Etymology"Senegal" probably derives from a Portuguese language, Portuguese transliteration of the name of the Zenaga language, Zenaga, also known as the Sanhaja, or else a combination of the supreme deity in (''Rog Sene'') and ''o gal'' meaning ''body of water'' in the Serer language. Alternatively, the name could derive from the Wolof phrase "Sunuu Gaal," which means "our boat."
Early and pre-colonial erasArchaeological findings throughout the area indicate that Senegal was inhabited in prehistoric times and has been continuously occupied by various ethnic groups. Some kingdoms were created around the 7th century: Takrur in the 9th century, Namandiru and the Jolof Empire during the 13th and 14th centuries. Eastern Senegal was once part of the Ghana Empire. Islam was introduced through Toucouleur people, Toucouleur and Soninke people, Soninke contact with the Almoravid dynasty of the Maghreb, who in turn propagated it with the help of the Almoravids and Toucouleur allies. This movement faced resistance from ethnicities of traditional religions, the Serers in particular. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the area came under the influence of the empires to the east; the Jolof Empire of Senegal was also founded during this time. In the Senegambia region, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was Slavery in Africa, enslaved, typically as a result of being taken captive in warfare. In the 14th century the Jolof Empire grew more powerful, having united Cayor and the kingdoms of Baol, Kingdom of Sine, Siné, Saloum, Waalo, Futa Tooro and Bambouk, or much of present-day West Africa. The empire was a voluntary confederacy of various states rather than being built on military conquest. The empire was founded by Ndiadiane Ndiaye, a part Serer people, Serer and part Toucouleur people, Toucouleur, who was able to form a coalition with many ethnicities, but collapsed around 1549 with the defeat and killing of Lele Fouli Fak by Amari Ngone Sobel Fall.
Colonial eraIn the mid-15th century, the Portuguese landed on the Senegal coastline, followed by traders representing other countries, including the French. Various European powers — Portugal, the Netherlands, and Great Britain — competed for trade in the area from the 15th century onward. In 1677, France gained control of what had become a minor departure point in the Atlantic slave trade: the island of Gorée next to modern Dakar, used as a base to purchase slaves from the warring chiefdoms on the mainland. European missionaries introduced Christianity to Senegal and the Casamance in the 19th century. It was only in the 1850s that the French began to expand onto the Senegalese mainland, after they abolished slavery and began promoting an Abolitionism in France, abolitionist doctrine, adding native kingdoms like the Waalo, Cayor, Baol, and Jolof Empire. French colonists progressively invaded and took over all the kingdoms, except Siné and Saloum, under Governor Louis Faidherbe.Charles, Eunice A. '' Precolonial Senegal: the Jolof Kingdom, 1800–1890.'' African Studies Center, Boston University, 1977. p. 3 Yoro Dyao was in command of the canton of Foss-Galodjina and was set over Wâlo (Ouâlo) by Louis Faidherbe, where he served as a chief from 1861 to 1914. Senegalese resistance to the French expansion and curtailing of their lucrative slave trade was led in part by Lat-Dior, Damel of Cayor, and Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof, the Maad a Sinig of Siné, resulting in the Battle of Logandème. In 1915, over 300 Senegalese came under Australian command, ahead of the taking of Damascus by Australians, before the expected arrival of the famed Lawrence of Arabia. French and British diplomacy in the area were thrown into disarray. On 25 November 1958, Senegal became an autonomous republic within the French Community.
