) 18.9 (66) 20.4 (68.7) 23.5 (74.3) 28.3 (82.9) 32 (90) 33.9 (93) 34.7 (94.5) 34.2 (93.6) 32.6 (90.7) 29.2 (84.6) 24.8 (76.6) 20.3 (68.5) 27.7 (81.9)

Daily mean °C (°F) 13.6 (56.5) 14.9 (58.8) 16.9 (62.4) 21.2 (70.2) 24.5 (76.1) 27.3 (81.1) 27.6 (81.7) 27.4 (81.3) 26 (79) 23.3 (73.9) 18.9 (66) 15 (59) 21.38 (70.5)

Average low °C (°F) 9 (48) 9.7 (49.5) 11.6 (52.9) 14.6 (58.3) 17.7 (63.9) 20.1 (68.2) 22 (72) 22.1 (71.8) 20.5 (68.9) 17.4 (63.3) 14.1 (57.4) 10.4 (50.7) 15.8 (60.4)

Record low °C (°F) 1.2 (34.2) 3.6 (38.5) 5 (41) 7.6 (45.7) 12.3 (54.1) 16 (61) 18.2 (64.8) 19 (66) 14.5 (58.1) 12.3 (54.1) 5.2 (41.4) 3 (37) 1.2 (34.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 5 (0.2) 3.8 (0.15) 3.8 (0.15) 1.1 (0.043) 0.5 (0.02) 0.1 (0.004) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.7 (0.028) 3.8 (0.15) 5.9 (0.232) 24.7 (0.972)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 mm) 3.5 2.7 1.9 0.9 0.5 0.1 0 0 0 0.5 1.3 2.8 14.2

Average relative humidity (%) 59 54 53 47 46 49 58 61 60 60 61 61 56

Mean monthly sunshine hours 213 234 269 291 324 357 363 351 311 292 248 198 3,451

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
(UN) (1971–2000),[78] NOAA
NOAA
for mean, record high and low and humidity[77]

Source #2: Danish Meteorological Institute for sunshine (1931–1960)[79]

Metropolitan area[edit] See also: Greater Cairo
Greater Cairo
and Cairo
Cairo
Governorate The Greater Cairo
Greater Cairo
is the largest metropolitan area in Africa. It consists of Cairo
Cairo
Governorate, parts of Giza
Giza
Governorate, and parts of Qalyubia Governorate. Satellite cities[edit] See also: Greater Cairo 6th of October City, west of Cairo, and New Cairo, east of Cairo, are major urban developments which have been built to accommodate additional growth and development of the Cairo
Cairo
area.[80] New development includes several high-end residential developments.[81] Planned new capital[edit] Main article: Proposed new capital of Egypt In March 2015, plans were announced for a yet-unnamed planned city to be built east of Cairo, in an undeveloped area of the Cairo Governorate, which would serve as the administrative and financial capital of Egypt.[67] Infrastructure[edit]

Cairo
Cairo
seen from Spot Satellite

Health[edit] See also: List of hospitals in Egypt Cairo, as well as neighbouring Giza, has been established as Egypt's main centre for medical treatment, and despite some exceptions, has the most advanced level of medical care in the country. Cairo's hospitals include the JCI-accredited As-Salaam International Hospital— Corniche
Corniche
El Nile, Maadi
Maadi
(Egypt's largest private hospital with 350 beds), Ain Shams University Hospital, Dar El Fouad Hospital, as well as Kasr El Aini Hospital. Education[edit] Greater Cairo
Greater Cairo
has long been the hub of education and educational services for Egypt
Egypt
and the region. Today, Greater Cairo
Greater Cairo
is the centre for many government offices governing the Egyptian educational system, has the largest number of educational schools, and higher learning institutes among other cities and governorates of Egypt. Some of the International Schools found in Cairo: Further information: List of schools in Egypt

Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University

Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University

Cairo University
Cairo University
is the largest university in Egypt, and is located in Giza.

Library building at the new campus of the American University of Cairo in New Cairo.

Universities in Greater Cairo:

University Date of Foundation

Al Azhar University 970–972

Cairo
Cairo
University 1908

American University in Cairo 1919

Ain Shams University 1950

Arab Academy for Science & Technology and Maritime Transport 1972

Helwan
Helwan
University 1975

Sadat Academy for Management Sciences 1981

Higher Technological Institute 1989

Modern Academy In Maadi 1993

Misr International University 1996

Misr University for Science and Technology 1996

Modern Sciences and Arts University 1996

Université Française d'Égypte 2002

German University in Cairo 2003

Arab Open University 2003

Canadian International College 2004

British University in Egypt 2005

Ahram Canadian University 2005

Nile
Nile
University 2006

Future University in Egypt 2006

Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Cairo

The Cairo
Cairo
Metro

The Autostrade in Nasr City

The interior of Ramses Station

Public bus service organized by Cairo
Cairo
Transport Authority

Façade of Terminal 3 at Cairo
Cairo
International Airport

Departures area of Cairo
Cairo
International Airport's Terminal 1

Cairo
Cairo
has an extensive road network, rail system, subway system and maritime services. Road transport is facilitated by personal vehicles, taxi cabs, privately owned public buses and Cairo
Cairo
microbuses. Cairo, specifically Ramses Square, is the centre of almost the entire Egyptian transportation network.[82] The subway system, officially called "Metro (مترو)", is a fast and efficient way of getting around Cairo. Metro network covers Helwan
Helwan
and other suburbs. It can get very crowded during rush hour. Two train cars (the fourth and fifth ones) are reserved for women only, although women may ride in any car they want. Trams in Greater Cairo
Greater Cairo
(Heliopolis and Nasr City) exists now, while Cairo
Cairo
trolleybus was closed. An extensive road network connects Cairo
Cairo
with other Egyptian cities and villages. There is a new Ring Road that surrounds the outskirts of the city, with exits that reach outer Cairo
Cairo
districts. There are flyovers and bridges, such as the Sixth of October bridge that, when the traffic is not heavy, allow fast[82] means of transportation from one side of the city to the other. Cairo
Cairo
traffic is known to be overwhelming and overcrowded.[83] Traffic moves at a relatively fluid pace. Drivers tend to be aggressive, but are more courteous at junctions, taking turns going, with police aiding in traffic control of some congested areas.[82] Other forms of transport[edit]

