Coordinates: 17°N 4°W / 17°N 4°W / 17; -4
Republic of Mali
République du Mali (French)
Mali ka Fasojamana (Bambara)
Coat of arms
Motto: "Un peuple, un but, une foi" (French)
"One people, one goal, one faith"
Anthem: Le Mali (French)
Location of Mali (green)
and largest city
12°39′N 8°0′W / 12.650°N 8.000°W / 12.650; -8.000
Toro So Dogon
13% Voltaic (Senufo / Bwa)
Tuareg / Moor
Unitary semi-presidential republic
Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta
• Prime Minister
Soumeylou Boubèye Maïga
• from Francea
20 June 1960
• as Mali
22 September 1960
1,240,192 km2 (478,841 sq mi) (23rd)
• Water (%)
• April 2009 census
11.7/km2 (30.3/sq mi) (215th)
• Per capita
• Per capita
low · 175th
West African CFA franc
West African CFA franc (XOF)
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
As the Sudanese Republic, with
Senegal as the
Mali (/ˈmɑːli/ ( listen); French: [mali]),
officially the Republic of
Mali (French: République du Mali), is a
landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified
with the West African Craton.
Mali is the eighth-largest country in
Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres
(480,000 sq mi). The population of
18 million. Its capital is Bamako.
Mali consists of eight
regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the
Sahara Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority
of inhabitants live, features the
Senegal rivers. The
country's economy centers on agriculture and fishing. Some of Mali's
prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest
producer of gold in the African continent, and salt. About half the
population lives below the international poverty line of $1.25 (U.S.)
a day. A majority of the population (90%) are Muslims.
Mali was once part of three West
African empires that
controlled trans-Saharan trade: the
Ghana Empire, the
Mali Empire (for
Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age,
there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, and
art. At its peak in 1300, the
Mali Empire covered an area
about twice the size of modern-day
France and stretched to the west
coast of Africa. In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for
France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French
French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with
Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali
Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from
the federation, the
Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent
Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in
1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of
Mali as a democratic, multi-party state.
In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali, in
Tuareg rebels took control of a territory in the north, and in
April declared the secession of a new state, Azawad. The conflict
was complicated by a military coup that took place in March and
later fighting between
Islamist rebels. In response to
Islamist territorial gains, the French military launched Opération
Serval in January 2013. A month later, Malian and French forces
recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections were held on 28
July 2013, with a second-round run-off held on 11 August, and
legislative elections were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013.
2.1 French colonial rule
2.2 Moussa Traoré
2.2.1 March Revolution
Amadou Toumani Touré
Amadou Toumani Touré presidency
3.1 Regions and cercles
3.2 Extent of central government control
4 Politics and government
4.1 Foreign relations
5.4 Transport infrastructure
8 See also
11 External links
Mali is taken from the name of the
Mali Empire. The name
was originally derived from the
Mandinka or Bambara word mali, meaning
“hippopotamus”, but it eventually came to mean "the place where
the king lives". The word carries the connotation of strength.
Guinean writer Djibril Niane suggests in Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali
(1965) that it is not impossible that
Mali was the name given to one
of the capitals of the emperors. 14th-century Moroccan traveler Ibn
Battuta reported that the capital of the
Mali Empire was called
Mali. One Mandinka tradition tells that the legendary first
Sundiata Keita changed himself into a hippopotamus upon his
death in the Sankarani River, and that it's possible to find villages
in the area of this river, termed "old Mali", which have
Mali for a
name. This name could have formerly been that of a city. In old Mali,
there is one village called Malika which means “New Mali.”
Another theory suggests that
Mali is a Fulani pronunciation of the
name of the Mande peoples. It is suggested that a sound shift
led to the change, whereby in Fulani the alveolar segment /nd/ shifts
to /l/ and the terminal vowel denasalises and raises, thus
“Manden” shifts to /Mali/.
The extent of the
Mali Empire's peak
The pages above are from
Timbuktu Manuscripts written in Sudani script
(a form of Arabic) from the
Mali Empire showing established knowledge
of astronomy and mathematics. Today there are close to a million of
these manuscripts found in
Griots of Sambala, king of Médina (Fula people, Mali), 1890
Main article: History of Mali
Mali was once part of three famed West
African empires which
controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, slaves, and other
precious commodities. These Sahelian kingdoms had neither rigid
geopolitical boundaries nor rigid ethnic identities. The earliest
of these empires was the
Ghana Empire, which was dominated by the
Soninke, a Mande-speaking people. The empire expanded throughout
West Africa from the 8th century until 1078, when it was conquered by
Mali Empire later formed on the upper
Niger River, and reached the
height of power in the 14th century. Under the
Mali Empire, the
ancient cities of
Timbuktu were centers of both trade and
Islamic learning. The empire later declined as a result of
internal intrigue, ultimately being supplanted by the Songhai
Songhai people originated in current northwestern
Nigeria. The Songhai had long been a major power in West Africa
subject to the
Mali Empire's rule.
In the late 14th century, the Songhai gradually gained independence
Mali Empire and expanded, ultimately subsuming the entire
eastern portion of the
Mali Empire. The Songhai Empire's eventual
collapse was largely the result of a Moroccan invasion in 1591, under
the command of Judar Pasha. The fall of the
Songhai Empire marked
the end of the region's role as a trading crossroads. Following
the establishment of sea routes by the European powers, the
trans-Saharan trade routes lost significance.
