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Coordinates: 17°N 4°W / 17°N 4°W / 17; -4

Republic of Mali

République du Mali  (French) Mali
Mali
ka Fasojamana  (Bambara)

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: "Un peuple, un but, une foi" (French) "One people, one goal, one faith"

Anthem: Le Mali  (French)[1]

Location of  Mali  (green)

Capital and largest city Bamako 12°39′N 8°0′W / 12.650°N 8.000°W / 12.650; -8.000

Official languages French

National languages

Bambara Bomu Tieyaxo Bozo

Toro So Dogon

Maasina Fulfulde Hassaniya Arabic Mamara Senoufo Kita Maninkakan Soninke

Koyraboro Senni Syenara Senoufo Tamasheq Xaasongaxango

Ethnic groups

50% Mande 16% Fula 13% Voltaic (Senufo / Bwa) 10% Tuareg
Tuareg
/ Moor 6% Songhai 4% other

Demonym Malian

Government Unitary semi-presidential republic

• President

Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta

• Prime Minister

Soumeylou Boubèye Maïga

Legislature National Assembly

Independence

• from Francea

20 June 1960

• as Mali

22 September 1960

Area

• Total

1,240,192 km2 (478,841 sq mi) (23rd)

• Water (%)

1.6

Population

• April 2009 census

14,517,176[2] (67th)

• Density

11.7/km2 (30.3/sq mi) (215th)

GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate

• Total

$40.909 billion[3]

• Per capita

$2,357[3]

GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate

• Total

$15.172 billion[3]

• Per capita

$874[3]

Gini (2010) 33.0[4] medium

HDI (2015)  0.442[5] low · 175th

Currency West African CFA franc
West African CFA franc
(XOF)

Time zone GMT (UTC+0)

Drives on the right[6]

Calling code +223

ISO 3166 code ML

Internet TLD .ml

As the Sudanese Republic, with Senegal
Senegal
as the Mali
Mali
Federation.

Mali
Mali
(/ˈmɑːli/ ( listen); French: [mali]), officially the Republic of Mali
Mali
(French: République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton. Mali
Mali
is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi). The population of Mali
Mali
is 18 million.[7] Its capital is Bamako. Mali
Mali
consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara
Sahara
Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger
Niger
and Senegal
Senegal
rivers. The country's economy centers on agriculture and fishing. Some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent,[8] and salt. About half the population lives below the international poverty line of $1.25 (U.S.) a day.[9] A majority of the population (90%) are Muslims.[10] Present-day Mali
Mali
was once part of three West African empires
African empires
that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana
Ghana
Empire, the Mali Empire
Mali Empire
(for which Mali
Mali
is named), and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, and art.[11][12] At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire
Mali Empire
covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France
France
and stretched to the west coast of Africa.[13] In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France
France
seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan
French Sudan
(then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with Senegal
Senegal
in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic
Sudanese Republic
declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali
Mali
as a democratic, multi-party state. In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali, in which Tuareg
Tuareg
rebels took control of a territory in the north, and in April declared the secession of a new state, Azawad.[14] The conflict was complicated by a military coup that took place in March[15] and later fighting between Tuareg
Tuareg
and Islamist
Islamist
rebels. In response to Islamist
Islamist
territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013.[16] A month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second-round run-off held on 11 August, and legislative elections were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 French colonial rule 2.2 Moussa Traoré

