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Mecca
Mecca
(/ˈmɛkə/) or Makkah (Arabic: مكة‎[1] Makkah (Hejazi pronunciation: [ˈmakːa,ˈmäkːä]) is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah
Tihamah
in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region.[8] The city is located 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah
Jeddah
in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m (909 ft) above sea level, and 340 kilometres (210 mi) south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (Arabic: حَـجّ‎, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim
Muslim
lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (Arabic: ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة‎). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran
Quran
(specifically, a cave 3 km (2 mi) from Mecca),[9][10] Mecca
Mecca
is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam[11] and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj
Hajj
is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca
Mecca
is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim
Muslim
prayer. Mecca
Mecca
was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud
Ibn Saud
in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca
Mecca
has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca
Mecca
has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad
Ajyad
Fortress.[12] Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca
Mecca
annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj.[13] As a result, Mecca
Mecca
has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,[14] even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.[15][16]

Contents

1 Etymology
Etymology
and usage 2 Government 3 History

3.1 Early history

3.1.1 Potential ancient references 3.1.2 Islamic view

3.2 Thamudic inscriptions 3.3 Islamic tradition 3.4 Muhammad
Muhammad
and conquest of Mecca 3.5 Medieval and pre-modern times 3.6 Revolt of the Sharif of Mecca 3.7 Saudi Arabia 3.8 Destruction of historic buildings

4 Pilgrimage

4.1 Incidents during pilgrimage

5 Geography

5.1 Neighborhoods

6 Climate 7 Landmarks 8 Economy 9 Health care 10 Culture

10.1 Cuisine 10.2 Demographics

11 Education 12 Paleontology 13 Communications 14 Transportation

14.1 Air 14.2 Rail

14.2.1 Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro 14.2.2 Mecca
Mecca
Metro 14.2.3 Intercity

14.3 Roads

15 Sister cities 16 See also 17 References 18 Bibliography 19 Further reading 20 External links

Etymology
Etymology
and usage "Mecca" is the familiar form of the English transliteration for the Arabic
Arabic
name of the city, although the official transliteration used by the Saudi government is Makkah, which is closer to the Arabic pronunciation.[17][18] The word "Mecca" in English has come to be used to refer to any place that draws large numbers of people, and because of this some English speaking Muslims have come to regard the use of this spelling for the city as offensive.[17] The Saudi government adopted Makkah as the official spelling in the 1980s, but is not universally known or used worldwide.[17] The full official name is Makkah al-Mukarramah (Arabic: مَـكَّـة الْـمُـكَـرَّمَـة‎) or Makkatu l-Mukarramah (Arabic: مَـكَّـةُ الْـمُـكَـرَّمَـة‎, [ˈmæk.kæl mʊkarˈrama, ˈmæk.kætʊl-]), which means " Mecca
Mecca
the Honored", but is also loosely translated as "The Holy City of Mecca".[17] The ancient or early name for the site of Mecca
Mecca
is Bakkah
Bakkah
(Arabic: بَـكَّـة‎,[19] also transliterated Baca, Baka, Bakah, Bakka, Becca, Bekka, etc.).[20][21][22] An Arabic language
Arabic language
word, its etymology, like that of Mecca, is obscure.[23] Widely believed to be a synonym for Mecca, it is said to be more specifically the early name for the valley located therein, while Muslim
Muslim
scholars generally use it to refer to the sacred area of the city that immediately surrounds and includes the Ka‘bah (Arabic: كَـعْـبَـة‎,[19] Kaaba).[24] This form is used for the name Mecca
Mecca
in the Quran
Quran
in 3:96, while the form Mecca
Mecca
is used in 48:24.[23][25] In South Arabic, the language in use in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
at the time of Muhammad, the b and m were interchangeable[citation needed]. Other references to Mecca
Mecca
in the Quran
Quran
(6:92,[2] 42:5)[3] call it Umm al-Qurā (Arabic: أُمّ الْـقُـرَى‎), meaning "Mother of All Settlements"[25]/"mother of villages". Another name of Mecca
Mecca
is Ṫihāmah (Arabic: تِـهَـامَـة‎).[26] Another name for Mecca, or the wilderness and mountains surrounding it, according to Arab
Arab
and Islamic tradition, is Faran or Pharan, referring to the Desert of Paran
Desert of Paran
mentioned in the Old Testament
Old Testament
at Genesis 21:21.[27] Arab
Arab
and Islamic tradition holds that the wilderness of Paran, broadly speaking, is the Tihamah
Tihamah
and the site where Ishmael
Ishmael
settled was Mecca.[27] Yaqut al-Hamawi, the 12th century Syrian geographer, wrote that Fārān was "an arabized Hebrew word, one of the names of Mecca
Mecca
mentioned in the Torah."[28] Government Mecca
Mecca
is governed by the Municipality of Mecca, a municipal council of fourteen locally elected members headed by a mayor (called Al-Amin) appointed by the Saudi government. As of May 2015[update], the mayor of the city was Dr. Osama bin Fadhel Al-Bar.[29][30] Mecca
Mecca
is the capital of the Makkah Region, which includes neighboring Jeddah. The provincial governor was prince Abdul Majeed bin Abdulaziz Al Saud from 2000 until his death in 2007.[31] On 16 May 2007, prince Khalid bin Faisal Al Saud
Khalid bin Faisal Al Saud
was appointed as the new governor.[32] History See also: Timeline of Mecca Early history