Cairo
Cairo
International Airport Ramses Railway Station Cairo
Cairo
Tram Cairo Transportation Authority CTA Cairo
Cairo
Taxi/Yellow Cab Cairo
Cairo
Metro Cairo
Cairo
Nile
Nile
Ferry

Sports[edit]

Cairo International Stadium
Cairo International Stadium
with 75,100 seats

Football is the most popular sport in Egypt, and Cairo
Cairo
has a number of sporting teams that compete in national and regional leagues. The best known teams are Al-Ahly, El Zamalek
Zamalek
and Al-Ismaily. Al-Ahly
Al-Ahly
and El Zamalek
Zamalek
annual football tournament is perhaps the most watched sports event in Egypt
Egypt
as well as the African-Arab region. Both teams are known as the "rivals" of Egyptian football, and are the first and the second champions in Africa and the Arab world. They play their home games at Cairo International Stadium
Cairo International Stadium
or Naser Stadium, which is Egypt's 2nd largest stadium, Cairo's largest one and one of the largest stadiums in the world. The Cairo International Stadium
Cairo International Stadium
was built in 1960 and its multi-purpose sports complex that houses the main football stadium, an indoor stadium, several satellite fields that held several regional, continental and global games, including the African Games, U17 Football World Championship and was one of the stadiums scheduled that hosted the 2006 Africa Cup of Nations
2006 Africa Cup of Nations
which was played in January 2006. Egypt
Egypt
later won the competition and went on to win the next edition In Ghana
Ghana
(2008) making the Egyptian and Ghanaian national teams the only teams to win the African Nations Cup Back to back which resulted in Egypt
Egypt
winning the title for a record number of six times in the history of African Continental Competition. This was followed by a third consecutive win in Angola
Angola
2010, making Egypt
Egypt
the only country with a record 3-consecutive and 7-total Continental Football Competition winner. This achievement had also placed the Egyptian football team as the #9 best team in the world's FIFA rankings. Cairo
Cairo
failed at the applicant stage when bidding for the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, which was hosted in Beijing, China. However, Cairo
Cairo
did host the 2007 Pan Arab Games. There are several other sports teams in the city that participate in several sports including el Gezira Sporting Club, el Shams Club, el Seid Club, Heliopolis Club and several smaller clubs, but the biggest clubs in Egypt
Egypt
(not in area but in sports) are Al Ahly and Al Zamalek. They have the two biggest football teams in Egypt. There are new sports clubs in the area of New Cairo
New Cairo
(one hour far from Cairo's down town), these are Al Zohour sporting club, Wadi Degla sporting club and Platinum Club. Most of the sports federations of the country are also located in the city suburbs, including the Egyptian Football Association. The headquarters of the Confederation of African Football
Confederation of African Football
(CAF) was previously located in Cairo, before relocating to its new headquarters in 6 October City, a small city away from Cairo's crowded districts. In October 2008, the Egyptian Rugby Federation was officially formed and granted membership into the International Rugby Board. Egypt
Egypt
is internationally known for the excellence of its squash players who excel in both professional and junior divisions. Egypt currently has seven players in the top ten of the PSA men’s world rankings, and three in the women’s top ten. Mohamed El Shorbagy held the world number one position for more than a year before being overtaken by compatriot Karim Abdel Gawad, who is currently number two behind Gregory Gaultier of France. Ramy Ashour and Amr Shabana are regarded as two of the most talented squash players in history. Shabana won the World Open title four times and Ashour twice, although his recent form has been hampered by injury. Egypt’s Nour El Sherbini has won the Women’s World Championship twice and has been women’s world number one for 16 consecutive months. On 30 April 2016, she became the youngest woman to win the Women's World Championship which was held in Malaysia. On April 2017 she retained her title by winning the Women's World Championship which was held in the Egyptian resort of El Gouna. Culture[edit] In 2017 Cairo
Cairo
was voted the most dangerous megacity for women with more than 10 million inhabitants in a poll by Thomson Reuters Foundation. Harassment was described as occurring on a daily basis.[84] Cultural tourism in Egypt[edit]

Historic Cairo, declared World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1979.

Main article: Cultural tourism in Egypt Cairo
Cairo
Opera House[edit] Main article: Cairo
Cairo
Opera House

Cairo
Cairo
Opera House, at the National Cultural Center, Zamalek
Zamalek
district.

President Mubarak inaugurated the new Cairo Opera House
Cairo Opera House
of the Egyptian National Cultural Centres on 10 October 1988, 17 years after the Royal Opera House had been destroyed by fire. The National Cultural Centre was built with the help of JICA, the Japan International Co-operation Agency and stands as a prominent feature for the Japanese-Egyptian co-operation and the friendship between the two nations.

Khedivial Opera House
Khedivial Opera House
1869

Khedivial Opera House[edit] Main article: Khedivial Opera House The Khedivial Opera House, or Royal Opera House, was the original opera house in Cairo. It was dedicated on 1 November 1869 and burned down on 28 October 1971. After the original opera house was destroyed, Cairo
Cairo
was without an opera house for nearly two decades until the opening of the new Cairo Opera House
Cairo Opera House
in 1988. Cairo
Cairo
International Film Festival[edit] Main article: Cairo
Cairo
International Film Festival Cairo
Cairo
held its first international film festival 16 August 1976, when the first Cairo International Film Festival
Cairo International Film Festival
was launched by the Egyptian Association of Film Writers and Critics, headed by Kamal El-Mallakh. The Association ran the festival for seven years until 1983. This achievement lead to the President of the Festival again contacting the FIAPF with the request that a competition should be included at the 1991 Festival. The request was granted. In 1998, the Festival took place under the presidency of one of Egypt's leading actors, Hussein Fahmy, who was appointed by the Minister of Culture, Farouk Hosni, after the death of Saad El-Din Wahba. Four years later, the journalist and writer Cherif El-Shoubashy became president. Cairo
Cairo
Geniza[edit] Main article: Cairo
Cairo
Geniza