One of the worst famines in the region's recorded history occurred in
the 18th century. According to John Iliffe, "The worst crises were in
the 1680s, when famine extended from the Senegambian coast to the
Upper Nile and 'many sold themselves for slaves, only to get a
sustenance', and especially in 1738–56, when West Africa's greatest
recorded subsistence crisis, due to drought and locusts, reportedly
killed half the population of Timbuktu."
French colonial rule
Cotton being processed in
Niono into 180 kg (400 lb) bales
for export to other parts of
Africa and to France, c. 1950
Mali fell under the control of
France during the late 19th
century. By 1905, most of the area was under firm French control
as a part of French Sudan. In early 1959,
French Sudan (which
changed its name to the Sudanese Republic) and
Senegal united to
Mali Federation. The
Mali Federation gained independence
France on 20 June 1960.
Senegal withdrew from the federation in August 1960, which allowed the
Sudanese Republic to become the independent Republic of
Mali on 22
Modibo Keïta was elected the first president.
Keïta quickly established a one-party state, adopted an independent
African and socialist orientation with close ties to the East, and
implemented extensive nationalization of economic resources. In
1960, the population of
Mali was reported to be about
On 19 November 1968, following progressive economic decline, the
Keïta regime was overthrown in a bloodless military coup led by
Moussa Traoré, a day which is now commemorated as Liberation Day.
The subsequent military-led regime, with Traoré as president,
attempted to reform the economy. His efforts were frustrated by
political turmoil and a devastating drought between 1968 and 1974,
in which famine killed thousands of people. The Traoré regime
faced student unrest beginning in the late 1970s and three coup
attempts. The Traoré regime repressed all dissenters until the late
The government continued to attempt economic reforms, and the populace
became increasingly dissatisfied. In response to growing demands
for multi-party democracy, the Traoré regime allowed some limited
political liberalization. They refused to usher in a full-fledged
democratic system. In 1990, cohesive opposition movements began to
emerge, and was complicated by the turbulent rise of ethnic violence
in the north following the return of many Tuaregs to Mali.
WWI Commemorative Monument to the "Armée Noire"
Anti-government protests in 1991 led to a coup, a transitional
government, and a new constitution. Opposition to the corrupt and
dictatorial regime of General
Moussa Traoré grew during the 1980s.
During this time strict programs, imposed to satisfy demands of the
International Monetary Fund, brought increased hardship upon the
country's population, while elites close to the government supposedly
lived in growing wealth. Peaceful student protests in January 1991
were brutally suppressed, with mass arrests and torture of leaders and
participants. Scattered acts of rioting and vandalism of public
buildings followed, but most actions by the dissidents remained
From 22 March through 26 March 1991, mass pro-democracy rallies and a
nationwide strike was held in both urban and rural communities, which
became known as les evenements ("the events") or the March Revolution.
In Bamako, in response to mass demonstrations organized by university
students and later joined by trade unionists and others, soldiers
opened fire indiscriminately on the nonviolent demonstrators. Riots
broke out briefly following the shootings. Barricades as well as
roadblocks were erected and Traoré declared a state of emergency and
imposed a nightly curfew. Despite an estimated loss of 300 lives over
the course of four days, nonviolent protesters continued to return to
Bamako each day demanding the resignation of the dictatorial president
and the implementation of democratic policies.
26 March 1991 is the day that marks the clash between military
soldiers and peaceful demonstrating students which climaxed in the
massacre of dozens under the orders of then President Moussa Traoré.
He and three associates were later tried and convicted and received
the death sentence for their part in the decision-making of that day.
Nowadays, the day is a national holiday in order to remember the
tragic events and the people that were killed.[unreliable source?]
The coup is remembered as Mali's March Revolution of 1991.
By 26 March, the growing refusal of soldiers to fire into the largely
nonviolent protesting crowds turned into a full-scale tumult, and
resulted in thousands of soldiers putting down their arms and joining
the pro-democracy movement. That afternoon, Lieutenant Colonel Amadou
Toumani Touré announced on the radio that he had arrested the
dictatorial president, Moussa Traoré. As a consequence, opposition
parties were legalized and a national congress of civil and political
groups met to draft a new democratic constitution to be approved by a
Amadou Toumani Touré
Amadou Toumani Touré presidency
Alpha Oumar Konaré
Alpha Oumar Konaré won Mali's first democratic, multi-party
presidential election, before being re-elected for a second term in
1997, which was the last allowed under the constitution. In 2002
Amadou Toumani Touré, a retired general who had been the leader of
the military aspect of the 1991 democratic uprising, was elected.
During this democratic period
Mali was regarded as one of the most
politically and socially stable countries in Africa.
Slavery persists in
Mali today with as many as 200,000 people held in
direct servitude to a master. In the
Tuareg Rebellion of 2012,
ex-slaves were a vulnerable population with reports of some slaves
being recaptured by their former masters.
Northern Mali conflict
Northern Mali conflict (2012–present)
Tuareg separatist rebels in Mali, January 2012
In January 2012 a
Tuareg rebellion began in Northern Mali, led by the
National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad
National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA). In March,
Amadou Sanogo seized power in a coup d'état, citing
Touré's failures in quelling the rebellion, and leading to sanctions
and an embargo by the Economic Community of West African States.