Mecca, as seen from Jabal al-Nour, 2009

1787 Ottoman Turkish map of Al-Haram Mosque, and related religious sites, such as Jabal al-Nour

The early history of Mecca
Mecca
is still largely disputed, as there are no unambiguous references to it in ancient literature prior to the rise of Islam.[33] The Roman Empire took control of part of the Hejaz
Hejaz
in 106 CE,[34] ruling cities such as Hegra (now known as Mada'in Saleh), located to the north of Mecca. Even though detailed descriptions were established of Western Arabia by Rome, such as by Procopius, there are no references of a pilgrimage and trading outpost such as Mecca.[35] The first direct mention of Mecca
Mecca
in external literature occurs in 741 CE, in the Byzantine- Arab
Arab
Chronicle, though here the author places it in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
rather than the Hejaz.[35] Given the inhospitable environment[36] and lack of historical references in Roman, Persian and Indian sources, historians including Patricia Crone
Patricia Crone
and Tom Holland have cast doubt on the claim that Mecca was a major historical trading outpost.[36][37] Potential ancient references The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
writes about Arabia in his work Bibliotheca historica, describing a holy shrine: "And a temple has been set up there, which is very holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians".[38] Claims have been made this could be a reference to the Kaaba
Kaaba
in Mecca. However, the geographic location Diodorus describes is located in northwest Arabia, around the area of Leuke Kome, closer to Petra
Petra
and within the former Nabataean Kingdom
Nabataean Kingdom
and Rome's Arabia Petraea.[39][40] Ptolemy
Ptolemy
lists the names of 50 cities in Arabia, one going by the name of "Macoraba". There has been speculation this is could be a reference to Mecca. However, due to the lack of a description or any other supporting literature, the claim is seen as contentious.[41] Islamic view In the Islamic view, the beginnings of Mecca
Mecca
are attributed to Ishmael's descendants. The Old Testament
Old Testament
chapter Psalm 84:3–6, and a mention of a pilgrimage at the Valley of Baca, that Muslims see as referring to the mentioning of Mecca
Mecca
as Bakkah
Bakkah
in Quran's Surah 3:96.[19] Some time in the 5th century, the Kaaba
Kaaba
was a place of worship for the deities of Arabia's pagan tribes. Mecca's most important pagan deity was Hubal, which had been placed there by the ruling Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe[42][43] and remained until the 7th century. In the Sharḥ al- Asāṭīr, a commentary on the Samaritan midrashic chronology of the Patriarchs, of unknown date but probably composed in the tenth century C.E., it is claimed that Mecca
Mecca
was built by the sons of Nebaioth, the eldest son of Ishmael.[44][45][46] In the 5th century, the Quraysh
Quraysh
took control of Mecca, and became skilled merchants and traders. In the 6th century they joined the lucrative spice trade, since battles elsewhere were diverting trade routes from dangerous sea routes to more secure overland routes. The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
had previously controlled the Red Sea, but piracy had been increasing. Another previous route that ran through the Persian Gulf via the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates
Euphrates
rivers was also being threatened by exploitations from the Sassanid Empire, and was being disrupted by the Lakhmids, the Ghassanids, and the Roman–Persian Wars. Mecca's prominence as a trading center also surpassed the cities of Petra
Petra
and Palmyra.[47][48] The Sassanids however did not always pose a threat to Mecca, as in 575 CE they protected Mecca
Mecca
city from invasion by the Kingdom of Axum, led by its Christian
Christian
leader Abraha. The tribes of southern Arabia asked the Persian king Khosrau I
Khosrau I
for aid, in response to which he came south to Arabia with foot-soldiers and a fleet of ships into Mecca. The Persian intervention prevented Christianity from spreading eastward into Arabia, and Mecca
Mecca
and the Islamic prophet Muhammad, who was at the time six years old in the Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe, "would not grow up under the cross."[49] By the middle of the 6th century, there were three major settlements in northern Arabia, all along the south-western coast that borders the Red Sea, in a habitable region between the sea and the great mountains to the east. Although the area around Mecca
Mecca
was completely barren, it was the wealthiest of the three settlements with abundant water via the renowned Zamzam Well
Zamzam Well
and a position at the crossroads of major caravan routes.[50] The harsh conditions and terrain of the Arabian peninsula meant a near-constant state of conflict between the local tribes, but once a year they would declare a truce and converge upon Mecca
Mecca
in an annual pilgrimage. Up to the 7th century, this journey was intended for religious reasons by the pagan Arabs to pay homage to their shrine, and to drink from the Zamzam Well. However, it was also the time each year that disputes would be arbitrated, debts would be resolved, and trading would occur at Meccan fairs. These annual events gave the tribes a sense of common identity and made Mecca
Mecca
an important focus for the peninsula.[51] The Year of the Elephant is the name in Islamic history for the year approximately equating to 570 CE. According to Islamic tradition, it was in this year that Muhammad
Muhammad
was born.[52] The name is derived from an event said to have occurred at Mecca. According to early Islamic historians such as Ibn Ishaq, Abraha
Abraha
the Christian
Christian
ruler of Yemen, which was subject to the Kingdom of Aksum
Kingdom of Aksum
of Ethiopia, built a great church at Sana'a
Sana'a
known as al-Qullays in honor of the Aksumite king Negus. It gained widespread fame, even gaining the notice of the Byzantine Empire.[52] Abraha
Abraha
attempted to divert the pilgrimage of Arab
Arab
people from Kaaba
Kaaba
to al-Qullays and appointed a man named Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Khuza'i to Mecca
Mecca
and Tihamah
Tihamah
as a king with a message that al-Qullays was both much better than other houses of worship and purer, having not been defiled by the housing of idols.[52] When Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Khuza'i got as far as the land of Kinana, the people of the lowland, knowing what he had come for, sent a man of Hudhayl called ʿUrwa bin Hayyad al-Milasi, who shot him with an arrow, killing him. His brother Qays who was with him fled to Abraha
Abraha
and told him the news, which increased his rage and fury and he swore to raid the Kinana tribe and destroy the temple. Ibn Ishaq further states that one of the men of the Quraysh tribe
Quraysh tribe
was angered by this, and going to Sana'a, slipped into the church at night and defiled it; it is widely assumed that they did so by defecating in it. Abraha[53][54] marched upon the Kaaba
Kaaba
with a large army, which included one or more war elephants, intending to demolish it. When news of the advance of Abraha's army came, the Arab
Arab
tribes of the Quraysh, Banu Kinanah, Banu Khuza'a and Banu Hudhayl
Banu Hudhayl
united in defense of the Kaaba. A man from the Himyarite Kingdom
Himyarite Kingdom
was sent by Abraha
Abraha
to advise them that Abraha only wished to demolish the Kaaba
Kaaba
and if they resisted, they would be crushed. Abdul Muttalib
Abdul Muttalib
told the Meccans to seek refuge in the hills while he with some leading members of the Quraysh
Quraysh
remained within the precincts of the Kaaba. Abraha
Abraha
sent a dispatch inviting Abdul-Muttalib to meet with Abraha
Abraha
and discuss matters. When Abdul-Muttalib left the meeting he was heard saying, "The Owner of this House is its Defender, and I am sure he will save it from the attack of the adversaries and will not dishonor the servants of His House." Abraha
Abraha
attacked Mecca However, the lead elephant, known as Mahmud,[55] is said to have stopped at the boundary around Mecca
Mecca
and refused to enter. It has been theorized that an epidemic such as by smallpox could have caused such a failed invasion of Mecca.[56] The reference to the story in Qur'an is rather short. According to the Surah of Al-Fil, the next day, [as Abraha
Abraha
prepared to enter the city], a dark cloud of small birds sent by Allah
Allah
appeared. The birds carried small rocks in their beaks, and bombarded the Ethiopian forces and smashed them like "eaten straw".[57] Camel
Camel
caravans, said to have first been used by Muhammad's great-grandfather, were a major part of Mecca's bustling economy. Alliances were struck between the merchants in Mecca
Mecca
and the local nomadic tribes, who would bring goods – leather, livestock, and metals mined in the local mountains – to Mecca
Mecca
to be loaded on the caravans and carried to cities in Shaam and Iraq.[58] Historical accounts also provide some indication that goods from other continents may also have flowed through Mecca. Goods from Africa
Africa
and the Far East passed through en route to Syria including spices, leather, medicine, cloth, and slaves; in return Mecca
Mecca
received money, weapons, cereals and wine, which in turn were distributed throughout Arabia. The Meccans signed treaties with both the Byzantines and the Bedouins, and negotiated safe passages for caravans, giving them water and pasture rights. Mecca
Mecca
became the center of a loose confederation of client tribes, which included those of the Banu Tamim. Other regional powers such as the Abyssinian, Ghassan, and Lakhm were in decline leaving Meccan trade to be the primary binding force in Arabia in the late 6th century.[51] Thamudic inscriptions Some Thamudic inscriptions which were discovered in south Jordan contained names of some individuals such as ‘Abd Mekkat (Arabic: عَـبْـد مَـكَّـة‎, "Servant of Mecca").[59] There were also some other inscriptions which contained personal names such as Makky (Arabic: مَـكِّي‎, "Meccan"), but Jawwad Ali from the University of Baghdad
University of Baghdad
suggested that there's also a probability of a tribe named "Mecca".[60] Islamic tradition According to Islamic tradition, the history of Mecca
Mecca
goes back to Abraham
Abraham
(Ibrahim), who built the Kaaba
Kaaba
with the help of his elder son Ishmael
Ishmael
in around 2000 BCE, when the inhabitants of the site then known as Bakkah
Bakkah
had fallen away from the original monotheism of Abraham
Abraham
through the influence of the Amalekites.[61] Muhammad
Muhammad
and conquest of Mecca

v t e

Campaigns of Muhammad

Ghazwah (expeditions where he took part)

Abwa Buwat Safwan Dul 1st Badr Kudr Sawiq Qaynuqa Thi Bahran Uhud Asad Nadir 2nd Nejd 2nd Badr Jandal Trench Qurayza Lahyan Mustaliq Treaty Khaybar Fadak Qura Dhat Baqra Mecca Hunayn Autas Ta'if Tabouk

Main articles: Muhammad, Conquest of Mecca, Muhammad
Muhammad
in Mecca, and List of expeditions of Muhammad

Jabal al-Nour
Jabal al-Nour
is where Muhammad
Muhammad
is believed to have received the first revelation of God
God
through the Archangel
Archangel
Gabriel