Solomon Schechter studying documents from the Cairo
Cairo
Geniza, c. 1895

The Cairo Geniza
Cairo Geniza
is an accumulation of almost 200,000 Jewish manuscripts that were found in the genizah of the Ben Ezra synagogue (built 882) of Fustat, Egypt
Egypt
(now Old Cairo), the Basatin cemetery east of Old Cairo, and a number of old documents that were bought in Cairo
Cairo
in the later 19th century. These documents were written from about 870 to 1880 AD and have been archived in various American and European libraries. The Taylor-Schechter collection in the University of Cambridge runs to 140,000 manuscripts, a further 40,000 manuscripts are at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. Religion[edit] Most residents are Sunni
Sunni
Muslim, while the rest of the population is mostly Christian. Al-Azhar University, based in Cairo, is considered the leading authority of Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
worldwide. Most Christians are Coptic Orthodox. Until his death in March 2012, Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria
Alexandria
was the leader of the Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
Church, followed by Pope Tawadros II who became Pope on 18 November 2012, whose residence is in Cairo. Cairo
Cairo
has several synagogues, but few Jews remain after Israel
Israel
was established and the subsequent exodus, largely due to state sponsored discrimination. Tension between members of different religions has increased recently[when?].[85] Economy[edit]

The statue of Talaat Pasha Harb in Downtown Cairo, the father of the modern Egyptian economy.

The NBE towers as viewed from the Nile.

Cairo
Cairo
accounts for 11% of Egypt's population and 22% of its economy (PPP). The majority of the nation's commerce is generated there, or passes through the city. The great majority of publishing houses and media outlets and nearly all film studios are there, as are half of the nation's hospital beds and universities. This has fueled rapid construction in the city—one building in five is less than 15 years old. This growth until recently surged well ahead of city services. Homes, roads, electricity, telephone and sewer services were all in short supply. Analysts trying to grasp the magnitude of the change coined terms like "hyper-urbanization". Cairo's automobile assembler and manufacturer[edit]

Arab American Vehicles Company[86] Egyptian Light Transport Manufacturing Company (Egyptian NSU pedant) Ghabbour Group[87] (Fuso, Hyundai and Volvo) MCV Corporate Group[88] (a part of the Daimler AG) Mod Car[89] Seoudi Group[90] (Modern Motors: Nissan, BMW (formerly); El-Mashreq: Alfa Romeo and Fiat) Speranza[91][92] (former Daewoo Motors Egypt; Chery, Daewoo) General Motors Egypt

Historical sites and landmarks[edit]

For a complete list, see Visitor attractions in Cairo, list of mosques

Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
in the early morning

Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum, located in Tahrir Square.

Interior of the Egyptian Museum.

Cairo
Cairo
Tower

Tahrir Square[edit] Main article: Tahrir Square Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
was founded during the mid 19th century with the establishment of modern downtown Cairo. It was first named Ismailia Square, after the 19th-century ruler Khedive Ismail, who commissioned the new downtown district's ' Paris
Paris
on the Nile' design. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1919
Egyptian Revolution of 1919
the square became widely known as Tahrir (Liberation) Square, though it was not officially renamed as such until after the 1952 Revolution which eliminated the monarchy. Several notable buildings surround the square including, the American University in Cairo's downtown campus, the Mogamma
Mogamma
governmental administrative Building, the headquarters of the Arab League, the Nile Ritz Carlton Hotel, and the Egyptian Museum. Being at the heart of Cairo, the square witnessed several major protests over the years. However, the most notable event in the square was being the focal point of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution
2011 Egyptian Revolution
against former president Hosni Mubarak. Egyptian Museum[edit] Main article: Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, is home to the most extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities in the world. It has 136,000 items on display, with many more hundreds of thousands in its basement storerooms. Among its most famous collections on display are the finds from the Tomb of Tutankhamun. Cairo
Cairo
Tower[edit] Main article: Cairo
Cairo
Tower The Cairo Tower
Cairo Tower
is a free-standing tower with a revolving restaurant at the top. It provides a bird's eye view of Cairo
Cairo
to the restaurant patrons. It stands in the Zamalek
Zamalek
district on Gezira Island in the Nile
Nile
River, in the city centre. At 187 metres (614 feet), it is 44 metres (144 feet) higher than the Great Pyramid of Giza, which stands some 15 kilometres (9 miles) to the southwest. Old Cairo[edit] Main article: Old Cairo This area of Cairo
Cairo
is so-named as it contains the remains of the ancient Roman fortress of Babylon and also overlaps the original site of Fustat, the first Arab settlement in Egypt
Egypt
(7th century AD) and the predecessor of later Cairo. The area is also known as Coptic Cairo
Coptic Cairo
as it holds a high concentration of old Christian churches including the Hanging Church, the Greek Orthodox Church of St. George, and other Christian or Coptic buildings, most of which are located over the site of the ancient Roman fortress. It is also the location of the Coptic Museum, which showcases the history of Coptic art
Coptic art
from Greco-Roman to Islamic times, and of the Ben Ezra Synagogue, the oldest and best-known synagogue in Cairo, where the important collection of Geniza documents were discovered in the 19th century.[93] To the north of this Coptic enclave is the Amr ibn al-'As Mosque, the first mosque in Egypt
Egypt
and the most important religious center of former Fustat, founded in 642 AD right after the Arab conquest but rebuilt many times since.[94] Islamic Cairo[edit] Main article: Islamic Cairo

Cairo
Cairo
with a view of the Mosque of Sultan Hasan, as seen from the Citadel.

Al-Azhar Mosque; Fatimid
Fatimid
courtyard and Mamluk
Mamluk
minarets.

The streets of Islamic Cairo, adorned by Islamic architecture, are narrower and older than those in the city centre

Ibn Tulun Mosque.

Al Hakim Mosque.