Independence (1960)On 4 April 1959 Senegal and the French Sudan merged to form the Mali Federation, which became fully independent on 20 June 1960, as a result of a transfer of power agreement signed with France on 4 April 1960. Due to internal political difficulties, the Federation broke up on 20 August, when Senegal and French Sudan (renamed the Republic of ) each proclaimed independence. Léopold Sédar Senghor was Senegal's first president in September 1960. Senghor was a very well-read man, educated in France. He was a poet and philosopher who personally drafted the Senegalese national anthem, "Pincez tous vos koras, frappez les balafons" (English: ''"Strum all thy koras, strike the balafons")''. Pro-African, he advocated a brand of African socialism. In 1980, President Senghor decided to retire from politics. The next year, he transferred power in 1981 to his hand-picked successor, Abdou Diouf. Former prime minister Mamadou Dia, who was Senghor's rival, ran for election in 1983 against Diouf, but lost. Senghor moved to France, where he died at the age of 95. In the 1980s, Boubacar Lam discovered Senegalese oral history that was initially compiled by the Toucouleur people, Tuculor noble, Yoro Dyâo, not long after World War I, which documented migrations into from the Nile Valley; ethnic groups, from the Senegal River to the Niger Delta, retained traditions of having an eastern origin. Senegal joined with to form the nominal Senegambia Confederation on 1 February 1982. However, the union was dissolved in 1989. Despite peace talks, a southern separatist group (Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance or MFDC) in the Casamance region has clashed sporadically with government forces since 1982 in the Casamance conflict. In the early 21st century, violence has subsided and President Macky Sall held talks with rebels in Rome in December 2012. Abdou Diouf was president between 1981 and 2000. He encouraged broader political participation, reduced government involvement in the economy, and widened Senegal's diplomatic engagements, particularly with other developing nations. Domestic politics on occasion spilled over into street violence, border tensions, and a violent separatist movement in the southern region of the Casamance. Nevertheless, Senegal's commitment to democracy and human rights strengthened. Abdou Diouf served four terms as president. In the presidential election of 1999, opposition leader Abdoulaye Wade defeated Diouf in an election deemed free and fair by international observers. Senegal experienced its second peaceful transition of power, and its first from one political party to another. On 30 December 2004 President Wade announced that he would sign a peace treaty with the separatist group in the Casamance region. This, however, has yet to be implemented. There was a round of talks in 2005, but the results have not yet yielded a resolution. In March 2012, the incumbent president Abdoulaye Wade lost the 2012 Senegalese presidential election, presidential election and Macky Sall was elected as the new President of Senegal. President Macky Sall was re-elected in 2019 Senegalese presidential election, 2019 elections. The presidential term was reduced from seven years to five.
PoliticsSenegal is a republic with a presidency; the president is Elections in Senegal, elected every five years as of 2016, previously being seven years from independence to 2001, five years from 2001 to 2008, and 7 years again from 2008 to 2016, by adult voters. The first president, Léopold Sédar Senghor, was a poet and writer, and was the first African elected to the ''Académie française''. Senegal's second president, Abdou Diouf, later served as general secretary of the ''Organisation de la Francophonie''. The third president was Abdoulaye Wade, a lawyer. The current president is Macky Sall, elected in March 2012 and reelected in February 2019 in Senegal, 2019. Senegal has more than 80 political parties. The unicameral parliament consists of the National Assembly of Senegal, National Assembly, which has 150 seats (a Senate (Senegal), Senate was in place from 1999 to 2001 and 2007 to 2012). An independent judiciary also exists in Senegal. The nation's highest courts that deal with business issues are the constitutional council and the court of justice, members of which are named by the president.
Political cultureCurrently, Senegal has a quasi-democratic political culture, one of the more successful post-colonial democratic transitions in Africa. Local administrators are appointed and held accountable by the president. Marabouts, religious leaders of the various Muslim brotherhoods of Senegal, have also exercised a strong political influence in the country especially during Wade's presidency. In 2009, Freedom House downgraded Senegal's status from "Free" to "Partially Free", based on increased centralisation of power in the executive. By 2014, it had recovered its Free status. In 2008, Senegal finished in 12th position on the Ibrahim Index of African Governance. The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African governance (limited to sub-Saharan Africa until 2008), based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to their citizens. When the Northern African countries were added to the index in 2009, Senegal's 2008 position was retroactively downgraded to 15th place (with Tunisia, Egypt and Morocco placing themselves ahead of Senegal). , Senegal's rank in the Ibrahim Index has decreased another point to 16 out of 52 African countries. On 22 February 2011, Senegal severed diplomatic ties with Iran, saying it supplied rebels with weapons which killed Senegalese troops in the Casamance conflict. The Senegalese presidential election, 2012, 2012 presidential election was controversial due to President Wade's candidacy, as the opposition argued he should not be considered eligible to run again. Several youth opposition movements, including M23 and Y'en a Marre, emerged in June 2011. In the end, Macky Sall of the Alliance for the Republic (Senegal), Alliance for the Republic won, and Wade conceded the election to Sall. This peaceful and democratic transition was hailed by many foreign observers, such as the European Union, EU as a show of "maturity". On 19 September 2012, lawmakers voted to do away with the Senate to save an estimated $15 million. In August 2017, the ruling party won a landslide victory in the 2017 Senegalese parliamentary election, parliamentary election. President Macky Sall's ruling coalition took 125 seats in the 165-seat National Assembly. In 2019 president Macky Sall easily won 2019 Senegalese presidential election, re-election in the first round.