2.2.1 March Revolution

2.3 Amadou Toumani Touré
Amadou Toumani Touré
presidency 2.4 Northern Mali
Mali
conflict

3 Geography

3.1 Regions and cercles 3.2 Extent of central government control

4 Politics and government

4.1 Foreign relations 4.2 Military

5 Economy

5.1 Agriculture 5.2 Mining 5.3 Energy 5.4 Transport infrastructure

6 Society

6.1 Demographics 6.2 Ethnicity 6.3 Languages 6.4 Religion 6.5 Education 6.6 Health

7 Culture

7.1 Music 7.2 Literature 7.3 Sport 7.4 Cuisine 7.5 Media

8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links

Etymology[edit] The name Mali
Mali
is taken from the name of the Mali
Mali
Empire. The name was originally derived from the Mandinka or Bambara word mali, meaning “hippopotamus”, but it eventually came to mean "the place where the king lives".[17] The word carries the connotation of strength.[18] Guinean writer Djibril Niane suggests in Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali (1965) that it is not impossible that Mali
Mali
was the name given to one of the capitals of the emperors. 14th-century Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta reported that the capital of the Mali Empire
Mali Empire
was called Mali.[19] One Mandinka tradition tells that the legendary first emperor Sundiata Keita
Sundiata Keita
changed himself into a hippopotamus upon his death in the Sankarani River, and that it's possible to find villages in the area of this river, termed "old Mali", which have Mali
Mali
for a name. This name could have formerly been that of a city. In old Mali, there is one village called Malika which means “New Mali.”[20] Another theory suggests that Mali
Mali
is a Fulani pronunciation of the name of the Mande peoples.[21][22] It is suggested that a sound shift led to the change, whereby in Fulani the alveolar segment /nd/ shifts to /l/ and the terminal vowel denasalises and raises, thus “Manden” shifts to /Mali/.[20] History[edit]

The extent of the Mali
Mali
Empire's peak

The pages above are from Timbuktu Manuscripts
Timbuktu Manuscripts
written in Sudani script (a form of Arabic) from the Mali Empire
Mali Empire
showing established knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. Today there are close to a million of these manuscripts found in Timbuktu
Timbuktu
alone.

Griots of Sambala, king of Médina (Fula people, Mali), 1890

Main article: History of Mali Mali
Mali
was once part of three famed West African empires
African empires
which controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, slaves, and other precious commodities.[23] These Sahelian kingdoms had neither rigid geopolitical boundaries nor rigid ethnic identities.[23] The earliest of these empires was the Ghana
Ghana
Empire, which was dominated by the Soninke, a Mande-speaking people.[23] The empire expanded throughout West Africa
West Africa
from the 8th century until 1078, when it was conquered by the Almoravids.[24] The Mali Empire
Mali Empire
later formed on the upper Niger
Niger
River, and reached the height of power in the 14th century.[24] Under the Mali
Mali
Empire, the ancient cities of Djenné
Djenné
and Timbuktu
Timbuktu
were centers of both trade and Islamic learning.[24] The empire later declined as a result of internal intrigue, ultimately being supplanted by the Songhai Empire.[24] The Songhai people
Songhai people
originated in current northwestern Nigeria. The Songhai had long been a major power in West Africa subject to the Mali
Mali
Empire's rule.[24] In the late 14th century, the Songhai gradually gained independence from the Mali Empire
Mali Empire
and expanded, ultimately subsuming the entire eastern portion of the Mali
Mali
Empire.[24] The Songhai Empire's eventual collapse was largely the result of a Moroccan invasion in 1591, under the command of Judar Pasha.[24] The fall of the Songhai Empire
Songhai Empire
marked the end of the region's role as a trading crossroads.[24] Following the establishment of sea routes by the European powers, the trans-Saharan trade routes lost significance.[24] One of the worst famines in the region's recorded history occurred in the 18th century. According to John Iliffe, "The worst crises were in the 1680s, when famine extended from the Senegambian coast to the Upper Nile and 'many sold themselves for slaves, only to get a sustenance', and especially in 1738–56, when West Africa's greatest recorded subsistence crisis, due to drought and locusts, reportedly killed half the population of Timbuktu."[25] French colonial rule[edit]

Cotton being processed in Niono
Niono
into 180 kg (400 lb) bales for export to other parts of Africa
Africa
and to France, c. 1950