Bayt Al-Suhaymi

Cairo
Cairo
holds one of the greatest concentrations of historical monuments of Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture
in the world.[95] The areas around the old walled city and around the Citadel are characterized by hundreds of mosques, tombs, madrasas, mansions, caravanserais, and fortifications dating from the Islamic era and are often referred to as "Islamic Cairo", especially in English travel literature.[96] It is also the location of several important religious shrines such as the al-Hussein Mosque (whose shrine is believed to hold the head of Husayn ibn Ali), the Mausoleum of Imam al- Shafi'i
Shafi'i
(founder of the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
madhhab, one of the primary schools of thought in Sunni
Sunni
Islamic jurisprudence), the Tomb of Sayyida Ruqayya, the Mosque of Sayyida Nafisa, and others.[95] While the first mosque in Egypt
Egypt
was the Mosque of Amr ibn al-As
Mosque of Amr ibn al-As
in Fustat, the Mosque of Ibn Tulun
Mosque of Ibn Tulun
is the oldest mosque to retain its original form and is a rare example of Abbasid
Abbasid
architecture, from the classical period of Islamic civilization. It was built in 876–879 AD in a style inspired by the Abbasid
Abbasid
capital of Samarra
Samarra
in Iraq.[97] It is one of the largest mosques in Cairo
Cairo
and is often cited as one of the most beautiful.[98][99] Another Abbasid
Abbasid
construction, the Nilometer
Nilometer
on Rhoda Island, is the oldest original structure in Cairo, built in 862 AD. It was designed to measure the level of the Nile, which was important for agricultural and administrative purposes.[100] The city named Cairo
Cairo
(Arabic: al-Qahira) was founded to the northeast of Fustat
Fustat
in 959 AD by the victorious Fatimid
Fatimid
army. The Fatimids
Fatimids
built a separate palatial city which contained their palaces and institutions of government. It was enclosed by a circuit of walls, which were rebuilt in stone in the late 11th century AD by the vizir Badr al-Gamali,[101] parts of which survive today at Bab Zuwayla
Bab Zuwayla
in the south and Bab al-Futuh
Bab al-Futuh
and Bab al-Nasr in the north. One of the most important and lasting institutions founded in the Fatimid
Fatimid
period was the Mosque of al-Azhar, founded in 970 AD, which competes with the Qarawiyyin
Qarawiyyin
in Fes
Fes
for the title of oldest university in the world.[102] Today, al-Azhar University is the foremost center of Islamic learning in the world and one of Egypt's largest universities with campuses across the country.[102] The mosque itself retains significant Fatimid
Fatimid
elements but has been added to and expanded in subsequent centuries, notably by the Mamluk
Mamluk
sultans Qaitbay
Qaitbay
and al-Ghuri and by Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda in the 18th century. Other extant monuments from the Fatimid
Fatimid
era include the large Mosque of al-Hakim, the al-Aqmar mosque, Juyushi Mosque, Lulua Mosque, and the Mosque of Salih Tala'i. The most prominent architectural heritage of medieval Cairo, however, dates from the Mamluk
Mamluk
period, from 1250 to 1517 AD. The Mamluk
Mamluk
sultans and elites were eager patrons of religious and scholarly life, commonly building religious or funerary complexes whose functions could include a mosque, madrasa, khanqah (for Sufis), a sabil (water dispensary), and mausoleum for themselves and their families.[103] Among the best-known examples of Mamluk
Mamluk
monuments in Cairo
Cairo
are the huge Mosque- Madrasa
Madrasa
of Sultan Hasan, the Mosque of Amir al-Maridani, the Mosque of Sultan al-Mu'ayyad (whose twin minarets were built above the gate of Bab Zuwayla), the Sultan Al-Ghuri complex, the funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay in the Northern Cemetery, and the trio of monuments in the Bayn al-Qasrayn
Bayn al-Qasrayn
area comprising the complex of Sultan al-Mansur Qalawun, the Madrasa
Madrasa
of al-Nasir Muhammad, and the Madrasa of Sultan Barquq. It is said that a lot of the columns found in mosques were taken from the Coptic churches because of their beautiful artistic carvings and placed in mosques. The Mamluks, and the later Ottomans, also built wikalas or caravanserais to house merchants and goods due to the important role of trade and commerce in Cairo's economy.[104] The most famous example still intact today is the Wikala al-Ghuri, which nowadays also hosts regular performances by the Al- Tannoura
Tannoura
Egyptian Heritage Dance Troupe.[105] The famous Khan al-Khalili (see below) is a commercial hub which also integrated caravanserais (also known as khans).

Ibn Tulun Mosque, courtyard and minaret

The courtyard of the Sultan Hassan mosque-madrasa.

Bab Zuweila, a Fatimid
Fatimid
gate with the Mamluk
Mamluk
minarets of the Mosque of Sultan al-Mu'ayyad on top.

Sultan al-Ghuri complex, with mausoleum and khanqah on the left, and madrasa on the right.

The dome of Sultan Qaytbay's mausoleum.

The Qalawun mausoleum complex at Bayn al-Qasrayn.

A medieval gate, Bab al-Ghuri, in the Khan El-Khalili
Khan El-Khalili
market.

The Citadel of Cairo, with the Mosque of Muhammad Ali.

Mosque of Muhammad Ali

The cupola of the mosque from the interior.

Citadel of Cairo[edit] Main article: Cairo
Cairo
Citadel The Citadel is a fortified enclosure begun by Salah al-Din in 1176 AD on an outcrop of the Muqattam Hills as part of a large defensive system to protect both Cairo
Cairo
to the north and Fustat
Fustat
to the southwest.[104] It was the center of Egyptian government and residence of its rulers until 1874, when Khedive Isma'il moved to 'Abdin Palace.[106] It is still occupied by the military today, but is now open as a tourist attraction comprising, notably, the National Military Museum, the 14th century Mosque of al-Nasir Muhammad, and the 19th century Mosque of Muhammad Ali
Mosque of Muhammad Ali
which commands a dominant position on Cairo's skyline. Khan El-Khalili[edit] Main article: Khan El-Khalili Khan el-Khalili
Khan el-Khalili
is an ancient bazaar, or marketplace adjacent to the Al-Hussein Mosque. It dates back to 1385, when Amir Jarkas el-Khalili built a large caravanserai, or khan. (A caravanserai is a hotel for traders, and usually the focal point for any surrounding area.) This original carvanserai building was demolished by Sultan al-Ghuri, who rebuilt it as a new commercial complex in the early 16th century, forming the basis for the network of souqs existing today.[107] Many medieval elements remain today, including the ornate Mamluk-style gateways.[108] Today, the Khan el-Khalili
Khan el-Khalili
is a major tourist attraction and popular stop for tour groups.[109] Pollution[edit]