Administrative divisionsSenegal is subdivided into 14 regions, each administered by a ''Conseil Régional'' (Regional Council) elected by population weight at the ''Arrondissement'' level. The country is further subdivided by 45 ''Départements'', 113 ''Arrondissements'' (neither of which have administrative function) and by ''Collectivités Locales'', which elect administrative officers. Regional capitals have the same name as their respective regions: * Dakar Region, Dakar * Diourbel Region, Diourbel * Fatick Region, Fatick * Kaffrine Region, Kaffrine * Kaolack Region, Kaolack * Kédougou Region, Kédougou * Kolda Region, Kolda * Louga Region, Louga * Matam Region, Matam * Saint-Louis Region, Saint-Louis * Sédhiou Region, Sédhiou * Tambacounda Region, Tambacounda * Thiès Region, Thiès * Ziguinchor Region, Ziguinchor
Foreign relationsSenegal has a high profile in many international organizations and was a member of the UN Security Council in 1988–89 and 2015–2016. It was elected to the UN Commission on Human Rights in 1997. Friendly to the West, especially to France and to the United States, Senegal also is a vigorous proponent of more assistance from developed countries to the Third World. Senegal enjoys mostly cordial relations with its neighbors. In spite of clear progress on other fronts with (border security, resource management, economic integration, etc.), an estimated 35,000 Mauritanian refugees (of the estimated 40,000 who were expelled from their home country in 1989) remain in Senegal. Senegal is part of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Integrated with the main bodies of the international community, Senegal is also a member of the African Union (AU) and the Community of Sahel-Saharan States.
MilitaryThe Armed Forces of Senegal consist of about 17,000 personnel in the army, Senegalese Air Force, air force, navy, and gendarmerie. The Senegalese military force receives most of its training, equipment, and support from France and the United States. Germany also provides support but on a smaller scale. Military noninterference in political affairs has contributed to Senegal's stability since independence. Senegal has participated in many international and regional peacekeeping missions. Most recently, in 2000, Senegal sent a battalion to the Democratic Republic of Congo to participate in MONUC, the United Nations peacekeeping mission, and agreed to deploy a United States-trained battalion to Sierra Leone to participate in UNAMSIL, another UN peacekeeping mission. In 2015, Senegal participated in the Saudi Arabian-led Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, military intervention in Yemen against the Shia Islam, Shia Houthis.
LawSenegal is a secular state, as defined in its Constitution of Senegal, Constitution. To fight corruption, the government has created the National Anti-Corruption Office (OFNAC) and the Commission of Restitution and Recovery of Illegally Acquired Assets. According to Business Anti-Corruption Portal, President Sall created the OFNAC to replace the Commission Nationale de Lutte Contre la non Transparence, la Corruption et la Concussion (CNLCC). It is said that the OFNAC represents a more effective tool for fighting corruption than the CNLCC established under former President Wade. The mission of OFNAC is to fight corruption, embezzlement of public funds and fraud. OFNAC has the power of self-referral (own initiative investigation). OFNAC is composed of twelve members appointed by decree. LGBT rights in Senegal, Homosexuality is illegal in Senegal. According to 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, 96% of Senegalese believe that homosexuality should not be accepted by society."The Global Divide on Homosexuality."