Muhammad
Muhammad
was born in Mecca
Mecca
in 570, and thus Islam
Islam
has been inextricably linked with it ever since. He was born in a minor faction, the Hashemites, of the ruling Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe. It was in Mecca, in the nearby mountain cave of Hira
Hira
on Jabal al-Nour, that, according to Islamic tradition, Muhammad
Muhammad
began receiving divine revelations from God
God
through the Archangel
Archangel
Gabriel
Gabriel
in 610 AD, and advocated his form of Abrahamic monotheism against Meccan paganism. After enduring persecution from the pagan tribes for 13 years, Muhammad
Muhammad
emigrated (see Hijrah) in 622 with his companions, the Muhajirun, to Yathrib (later called Medina). The conflict between the Quraysh
Quraysh
and the Muslims, however, continued: The two fought in the Battle of Badr, where the Muslims defeated the Quraysh
Quraysh
outside Medina; while the Battle of Uhud
Battle of Uhud
ended indecisively. Overall, Meccan efforts to annihilate Islam
Islam
failed and proved to be costly and unsuccessful. During the Battle of the Trench
Battle of the Trench
in 627, the combined armies of Arabia were unable to defeat Muhammad's forces.[62] In 628, Muhammad
Muhammad
and his followers wanted to enter Mecca
Mecca
for pilgrimage, but were blocked by the Quraysh. Subsequently, Muslims and Meccans entered into the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, whereby the Quraysh promised to cease fighting Muslims and promised that Muslims would be allowed into the city to perform the pilgrimage the following year. It was meant to be a ceasefire for 10 years. However, just two years later, the Quraysh
Quraysh
violated the truce by slaughtering a group of Muslims and their allies. Muhammad
Muhammad
and his companions, now 10,000 strong, marched into Mecca. However, instead of continuing their fight, the city of Mecca
Mecca
surrendered to Muhammad, who declared peace and amnesty for its inhabitants. The pagan imagery was destroyed by Muhammad's followers and the location Islamized and rededicated to the worship of God. Mecca
Mecca
was declared as the holiest site in Islam ordaining it as the center of Muslim
Muslim
pilgrimage, one of the faith's Five Pillars. Then, Muhammad
Muhammad
returned to Medina, after assigning Akib ibn Usaid as governor of the city. His other activities in Arabia led to the unification of the peninsula.[47][62] Muhammad
Muhammad
died in 632, but with the sense of unity that he had passed on to his Ummah
Ummah
(Islamic nation), Islam
Islam
began a rapid expansion, and within the next few hundred years stretched from North Africa
Africa
into Asia and parts of Europe. As the Islamic Empire grew, Mecca
Mecca
continued to attract pilgrims from all across the Muslim world
Muslim world
and beyond, as Muslims came to perform the annual Hajj
Hajj
pilgrimage. Mecca
Mecca
also attracted a year-round population of scholars, pious Muslims who wished to live close to the Kaaba, and local inhabitants who served the pilgrims. Due to the difficulty and expense of the Hajj, pilgrims arrived by boat at Jeddah, and came overland, or joined the annual caravans from Syria or Iraq. Medieval and pre-modern times

The First Saudi State

Mecca
Mecca
was never the capital of any of the Islamic states but Muslim rulers did contribute to its upkeep. During the reigns of Umar (634–644 CE) and Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(644–656) concerns of flooding caused the caliphs to bring in Christian
Christian
engineers to build barrages in the low-lying quarters and construct dykes and embankments to protect the area round the Kaaba.[47] Muhammad's migration to Medina
Medina
shifted the focus away from Mecca. This focus moved still more when Ali, the fourth caliph, took power choosing Kufa
Kufa
as his capital. The Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate
Caliphate
moved the capital to Damascus
Damascus
in Syria and the Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
to Baghdad, in modern-day Iraq, which remained the center of the Islamic Empire for nearly 500 years. Mecca
Mecca
re-entered Islamic political history during the Second Islamic Civil War, when it was held by Abd Allah
Allah
ibn al-Zubayr, an early Muslim
Muslim
who opposed the Umayyad
Umayyad
caliphs. The city was twice besieged by the Umayyads, in 683 and 692. For some time thereafter the city figured little in politics, remaining a city of devotion and scholarship governed by the Hashemite Sharifs. In 930, Mecca
Mecca
was attacked and sacked by Qarmatians, a millenarian Ismaili Muslim
Muslim
sect led by Abū-Tāhir Al-Jannābī
Abū-Tāhir Al-Jannābī
and centered in eastern Arabia.[63] The Black Death
Black Death
pandemic hit Mecca
Mecca
in 1349.[64] In 1517, the Sharif, Barakat bin Muhammed, acknowledged the supremacy of the Ottoman Caliph but retained a great degree of local autonomy.[65] In 1803 the city was captured by the First Saudi State,[66] which held Mecca
Mecca
until 1813. This was a massive blow to the prestige of the (Turkish) Ottoman Empire, which had exercised sovereignty over the holy city since 1517. The Ottomans assigned the task of bringing Mecca back under Ottoman control to their powerful Khedive
Khedive
(viceroy) of Egypt, Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Pasha. Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Pasha successfully returned Mecca
Mecca
to Ottoman control in 1813. In 1818, followers of the Salafi
Salafi
juristic school were again defeated, but some of the Al Saud clan survived and founded the Second Saudi State that lasted until 1891 and led on to the present country of Saudi Arabia. Mecca
Mecca
was regularly hit by cholera outbreaks. Between 1830 and 1930 cholera broke out among pilgrims at Mecca
Mecca
27 times.[67]

Mecca
Mecca
in 1718

Mecca, ca. 1778

In the late 1880s

In 1910

Bird's-eye view of Kaaba
Kaaba
crowded with pilgrims in 1910

Revolt of the Sharif of Mecca In World War I, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was at war with Britain and its allies, having sided with Germany. It had successfully repulsed an attack on Istanbul
Istanbul
in the Gallipoli Campaign
Gallipoli Campaign
and on Baghdad
Baghdad
in the Siege of Kut. The British agent T. E. Lawrence
T. E. Lawrence
conspired with the Ottoman governor Hussain bin Ali, the Sharif of Mecca. Hussein bin Ali revolted against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from Mecca, and it was the first city captured by his forces in the Battle of Mecca
Mecca
(1916). Sharif's revolt proved a turning point of the war on the eastern front. Sharif Hussein declared a new state, the Kingdom of Hejaz, and declared Mecca as the capital of the new kingdom. News reports in November 1916[68] via contact in Cairo
Cairo
with returning Hajj
Hajj
pilgrims, said that with the Ottoman Turkish authorities gone, Mecca
Mecca
at Hajj
Hajj
1916 was thankfully free of the previous massive extortion and illegal money-demanding by Turks who were agents of the Ottoman government. Saudi Arabia Following the 1924 Battle of Mecca, the Sharif of Mecca
Sharif of Mecca
was overthrown by the Saud family, and Mecca
Mecca
was incorporated into Saudi Arabia.[69] Under Saudi rule, much of the historic city has been demolished as a result of construction programs – see below. On 20 November 1979 two hundred armed Islamist dissidents led by Saudi preacher Juhayman al-Otaibi seized the Grand Mosque. They claimed that the Saudi royal family no longer represented pure Islam
Islam
and that the Masjid al-Haram (The Sacred Mosque) and the Kaaba, must be held by those of true faith. The rebels seized tens of thousands of pilgrims as hostages and barricaded themselves in the mosque. The siege lasted two weeks, and resulted in several hundred deaths and significant damage to the shrine, especially the Safa-Marwa gallery. Pakistani forces carried out the final assault; they were assisted with weapons, logistics and planning by an elite team of French commandos from the French GIGN commando unit.[70] Destruction of historic buildings See also: Destruction of early Islamic heritage sites in Saudi Arabia Under Saudi rule, it has been estimated that since 1985 about 95% of Mecca's historic buildings, most over a thousand years old, have been demolished.[12][71] Historic sites of religious importance which have been destroyed by the Saudis include five of the renowned "Seven Mosques" initially built by Muhammad's daughter and four of his "greatest Companions": Masjid Abu Bakr, Masjid Salman al-Farsi, Masjid Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab, Masjid Sayyida Fatima bint Rasulullah and Masjid Ali
Ali
ibn Abu Talib.[72] It has been reported that there are now fewer than 20 structures remaining in Mecca
Mecca
that date back to the time of Muhammad. Other buildings that have been destroyed include the house of Khadijah, the wife of Muhammad, demolished to make way for public lavatories; the house of Abu Bakr, Muhammad's companion, now the site of the local Hilton hotel; the house of Muhammad's grandson Ali-Oraid and the Mosque
Mosque
of abu-Qubais, now the location of the King's palace in Mecca; Muhammad's birthplace, demolished to make way for a library; and the Ottoman-era Ajyad
Ajyad
Fortress, demolished for construction of the Abraj Al Bait Towers.[73] The reason for much of the destruction of historic buildings has been for the construction of hotels, apartments, parking lots, and other infrastructure facilities for Hajj
Hajj
pilgrims. However, many have been destroyed without any such reason. For example, when the house of Ali-Oraid was discovered, King Fahd himself ordered that it be bulldozed lest it should become a pilgrimage site.[71] Pilgrimage