Mali
Mali
fell under the control of France
France
during the late 19th century.[24] By 1905, most of the area was under firm French control as a part of French Sudan.[24] In early 1959, French Sudan
French Sudan
(which changed its name to the Sudanese Republic) and Senegal
Senegal
united to become the Mali
Mali
Federation. The Mali Federation
Mali Federation
gained independence from France
France
on 20 June 1960.[24] Senegal
Senegal
withdrew from the federation in August 1960, which allowed the Sudanese Republic
Sudanese Republic
to become the independent Republic of Mali
Mali
on 22 September 1960. Modibo Keïta
Modibo Keïta
was elected the first president.[24] Keïta quickly established a one-party state, adopted an independent African and socialist orientation with close ties to the East, and implemented extensive nationalization of economic resources.[24] In 1960, the population of Mali
Mali
was reported to be about 4.1 million.[26] Moussa Traoré[edit] On 19 November 1968, following progressive economic decline, the Keïta regime was overthrown in a bloodless military coup led by Moussa Traoré,[27] a day which is now commemorated as Liberation Day. The subsequent military-led regime, with Traoré as president, attempted to reform the economy. His efforts were frustrated by political turmoil and a devastating drought between 1968 and 1974,[27] in which famine killed thousands of people.[28] The Traoré regime faced student unrest beginning in the late 1970s and three coup attempts. The Traoré regime repressed all dissenters until the late 1980s.[27] The government continued to attempt economic reforms, and the populace became increasingly dissatisfied.[27] In response to growing demands for multi-party democracy, the Traoré regime allowed some limited political liberalization. They refused to usher in a full-fledged democratic system.[27] In 1990, cohesive opposition movements began to emerge, and was complicated by the turbulent rise of ethnic violence in the north following the return of many Tuaregs to Mali.[27]

WWI Commemorative Monument to the "Armée Noire"

Anti-government protests in 1991 led to a coup, a transitional government, and a new constitution.[27] Opposition to the corrupt and dictatorial regime of General Moussa Traoré grew during the 1980s. During this time strict programs, imposed to satisfy demands of the International Monetary Fund, brought increased hardship upon the country's population, while elites close to the government supposedly lived in growing wealth. Peaceful student protests in January 1991 were brutally suppressed, with mass arrests and torture of leaders and participants.[29] Scattered acts of rioting and vandalism of public buildings followed, but most actions by the dissidents remained nonviolent.[29] March Revolution[edit] From 22 March through 26 March 1991, mass pro-democracy rallies and a nationwide strike was held in both urban and rural communities, which became known as les evenements ("the events") or the March Revolution. In Bamako, in response to mass demonstrations organized by university students and later joined by trade unionists and others, soldiers opened fire indiscriminately on the nonviolent demonstrators. Riots broke out briefly following the shootings. Barricades as well as roadblocks were erected and Traoré declared a state of emergency and imposed a nightly curfew. Despite an estimated loss of 300 lives over the course of four days, nonviolent protesters continued to return to Bamako
Bamako
each day demanding the resignation of the dictatorial president and the implementation of democratic policies.[30] 26 March 1991 is the day that marks the clash between military soldiers and peaceful demonstrating students which climaxed in the massacre of dozens under the orders of then President Moussa Traoré. He and three associates were later tried and convicted and received the death sentence for their part in the decision-making of that day. Nowadays, the day is a national holiday in order to remember the tragic events and the people that were killed.[31][unreliable source?] The coup is remembered as Mali's March Revolution of 1991. By 26 March, the growing refusal of soldiers to fire into the largely nonviolent protesting crowds turned into a full-scale tumult, and resulted in thousands of soldiers putting down their arms and joining the pro-democracy movement. That afternoon, Lieutenant Colonel Amadou Toumani Touré announced on the radio that he had arrested the dictatorial president, Moussa Traoré. As a consequence, opposition parties were legalized and a national congress of civil and political groups met to draft a new democratic constitution to be approved by a national referendum.[30] Amadou Toumani Touré
Amadou Toumani Touré
presidency[edit] In 1992, Alpha Oumar Konaré
Alpha Oumar Konaré
won Mali's first democratic, multi-party presidential election, before being re-elected for a second term in 1997, which was the last allowed under the constitution. In 2002 Amadou Toumani Touré, a retired general who had been the leader of the military aspect of the 1991 democratic uprising, was elected.[32] During this democratic period Mali
Mali
was regarded as one of the most politically and socially stable countries in Africa.[33] Slavery
Slavery
persists in Mali
Mali
today with as many as 200,000 people held in direct servitude to a master.[34] In the Tuareg
Tuareg
Rebellion of 2012, ex-slaves were a vulnerable population with reports of some slaves being recaptured by their former masters.[35] Northern Mali
Mali
conflict[edit] Main article: Northern Mali conflict
Northern Mali conflict
(2012–present)