GeographySenegal is located on the west of the African continent. It lies between latitudes 12th parallel north, 12° and 17th parallel north, 17°N, and longitudes 11th meridian west, 11° and 18th meridian west, 18°W. Senegal is externally bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, to the north, to the east, and and Guinea-Bissau to the south; internally it almost completely surrounds , namely on the north, east and south, except for Gambia's short Atlantic coastline. The Senegalese landscape consists mainly of the rolling sandy plains of the western Sahel which rise to foothills in the southeast. Here is also found Senegal's highest point, an otherwise unnamed feature 2.7 km southeast of Nepen Diakha at . The northern border is formed by the Senegal River; other rivers include the Gambia River, Gambia and Casamance Rivers. The capital Dakar lies on the Cap-Vert peninsula, the westernmost point of continental Africa. The islands lie some off the Senegalese coast, but Cap-Vert ("Cape Green") is a maritime placemark, set at the foot of "Les Mammelles", a cliff resting at one end of the Cap-Vert peninsula onto which is settled Senegal's capital Dakar, and south of the "Pointe des Almadies", the westernmost point in Africa. Senegal contains four terrestrial ecoregions: Guinean forest-savanna mosaic, Sahelian Acacia savanna, West Sudanian savanna, and Guinean mangroves. It had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 7.11/10, ranking it 56th globally out of 172 countries.
ClimateSenegal has a tropical climate with pleasant heat throughout the year with well-defined dry and humid seasons that result from northeast winter winds and southwest summer winds. The dry season (December to April) is dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind. Dakar's annual rainfall of about occurs between June and October when maximum temperatures average and minimums ; December to February maximum temperatures average and minimums . Interior temperatures are higher than along the coast (for example, average daily temperatures in Kaolack and Tambacounda for May are and respectively, compared to Dakar's ), and rainfall increases substantially farther south, exceeding annually in some areas. In Tambacounda in the far interior, particularly on the border of Mali where desert begins, temperatures can reach as high as . The northernmost part of the country has a Desert climate#Hot desert climates, hot desert climate, the central part has a Semi-arid climate#Hot semi-arid climates, hot semi-arid climate and the southernmost part has a Tropical savanna climate, tropical wet and dry climate. Senegal is mainly a sunny and dry country.
Industry and tradeThe main industries include food processing, mining, cement, artificial fertilizer, chemical industry, chemicals, textile industry, textiles, refining imported petroleum, and Tourism in Senegal, tourism. Exports include fish, chemicals, cotton, fabrics, Bambara groundnut, groundnuts, and calcium phosphate. The principal foreign market is India with 26.7% of exports (as of 1998). Other foreign markets include the United States, Italy and the United Kingdom. As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified external tariff. Senegal is also a member of the OHADA, Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa. Senegal achieved full Internet connectivity in 1996, creating a mini-boom in information technology-based services. Private activity now accounts for 82 percent of its GDP. On the negative side, Senegal faces deep-seated urban problems of chronic high unemployment, Income disparity, socioeconomic disparity, juvenile delinquency, and drug addiction. Senegal is a major recipient of international development assistance. Donors include the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Japan, France and China. Over 3,000 Peace Corps Volunteers have served in Senegal since 1963.
FishingSenegal has a exclusive fishing zone that has been regularly breached in recent years (). It has been estimated that the country's fishermen lose 300,000 tonnes of fish each year to illegal fishing. The Senegalese government have tried to control the illegal fishing which is conducted by fishing trawlers, some of which are registered in Russia, , Belize and Ukraine. In January 2014, a Russian trawler, ''Oleg Naydenov'', was seized by Senegalese authorities close to the maritime border with Guinea-Bissau.
DemographicsSenegal has a population of around million, about 42 percent of whom live in rural areas. Density in these areas varies from about in the west-central region to in the arid eastern section.
WomenSenegal ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly, as well as the additional protocol. Senegal is also a signatory of the African Charter of Human and People's Rights, which was adopted during the 2003 African Union Summit.