The MNLA quickly took control of the north, declaring independence as
Islamist groups including
Ansar Dine and Al-Qaeda
in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), who had helped the MNLA defeat the
government, turned on the
Tuareg and took control of the North
with the goal of implementing sharia in Mali.
On 11 January 2013, the
French Armed Forces
French Armed Forces intervened at the request
of the interim government. On 30 January, the coordinated advance of
the French and Malian troops claimed to have retaken the last
Islamist stronghold of Kidal, which was also the last of
three northern provincial capitals. On 2 February, the French
President, François Hollande, joined Mali's interim President,
Dioncounda Traoré, in a public appearance in recently recaptured
Satellite image of Mali
Mali map of Köppen climate classification
Landscape in Hombori
Main article: Geography of Mali
Mali is a landlocked country in West Africa, located southwest of
Algeria. It lies between latitudes 10° and 25°N, and longitudes
13°W and 5°E.
Mali is bordered by
Algeria to the northeast,
Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire to the south,
Guinea to the
Mauritania to the west.
At 1,242,248 square kilometres (479,635 sq mi), including
the disputed region of Azawad,
Mali is the world's 24th-largest
country and is comparable in size to South
Africa or Angola. Most of
the country lies in the southern
Sahara Desert, which produces an
extremely hot, dust-laden Sudanian savanna zone.
Mali is mostly
flat, rising to rolling northern plains covered by sand. The Adrar des
Ifoghas massif lies in the northeast.
Mali lies in the torrid zone and is among the hottest countries in the
world. The thermal equator, which matches the hottest spots year-round
on the planet based on the mean daily annual temperature, crosses the
country. Most of
Mali receives negligible rainfall and droughts
are very frequent. Late June to early December is the rainy season
in the southernmost area. During this time, flooding of the Niger
River is common, creating the Inner
Niger Delta. The vast northern
desert part of
Mali has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate
classification (BWh) with long, extremely hot summers and scarce
rainfall which decreases northwards. The central area has a hot
semi-arid climate (
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification (BSh) with very high
temperatures year-round, a long, intense dry season and a brief,
irregular rainy season. The little southern band possesses a tropical
wet and dry climate (
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification (Aw) very high
temperatures year-round with a dry season and a rainy season.
Mali has considerable natural resources, with gold, uranium,
phosphates, kaolinite, salt and limestone being most widely exploited.
Mali is estimated to have in excess of 17,400 tonnes of uranium
(measured + indicated + inferred). In 2012, a further uranium
mineralized north zone was identified.
Mali faces numerous
environmental challenges, including desertification, deforestation,
soil erosion, and inadequate supplies of potable water.
Regions and cercles
Main articles: Regions of Mali, Cercles of Mali, and Communes of Mali
Mali has been divided into ten regions and the District of
Bamako. Each region has a governor. The implementation of the
two newest regions, Taoudénit (formerly part of Tombouctou Region)
and Ménaka (formerly
Ménaka Cercle in
Gao Region), has been ongoing
since January 2016; a governor and transitional council has
been appointed for both regions. The ten regions in turn are
subdivided into 56 cercles and 703 communes.
The régions and Capital District are:
Extent of central government control
In March 2012, the Malian government lost control over Tombouctou, Gao
and Kidal Regions and the north-eastern portion of
Mopti Region. On 6
April 2012, the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad
unilaterally declared their secession from
Mali as Azawad, an act that
Mali nor the international community recognised. The
government later regained control over these areas.
Politics and government
Main article: Politics of Mali
Ex Malian Transition President Dioncounda Traoré
Until the military coup of 22 March 2012 and a second military
coup in December 2012,
Mali was a constitutional democracy
governed by the Constitution of 12 January 1992, which was amended in
1999. The constitution provides for a separation of powers among
the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.
The system of government can be described as "semi-presidential".
Executive power is vested in a president, who is elected to a
five-year term by universal suffrage and is limited to two
The president serves as a chief of state and commander in chief of the
armed forces. A prime minister appointed by the president
serves as head of government and in turn appoints the Council of
Ministers. The unicameral National Assembly is Mali's sole
legislative body, consisting of deputies elected to five-year
terms. Following the 2007 elections, the Alliance for
Democracy and Progress held 113 of 160 seats in the assembly. The
assembly holds two regular sessions each year, during which it debates
and votes on legislation that has been submitted by a member or by the
Mali's constitution provides for an independent judiciary, but
the executive continues to exercise influence over the judiciary by
virtue of power to appoint judges and oversee both judicial functions
and law enforcement. Mali's highest courts are the Supreme Court,
which has both judicial and administrative powers, and a separate
Constitutional Court that provides judicial review of legislative acts
and serves as an election arbiter. Various lower courts exist,
though village chiefs and elders resolve most local disputes in rural
Main article: Foreign relations of Mali
Former President of
Amadou Toumani Touré
Amadou Toumani Touré and Minister-president
of the Netherlands Mark Rutte
Mali's foreign policy orientation has become increasingly pragmatic
and pro-Western over time. Since the institution of a democratic
form of government in 2002, Mali's relations with the West in general
and with the United States in particular have improved
Mali has a longstanding yet ambivalent relationship
with France, a former colonial ruler.