The Hajj
Hajj
involves pilgrims visiting Al-Haram Mosque, but mainly camping and spending time in the plains of Mina and Arafah

The pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
attracts millions of Muslims from all over the world. There are two pilgrimages: the Hajj
Hajj
and the Umrah. The Hajj, the 'greater' pilgrimage is performed annually in Mecca
Mecca
and nearby sites. During the Hajj, several million people of varying nationalities worship in unison. Every adult, healthy Muslim
Muslim
who has the financial and physical capacity to travel to Mecca
Mecca
and can make arrangements for the care of his/her dependents during the trip, must perform the Hajj
Hajj
at least once in a lifetime. Umrah, the lesser pilgrimage, is not obligatory, but is recommended in the Qur'an.[74] Often, they perform the Umrah
Umrah
while visiting Al-Haram Mosque. Incidents during pilgrimage Main article: Incidents during the Hajj Mecca
Mecca
has been the site of several incidents and failures of crowd control because of the large numbers of people who come to make the Hajj.[75][76][77] For example, on 2 July 1990, a pilgrimage to Mecca ended in tragedy when the ventilation system failed in a crowded pedestrian tunnel and 1,426 people were either suffocated or trampled to death in a stampede.[78] On 24 September 2015, 700 pilgrims were killed in a stampede at Mina during the stoning-the- Devil
Devil
ritual at Jamarat.[79] Geography Mecca
Mecca
is at an elevation of 277 m (909 ft) above sea level, and approximately 80 km (50 mi) inland from the Red Sea.[50] Central Mecca
Mecca
lies in a corridor between mountains, which is often called the "Hollow of Mecca". The area contains the valley of Al Taneem, the Valley of Bakkah
Bakkah
and the valley of Abqar.[47][80] This mountainous location has defined the contemporary expansion of the city. The city centers on the Masjid al-Haram
Masjid al-Haram
area, which is lower than most of the city. The area around the mosque is the old city. The main avenues are Al-Mudda'ah and Sūq al-Layl to the north of the mosque, and As-Sūg Assaghīr to the south. As the Saudis expanded the Grand Mosque
Mosque
in the center of the city, hundreds of houses were replaced by wide avenues and city squares. Traditional homes are built of local rock and are generally two to three stories. The total area of Mecca
Mecca
today is over 1,200 km2 (460 sq mi).[81] In pre-modern Mecca, the city used a few chief sources of water. The first were local wells, such as the Zamzam Well, that produced generally brackish water. The second source was the spring of Ayn Zubayda. The sources of this spring are the mountains of J̲abal Saʿd (Jabal Sa'd) and Jabal Kabkāb, which are a few kilometers east of Jabal Arafa or about 20 km (12 mi) southeast of Mecca. Water was transported from it using underground channels. A very sporadic third source was rainfall which was stored by the people in small reservoirs or cisterns. The rainfall, scant as it is, also presents the threat of flooding and has been a danger since earliest times. According to Al-Kurdī, there had been 89 historic floods by 1965, including several in the Saudi period. In the last century the most severe flood was in 1942. Since then, dams have been build to ameliorate this problem.[80] Neighborhoods

Ajyad Al Adl[82] Al Faisaliyyah Al Gemmezah Al Ghassalah Al Hindawiyyah Al Iskan Al Khalediya[82] Al Maabda[82] Al Muaisem[82] Al Nuzha Al Rasaifah Al Shoqiyah[82] Al Shubaikah Al Sulaimaniyyah Al Tundobawi Al Utaibiyyah Al Zahir Al Zahra Aziziyah[82] Gazza[83] Jabal Al Nour Jarwal Jurhum[84] Mina Misfalah Shar Mansur[84] Suq Al Lail

Climate Main article: Climate of Mecca Mecca
Mecca
features a hot desert climate. Like most Saudi Arabian cities, Mecca
Mecca
retains warm to hot temperatures even in winter, which can range from 18 °C (64 °F) at night to 30 °C (86 °F) in the afternoon. Summer temperatures are extremely hot and break the 40 °C (104 °F) mark in the afternoon dropping to 30 °C (86 °F) in the evening. Rain usually falls in Mecca in small amounts scattered between November and January:

Climate data for Mecca

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 37.4 (99.3) 38.3 (100.9) 42.4 (108.3) 44.7 (112.5) 49.4 (120.9) 49.6 (121.3) 49.8 (121.6) 49.7 (121.5) 49.4 (120.9) 47.0 (116.6) 41.2 (106.2) 38.4 (101.1) 49.8 (121.6)

Average high °C (°F) 30.5 (86.9) 31.7 (89.1) 34.9 (94.8) 38.7 (101.7) 42.0 (107.6) 43.8 (110.8) 43.0 (109.4) 42.8 (109) 42.8 (109) 40.1 (104.2) 35.2 (95.4) 32.0 (89.6) 38.1 (100.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) 24.0 (75.2) 24.7 (76.5) 27.3 (81.1) 31.0 (87.8) 34.3 (93.7) 35.8 (96.4) 35.9 (96.6) 35.7 (96.3) 35.0 (95) 32.2 (90) 28.4 (83.1) 25.6 (78.1) 30.8 (87.4)

Average low °C (°F) 18.8 (65.8) 19.1 (66.4) 21.1 (70) 24.5 (76.1) 27.6 (81.7) 28.6 (83.5) 29.1 (84.4) 29.5 (85.1) 28.9 (84) 25.9 (78.6) 23.0 (73.4) 20.3 (68.5) 24.7 (76.5)

Record low °C (°F) 11.0 (51.8) 10.0 (50) 13.0 (55.4) 15.6 (60.1) 20.3 (68.5) 22.0 (71.6) 23.4 (74.1) 23.4 (74.1) 22.0 (71.6) 18.0 (64.4) 16.4 (61.5) 12.4 (54.3) 10.0 (50)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 20.8 (0.819) 3.0 (0.118) 5.5 (0.217) 10.3 (0.406) 1.2 (0.047) 0.0 (0) 1.4 (0.055) 5.0 (0.197) 5.4 (0.213) 14.5 (0.571) 22.6 (0.89) 22.1 (0.87) 111.8 (4.402)

Average precipitation days 4.0 0.9 1.8 1.8 0.7 0.0 0.3 1.5 2.0 1.9 3.9 3.6 22.4

Average relative humidity (%) 58 54 48 43 36 33 34 39 45 50 58 59 59

Mean monthly sunshine hours 260.4 245.8 282.1 282.0 303.8 321.0 313.1 297.6 282.0 300.7 264.0 248.0 3,400.5

Mean daily sunshine hours 8.4 8.7 9.1 9.4 9.8 10.7 10.1 9.6 9.4 9.7 8.8 8.0 9.3

Source #1: Jeddah
Jeddah
Regional Climate Center[85]

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
(sun, 1986–2000)[86]

Landmarks

Panorama of Al-Haram Mosque

Mecca
Mecca
houses Al-Haram Mosque, the largest mosque in the world. The mosque surrounds the Kaaba, which Muslims turn towards while offering daily prayer. This mosque is also commonly known as the Ḥaram or Grand Mosque.[87] As mentioned above, because of the Wahhabist
Wahhabist
hostility to reverence being paid to historic and religious buildings, Mecca
Mecca
has lost most of its heritage in recent years and few buildings from the last 1,500 years have survived Saudi rule.[71] Expansion of the city is ongoing and includes the construction of 601 m (1,972 ft) tall Abraj Al Bait
Abraj Al Bait
Towers across the street from the Masjid al-Haram.[88] The towers were the third tallest building in the world when completed in 2012. The construction of the towers involved the demolition of the Ajyad
Ajyad
Fortress, which in turn sparked a dispute between Turkey
Turkey
and Saudi Arabia.[89] The Zamzam Well
Zamzam Well
is home to a celebrated water spring. The Qishla of Mecca
Mecca
was an Ottoman castle facing the Grand Mosque
Mosque
and defending the city from attack. However, the Saudi government removed the structure to give space for hotels and business buildings near to the Grand Mosque.[90] Ḥirā’ (Arabic: حِـرَاء‎) is a cave near Mecca, on the mountain named Jabal an-Nūr (Arabic: جَـبَـل الـنُّـوْر‎, "Mountain of Light") in the region of Tihamah of present-day Saudi Arabia. It is notable for being the location where Muhammad
Muhammad
received his first revelations from God
God
through the angel Jibrā’īl (Arabic: جِـبْـرَائِـيْـل‎), who known as Gabriel
Gabriel
to Christians.[91][92]