Ethnic groupsSenegal has a wide variety of ethnic groups and, as in most West African countries, several languages are widely spoken. The Wolof people, Wolof are the largest single ethnic group in Senegal at 43%; the Fula people, Fula and Toucouleur people, Toucouleur (also known as Halpulaar'en, literally "Pulaar-speakers") (24%) are the second biggest group, followed by the Serer people, Serer (14.7%), then others such as Jola people, Jola (4%), Mandinka people, Mandinka (3%), Moors, Maures or (Naarkajors), Soninke people, Soninke, Bassari people, Bassari and many smaller communities (9%). (See also the Bedick ethnic group.) About 50,000 Europeans (mostly French) and Lebanese people in Senegal, Lebanese as well as smaller numbers of Mauritanians and Morocco, Moroccans reside in Senegal, mainly in the cities and some retirees who reside in the resort towns around Mbour. The majority of Lebanese work in commerce. Most of the Lebanese originate from the Lebanese city of Tyre, Lebanon, Tyre, which is known as "Little West Africa and has a main promenade that is called "Avenue du Senegal". The country experienced a wave of immigration from France in the decades between World War II and Senegalese independence; most of these French people purchased homes in Dakar or other major urban centers. Also located primarily in urban settings are small Vietnamese community in Senegal, Vietnamese communities as well as a growing number of Chinese people in Senegal, Chinese immigrant traders, each numbering perhaps a few hundred people. There are also tens of thousands of Mauritanians in Senegal, Mauritanian refugees in Senegal, primarily in the country's north. According to the ''World Refugee Survey 2008'', published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Senegal has a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 23,800 in 2007. The majority of this population (20,200) is from . Refugees live in N'dioum, Dodel, and small settlements along the Senegal River valley.
LanguagesFrench is the official language, spoken at least by all those who enjoyed several years in the educational system that is of French origin (Koranic schools are even more popular, but Arabic is not widely spoken outside of the context of recitation). During the 15th century, many European territories started to engage in trade in Senegal. In the 19th century, France increased its colonial influence in Senegal and thus the number of French-speaking people multiplied continuously. French was ratified as the official language of Senegal in 1960 when the country achieved independence. Most people also speak their own ethnic language while, especially in Dakar, Wolof is the lingua franca. Pulaar is spoken by the Fulas and Toucouleur. The Serer language is widely spoken by both Serers and non-Serers (including President Sall, whose wife is Serer); so are the Cangin languages, whose speakers are ethnically Serers. Jola languages are widely spoken in the Casamance. Overall Senegal is home to around 39 distinct languages. Several have the legal status of "national languages": Balanta-Ganja language, Balanta-Ganja, Hassaniya Arabic, Jola-Fonyi language, Jola-Fonyi, Mandinka language, Mandinka, Mandjak language, Mandjak, Mankanya language, Mankanya, Noon language, Noon (Serer-Noon), Pulaar language, Pulaar, Serer language, Serer, Soninke language, Soninke, and Wolof. English is taught as a English as a second or foreign language, foreign language in secondary schools and many graduate school programs, and it is the only subject matter that has a special office in the Ministry of Education. Dakar hosts a couple of Bilingual schools which offer 50% of their syllabus in English. The Senegalese American Bilingual School (SABS), Yavuz Selim, and The West African College of the Atlantic (WACA) train thousands of fluent English speakers in four-year programs. English is widely used by the scientific community and in business, including by the ''Modou-Modou'' (illiterate, self-taught businessmen). Portuguese Creole, locally known as Portuguese, is a prominent minority language in Ziguinchor, regional capital of the Casamance, spoken by local Portuguese creoles and immigrants from Guinea-Bissau. The local Cape Verdean community speak a similar Portuguese creole, Cape Verdean Creole, and standard Portuguese. Portuguese was introduced in Senegal's secondary education in 1961 in Dakar by the country's first president, Léopold Sédar Senghor. It is currently available in most of Senegal and in higher education. It is especially prevalent in Casamance as it relates with the local cultural identity. A variety of immigrant languages are spoken, such as Bambara (70,000), Kabuverdiano (34,000), Krio (6,100), Mooré (937,000), Portuguese (1,700) and Vietnamese (2,500), mostly in Dakar. While French is the sole official language, a rising Senegalese linguistic nationalist movement supports the integration of Wolof, the common vernacular language of the country, into the national constitution. Senegalese regions of Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies and Ziguinchor are members of the International Association of Francophone regions.
Largest citiesDakar, the capital, is by far the largest city in Senegal, with over two million residents. The second most populous city is Touba, Senegal, Touba, a ''de jure communaute rurale'' (rural community), with half a million.