Mali was active in regional
organizations such as the
African Union until its suspension over the
2012 Malian coup d'état.
Working to control and resolve regional conflicts, such as in Ivory
Coast, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, is one of Mali's major foreign
Mali feels threatened by the potential for the
spillover of conflicts in neighboring states, and relations with those
neighbors are often uneasy. General insecurity along borders in
the north, including cross-border banditry and terrorism, remain
troubling issues in regional relations.
Further information: Military of Mali
Mali's military forces consist of an army, which includes land forces
and air force, as well as the paramilitary Gendarmerie and
Republican Guard, all of which are under the control of Mali's
Ministry of Defense and Veterans, headed by a civilian. The
military is underpaid, poorly equipped, and in need of
Main article: Economy of Mali
A market scene in Djenné
Cotton processing at CMDT
Central Bank of West African States
Central Bank of West African States handles the financial affairs
Mali and additional members of the Economic Community of West
Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world.
The average worker's annual salary is approximately US$1,500.
Mali underwent economic reform, beginning in 1988 by signing
agreements with the
World Bank and the International Monetary
Fund. During 1988 to 1996, Mali's government largely reformed
public enterprises. Since the agreement, sixteen enterprises were
privatized, 12 partially privatized, and 20 liquidated. In 2005,
the Malian government conceded a railroad company to the Savage
Corporation. Two major companies, Societé de Telecommunications
Mali (SOTELMA) and the Cotton Ginning Company (CMDT), were expected
to be privatized in 2008.
Between 1992 and 1995,
Mali implemented an economic adjustment
programme that resulted in economic growth and a reduction in
financial imbalances. The programme increased social and economic
conditions, and led to
Mali joining the
World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization on 31
Mali is also a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of
Business Law in
Africa (OHADA). The gross domestic product (GDP)
has risen since. In 2002, the GDP amounted to US$3.4 billion,
and increased to US$5.8 billion in 2005, which amounts to an
approximately 17.6 percent annual growth rate.
Mali is a part of "French Zone" (Zone Franc), which means that it uses
Mali is connected with the French government by agreement
since 1962 (creation of BCEAO). Today all seven countries of BCEAO
(including Mali) are connected to French Central Bank.
Mali's key industry is agriculture. Cotton is the country's largest
crop export and is exported west throughout
Senegal and Ivory
Coast. During 2002, 620,000 tons of cotton were produced in
Mali but cotton prices declined significantly in 2003. In
addition to cotton,
Mali produces rice, millet, corn, vegetables,
tobacco, and tree crops. Gold, livestock and agriculture amount to 80%
of Mali's exports.
Eighty percent of Malian workers are employed in agriculture. 15
percent of Malian workers are employed in the service sector.
Seasonal variations lead to regular temporary unemployment of
In 1991, with the assistance of the International Development
Mali relaxed the enforcement of mining codes which led to
renewed foreign interest and investment in the mining industry.
Gold is mined in the southern region and
Mali has the third highest
gold production in
Africa (after South
Africa and Ghana).
The emergence of gold as Mali's leading export product since 1999 has
helped mitigate some of the negative impact of the cotton and Ivory
Coast crises. Other natural resources include kaolin, salt,
phosphate, and limestone.
See also: List of power stations in Mali
Electricity and water are maintained by the Energie du Mali, or EDM,
and textiles are generated by Industry Textile du Mali, or ITEMA.
Mali has made efficient use of hydroelectricity, consisting of over
half of Mali's electrical power. In 2002, 700 GWh of hydroelectric
power were produced in Mali.
Mali is an electric company that provides electricity to
Mali citizens. Only 55% of the population in cities have access to
Main article: Transport in Mali
In Mali, there is a railway that connects to bordering countries.
There are also approximately 29 airports of which 8 have paved
runways. Urban areas are known for their large quantity of green and
white taxicabs. A significant sum of the population is dependent on
A Bozo girl in Bamako
Main article: Demographics of Mali
In 2016, Mali's population was an estimated 18 million. The
population is predominantly rural (68 percent in 2002), and 5–10
percent of Malians are nomadic. More than 90 percent of the
population lives in the southern part of the country, especially in
Bamako, which has over 1 million residents.
In 2007, about 48 percent of Malians were younger than 12 years old,
49 percent were 15–64 years old, and 3 percent were 65 and
older. The median age was 15.9 years. The birth rate in 2014
is 45.53 births per 1,000, and the total fertility rate (in 2012) was
6.4 children per woman. The death rate in 2007 was 16.5 deaths
Life expectancy at birth was 53.06 years total (51.43
for males and 54.73 for females).
Mali has one of the world's
highest rates of infant mortality, with 106 deaths per 1,000 live
births in 2007.
Largest cities or towns in Mali
1 297 281
Tuareg are historic, nomadic inhabitants of northern Mali.
Mali's population encompasses a number of sub-Saharan ethnic groups.
The Bambara (Bambara: Bamanankaw) are by far the largest single ethnic
group, making up 36.5 percent of the population.
Collectively, the Bambara, Soninké, Khassonké, and Malinké (also
called Mandinka), all part of the broader
Mandé group, constitute 50
percent of Mali's population. Other significant groups are the
Fula (French: Peul; Fula: Fulɓe) (17 percent), Voltaic (12 percent),
Songhai (6 percent), and
Tuareg and Moor (10 percent). In
well as Niger, the
Moors are also known as
Azawagh Arabs, named after
Azawagh region of the Sahara. They speak mainly Hassaniya
Arabic which is one of the regional varieties of Arabic. Personal
names reflect Mali's complex regional identities.