Mecca
Mecca
as seen from the International Space Station

The Quran
Quran
Gate

The Qur'an
Qur'an
Gate, located on the Jeddah- Mecca
Mecca
Highway, marks the boundary of the area where non-Muslims are prohibited to enter. It is the entrance to Makkah and the birthplace of Muhammad. The gate was designed in 1979 by an Egyptian architect, Samir Elabd, for the architectural firm IDEA Center. The structure is that of a book, representing the Qur'an, sitting on a rehal, or book stand.[93] Economy

Abraj Al Bait

The Meccan economy has been heavily dependent on the annual pilgrimage. As one academic put it, "[Meccans] have no means of earning a living but by serving the hajjis." Income generated from the Hajj, in fact, not only powers the Meccan economy but has historically had far-reaching effects on the economy of the entire Arabian Peninsula. The income was generated in a number of ways. One method was taxing the pilgrims. Taxes especially increased during the Great Depression, and many of these taxes existed as late as 1972. Another way the Hajj
Hajj
generates income is through services to pilgrims. For example, the Saudi national airline, Saudia, generates 12% of its income from the pilgrimage. Fares paid by pilgrims to reach Mecca
Mecca
by land also generate income; as do the hotels and lodging companies that house them.[80] The city takes in more than $100 million, while the Saudi government spends about $50 million on services for the Hajj. There are some industries and factories in the city, but Mecca
Mecca
no longer plays a major role in Saudi Arabia's economy, which is mainly based on oil exports.[94] The few industries operating in Mecca
Mecca
include textiles, furniture, and utensils. The majority of the economy is service-oriented.

Makkah Azizia district at noon

Nevertheless, many industries have been set up in Mecca. Various types of enterprises that have existed since 1970: corrugated iron manufacturing, copper smithies, carpentry shops, upholstering establishments, vegetable oil extraction plants, sweets manufacturies, flour mills, bakeries, poultry farms, frozen food importing, photography processing, secretarial establishments, ice factories, bottling plants for soft drinks, barber shops, book shops, travel agencies and banks.[80] The city has grown substantially in the 20th and 21st centuries, as the convenience and affordability of jet travel has increased the number of pilgrims participating in the Hajj. Thousands of Saudis are employed year-round to oversee the Hajj
Hajj
and staff the hotels and shops that cater to pilgrims; these workers in turn have increased the demand for housing and services. The city is now ringed by freeways, and contains shopping malls and skyscrapers.[95] Health care Health care is provided by the Saudi government free of charge to all pilgrims. There are ten hospitals in Mecca:[96]

Ajyad
Ajyad
Hospital (Arabic: مُـسْـتَـشْـفَى أَجْـيَـاد‎) King Faisal Hospital (Arabic: مـسـتـشـفى الـمـلـك فـيـصـل بـحي الـشـشـه‎) King Abdul Aziz Hospital (Arabic: مـسـتـشـفى الـمـلـك عـبـد الـعـزيـز بـحي الـزاهـر‎) Al Noor Specialist Hospital (Arabic: مـسـتـشـفى الـنـور الـتـخـصـصي‎) Hira
Hira
Hospital (Arabic: مـسـتـشـفى حـراء‎) Maternity and Children Hospital (Arabic: مـسـتـشـفى الـولادة والأطـفـال‎) King Abdullah Medical City (Arabic: مـديـنـة الـمـلـك عـبـد الله الـطـبـيـة‎) Khulais General Hospital (Arabic: مـسـتـشـفى خـلـيـص الـعـام‎) Al Kamel General Hospital (Arabic: مـسـتـشـفى الـكـامـل الـعـام‎) Ibn Sena Hospital in Bahhrah (Arabic: مـسـتـشـفى ابـن سـيـنـا بـحـداء / بـحـره‎)

There are also many walk-in clinics available for both residents and pilgrims. Culture

Al-Haram Mosque
Mosque
and the Kaaba

Mecca's culture has been affected by the large number of pilgrims that arrive annually, and thus boasts a rich cultural heritage. As a result of the vast numbers of pilgrims coming to the city each year, Mecca has become by far the most diverse city in the Muslim
Muslim
world. In contrast to the rest of Saudi Arabia, and particularly Najd, Mecca has, according to The New York Times, become "a striking oasis" of free thought and discussion and, also, of "unlikely liberalism" as "Meccans see themselves as a bulwark against the creeping extremism that has overtaken much Islamic debate".[14] The first press was brought to Mecca
Mecca
in 1885 by Osman Nuri Pasha, an Ottoman Wāli. During the Hashemite period, it was used to print the city's official gazette, al-Qibla. The Saudi regime expanded this press into a larger operation, introducing the new Saudi official gazette Umm al-Qurā. Henceforth presses and printing techniques were introduced in the city from around the Middle East, mostly via Jeddah.[80] Mecca
Mecca
owns its hometown paper, Al Nadwa. However, other Saudi and international newspapers are also provided in Mecca
Mecca
such as the Saudi Gazette, Al Madinah, Okaz and Al-Bilad. The first three are Mecca's (and other Saudi cities') primary newspapers focusing mainly on issues that affect the city, with over a million readers. Many television stations serving the city area include Saudi TV1, Saudi TV2, Saudi TV Sports, Al-Ekhbariya, Arab
Arab
Radio and Television Network and various cable, satellite and other specialty television providers. In pre-modern Mecca
Mecca
the most common sports were impromptu wrestling and foot races.[80] Football is the most popular sport in Mecca, the city hosting some of the oldest sport clubs in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
such as, Al-Wahda FC (established in 1945). King Abdulaziz Stadium is the largest stadium in Mecca
Mecca
with capacity of 38,000.[97] Cuisine As in other Arabian cities, Kabsa
Kabsa
(a spiced dish of rice and meat) is the most traditional lunch but the Yemeni mandi (a dish of rice and tandoori cooked meat) is also popular. Grilled meat dishes such as shawarma (flat-bread meat sandwich), kofta (meatballs) and kebab[clarification needed] are widely sold in Mecca. During Ramadan, fava beans in olive oil and samosas are the most popular dishes and are eaten at dusk. These dishes are almost always found in Lebanese, Syrian, and Turkish restaurants.[citation needed] The mixture of different ethnicities and nationalities amongst Meccan residents has significantly impacted Mecca's traditional cuisine.[citation needed] The city has been described as one of the most cosmopolitan Islamic cities, with an international cuisine.[98] Traditionally during the month of Ramadan, men (known as Saggas) provided mineral water and fruit juice for Muslims breaking their fast at dusk. Today, Saggas make money providing sweets such as baklava and basbosa along with fruit juice drinks.[citation needed] In the 20th century, many fast-food chains opened franchises in Mecca, catering to locals and pilgrims alike.[99] Exotic foods, such as fruits from India and Japan, are often brought by the pilgrims.[100] Demographics Population density in Mecca
Mecca
is very high. Most long-term residents of Mecca
Mecca
live in the Old City, and many work in the industry known locally as the Hajj
Hajj
Industry. Iyad Madani, Saudi Arabia's minister for Hajj, was quoted as saying, "We never stop preparing for the Hajj."[101] Year-round, pilgrims stream into the city to perform the rites of Umrah, and during the last weeks of Dhu al-Qi'dah, on average 4 million Muslims arrive in the city to take part in the rites known as Hajj.[102] Pilgrims are from varying ethnicities and backgrounds, mainly Central Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Many of these pilgrims have remained and become residents of the city. The Burmese are an older, more established community who number roughly 250,000.[103] Adding to the Hajj-related diversity, the oil-boom of the past 50 years has brought hundreds of thousands of working immigrants. Non-Muslims are not permitted to enter Mecca
Mecca
under Saudi law,[15] and using fraudulent documents to do so may result in arrest and prosecution.[104] The prohibition extends to Ahmadis, as they are considered non-Muslims.[105] Nevertheless, many non-Muslims and Ahmadis have visited the city. The first such recorded example of non-Muslims is that of Ludovico di Varthema
Ludovico di Varthema
of Bologna
Bologna
in 1503.[106] Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
Sahib, the founder of Sikhism, visited Mecca
Mecca
in December 1518.[107] One of the most famous was Richard Francis Burton,[108] who traveled as a Qadiriyyah
Qadiriyyah
Sufi from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1853. The Saudi government supports their position using[citation needed] Sura
Sura
9:28 from the Qur'an: "O ye who believe! Truly the Pagans are unclean; so let them not, after this year of theirs, approach the Sacred Mosque." Education See also: List of universities and colleges in Saudi Arabia Formal education started to be developed in the late Ottoman period continuing slowly into and Hashimite times. The first major attempt to improve the situation was made by a Jeddah
Jeddah
merchant, Muhammad
Muhammad
ʿAlī Zaynal Riḍā, who founded the Madrasat al-Falāḥ in Mecca
Mecca
in 1911–12 that cost £400,000.[80] The school system in Mecca
Mecca
has many public and private schools for both males and females. As of 2005, there were 532 public and private schools for males and another 681 public and private schools for female students.[109] The medium of instruction in both public and private schools is Arabic
Arabic
with emphasis on English as a second language, but some private schools founded by foreign entities such as International schools use the English language for medium of instruction. They also allow mixing between males and females while other schools do not. For higher education, the city has only one university, Umm Al-Qura University, which was established in 1949 as a college and became a public university in 1979.[citation needed] Paleontology In 2010, the Mecca
Mecca
area became an important site for paleontology with respect to primate evolution, with the discovery of a Saadanius fossil. Saadanius
Saadanius
is considered to be a primate closely related to the common ancestor of the Old World monkeys and apes. The fossil habitat, near what is now the Red Sea
Red Sea
in western Saudi Arabia, was a damp forest area between 28 million and 29 million years ago.[110] Paleontologists involved in the research hope to find further fossils in the area.[111] Communications Telecommunications in the city were emphasized early under the Saudi reign. King Abdul Aziz Al-Saud (Ibn Saud) pressed them forward as he saw them as a means of convenience and better governance. While in King Husayn's time there were about 20 telephones in the entire city; in 1936 the number jumped to 450, totalling about half the telephones in the country. During that time, telephone lines were extended to Jeddah
Jeddah
and Ta’if, but not to the capital Riyadh. By 1985, Mecca, like other Saudi cities, possessed modern telephone, telex, radio and television communications.[80] Limited radio communication was established within the Kingdom under the Hashimites. In 1929, wireless stations were set up in various towns of the region, creating a network that would become fully functional by 1932. Soon after World War II, the existing network was greatly expanded and improved. Since then, radio communication has been used extensively in directing the pilgrimage and addressing the pilgrims. This practice started in 1950, with the initiation of broadcasts the Day of Arafa, and increased until 1957, at which time Radio Makka became the most powerful station in the Middle East
Middle East
at 50 kW. Later, power was increased to 450 kW. Music was not immediately broadcast, but gradually introduced.[80] Transportation Air