Tuareg
Tuareg
separatist rebels in Mali, January 2012

In January 2012 a Tuareg
Tuareg
rebellion began in Northern Mali, led by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad
National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad
(MNLA).[36] In March, military officer Amadou Sanogo
Amadou Sanogo
seized power in a coup d'état, citing Touré's failures in quelling the rebellion, and leading to sanctions and an embargo by the Economic Community of West African States.[37] The MNLA quickly took control of the north, declaring independence as Azawad.[38] However, Islamist
Islamist
groups including Ansar Dine
Ansar Dine
and Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), who had helped the MNLA defeat the government, turned on the Tuareg
Tuareg
and took control of the North[39] with the goal of implementing sharia in Mali.[40][41] On 11 January 2013, the French Armed Forces
French Armed Forces
intervened at the request of the interim government. On 30 January, the coordinated advance of the French and Malian troops claimed to have retaken the last remaining Islamist
Islamist
stronghold of Kidal, which was also the last of three northern provincial capitals.[42] On 2 February, the French President, François Hollande, joined Mali's interim President, Dioncounda Traoré, in a public appearance in recently recaptured Timbuktu.[43] Geography[edit]

Satellite image of Mali

Mali
Mali
map of Köppen climate classification

Landscape in Hombori

Main article: Geography of Mali Mali
Mali
is a landlocked country in West Africa, located southwest of Algeria. It lies between latitudes 10° and 25°N, and longitudes 13°W and 5°E. Mali
Mali
is bordered by Algeria
Algeria
to the northeast, Niger
Niger
to the east, Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
and Côte d'Ivoire to the south, Guinea
Guinea
to the south-west, and Senegal
Senegal
and Mauritania
Mauritania
to the west. At 1,242,248 square kilometres (479,635 sq mi), including the disputed region of Azawad, Mali
Mali
is the world's 24th-largest country and is comparable in size to South Africa
Africa
or Angola. Most of the country lies in the southern Sahara
Sahara
Desert, which produces an extremely hot, dust-laden Sudanian savanna zone.[44] Mali
Mali
is mostly flat, rising to rolling northern plains covered by sand. The Adrar des Ifoghas massif lies in the northeast. Mali
Mali
lies in the torrid zone and is among the hottest countries in the world. The thermal equator, which matches the hottest spots year-round on the planet based on the mean daily annual temperature, crosses the country.[44] Most of Mali
Mali
receives negligible rainfall and droughts are very frequent.[44] Late June to early December is the rainy season in the southernmost area. During this time, flooding of the Niger River is common, creating the Inner Niger
Niger
Delta.[44] The vast northern desert part of Mali
Mali
has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification (BWh) with long, extremely hot summers and scarce rainfall which decreases northwards. The central area has a hot semi-arid climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
(BSh) with very high temperatures year-round, a long, intense dry season and a brief, irregular rainy season. The little southern band possesses a tropical wet and dry climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
(Aw) very high temperatures year-round with a dry season and a rainy season. Mali
Mali
has considerable natural resources, with gold, uranium, phosphates, kaolinite, salt and limestone being most widely exploited. Mali
Mali
is estimated to have in excess of 17,400 tonnes of uranium (measured + indicated + inferred).[45][46] In 2012, a further uranium mineralized north zone was identified.[47] Mali
Mali
faces numerous environmental challenges, including desertification, deforestation, soil erosion, and inadequate supplies of potable water.[44]

Regions and cercles[edit] Main articles: Regions of Mali, Cercles of Mali, and Communes of Mali

Since 2016, Mali
Mali
has been divided into ten regions and the District of Bamako.[48] Each region has a governor.[49] The implementation of the two newest regions, Taoudénit (formerly part of Tombouctou Region) and Ménaka (formerly Ménaka Cercle
Ménaka Cercle
in Gao
Gao
Region), has been ongoing since January 2016;[50][51] a governor and transitional council has been appointed for both regions.[52] The ten regions in turn are subdivided into 56 cercles and 703 communes.[53] The régions and Capital District are:

Region name Area (km2) Population Census 1998 Population Census 2009

Kayes 119,743 1,374,316 1,996,812

Koulikoro 95,848 1,570,507 2,418,305

Bamako Capital District 252 1,016,296 1,809,106

Sikasso 70,280 1,782,157 2,625,919

Ségou 64,821 1,675,357 2,336,255

Mopti 79,017 1,484,601 2,037,330

Tombouctou (Timbuktu) 496,611 442,619 681,691

Gao 89,532 341,542 544,120

Kidal 151,430 38,774 67,638

Taoudénit – – –

Ménaka 81,040 – –

Extent of central government control[edit] In March 2012, the Malian government lost control over Tombouctou, Gao and Kidal Regions and the north-eastern portion of Mopti
Mopti
Region. On 6 April 2012, the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad unilaterally declared their secession from Mali
Mali
as Azawad, an act that neither Mali
Mali
nor the international community recognised.[54] The government later regained control over these areas. Politics and government[edit] Main article: Politics of Mali