In the far north, there is a division between Berber-descendent Tuareg
nomad populations and the darker-skinned Bella or
Tamasheq people, due
to the historical spread of slavery in the region. An estimated
800,000 people in
Mali are descended from slaves.
Slavery in Mali
has persisted for centuries. The
Arabic population kept slaves
well into the 20th century, until slavery was suppressed by French
authorities around the mid-20th century. There still persist certain
hereditary servitude relationships, and according to some
estimates, even today approximately 200,000 Malians are still
Mali has enjoyed a reasonably good inter-ethnic relationships
based on the long history of coexistence, some hereditary servitude
and bondage relationship exist, as well as ethnic tension between
settled Songhai and nomadic Tuaregs of the north. Due to a
backlash against the northern population after independence,
now in a situation where both groups complain about discrimination on
the part of the other group. This conflict also plays a role in
Northern Mali conflict
Northern Mali conflict where there is a tension between
both Tuaregs and the Malian government, and the Tuaregs and radical
Islamists who are trying to establish sharia law.
Main article: Languages of Mali
Mali's official language is French and over 40
African languages also
are spoken by the various ethnic groups. About 80 percent of
Mali's population can communicate in Bambara, which serves as an
important lingua franca.
Mali has 12 national languages beside French and Bambara, namely Bomu,
Tieyaxo Bozo, Toro So Dogon, Maasina Fulfulde, Hassaniya Arabic,
Mamara Senoufo, Kita Maninkakan, Soninke, Koyraboro Senni, Syenara
Tamasheq and Xaasongaxango. Each is spoken as a first
language primarily by the ethnic group with which it is associated.
Main article: Religion in Mali
Religion in Mali
A mosque entrance
Islam was introduced to
West Africa in the 11th century and remains
the predominant religion in much of the region. An estimated 90
percent of Malians are
Muslim (mostly Sunni, ), approximately 5
percent are Christian (about two-thirds Roman Catholic and one-third
Protestant) and the remaining 5 percent adhere to indigenous or
traditional animist beliefs.
Atheism and agnosticism are believed
to be rare among Malians, most of whom practice their religion on a
The constitution establishes a secular state and provides for freedom
of religion, and the government largely respects this right.
Islam as historically practiced in
Mali has been malleable and adapted
to local conditions; relations between Muslims and practitioners of
minority religious faiths have generally been amicable. After the
2012 imposition of sharia rule in northern parts of the country,
Mali came to be listed high (number 7) in the Christian
persecution index published by Open Doors, which described the
persecution in the north as severe.
Main article: Education in Mali
High school students in Kati
Public education in
Mali is in principle provided free of charge and
is compulsory for nine years between the ages of seven and
sixteen. The system encompasses six years of primary education
beginning at age 7, followed by six years of secondary education.
Mali's actual primary school enrollment rate is low, in large part
because families are unable to cover the cost of uniforms, books,
supplies, and other fees required to attend.
In the 2000–01 school year, the primary school enrollment rate was
61 percent (71 percent of males and 51 percent of females). In the
late 1990s, the secondary school enrollment rate was 15 percent (20
percent of males and 10 percent of females). The education system
is plagued by a lack of schools in rural areas, as well as shortages
of teachers and materials.
Estimates of literacy rates in
Mali range from 27–30 to 46.4
percent, with literacy rates significantly lower among women than
men. The University of Bamako, which includes four constituent
universities, is the largest university in the country and enrolls
approximately 60,000 undergraduate and graduate students.
Main article: Health in Mali
Mali faces numerous health challenges related to poverty,
malnutrition, and inadequate hygiene and sanitation. Mali's health
and development indicators rank among the worst in the world. Life
expectancy at birth is estimated to be 53.06 years in 2012. In
2000, 62–65 percent of the population was estimated to have access
to safe drinking water and only 69 percent to sanitation services of
some kind. In 2001, the general government expenditures on health
totalled about US$4 per capita at an average exchange rate.
Efforts have been made to improve nutrition, and reduce associated
health problems, by encouraging women to make nutritious versions of
local recipes. For example, the International Crops Research Institute
for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and the Aga Khan Foundation,
trained women's groups to make equinut, a healthy and nutritional
version of the traditional recipe di-dèguè (comprising peanut paste,
honey and millet or rice flour). The aim was to boost nutrition and
livelihoods by producing a product that women could make and sell, and
which would be accepted by the local community because of its local
Medical facilities in
Mali are very limited, and medicines are in
Malaria and other arthropod-borne diseases are
prevalent in Mali, as are a number of infectious diseases such as
cholera and tuberculosis. Mali's population also suffers from a
high rate of child malnutrition and a low rate of immunization.