Hajj
Hajj
terminal

Mecca
Mecca
has only the small Mecca
Mecca
East Airport with no airline service, so Mecca
Mecca
is served by King Abdulaziz International Airport
King Abdulaziz International Airport
(IATA: JED, ICAO: OEJN) located at Jeddah, about 100 kilometres from the city centre. To cater the large number of Hajj
Hajj
pilgrims, this airport has a specifically built Hajj
Hajj
terminal which can accommodate 47 planes simultaneously and it can receive 3,800 pilgrims per hour during the Hajj
Hajj
season.[112] Rail Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro
Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro
is a metro line in mecca opened in 13 November 2010.[113] This 18.1 kilometer elevated metro transports pilgrims to holy sites Mount Arafat, Muzdalifah
Muzdalifah
and Mina in the city during hajj reducing the congestion on the roads.[114] Mecca
Mecca
Metro

Mecca Metro
Mecca Metro
Route Map

Mecca
Mecca
Metro, officially known as Makkah Mass Rail Transit, is a planned four-line metro system for the city.[115] This will be in addition to[115] the Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro
Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro
which carries pilgrims during Hajj. Intercity A high speed inter-city rail line (Haramain High Speed Rail Project also known as the "Western Railway"), is under construction in Saudi Arabia. It will link along 444 kilometres (276 mi), the Muslim holy cities of Medina
Medina
and Mecca
Mecca
via King Abdullah Economic City, Rabigh, Jeddah
Jeddah
and King Abdulaziz International Airport.[116] This rail line is planned to provide a safe and comfortable transport in 320 kilometres per hour (200 mph) electric trains in-turn reducing the travel time to less than two hours between Mecca
Mecca
and Medina
Medina
.[117] It will be built by a business consortium from Spain.[118] Roads

Entry Gate of Mecca
Mecca
on Jaddah Makkah Highway

Some of the intercity highways which connects the city of Mecca are:[119][120]

Highway 40 (Saudi Arabia)
Highway 40 (Saudi Arabia)
– connects Jeddah
Jeddah
to Mecca
Mecca
and Mecca
Mecca
to Dammam. Highway 15 (Saudi Arabia) – connects Taif
Taif
to Mecca
Mecca
and Mecca
Mecca
to Medina.