Ex Malian Transition President Dioncounda Traoré

Until the military coup of 22 March 2012[15][55] and a second military coup in December 2012,[56] Mali
Mali
was a constitutional democracy governed by the Constitution of 12 January 1992, which was amended in 1999.[57] The constitution provides for a separation of powers among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.[57] The system of government can be described as "semi-presidential".[57] Executive power is vested in a president, who is elected to a five-year term by universal suffrage and is limited to two terms.[57][58] The president serves as a chief of state and commander in chief of the armed forces.[57][59] A prime minister appointed by the president serves as head of government and in turn appoints the Council of Ministers.[57][60] The unicameral National Assembly is Mali's sole legislative body, consisting of deputies elected to five-year terms.[61][62] Following the 2007 elections, the Alliance for Democracy and Progress held 113 of 160 seats in the assembly.[63] The assembly holds two regular sessions each year, during which it debates and votes on legislation that has been submitted by a member or by the government.[61][64] Mali's constitution provides for an independent judiciary,[61][65] but the executive continues to exercise influence over the judiciary by virtue of power to appoint judges and oversee both judicial functions and law enforcement.[61] Mali's highest courts are the Supreme Court, which has both judicial and administrative powers, and a separate Constitutional Court that provides judicial review of legislative acts and serves as an election arbiter.[61][66] Various lower courts exist, though village chiefs and elders resolve most local disputes in rural areas.[61] Foreign relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of Mali

Former President of Mali
Mali
Amadou Toumani Touré
Amadou Toumani Touré
and Minister-president of the Netherlands Mark Rutte

Mali's foreign policy orientation has become increasingly pragmatic and pro-Western over time.[67] Since the institution of a democratic form of government in 2002, Mali's relations with the West in general and with the United States in particular have improved significantly.[67] Mali
Mali
has a longstanding yet ambivalent relationship with France, a former colonial ruler.[67] Mali
Mali
was active in regional organizations such as the African Union
African Union
until its suspension over the 2012 Malian coup d'état.[67][68] Working to control and resolve regional conflicts, such as in Ivory Coast, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, is one of Mali's major foreign policy goals.[67] Mali
Mali
feels threatened by the potential for the spillover of conflicts in neighboring states, and relations with those neighbors are often uneasy.[67] General insecurity along borders in the north, including cross-border banditry and terrorism, remain troubling issues in regional relations.[67] Military[edit] Further information: Military of Mali Mali's military forces consist of an army, which includes land forces and air force,[69] as well as the paramilitary Gendarmerie and Republican Guard, all of which are under the control of Mali's Ministry of Defense and Veterans, headed by a civilian.[70] The military is underpaid, poorly equipped, and in need of rationalization.[70] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Mali