An estimated 1.9 percent of the adult and children population was
afflicted with HIV/AIDS that year, among the lowest rates in
Sub-Saharan Africa. An estimated 85–91 percent of Mali's girls
and women have had female genital mutilation (2006 and 2001
Main article: Culture of Mali
Konoguel Mosque tower
The varied everyday culture of Malians reflects the country's ethnic
and geographic diversity. Most Malians wear flowing, colorful
robes called boubous that are typical of West Africa. Malians
frequently participate in traditional festivals, dances, and
Malian musical traditions are derived from the griots, who are known
as "Keepers of Memories". Malian music is diverse and has several
different genres. Some famous Malian influences in music are kora
virtuoso musician Toumani Diabaté, the ngoni with Bassekou Kouyate
the virtuoso of the electric jeli ngoni, the late roots and blues
guitarist Ali Farka Touré, the
Tuareg band Tinariwen, and several
Afro-pop artists such as Salif Keita, the duo Amadou et Mariam, Oumou
Sangare, Rokia Traore, and Habib Koité. Dance also plays a large role
in Malian culture. Dance parties are common events among friends,
and traditional mask dances are performed at ceremonial events.
Though Mali's literature is less famous than its music,
always been one of Africa's liveliest intellectual centers.
Mali's literary tradition is passed mainly by word of mouth, with
jalis reciting or singing histories and stories known by
heart. Amadou Hampâté Bâ, Mali's best-known historian,
spent much of his life writing these oral traditions down for the
world to remember.
The best-known novel by a Malian writer is Yambo Ouologuem's Le devoir
de violence, which won the 1968
Prix Renaudot but whose legacy was
marred by accusations of plagiarism. Other well-known Malian
writers include Baba Traoré, Modibo Sounkalo Keita, Massa Makan
Diabaté, Moussa Konaté, and Fily Dabo Sissoko.
Malian children playing football in a Dogon village
The most popular sport in
Mali is football (soccer), which
became more prominent after
Mali hosted the 2002 African Cup of
Nations. Most towns and cities have regular games; the
most popular teams nationally are Djoliba AC, Stade Malien, and Real
Bamako, all based in the capital. Informal games are often played
by youths using a bundle of rags as a ball.
Basketball is another major sport; the
Mali women's national
basketball team, led by Hamchetou Maiga, competed at the 2008 Beijing
Olympics. Traditional wrestling (la lutte) is also somewhat
common, though popularity has declined in recent years. The game
wari, a mancala variant, is a common pastime.
Main article: Malian cuisine
Rice and millet are the staples of Malian cuisine, which is heavily
based on cereal grains. Grains are generally prepared with
sauces made from edible leaves, such as spinach or baobab, with tomato
peanut sauce, and may be accompanied by pieces of grilled meat
(typically chicken, mutton, beef, or goat). Malian cuisine
varies regionally. Other popular dishes include fufu, jollof
rice, and maafe.
Main article: Media of Mali
In Mali, there are several newspapers such as Les Echos, L'Essor, Info
Matin, Nouvel Horizon, and Le Républicain. The
Telecommunications in Mali
Telecommunications in Mali include 869,600 mobile phones, 45,000
televisions and 414,985 Internet users.
Ebola virus disease in Mali
Index of Mali-related articles
Outline of Mali
^ Presidency of Mali: Symboles de la République, L'Hymne National du
Mali. Koulouba.pr.ml. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
Mali preliminary 2009 census". Institut National de la Statistique.
Archived from the original on 18 April 2010. Retrieved 12 January
^ a b c d "Mali". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 20 April
^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF).
United Nations Development
Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
^ Which side of the road do they drive on? Brian Lucas. August 2005.
Retrieved 28 January 2009.
^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org
(custom data acquired via website).
United Nations Department of
Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10
Mali gold reserves rise in 2011 alongside price Archived 21 November
2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 17 January 2013
^ Human Development Indices Archived 12 January 2012 at the Wayback
Machine., Table 3: Human and income poverty, p. 6. Retrieved 1 June
^ "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World's Muslims: Unity and
Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 9
August 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
^ Topics. MuslimHeritage.com (5 June 2003). Retrieved 8 October 2012.
^ Sankore University. Muslimmuseum.org. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
Mali Empire (ca. 1200- ) The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed.
The Black Past. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
^ Lydia Polgreen and Alan Cowell, "
Mali Rebels Proclaim Independent
State in North", The New York Times (6 April 2012)
^ a b UN Security Council condemns
Mali coup. Telegraph (23 March
2012). Retrieved 24 March 2013.
Mali – la
France a mené une série de raids contre les
islamistes". Le Monde. 12 January 2013. Retrieved 13 January
^ Wolny, Philip (2013-12-15). Discovering the Empire of Mali. The
Rosen Publishing Group. p. 7. ISBN 9781477718896.
^ Sasnett, Martena Tenney; Sepmeyer, Inez Hopkins (1967-01-01).
Educational Systems of Africa: Interpretations for Use in the
Evaluation of Academic Credentials. University of California Press.
^ Imperato, Pascal James; Imperato, Gavin H. (2008-04-25). Historical
Dictionary of Mali. Scarecrow Press. p. 231.
^ a b Aku Adjandeh, Evelyn (July 2014). "A STUDY OF PROVERBS IN THINGS
FALL APART AND SUNDIATA: AN EPIC OF OLD MALI (SUNDIATA)" (PDF).
UNIVERSITY OF GHANA, LEGON – INSTITUTE OF AFRICAN STUDIES.
^ Graft-Johnson, John Coleman De (1986-01-01). African Glory: The
Story of Vanished Negro Civilizations. Black Classic Press.
p. 92. ISBN 9780933121034.