Sister cities

Medina, Saudi Arabia Merv, Turkmenistan Istanbul, Turkey Taif, Saudi Arabia

See also

Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
portal Islam
Islam
portal

Meccan sura Mecca
Mecca
Time List of expeditions of Muhammad
Muhammad
in Mecca

References

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(2001) Samaritan Scribes and Manuscripts. Mohr Siebeck. p. 27 ^ Crone, Patricia and Cook, M. A. (1977) Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World, Cambridge University Press. p. 22. ^ Lazarus-Yafeh, Hava (1992). Intertwined Worlds: Medieval Islam
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and Bible Criticism. Princeton University Press. pp.61–62 ^ a b c d "Makka – The pre-Islamic and early Islamic periods", Encyclopaedia of Islam ^ Lapidus, p. 14 ^ Bauer, S. Wise (2010). The history of the medieval world: from the conversion of Constantine to the First Crusade. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 243. ISBN 978-0-393-05975-5.  ^ a b Islamic World, p. 13 ^ a b Lapidus, pp. 16–17 ^ a b c Hajjah Adil, Amina, "Prophet Muhammad", ISCA, 1 June 2002, ISBN 1-930409-11-7 ^ "Abraha." Archived 13 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Dictionary of African Christian
Christian
Biographies. 2007. (last accessed 11 April 2007) ^ Müller, Walter W. (1987) "Outline of the History of Ancient Southern Arabia", in Werner Daum (ed.), Yemen: 3000 Years of Art and Civilisation in Arabia Felix. ^ ʿAbdu r-Rahmān ibn Nāsir as-Saʿdī. " Tafsir
Tafsir
of Surah al Fil – The Elephant (Surah 105)". Translated by Abū Rumaysah. Islamic Network. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2013. This elephant was called Mahmud and it was sent to Abrahah from Najashi, the king of Abyssinia, particularly for this expedition.  ^ Marr JS, Hubbard E, Cathey, JT (2015). "The Year of the Elephant". Wikiversity Journal of Medicine. 2 (1). doi:10.15347/wjm/2015.003. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) In turn citing: Willan R. (1821). "Miscellaneous works: comprising An inquiry into the antiquity of the small-pox, measles, and scarlet fever, now first published; Reports on the diseases in London, a new ed.; and detached papers on medical subjects, collected from various periodical publi". Cadell. p. 488.  ^ Quran 105:1–5 ^ Islamic World, pp. 17–18 ^ G. Lankester Harding & Enno Littman, Some Thamudic Inscriptions from the Hashimite Kingdom of the Jordan
Jordan
(Leiden, Netherlands – 1952), Page: 19, Inscription No. 112A ^ Jawwad Ali, The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam
Islam
(1993), Vol.4, Page: 11 ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Mecca". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ a b Lapidus, p. 32 ^ "Mecca". Infoplease.com. Retrieved 6 April 2010.  ^ "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Black Death)". Ucalgary.ca. Archived from the original on 21 July 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2010.  ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Mecca". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 952.  ^ "The Saud Family and Wahhabi Islam". Library of Congress Country Studies. ^ Cholera
Cholera
(pathology). Britannica Online Encyclopedia. ^ Daily Telegraph
Daily Telegraph
Saturday 25 November 1916, reprinted in Daily Telegraph Friday 25 November 2016 issue (page 36) ^ "Mecca" at Encarta. (Archived) 1 November 2009. ^ "The Siege of Mecca". Doubleday(US). 28 August 2007. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2007.  ^ a b c 'The destruction of Mecca: Saudi hardliners are wiping out their own heritage', The Independent, 6 August 2005. Retrieved 17 January 2011 ^ Destruction of Islamic Architectural Heritage in Saudi Arabia: A Wake-up Call, The American Muslim. Retrieved 17 January 2011 ^ 'Shame of the House of Saud: Shadows over Mecca', The Independent, 19 April 2006 archived from the original on 10 March, 2009 ^ "What is Umrah?". islamonline.com. 5 December 2007.  ^ "What is the Hajj? (" Hajj
Hajj
disasters")". BBC. 27 December 2006. Retrieved 18 January 2013.  ^ "History of deaths on the Hajj". BBC. 17 December 2007. Retrieved 18 January 2013.  ^ Ruthven, Malise (2006). Islam
Islam
in the World. p. 10. ISBN 978-1862079069.  ^ Express & Star. Express & Star. Retrieved 3 February 2013. ^ "Over 700 Dead, 800 Injured in Stampede Near Mecca
Mecca
During Haj". NDTV. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i "Makka – The Modern City", Encyclopaedia of Islam ^ " Mecca
Mecca
Municipality". Holymakkah.gov.sa. Retrieved 6 April 2010.  ^ a b c d e f "Makkah districts to have a bigger slice of the pie this time". Archived from the original on 10 November 2010. Retrieved 2011-03-04. . ArabNews (10 November 2010) ^ Fire Breaks Out In Mecca
Mecca
Neighborhood Near Hajj
Hajj
Pilgrims Archived 11 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. news.outlookindia.com (17 January 2005) ^ a b "Kano rents 15 houses in Saudi for pilgrims". Ndn.nigeriadailynews.com. 30 June 2009. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2013-02-03.  ^ "Climate Data for Saudi Arabia". Jeddah
Jeddah
Regional Climate Center. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2015.  ^ "Klimatafel von Mekka (al-Makkah) / Saudi-Arabien" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 25 January 2016. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ "Visits to the Haram Sharif in Makkah". Cgijeddah.com. Archived from the original on 9 April 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2010.  ^ Kee Hua Chee (4 December 2010). "Going mega in Mecca". The Star. Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2010.  ^ Saudi government demolishes historic Ottoman castle. Wsws.org (28 January 2002). Retrieved 2013-02-03. ^ WikiMapia – About the Qishla and its location ^ "In the Shade of the Message and Prophethood". Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-15. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ http://www.witness-pioneer.org. Retrieved 3 February 2013. ^ IDEA Center Projects – Makkah Gate ^ Mecca. World Book
Book
Encyclopedia. 2003 edition. Volume M. p. 353 ^ Howden, Daniel (19 April 2006). "Shame of the House of Saud: Shadows over Mecca". London: The Independent
The Independent
(UK). Archived from the original on 20 May 2007. Retrieved 3 May 2007.  ^ "المستشفيات – قائمة المستشفيات". moh.gov.sa. ^ Asian Football Stadiums – Stadium King Abdul Aziz ^ Pearson, Michael Naylor (1996). Pilgrimage
Pilgrimage
to Mecca: the Ind[i]an experience, 1500–1800. Markus Wiener Publisher. p. 62. ISBN 155876089X.  ^ "Gorani: Masks and business at Hajj". CNN. 30 December 2006. Archived from the original on 1 December 2010.  ^ Wolfe, Michael (1998). One thousand roads to Mecca: ten centuries of travelers writing about the Muslim
Muslim
pilgrimage. Grove Press. p. 475.  ^ "A new National Geographic Special
Special
on PBS 'Inside Mecca'". Anisamehdi.com. Retrieved 6 April 2010.  ^ "Makkah al-Mukarramah and Medina". Encyclopædia Britannica: Fifteenth edition. 23. 2007. pp. 698–699.  ^ "After the hajj: Mecca
Mecca
residents grow hostile to changes in the holy city". The Guardian. 14 September 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2016.  ^ "Saudi embassy warns against entry of non-Muslims in Mecca". ABS-CBN News. 14 March 2006. Archived from the original on 26 April 2006. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ Robert W. Hefner; Patricia Horvatich (January 1997). Islam
Islam
in an Era of Nation-States: Politics and Religious Renewal in Muslim
Muslim
Southeast Asia. University of Hawai'i Press. p. 198. ISBN 9780824819576. Retrieved 5 June 2014.  ^ "The Lure Of Mecca". Saudi Aramco World. Retrieved 6 April 2010.  ^ Dr Harjinder Singh Dilgeer says that Mecca
Mecca
was not banned to non- Muslim
Muslim
till nineteenth century; Sikh History in 10 volumes, Sikh University Press, (2010–2012), vol. 1, pp. 181–82 ^ "Sir Richard Francis Burton: A Pilgrimage
Pilgrimage
to Mecca, 1853". Fordham.edu. Retrieved 6 April 2010.  ^ Statistical information department of the ministry of education:Statistical summary for education in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(AR) Archived 22 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Sample, Ian (14 July 2010). "Ape ancestors brought to life by fossil skull of 'Saadanius' primate". London: The Guardian.  ^ Laursen, Lucas (2010). "Fossil skull fingered as ape–monkey ancestor". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2010.354.  ^ "Saudi terminal can receive 3,800 pilgrims per hour". Al Arabiya. 28 August 2014.  ^ " Hajj
Hajj
pilgrims take the metro to Makkah". Railway Gazette International. 15 November 2010. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010.  ^ " Mecca
Mecca
metro contracts signed". Railway Gazette International. 24 June 2009. Archived from the original on 28 February 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2009.  ^ a b " Jeddah
Jeddah
and Makkah metro plans approved". Railway Gazette International. 17 August 2012.  ^ "High speed stations for a high speed railway". Railway Gazette International. 23 April 2009.  ^ "Al Rajhi wins Makkah – Madinah civils contract". Railway Gazette International. 9 February 2009.  ^ El consorcio español firma el contrato del Ave a la Meca el 14 de enero Economía EL PAÍS. El País. (9 January 2012). Retrieved 2013-02-03. ^ "Roads" Archived 4 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. saudinf.com. ^ "THE ROADS AND PORTS SECTORS IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA". saudia-online.com. 5 November 2001

Bibliography

the editors of Time-Life Books. (1999). What life was like in the lands of the prophet: Islamic world, AD 570 – 1405. Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-7835-5465-6.  Lapidus, Ira M. (1988). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22552-3. 

Further reading See also: Timeline of Mecca
Timeline of Mecca
§ Bibliography

Bianca, Stefano (2000), "Case Study 1: The Holy Cities of Islam
Islam
– The Impact of Mass Transportation and Rapid Urban Change", Urban Form in the Arab
Arab
World, Zurich: ETH Zurich, ISBN 3728119725, 0500282056  Bosworth, C. Edmund, ed. (2007). "Mecca". Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill.  Dumper, Michael R. T.; Stanley, Bruce E., eds. (2008), "Makkah", Cities of the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa, Santa Barbara, USA: ABC-CLIO  Rosenthal, Franz; Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
(1967). The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09797-6. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Watt, W. Montgomery. "Makka – The pre-Islamic and early Islamic periods." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2008. Brill Online. 6 June 2008 Winder, R.B. "Makka – The Modern City." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2008. Brill Online. 6 June 2008 "Quraysh". Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia (online). 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2007. 