Smog
Smog
in Cairo

Cairo
Cairo
is an expanding city, which has led to many environmental problems. The air pollution in Cairo
Cairo
is a matter of serious concern. Greater Cairo's volatile aromatic hydrocarbon levels are higher than many other similar cities.[110] Air quality measurements in Cairo
Cairo
have also been recording dangerous levels of lead, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and suspended particulate matter concentrations due to decades of unregulated vehicle emissions, urban industrial operations, and chaff and trash burning. There are over 4,500,000 cars on the streets of Cairo, 60% of which are over 10 years old, and therefore lack modern emission cutting features like catalytic converters. Cairo has a very poor dispersion factor because of lack of rain and its layout of tall buildings and narrow streets, which create a bowl effect. In recent years, a mysterious black cloud (as Egyptians refer to it) appeared over Cairo
Cairo
every autumn and causes serious respiratory diseases and eye irritations for the city's citizens. Tourists who are not familiar with such high levels of pollution must take extra care.[111] Cairo
Cairo
also has many unregistered lead and copper smelters which heavily pollute the city. The results of this has been a permanent haze over the city with particulate matter in the air reaching over three times normal levels. It is estimated that 10,000 to 25,000 people a year in Cairo
Cairo
die due to air pollution-related diseases. Lead has been shown to cause harm to the central nervous system and neurotoxicity particularly in children.[112] In 1995, the first environmental acts were introduced and the situation has seen some improvement with 36 air monitoring stations and emissions tests on cars. Twenty thousand buses have also been commissioned to the city to improve congestion levels, which are very high. The city also suffers from a high level of land pollution. Cairo produces 10,000 tons of waste material each day, 4,000 tons of which is not collected or managed. This once again is a huge health hazard and the Egyptian Government is looking for ways to combat this. The Cairo
Cairo
Cleaning and Beautification Agency was founded to collect and recycle the waste; however, they also work with the Zabbaleen
Zabbaleen
(or Zabaleen), a community that has been collecting and recycling Cairo's waste since the turn of the 20th century and live in an area known locally as Manshiyat naser.[113] Both are working together to pick up as much waste as possible within the city limits, though it remains a pressing problem. The city also suffers from water pollution as the sewer system tends to fail and overflow. On occasion, sewage has escaped onto the streets to create a health hazard. This problem is hoped to be solved by a new sewer system funded by the European Union, which could cope with the demand of the city. The dangerously high levels of mercury in the city's water system has global health officials concerned over related health risks. International relations[edit]

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Notable people[edit]

Naguib Mahfouz
Naguib Mahfouz
(1911–2006), novelist, Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
in 1988 Abu Sa'id al-Afif, 15th century Samaritan Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
(1929–2004), founder and first president of the Palestine Liberation Organization Boutros Boutros-Ghali
Boutros Boutros-Ghali
(1922–2016), former Secretary-General of the United Nations Dalida
Dalida
(1933–1987), Italian-Egyptian singer who lived most of her life in France, received 55 golden records and was the first singer to receive a diamond disc Mohamed ElBaradei
Mohamed ElBaradei
(born 1942), former Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, 2005 Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
laureate Dorothy Hodgkin
Dorothy Hodgkin
(1910–1994), British chemist, credited with the development of protein crystallography, Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
in 1964 Yakub Kadri Karaosmanoğlu (1889–1974), Turkish novelist Roland Moreno
Roland Moreno
(1945–2012), French inventor, engineer, humorist and author who invented the smart card Gaafar Nimeiry
Gaafar Nimeiry
(1930–2009), President of the Sudan Ahmed Sabri
Ahmed Sabri
(1889–1955) painter Naguib Sawiris
Naguib Sawiris
(born 1954), 62nd richest person on earth in 2007 list of billionaires, reaching US$10.0 billion with his company Orascom Telecom Holding Sir Magdi Yacoub
Sir Magdi Yacoub
(born 1935), British-Egyptian cardiothoracic surgeon

See also[edit]

Geography portal

Charles Ayrout Cultural tourism in Egypt Large Cities Climate Leadership Group List of buildings in Cairo List of cities in Egypt The Townhouse Gallery Outline of Egypt Arabic Lute House

Notes[edit]