ReligionSenegal is a secular state, although Islam in Senegal, Islam is the predominant religion in the country, practiced by approximately 95.9% of the country's population; the Christian community, at 4.1% of the population, are mostly Catholics but there are also diverse Protestant denominations. One percent has animism, animist beliefs, particularly in the southeastern region of the country. Some Serer people follow the Serer religion. According to Pew, 55% of the Muslims in Senegal are Sunni Islam, Sunni of the Maliki madhhab with Sufi influences, whilst 27% are non-denominational Muslim. Islamic communities in Senegal are generally organized around one of several Islamic Sufi orders or brotherhoods, headed by a ''khalif'' (''xaliifa'' in Wolof, from Arabic language, Arabic ''khalīfa''), who is usually a direct descendant of the group's founder. The two largest and most prominent Sufi orders in Senegal are the Tijaniyya, whose largest sub-groups are based in the cities of Tivaouane and Kaolack, and the Mouride, Murīdiyya (Murid), based in the city of Touba, Senegal, Touba. The Halpulaar (Pulaar-speakers), composed of Fula people, a widespread group found along the Sahel from Chad to Senegal, and ''Toucouleur people, Toucouleurs'', represent 23.8 percent of the population. Historically, they were the first to become Muslim. Many of the ''Toucouleurs'', or sedentary Halpulaar of the Senegal River Valley in the north, converted to Islam around a millennium ago and later contributed to Islam's propagation throughout Senegal. Success was gained among the Wolofs, but repulsed by the Serers. Most communities south of the Senegal River Valley, however, were not thoroughly Islamization, Islamized. The Serer people stood out as one of this group, who spent over one thousand years resisting Islamization (see Serer history (medieval era to present), Serer history). Although many Serers are Christians or Muslim, their conversion to Islam in particular is very recent, who converted on their own free will rather than by force, although force had been tried centuries earlier unsuccessfully (see the Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune). The spread of formal Quranic school (called ''daara'' in Wolof) during the colonial period increased largely through the effort of the Tidjâniyya. In Murid communities, which place more emphasis on the work ethic than on literary Quranic studies, the term ''daara'' often applies to work groups devoted to working for a religious leader. Other Islamic groups include the much older Qādiriyya order and the Senegalese Layene, Laayeen order, which is prominent among the coastal Lebu. Today, most Senegalese children study at ''daara''s for several years, memorizing as much of the Qur'an as they can. Some of them continue their religious studies at councils (''majlis'') or at the growing number of private Arabic schools and publicly funded Franco-Arabic schools. Small Catholic communities are mainly found in coastal Serer, Jola people, Jola, Mankanya people, Mankanya and Balant populations, and in eastern Senegal among the Bassari and Coniagui. The Protestant churches are mainly attended by immigrants but during the second half of the 20th century Protestant churches led by Senegalese leaders from different ethnic groups have evolved. In Dakar Catholic and Protestant rites are practiced by the Lebanese, Cape Verdean, European, and American immigrant populations, and among certain Africans of other countries as well as by the Senegalese themselves. Although Islam is Senegal's majority religion, Senegal's first president, Léopold Sédar Senghor, was a Catholic Serer. Serer religion encompasses a belief in a supreme deity called Roog (Koox among the Cangin languages, Cangin), Serer creation myth, Serer cosmogony, Religious cosmology, cosmology and divination ceremonies such as the annual ''Xooy'' (or ''Khoy'') ceremony presided over by the Serer Saltigues (high priests and priestesses). Senegambian (both Senegal and the Gambia) Muslim festivals such as ''Tobaski'', ''Gamo'', ''Koriteh'', ''Weri Kor'', etc., Serer religion#Influence in Senegambia, are all borrowed words from the Serer religion. They were ancient Serer festivals rooted in Serer religion, not Islam.Diouf, Niokhobaye, « Chronique du royaume du Sine, suivie de Notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le Kingdom of Sine, royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin (1972)», . (1972). Bulletin de l'IFAN, tome 34, série B, no 4, 1972, pp. 706–7 (pp. 4–5), pp. 713–14 (pp. 9–10) The Boukout is one of the Jola's religious ceremonies. There are a small number of members of the Bani Israel tribe in the Senegalese bush that claim Jewish ancestry, though this is disputed. The Mahayana branch of Buddhism in Senegal is followed by a very tiny portion of the ex-pat Vietnamese community. The Bahá'í Faith in Senegal was established after 'Abdu'l-Bahá, the son of the founder of the religion, mentioned Africa as a place that should be more broadly visited by Bahá'ís. The first Bahá'is to set foot in the territory of French West Africa that would become Senegal arrived in 1953. The first Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly of Senegal was elected in 1966 in Dakar. In 1975 the Bahá'í community elected the first National Spiritual Assembly of Senegal. The most recent estimate, by the Association of Religion Data Archives in a 2005 report details the population of Senegalese Bahá'ís at 22,000.