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Holy Mecca
Mecca
Municipality Saudi Information Resource – Holy Mecca Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage
Pilgrimage
to Al Madinah
Al Madinah
and Meccah, by Richard Burton

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah
Ummah
of Islam
Islam
( Ummah
Ummah
of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad
Umayyad
Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan
Jordan
River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat
Salat
(Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book
Book
of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah
Umrah
al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

v t e

Articles about Mecca

History

Timeline Quraysh Muhammad
Muhammad
and Muslim
Muslim
state Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate Umayyad
Umayyad
Empire Abbasid Empire Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate Ottoman Empire First Saudi State Saudi Arabia

Landmarks and places

Masjid al-Haram Kaaba Black Stone Zamzam Well Abraj Al Bait
Abraj Al Bait
Towers Jabal al-Nur Cave of Hira Jabal Thawr Mina Muzdalifah Mount Arafat Jamarat Bridge Jannat al-Mu'alla Bawabat Makkah

Education

Umm al-Qura University

Sports

Al-Wehda FC

Transport

Haramain High Speed Rail Project Mecca
Mecca
Metro Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro

Category Commons News Quotes Voyage

v t e

Islam
Islam
topics

Outline of Islam

Beliefs

God
God
in Islam Tawhid Muhammad

In Islam

Prophets of Islam Angels Revelation Predestination Judgement Day

Five Pillars

Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj

History Leaders

Timeline of Muslim
Muslim
history Conquests Golden Age Historiography Sahaba Ahl al-Bayt Shi'a Imams Caliphates

Rashidun Umayyad Abbasid Córdoba Fatimid Almohad Sokoto Ottoman

Religious texts

Quran Sunnah Hadith Tafsir Seerah

Denominations

Sunni Shia Ibadi Black Muslims Ahmadiyya Quranism Non-denominational

Life Culture

Animals Art Calendar Children Clothing Holidays Mosques Madrasas Moral teachings Music Philosophy Political aspects Qurbani Science

medieval

Social welfare Women LGBT Islam
Islam
by country

Law Jurisprudence

Economics

Banking Economic history Sukuk Takaful Murabaha Riba

Hygiene

Ghusl Miswak Najis Tayammum Toilet Wudu

Marriage Sex

Marriage contract Mahr Mahram Masturbation Nikah Nikah Mut‘ah Zina

Other aspects

Cleanliness Criminal Dhabiĥa Dhimmi Divorce Diet Ethics Etiquette Gambling Gender segregation Honorifics Hudud Inheritance Jizya Leadership Ma malakat aymanukum Military

POWs

Slavery Sources of law Theological

baligh kalam

 Islamic studies

Arts

Arabesque Architecture Calligraphy Carpets Gardens Geometric patterns Music Pottery

Medieval science

Alchemy and chemistry Astronomy Cosmology Geography and cartography Mathematics Medicine Ophthalmology Physics

Philosophy

Early Contemporary Eschatology Theological

Other areas

Astrology Creationism (evolution) Feminism Inventions Liberalism and progressivism Literature

poetry

Psychology Shu'ubiyya Conversion to mosques

Other religions

Christianity

Mormonism Protestantism

Hinduism Jainism Judaism Sikhism

Related topics

Apostasy Criticism of Islam Cultural Muslim Islamism

Criticism Post-Islamism Qutbism Salafi
Salafi
movement

Islamophobia

Incidents

Islamic terrorism Islamic view of miracles Domestic violence Nursing Persecution of Muslims Quran
Quran
and miracles Symbolism

Islam
Islam
portal Category

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Main Saudi Arabian cities by population

1,000,000 and more

Dammam Hofuf Jeddah Khamis Mushait Mecca Medina Riyadh Ta'if

300,000-999,999

Abha Al-Kharj Buraydah Ha'il Hafar Al-Batin Jubail Khobar Najran Qatif Tabuk

<299,999

Al Bahah Al Lith Al Majma'ah Al Qunfudhah Arar Abqaiq Bareq Bisha Dhahran Diriyah Duba Al Jawf Jizan Khafji Ras Tanura Unaizah Yanbu' al Bahr

Source: cdsi.gov.sa

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Makkah Region

Capital: Mecca

Abu Hisani Abu Qirfah Abu Shu`ayb Abu `Urwah Ad Dabbah Ad Daff Ad Dawh Ad Dawh
Ad Dawh
al Kabir Ad Dawh
Ad Dawh
as Saghir Ad Dirs Ad Dur Al Ashraf Al Balad Al Barabir Al Bi'ar Al Buraykah Al Fawwarah Al Faydah Al Fazz Al Gharith Al Ghulah Al Hada Al Halaqah Al Hamimah Al Harra' Al Hawiyah Al Hazm, Makkah Al Jadidah Al Jami`ah Al Jid` Al Jumum Al Ju`ranah Al Khadra', Makkah Al Khalas Al Khamrah Al Khaydar Al Khayf Al Khulasah Al Kidwah Al Kura` Al Madiq, Makkah Al Maghal Al Mahjar Al Maqrah Al Masarrah Al Masfalah Al Mashayikh Al Mathnah Al Ma`rash Al Mubarak Al Mudawwarah Al Mulayha' Al Mundassah Al Muqayti` Al Muqr Al Muraysiyah Al Muwayh Al Qadimah Al Qararah Al Qaryat Al Qawba`iyah Al Qirshan Al Qirw Al Qufayf Al Qushashiyah Al Qu`tubah Al Ukhaydir Al Waht Al Yamaniyah Al `Utaybiyah Al Ābār Al`Awali An Naqa Ar Rabwah al `Ulya Ar Rabwah as Sufla Ar Rafah Ar Rawdah ash Shamaliyah Ar Rayyan, Saudi Arabia Ar Rihab Ar Ru'ays, Saudi Arabia Ar Rudaymah Arya` As Sabahani As Sadr As Safa, Saudi Arabia As Samd ash Shamali As Sayl al Kabir As Sayl as Saghir As Sifyani As Sudayrah, Makkah As Sur, Saudi Arabia As Suwadah Ash Shafa Ash Shajwah Ash Shamiyah Ash Shara'i` Ash Shara'i`
Ash Shara'i`
al `Ulya Ash Shaybi Ash Shishah Ash Shi`b Ash Shuhada' ash Shamaliyah Ash Shumaysi Ash Shuwaybit At Tan`im At Tarfa' At Turqi Az Zaymah Az Zilal Az Zughbah Az Zurra` Az Zuwayb Bahrah Bahrat al Qadimah Bahwil Baranah Barzah Bashm Buraykah Burayman Dabyah Dughaybjah Fayd Hadda' Haddat ash Sham Hadhah Hajur Halamah Harat al Bab Hayy al Hamdaniyah Hayy as Salihiyah Husnah Jeddah Julayyil Khulays Khumrah Kulakh Madrakah Mafruq Malakan Mashajji Masihat Mahd al Hayl Maskar Matiyah Ma`shi Mecca Murshidiyah Mushrif Nughayshiyah Nuzlat al Faqin Qiya Quwayzah Raqiyah Sabuhah Shara'i` al Mujahidin Shira`ayn Shi`b `amir Sulaym Sumaymah Suways Tharwah Turubah Wadi
Wadi
al Jalil

v t e

Saudi Arabia articles

History

Pre-Islamic Arabia Early Islamic State Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate Abbasid Caliphate Emirate of Diriyah Emirate of Nejd Kingdom of Hejaz Unification Modern history

Geography

Cities and towns Climate Earthquakes Governorates Mountains Regions

Politics

Allegiance Council Cabinet Consultative Assembly Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Foreign relations King Mabahith
Mabahith
(secret police) National Security Council Nuclear program Prime Minister

Law

Basic Law Capital punishment Freedom of religion Human rights

LGBT Rape Women

Mutaween (religious police) Passport

Military

Air Defense Air Force Army General Intelligence Presidency Military ranks National Guard Navy

Economy

Agriculture Companies Council of Economic and Development Affairs Energy

Oil reserves History of the oil industry

Foreign workers Irrigation OPEC Riyal (currency) Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency
Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency
(central bank) Supreme Economic Council Tadawul
Tadawul
(stock exchange) Telecommunications Tourism Transport

Society

Censorship Crime Demographics Education

List of universities

Health care Human trafficking Obesity Prostitution Religion Terrorism

Response to ISIL

Water
Water
supply and sanitation

Culture

Art Cinema Cuisine Islam Language Media

television

Music Public holidays Sport

Symbols

Anthem Emblem Flag Motto

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 157091185 LCCN: n79032243 GND: 4038514-0 SUDOC: 028076664 BNF: cb119983981 (d

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