^ Fyle, C. Magbaily (1999-01-01). Introduction to the History of
African Civilization: Precolonial Africa. University Press of America.
p. 11. ISBN 9780761814566.
^ a b c
Mali country profile, p. 1.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n
Mali country profile.
Mali was later
responsible for the collapse of Islamic Slave Army from the North. The
defeat of Tukuror Slave Army, was repeated by
Mali against the France
and Spanish Expeditionary Army in the 1800s ("Blanc et memoires"). .
^ John Iliffe (2007) Africans: the history of a continent. Cambridge
University Press. p. 69. ISBN 0-521-68297-5
^ Core document forming part of the reports of states parties: Mali.
United Nations Human Rights Website.
^ a b c d e f g
Mali country profile, p. 3.
^ "Mali's nomads face famine". BBC News. 9 August 2005.
^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 June 2011.
Mali March 1991 Revolution
^ a b Nesbitt, Katherine. "Mali's March Revolution (1991)".
International Center on Nonviolent Conflict. Archived from the
original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
^ Bussa, Edward. "Mali's March to Democracy". threadster.com. Archived
from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
Mali country profile, p. 4.
^ USAID Africa: Mali. USAID. Retrieved 15 May 2008. Retrieved 3 June
^ a b Tran, Mark (23 October 2012). "
Mali conflict puts freedom of
'slave descendants' in peril". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 24
^ York, Geoffrey (11 November 2012). "
Mali chaos gives rise to
slavery, persecution". The Globe and Mail. Toronto.
Mali clashes force 120 000 from homes. News24 (22 February 2012).
Retrieved 23 February 2012.
^ Callimachi, Rukmini (3 April 2012) "Post-coup
Mali hit with
sanctions by African neighbours". Globe and Mail. Retrieved 4 May
Tuareg rebels declare independence in north Mali".
France 24. 6
April 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
^ Tiemoko Diallo; Adama Diarra (28 June 2012). "Islamists declare full
control of Mali's north". Reuters. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
Mali Islamists want sharia not independence". Google News. Agence
France-Presse. 20 June 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December
2012. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
Mali Possibilities and Challenges for Transitional Justice in
Mali". International Center for Transitional Justice. 9 January 2014.
Retrieved 25 August 2016.
^ "French Troops Retake Kidal Airport, Move into City". USA Today. 30
January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013. French troops retake
the last remaining
Islamist urban stronghold in Mali.
Timbuktu hails French President Hollande". BBC News.
2 February 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013.
Retrieved 4 February 2013.
^ a b c d e
Mali country profile, p. 5.
^ Uranium Mine Ownership – Africa. Wise-uranium.org. Retrieved 24
^ Muller, CJ and Umpire, A (22 November 2012) An Independent Technical
Report on the Mineral Resources of Falea Uranium, Copper and Silver
Deposit, Mali, West Africa. Minxcon.
^ Uranium in Africa. World-nuclear.org. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
^ Martin, Phillip L. (2006). Managing Migration: The Promise of
Cooperation. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. p. 134.
^ DiPiazza, p. 37.
^ "Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Mali" (PDF).
MINUSMA. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
^ "Régionalisation: Deux Nouvelles régions créées au Mali".
Malijet. 21 January 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
^ "Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Mali" (PDF).
MINUSMA. 30 December 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
^ Loi N°99-035/ Du 10 Aout 1999 Portant Creation des Collectivites
Territoriales de Cercles et de Regions (PDF) (in French), Ministère
de l'Administration Territoriales et des Collectivités Locales,
République du Mali, 1999, archived from the original (PDF) on 9 March
Tuareg rebels declare the independence of Azawad, north of Mali".
Al Arabiya. 6 April 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
^ Video: US condemns
Mali coup amid reports of looting. Telegraph (22
March 2012). Retrieved 24 March 2013.
^ Hossiter, Adam (12 December 2012) Mali’s Prime Minister Resigns
After Arrest, Muddling Plans to Retake North. The New York Times
^ a b c d e f
Mali country profile, p. 14.
^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 30.
^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 29 & 46.
^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 38.
^ a b c d e f
Mali country profile, p. 15.
^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 59 & 61.
^ (in French) Koné, Denis. Mali: "Résultats définitifs des
Législatives". Les Echos (Bamako) (13 August 2007). Retrieved 24 June
^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 65.
^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 81.
^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 83–94.
^ a b c d e f g
Mali country profile, p. 17.
^ "ion suspends
Mali over coup". Al Jazeera. 23 March 2012. Retrieved
23 March 2012.
^ a b c d e f g h i j
Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency (2009). "Mali". The
World Factbook. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
^ a b
Mali country profile, p. 18.
^ a b c d e f g h i "Mali". U.S. State Department. May 2008. Retrieved
4 June 2008.
Mali and the WTO. World Trade Organization. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
^ "OHADA.com: The business law portal in Africa". Retrieved 22 March
Mali country profile, p. 9.
^ Zone franc sur le site de la Banque de France. Banque-france.fr.
Retrieved 24 March 2013.
^ a b c Hale, Briony (13 May 1998). "Mali's Golden Hope". BBC News.
Retrieved 4 June 2008.
^ a b c d Cavendish, Marshall (2007). World and Its Peoples: Middle
East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Tarrytown, New York: Marshall
Cavendish. p. 1367. ISBN 978-0-7614-7571-2.