HealthLife expectancy at birth was estimated to be 66.8 years in 2016 (64.7 years male, 68.7 years female). Public expenditure on health was at 2.4 percent of the GDP in 2004, whereas private expenditure was at 3.5 percent. Health expenditure was at US$72 (PPP) per capita in 2004. The fertility rate ranged 5 to 5.3 between 2005 and 2013, with 4.1 in urban areas and 6.3 in rural areas, as official survey (6.4 in 1986 and 5.7 in 1997) point out. There were six physicians per 100,000 persons in the early 2000s (decade). Infant mortality in Senegal was 157 per 1,000 live births in 1950., but since then it has declined five-fold to 32 per 1,000 in 2018. In the past 5 years infant mortality rates of malaria have dropped. According to a 2013 UNICEF report,UNICEF 2013
EducationArticles 21 and 22 of the Constitution adopted in January 2001 guarantee access to education for all children."Senegal"
CultureSenegal is well known for the West African tradition of storytelling, which is done by ''griots'', who have kept West African history alive for thousands of years through words and music. The ''griot'' profession is passed down generation to generation and requires years of training and apprenticeship in genealogy, history and music. ''Griots'' give voice to generations of West African society.Eric S. Ross, Culture and Customs of Senegal, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 2008 The African Renaissance Monument built in 2010 in Dakar is the List of statues by height, tallest statue in Africa. Dakar also hosts a film festival, Recidak.
CuisineBecause Senegal borders the Atlantic Ocean, Fish as food, fish is very important. Chicken as food, Chicken, Lamb and mutton, lamb, peas, Egg (food), eggs, and beef are also used in Senegalese cooking, but not pork, due to the nation's largely Muslim population. Peanuts, the primary crop of Senegal, as well as couscous, white rice, sweet potatoes, lentils, black-eyed peas and various vegetables, are also incorporated into many recipes. Meats and vegetables are typically stewed or marinated in herbs and spices, and then poured over rice or couscous, or eaten with bread. Popular fresh juices are made from Hibiscus, bissap, ginger, ''buy'' (pronounced 'buoy', which is the fruit of the Adansonia digitata, baobab tree, also known as "monkey bread fruit"), mango, or other fruit or wild trees (most famously soursop, which is called ''corossol'' in French). Desserts are very rich and sweet, combining native ingredients with the extravagance and style characteristic of the French impact on Senegal's culinary methods. They are often served with fresh fruit and are traditionally followed by coffee or tea.
MusicSenegal is known across Africa for its musical heritage, due to the popularity of mbalax, which originated from the Serer percussion instrument, percussive tradition especially the Njuup, it has been popularized by Youssou N'Dour, Omar Pene and others. Sabar drumming is especially popular. The sabar is mostly used in special celebrations like weddings. Another instrument, the Talking drum, tama, is used in more ethnic groups. Other popular international renowned Senegalese musicians are Ismael Lô, Cheikh Lô, Orchestra Baobab, Baaba Maal, Akon Thione Seck, Viviane, Fallou Dieng Titi (singer), Titi and Pape Diouf.