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UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. " Historic Cairo
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UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2017-09-20.  ^ Santa Maria Tours (4 September 2009). " Cairo
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– "Al-Qahira"- is Egypt's capital and the largest city in the Middle East
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governorate. ^ "Cairo's third metro line beats challenges". Archived from the original on 3 July 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2015.  ^ " Cairo Metro
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– Aga Khan Historic Cities Programme". Archived from the original on 21 August 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2015.  ^ a b Glassé & Smith 2003, p. 96 ^ Meri & Bacharach 2006, p. 451 ^ Daly & Petry 1998, p. 213 ^ Daly & Petry 1998, pp. 213–5 ^ Daly & Petry 1998, p. 215 ^ Shillington 2005, p. 438 ^ Raymond 2000, p. 122 ^ Raymond 2000, pp. 120–8 ^ a b c d e f Shillington 2005, p. 199 ^ Shoshan 2002, p. 4 ^ Bryne 2004, pp. 104–5 ^ Shoshan 2002, p. 1 ^ Shillington 2005, p. 447 ^ Rose, Christopher; Linda Boxberger (1995). "Ottoman Cairo". Cairo: Living Past, Living Future. The University of Texas Centre for Middle Eastern Studies. Archived from the original on 6 June 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2009.  ^ a b Winter 1992, p. 225 ^ İnalcık et al. 1997, pp. 507–9 ^ Winter 2004, p. 115 ^ Daly & Petry 1998, pp. 94–5 ^ Winter 2004, pp. 115–7 ^ Mortada, Hisham (2003). Traditional Islamic principles of built environment. Routledge. p. viii. ISBN 0-7007-1700-5.  ^ Winter 1992, p. 226 ^ a b Winter 1992, pp. 226–7 ^ Sicker 2001, p. 103 ^ Sicker 2001, p. 104 ^ Afaf Lutfi Sayyid-Marsot 1984, p. 39 ^ Sicker 2001, pp. 104–5 ^ Afaf Lutfi Sayyid-Marsot 1984, p. 1 ^ McGregor 2006, p. 53 ^ Shillington 2005, p. 437 ^ Raymond 2000, pp. 291, 302 ^ Raymond 2000, pp. 313–4 ^ Raymond 2000, pp. 311–3 ^ Abu-Lughod 1965, pp. 436–44 ^ Abu-Lughod 1965, pp. 429–31, 455–7 ^ Hourani, Khoury & Wilson 2004, p. 317 ^ Abu-Lughod 1965, p. 431 ^ Hourani, Khoury & Wilson 2004, p. 12 ^ Raymond 2000, pp. 326–9 ^ Raymond 2000, p. 319 ^ Raymond 2000, p. 322 ^ خسائر الحريق [The Fire Damage]. Al-Ahram (in Arabic). 12 May 2010. Archived from the original on 12 May 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2011.  ^ Raymond 2000, p. 349 ^ Raymond 2000, pp. 343–5 ^ "NGDC page on the Cairo
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Maps". Cairo
Cairo
Governorate. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2009.  ^ a b Brinkhoff, Thomas. "Egypt: Governorates & Cities". City Population. Retrieved 12 September 2009.  ^ Collins 2002, p. 125 ^ Collins 2002, p. 126 ^ Amanda Briney (20 February 2011). "Ten Facts about Cairo, Egypt". Geography of Cairo. About.com. Retrieved 14 July 2012.  ^ Leila, Reem (24–30 April 2008). "Redrawing the Map" (894). al-Ahram Weekly. Archived from the original on 10 August 2009. Retrieved 12 September 2009.  ^ "World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification". Köppen-Geiger. Retrieved 22 January 2010.  ^ Samenow, Jason (13 December 2013). "Biblical snowstorm: Rare flakes in Cairo, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
paralyzed by over a foot". The Washington Post.  ^ a b " Cairo
Cairo
(A) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 14, 2014.  ^ "Weather Information for Cairo". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 14, 2014.  ^ Cappelen, John; Jensen, Jens. "Egypten - Cairo" (PDF). Climate Data for Selected Stations (1931-1960) (in Danish). Danish Meteorological Institute. p. 82. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 27, 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2014.  ^ "To Catch Cairo
Cairo
Overflow, 2 Megacities Rise in Sand" article by Thanassis Cambanis in The New York Times
The New York Times
24 August 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2010 ^ Map of Greater Cairo
Greater Cairo
& SODIC Developments. Retrieved 25 August 2010 ^ a b c Travel Cairo. MobileReference. 2007. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-60501-055-7.  ^ " Al-Ahram Weekly Features Reaching an impasse". Weekly.ahram.org.eg. 1 February 2006. Archived from the original on 20 April 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ Foundation, Thomson Reuters. "The world's most dangerous megacities for women 2017". poll2017.trust.org. Retrieved 2017-10-24.  ^ "Égypte : 24 coptes tués par les forces de l'ordre au Caire – Le Point". Lepoint.fr. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ " Arab American Vehicles Co". Aav.com.eg. Archived from the original on 12 November 2010. Retrieved 14 June 2010.  ^ "Ghabbourauto.com". Ghabbourauto.com. Retrieved 10 December 2011.  ^ "Welcome to MCV Web Site". Mcv-eg.com. Retrieved 14 June 2010.  ^ TradeHolding.com B2B Network. "Panda, Buy from Mod Car. Egypt
Egypt
– Ash Sharqiyah – Middle East
Middle East
Business B2B Directory – Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain
Bahrain
Companies, Middle East
Middle East
Businesses, Products & Trade Leads, Arab Business". Gulfbusiness.tradeholding.com. Retrieved 14 June 2010.  ^ " Seoudi Group 1001 opportunities for investment in Egypt
Egypt
and Arab World". Seoudi.com. Retrieved 14 June 2010.  ^ "اسبرانزا ايجيبت". Speranza Egypt. Archived from the original on 30 August 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2010.  ^ "Welcome to Daewoo Motor Website". Aboulfotouh.com. Archived from the original on 31 January 2010. Retrieved 14 June 2010.  ^ Williams, Caroline. 2008 (6th ed.). Islamic Monuments in Cairo: The Practical Guide. Cairo: American University in Cairo
American University in Cairo
Press, p. 43. ^ Williams, Caroline. 2008 (6th ed.). Islamic Monuments in Cairo: The Practical Guide. Cairo: American University in Cairo
American University in Cairo
Press, p. 39. ^ a b Williams, Caroline. 2008 (6th ed.). Islamic Monuments in Cairo: The Practical Guide. Cairo: American University in Cairo
American University in Cairo
Press. ^ e.g. O'Neill, Zora et al. 2012. Lonely Planet: Egypt
Egypt
(11th edition). ^ Williams, Caroline. 2008 (6th ed.). Islamic Monuments in Cairo: The Practical Guide. Cairo: American University in Cairo
American University in Cairo
Press, pp. 50–54. ^ Williams, Caroline. 2008 (6th ed.). Islamic Monuments in Cairo: The Practical Guide. Cairo: American University in Cairo
American University in Cairo
Press, p 50. ^ O'Neill, Zora et al. 2012. Lonely Planet: Egypt
Egypt
(11th edition), p. 87. ^ Yeomans, Richard. 2006. The Art and Architecture of Islamic Cairo. Garnet Publishing, p 29. ^ Raymond, André. 1993. Le Caire. Fayard, p. 62. ^ a b Williams, Caroline. 2008 (6th ed.). Islamic Monuments in Cairo: The Practical Guide. Cairo: American University in Cairo
American University in Cairo
Press, p. 169. ^ Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. 2007. Cairo
Cairo
of the Mamluks: A History of Architecture and its Culture. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press. ^ a b Raymond, André. 1993. Le Caire. Fayard, pp. 90–97. ^ O'Neill, Zora et al. 2012. Lonely Planet: Egypt
Egypt
(11th edition), p. 81. ^ Williams, Caroline. 2008 (6th ed.). Islamic Monuments in Cairo: The Practical Guide. Cairo: American University in Cairo
American University in Cairo
Press, p. 221. ^ Raymond, André. 1993. Le Caire. Fayard, pp. 179. ^ Williams, Caroline. 2008 (6th ed.). Islamic Monuments in Cairo: The Practical Guide. Cairo: American University in Cairo
American University in Cairo
Press, p. 179. ^ O'Neill, Zora et al. 2012. Lonely Planet: Egypt
Egypt
(11th edition), p. 74-75. ^ Khoder, M.I. (January 2007). "Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere of Greater Cairo". Atmospheric Environment. Air Pollution
Pollution
Research Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza. 41 (3): 554–566. Bibcode:2007AtmEn..41..554K. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.08.051. ISSN 1352-2310.  ^ Khoder, M (2007). "Black cloud reappears over Cairo". Middle East online. 41 (3): 554. Bibcode:2007AtmEn..41..554K. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.08.051.  ^ Lidsky, T. I.; Schneider, JS (January 2003). " Lead
Lead
neurotoxicity in children: basic mechanisms and clinical correlates". Brain. 126 (1): 5–19. doi:10.1093/brain/awg014. PMID 12477693. Retrieved 19 April 2008.  ^ Epstein, Jack (3 June 2006). "From Cairo's trash, a model of recycling / Old door-to-door method boasts 85% reuse rate". Sfgate.com. Retrieved 5 May 2009. 