^ May, Jacques Meyer (1968). The Ecology of
Malnutrition in the French
Speaking Countries of
West Africa and Madagascar. New York: Macmillan
Publishing Company. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-02-848960-5.
^ Campbell, Bonnie (2004). Regulating Mining in Africa: For Whose
Benefit?. Uppsala, Sweden: Nordic African Institute. p. 43.
^ African Development Bank, p. 186.
^ Farvacque-Vitkovic, Catherine et al. (September 2007) DEVELOPMENT OF
THE CITIES OF MALI — Challenges and Priorities.
Working Paper Series No. 104/a. World Bank
^ a b c d e f g
Mali country profile, p. 6.
Mali Demographics Profile 2014".
^ For an introduction to the culture of the
Azawagh Arabs, see Rebecca
Popenoe, Feeding Desire — Fatness, Beauty and Sexuality among a
Saharan People. Routledge, London (2003) ISBN 0-415-28096-6
^ Popenoe (2003), p. 16-17.
^ "Popular baby names of MALI, West Africa". NamSor Blog. 2017-11-24.
^ Fortin, Jacey (16 January 2013). "Mali's Other Crisis:
Plagues Mali, And Insurgency Could Make It Worse". International
^ "Kayaking to Timbuktu, Writer Sees Slave Trade". National Geographic
News. 5 December 2002.
^ "Kayaking to Timbuktu, Original National Geographic Adventure
Slavery in Mali". National Geographic Adventure.
December 2002/January 2003.
^ MacInnes-Rae, Rick (26 November 2012). "Al-Qaeda complicating
anti-slavery drive in Mali". CBC News.
^ Bruce S. Hall, A History of Race in
Muslim West Africa, 1600–1960.
Cambridge University Press, 2011, ISBN 9781107002876: "The
mobilization of local ideas about racial difference has been important
in generating, and intensifying, civil wars that have occurred since
the end of colonial rule in all of the countries that straddle the
southern edge of the
Sahara Desert. [...] contemporary conflicts often
hearken back to an older history in which blackness could be equated
with slavery and non-blackness with predatory and uncivilized
banditry." (cover text)
^ see e.g. Mali's conflict and a 'war over skin colour', Afua Hirsch,
The Guardian, Friday 6 July 2012.
^ a b International Religious Freedom Report 2008: Mali. State.gov (19
September 2008). Retrieved 4 May 2012.
^ "The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity" (PDF). Pew Forum on
Religious & Public life. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 2 June
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l
Mali country profile, p. 7.
^ Report points to 100 million persecuted Christians.. Retrieved 10
^ OPEN DOORS World Watch list 2012. Worldwatchlist.us. Retrieved 24
^ "Université de
Bamako – Bamako, Mali". Northwestern University
Feinberg School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 13 May
2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
CIA World Factbook: Life Expectancy ranks
^ a b c d e
Mali country profile, p. 8.
^ Nourishing communities through holistic farming, Impatient
optimists, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 30 April 2013.
Female genital mutilation
Female genital mutilation and other harmful practices. Who.int
(6 May 2011). Retrieved 4 May 2012.
^ Female genital cutting in the Demographic Health Surveys: a critical
and comparative analysis. Calverton, MD: ORC Marco; 2004 (DHS
Comparative Reports No. 7). (PDF). Retrieved 18 January 2013.
^ a b Pye-Smith, Charlie & Rhéal Drisdelle. Mali: A Prospect of
Peace? Oxfam (1997). ISBN 0-85598-334-5, p. 13.
^ Crabill, Michelle and Tiso, Bruce (January 2003).
Website. Fairfax County Public Schools. Retrieved 4 June 2008.
^ a b "Music". Embassy of the Republic of
Mali in Japan. Archived from
the original on 8 July 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
^ Velton, p. 29.
^ a b c d Milet, p. 128.
^ a b c d Velton, p. 28.
^ a b Milet, p. 151.
^ a b c d e DiPiazza, p. 55.
^ a b c Hudgens, Jim, Richard Trillo, and Nathalie Calonnec. The Rough
Guide to West Africa.
Rough Guides (2003). ISBN 1-84353-118-6, p.
^ "Malian Men Basketball". Africabasket.com. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
^ Chitunda, Julio. "Ruiz looks to strengthen
Mali roster ahead of
Beijing". FIBA.com (13 March 2008). Retrieved 24 June 2008.
^ a b c Velton, p. 30.
^ a b c Milet, p. 146.
^ Murison, Katharine, ed. (2002).
Africa South of the
Taylor & Francis. pp. 652–53.
^ Batvina, Iryna. "Culture of Mali". www.best-country.com. Retrieved
"Constitution of Mali" (PDF) (in French). A student-translated
English version is also available.
DiPiazza, Francesca Davis (2006).
Mali in Pictures. Minneapolis,
Minnesota: Learner Publishing Group.
Mali country profile" (PDF).
Library of Congress
Library of Congress Federal Research
Division. January 2005. This article incorporates text from this
source, which is in the public domain.
Milet, Eric & Manaud, Jean-Luc (2007).
Mali (in French). Editions
Olizane. ISBN 2-88086-351-1.
Velton, Ross (2004). Mali. Bradt Travel Guides.
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