HospitalityHospitality, in theory, is given such importance in Senegalese culture that it is widely considered to be part of the national identity. The WolofThe word ''taranga'' (hospitality), ''jom'' (honour), etc., are all Serer people, Serer from the Serer language, rooted in Serer values and serer religion, not Wolof. See: Henry Gravrand, Gravrand, Henry, "L'HERITAGE SPIRITUEL SEREER: VALEUR TRADITIONNELLE D'HIER, D'AUJOURD'HUI ET DE DEMAIN" [in] Ethiopiques, numéro 31, révue socialiste de culture négro-africaine, 3e trimestre 198
SportSenegalese play many sports. Wrestling and association football, football are the most popular sports in the country. Senegal will host the 2022 Summer Youth Olympics in Dakar, making Senegal the first African country to host the Olympics. Senegalese wrestling, Wrestling is Senegal's most popular sport and has become a national obsession. It traditionally serves many young men to escape poverty and it is the only sport recognized as developed independently of Western culture. Association football, Football is a popular sport in Senegal. In 2002 and 2019, the Senegal national football team, national team were runners-up at the Africa Cup of Nations and became one of only three African teams to ever reach the quarter-finals of the FIFA World Cup, defeating holders France national football team, France in their first game. Popular players for Senegal include El Hadji Diouf, Khalilou Fadiga, Henri Camara, Papa Bouba Diop, Salif Diao, Kalidou Koulibaly, Ferdinand Coly, and Sadio Mané, all of whom have played in Europe. Senegal qualified for the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia, in Group H alongside Japan national football team, Japan, Colombia national football team, Colombia, and Poland national football team, Poland. Basketball is also a popular sport in Senegal. The country has traditionally been one of Africa's dominant basketball powers. The Senegal national basketball team, men's team performed better than that of any other African nation at the 2014 FIBA World Cup, where they reached the playoffs for the first time. The Senegal women's national basketball team, women's team won 19 medals at 20 FIBA Africa Championship for Women, African Championships, more than twice as many medals as any competitor. When the country hosted the 2019 FIBA Women's AfroBasket, 15,000 fans flocked to the Dakar Arena which is registered as a record attendance for basketball in Africa. Senegal was one of the continent's pioneers in basketball as it established one of Africa's first competitive leagues. In 2016, the National Basketball Association, NBA announced the launch of an Elite's Academy in Africa, and more precisely in Senegal. The country hosted the Dakar Rally, Paris–Dakar rally from 1979 Paris–Dakar Rally, 1979 until 2007 Dakar Rally, 2007. The Dakar Rally was an off-road endurance motorsport race which followed a course from Paris, France, to Dakar, Senegal. The competitors used off-road vehicles to cross the difficult geography. The last race was held in 2007, before the 2008 rally was canceled a day before the event due to security concerns in .
See also* Outline of Senegal * Index of Senegal-related articles
Further reading* Babou, Cheikh Anta, ''Fighting the Greater Jihad: Amadu Bamba and the Founding of the Muridiyya of Senegal, 1853–1913'', (Ohio University Press, 2007) * Behrman, Lucy C, ''Muslim Brotherhood and Politics in Senegal'', (iUniverse.com, 1999) * Buggenhage, Beth A, ''Muslim Families in Global Senegal: Money Takes Care of Shame'', (Indiana University Press, 2012) * Bugul, Ken, ''The Abandoned Baobab: The Autobiography of a Senegalese Woman'', (University of Virginia Press, 2008) * Foley, Ellen E, ''Your Pocket is What Cures You: The Politics of Health in Senegal'', (Rutgers University Press, 2010) * Gellar, Sheldon, ''Democracy in Senegal: Tocquevillian Analytics in Africa'', (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005) * Glover, John, ''Sufism and Jihad in Modern Senegal: The Murid Order'', (University of Rochester Press, 2007) * Kane, Katharina, ''Lonely Planet Guide: The Gambia and Senegal'', (Lonely Planet Publications, 2009) * Kueniza, Michelle, ''Education and Democracy in Senegal'', (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011) * Mbacké, Khadim, ''Sufism and Religious Brotherhoods in Senegal'', (Markus Wiener Publishing Inc., 2005) * Streissguth, Thomas, ''Senegal in Pictures'', (Twentyfirst Century Books, 2009) * Various, ''Insight Guide: Gambia and Senegal'', (APA Publications Pte Ltd., 2009) * Various, ''New Perspectives on Islam in Senegal: Conversion, Migration, Wealth, Power, and Femininity'', (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009) * Various, ''Senegal: Essays in Statecraft'', (Codesria, 2003) * Various, ''Street Children in Senegal'', (GYAN France, 2006)