References[edit]

Abu-Lughod, Janet (July 1965). "Tale of Two Cities: The Origins of Modern Cairo". Comparative Studies in Society and History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 7 (4). ISSN 0010-4175.  Afaf Lutfi Sayyid-Marsot (1984). Egypt
Egypt
in the Reign of Muhammad Ali (illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-28968-8.  Beattie, Andrew (2005). Cairo: A Cultural History (illustrated ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517893-9.  Butler, Alfred J. (2008). The Arab Conquest of Egypt—And the Last Thirty Years of the Roman Dominion. Portland, Ore: Butler Press. ISBN 1-4437-2783-0.  Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1992). Islamic Architecture in Cairo
Cairo
(2nd ed.). Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-09626-4.  Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2004). The Black Death
Black Death
(illustrated, annotated ed.). Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing
Publishing
Group. ISBN 0-313-32492-1.  Collins, Robert O. (2002). The Nile
Nile
(illustrated ed.). New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09764-6.  Daly, M. W.; Petry, Carl F. (1998). The Cambridge History of Egypt: Islamic Egypt, 640–1517. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47137-0.  Glassé, Cyril; Smith, Huston (2003). The New Encyclopedia of Islam (2nd revised ed.). Singapore: Tien Wah Press. ISBN 0-7591-0190-6.  Golia, Maria (2004). Cairo: city of sand. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-187-7.  Hawass, Zahi A.; Brock, Lyla Pinch (2003). Egyptology at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century: Archaeology (2nd ed.). Cairo: American University in Cairo. ISBN 977-424-674-8.  Hourani, Albert Habib; Khoury, Philip Shukry; Wilson, Mary Christina (2004). The Modern Middle East: A Reader (2nd ed.). London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-963-7.  İnalcık, Halil; Faroqhi, Suraiya; Quataert, Donald; McGowan, Bruce; Pamuk, Sevket (1997). An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire (illustrated, reprinted ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57455-2.  McGregor, Andrew James (2006). A Military History of Modern Egypt: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing
Publishing
Group. ISBN 0-275-98601-2.  Meri, Josef W.; Bacharach, Jere L. (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. New York: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-96692-2.  Raymond, André (2000). Cairo. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00316-0.  Sanders, Paula (2008). Creating Medieval Cairo: Empire, Religion, and Architectural Preservation in Nineteenth-Century Egypt. Cairo: American University in Cairo. ISBN 977-416-095-9.  Shillington, Kevin (2005). Encyclopedia of African History. New York: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-57958-453-5.  Shoshan, Boaz (2002). David Morgan, ed. Popular Culture in Medieval Cairo. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-89429-8.  Sicker, Martin (2001). The Islamic World in Decline: From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(illustrated ed.). Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing
Publishing
Group. ISBN 0-275-96891-X.  Winter, Michael (1992). Egyptian Society Under Ottoman Rule, 1517–1798. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-02403-X.  Winter, Michael (2004). Egyptian Society Under Ottoman Rule, 1517–1798. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-203-16923-9. 

Further reading[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Cairo

Nezar AlSayyad. Cairo: Histories of a City (Harvard University Press; 2011) 260 pages; Explores 12 defining moments in the city's architectural history Artemis Cooper, Cairo
Cairo
in the War, 1939–1945, Hamish Hamilton, 1989 / Penguin Book, 1995. ISBN 0-14-024781-5 (Pbk) André Raymond, Cairo, trans. Willard Wood. Harvard University Press, 2000. Max Rodenbeck, Cairo– the City Victorious, Picador, 1998. ISBN 0-330-33709-2 (Hbk) ISBN 0-330-33710-6 (Pbk) Wahba, Magdi (1990). Cairo
Cairo
Memories" in Studies in Arab History: The Antonius Lectures, 1978–87. Edited by Derek Hopwood. London: Macmillan Press. "Rescuing Cairo's Lost Heritage". Islamica Magazine (15). 2006. Archived from the original on 2 April 2007. Retrieved 6 December 2006.  Peter Theroux, Cairo: Clamorous heart of Egypt
Egypt
National Geographic Magazine April 1993 Cynthia Myntti, Paris
Paris
Along the Nile: Architecture in Cairo
Cairo
from the Belle Epoque, American University in Cairo
American University in Cairo
Press, 2003. Cairo's belle époque architects 1900 – 1950, by Samir Raafat. Antonine Selim Nahas, one of city's major belle époque (1900–1950) architects. Nagib Mahfooz novels, all tell great stories about Cairo's deep conflicts. Paulina B. Lewicka, Food and Foodways of Medieval Cairenes: Aspects of Life in an Islamic Metropolis
Metropolis
of the Eastern Mediterranean (Leiden, Brill, 2011). Jörg Armbruster, Suleman Taufiq (Eds.) مدينتي القاهرة (MYCAI – My Cairo
Cairo
Mein Kairo), text by different authors, photos by Barbara Armbruster and Hala Elkoussy, edition esefeld & traub, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-9809887-8-0.

External links[edit]

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 Geographic locale

Lat. and Long. 30°3′29″N 31°13′44″E / 30.05806°N 31.22889°E / 30.05806; 31.22889

v t e

Districts and suburbs of Greater Cairo

Cairo
Cairo
Governorate

Abbassia Ain Shams Azbakeya Bulaq Daher El Marg Helwan

15th of May

Mokattam

City of the Dead Manshiyat Naser

Nasr City El Qobbah Rhoda Island

El Manial

El Sakkakini Shubra

Shubra El Sahel Rod El Farag

Zeitoun

Historical

Coptic Cairo Downtown Cairo Faggala Fustat Islamic Cairo El Matareya Old Cairo

Affluent

Garden City Heliopolis Maadi Zamalek

Newly planned

Badr Madinaty New Cairo

Fifth Settlement

New Heliopolis El Shorouk

Giza
Giza
Governorate

Agouza Mit Okba Imbaba

Historical

Kerdasa

Affluent

Dokki Mohandessin

Newly planned

6th of October Sheikh Zayed

Qalyubia Governorate

Shubra
Shubra
El Kheima

Newly planned

Obour

v t e

Governorates of Egypt

Urban

Cairo Alexandria Port Said Suez

Lower Egypt

Ismailia Kafr El Sheikh Gharbia Dakahlia Sharqia Monufia Qalyubia Damietta Beheira

Upper Egypt

Giza Faiyum Beni Suef Minya Asyut Sohag Qena Aswan Luxor

Frontier

Red Sea New Valley Matrouh North Sinai South Sinai

v t e

Egyptian cities and towns by population

1,000,000 and more

Alexandria Cairo Giza Shubra
Shubra
El Kheima

300,000-999,999

Asyut Bilbeis Damietta Faiyum Imbaba Ismailia El Mahalla El Kubra Kom Ombo Mansoura Luxor Port Fuad Port Said Suez Tanta Zagazig

100,000-299,999

6th of October Arish Aswan Banha Beni Suef Damanhur Desouk Edfu Hurghada Kafr El Dawwar Kafr El Sheikh Mallawi Minya New Borg El Arab New Cairo Obour Qena Shibin El Kom Sohag

<99,999

Abydos Ain Sokhna Akhmim Dahab Dakhla Dendera Dekernes El Alamein El Gouna Esna Hamrah Dom Hala'ib Kharga Marsa Alam Marsa Matruh Nag Hammadi New Nubariya Nuweiba Rosetta Sadat Safaga Saint Catherine Siwa Sharm El Sheikh Taba Talkha

v t e

Landmarks of Cairo

Islamic Cairo

See Template:Islamic Cairo

Coptic Cairo

Babylon Fortress Coptic Museum The Hanging Church

Heliopolis

Abdeen Palace Heliopolis Palace Baron Empain Palace

Downtown Cairo

Boulak Bridge Cairo
Cairo
Opera House Cairo
Cairo
Tower Egyptian Museum 6th October Bridge

Giza

Giza
Giza
Pyramids Giza
Giza
Zoo

Nasr City

Unknown Soldier Memorial

v t e

Capitals of Arab countries

Africa Asia

Algiers, Algeria Cairo, Egypt Djibouti, Djibouti

El Aaiun
El Aaiun
(proclaimed)   Tifariti
Tifariti
(de facto), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1

Khartoum, Sudan Mogadishu, Somalia Moroni, Comoros Nouakchott, Mauritania Rabat, Morocco Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Baghdad, Iraq Beirut, Lebanon Damascus, Syria Doha, Qatar

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(proclaimed)   Ramallah
Ramallah
(de facto), Palestine1

Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain Muscat, Oman Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation

v t e

Capitals of Africa

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

Abuja, Nigeria Accra, Ghana Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Algiers, Algeria Antananarivo, Madagascar Asmara, Eritrea Bamako, Mali Bangui, Central African Republic Banjul, Gambia Bissau, Guinea-Bissau Brazzaville, Rep. of the Congo Bujumbura, Burundi Cairo, Egypt Conakry, Guinea Dakar, Senegal Djibouti, Djibouti Dodoma, Tanzania El Aaiún(claimed)/Tifariti(factual), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1 Freetown, Sierra Leone Funchal, Madeira4 Gaborone, Botswana Harare, Zimbabwe Hargeisa, Somaliland1 Jamestown, St Helena, Ascension & Tristan da Cunha2 Juba, South Sudan Kampala, Uganda Khartoum, Sudan Kigali, Rwanda Kinshasa, D.R. Congo Libreville, Gabon Lilongwe, Malawi Lomé, Togo Luanda, Angola Lusaka, Zambia Malabo, Equatorial Guinea Mamoudzou, Mayotte3 Maputo, Mozambique Maseru, Lesotho

Mbabane
Mbabane
(executive)   Lobamba
Lobamba
(legislative), Swaziland

Mogadishu, Somalia Monrovia, Liberia Moroni, Comoros Nairobi, Kenya N'Djamena, Chad Niamey, Niger Nouakchott, Mauritania Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Port Louis, Mauritius Porto-Novo, Benin Praia, Cape Verde

Pretoria
Pretoria
(executive)   Cape Town
Cape Town
(legislative)   Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
(judicial), South Africa

Rabat, Morocco Saint-Denis, Réunion3 Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
and Las Palmas, Canary Islands5 São Tomé, São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia Victoria, Seychelles Windhoek, Namibia

Yamoussoukro
Yamoussoukro
(political)   Abidjan
Abidjan
(economic), Ivory Coast

Yaoundé, Cameroon

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation 2 British Overseas Territory 3 Overseas region
Overseas region
of France 4 Autonomous region of Portugal 5 Autonomous community of Spain

v t e

All-Africa Games
All-Africa Games
host cities

   

1965: Brazzaville 1973: Lagos 1978: Algiers 1987: Nairobi

1991: Cairo 1995: Harare 1999: Johannesburg 2003: Abuja

2007: Algiers 2011: Maputo 2015: Brazzaville 2019: Luanda

v t e

World's twenty most populous metropolitan areas

   

1 Tokyo-Yokohama 2 Shanghai 3 Jakarta 4 Delhi 5 Seoul-Incheon

  6 Karachi   7 Guangzhou   8 Beijing   9 Shenzhen   7 Mexico
Mexico
City

11 São Paulo 12 Lagos 13 Mumbai 14 Cairo 15 New York

16 Osaka 17 Moscow 18 Wuhan 19 Chengdu 20 Dhaka

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 125715126 LCCN: n79055723 GND: 4029236-8 BNF: cb13181517r (d

.