A market scene in Djenné

Kalabougou
Kalabougou
potters

Cotton processing at CMDT

The Central Bank of West African States
Central Bank of West African States
handles the financial affairs of Mali
Mali
and additional members of the Economic Community of West African States. Mali
Mali
is one of the poorest countries in the world.[69] The average worker's annual salary is approximately US$1,500.[71] Mali
Mali
underwent economic reform, beginning in 1988 by signing agreements with the World Bank
World Bank
and the International Monetary Fund.[71] During 1988 to 1996, Mali's government largely reformed public enterprises. Since the agreement, sixteen enterprises were privatized, 12 partially privatized, and 20 liquidated.[71] In 2005, the Malian government conceded a railroad company to the Savage Corporation.[71] Two major companies, Societé de Telecommunications du Mali
Mali
(SOTELMA) and the Cotton Ginning Company (CMDT), were expected to be privatized in 2008.[71] Between 1992 and 1995, Mali
Mali
implemented an economic adjustment programme that resulted in economic growth and a reduction in financial imbalances. The programme increased social and economic conditions, and led to Mali
Mali
joining the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
on 31 May 1995.[72] Mali
Mali
is also a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa
Africa
(OHADA).[73] The gross domestic product (GDP) has risen since. In 2002, the GDP amounted to US$3.4 billion,[74] and increased to US$5.8 billion in 2005,[71] which amounts to an approximately 17.6 percent annual growth rate. Mali
Mali
is a part of "French Zone" (Zone Franc), which means that it uses CFA franc. Mali
Mali
is connected with the French government by agreement since 1962 (creation of BCEAO). Today all seven countries of BCEAO (including Mali) are connected to French Central Bank.[75] Agriculture[edit] Mali's key industry is agriculture. Cotton is the country's largest crop export and is exported west throughout Senegal
Senegal
and Ivory Coast.[76][77] During 2002, 620,000 tons of cotton were produced in Mali
Mali
but cotton prices declined significantly in 2003.[76][77] In addition to cotton, Mali
Mali
produces rice, millet, corn, vegetables, tobacco, and tree crops. Gold, livestock and agriculture amount to 80% of Mali's exports.[71] Eighty percent of Malian workers are employed in agriculture. 15 percent of Malian workers are employed in the service sector.[77] Seasonal variations lead to regular temporary unemployment of agricultural workers.[78] Mining[edit] In 1991, with the assistance of the International Development Association, Mali
Mali
relaxed the enforcement of mining codes which led to renewed foreign interest and investment in the mining industry.[79] Gold is mined in the southern region and Mali
Mali
has the third highest gold production in Africa
Africa
(after South Africa
Africa
and Ghana).[76] The emergence of gold as Mali's leading export product since 1999 has helped mitigate some of the negative impact of the cotton and Ivory Coast crises.[80] Other natural resources include kaolin, salt, phosphate, and limestone.[71] Energy[edit] See also: List of power stations in Mali Electricity and water are maintained by the Energie du Mali, or EDM, and textiles are generated by Industry Textile du Mali, or ITEMA.[71] Mali
Mali
has made efficient use of hydroelectricity, consisting of over half of Mali's electrical power. In 2002, 700 GWh of hydroelectric power were produced in Mali.[77] Energie du Mali
Mali
is an electric company that provides electricity to Mali
Mali
citizens. Only 55% of the population in cities have access to EDM.[81] Transport infrastructure[edit] Main article: Transport in Mali In Mali, there is a railway that connects to bordering countries. There are also approximately 29 airports of which 8 have paved runways. Urban areas are known for their large quantity of green and white taxicabs. A significant sum of the population is dependent on public transportation. Society[edit] Demographics[edit]

A Bozo girl in Bamako

Main article: Demographics of Mali In 2016, Mali's population was an estimated 18 million[7]. The population is predominantly rural (68 percent in 2002), and 5–10 percent of Malians are nomadic.[82] More than 90 percent of the population lives in the southern part of the country, especially in Bamako, which has over 1 million residents.[82] In 2007, about 48 percent of Malians were younger than 12 years old, 49 percent were 15–64 years old, and 3 percent were 65 and older.[69] The median age was 15.9 years.[69] The birth rate in 2014 is 45.53 births per 1,000, and the total fertility rate (in 2012) was 6.4 children per woman.[69][83] The death rate in 2007 was 16.5 deaths per 1,000.[69] Life expectancy
Life expectancy
at birth was 53.06 years total (51.43 for males and 54.73 for females).[69] Mali
Mali
has one of the world's highest rates of infant mortality,[82] with 106 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2007.[69]

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Mali http://www.geonames.org/ML/largest-cities-in-mali.html

Rank Name Region Pop.

Bamako

Sikasso 1 Bamako Bamako 1 297 281

2 Sikasso Sikasso 144 786

3 Mopti Mopti 108 456

4 Koutiala Sikasso 99 353

5 Kayes
Kayes
Ndi Kayes 97 464

6 Ségou Ségou 92 552

7 Gao Gao 87 000

8 Kayes Kayes 78 406

9 Morkala Ségou 53 738

10 Kolokani Koulikoro 48 774

Ethnicity[edit]

The Tuareg
Tuareg
are historic, nomadic inhabitants of northern Mali.

Mali's population encompasses a number of sub-Saharan ethnic groups. The Bambara (Bambara: Bamanankaw) are by far the largest single ethnic group, making up 36.5 percent of the population.[82] Collectively, the Bambara, Soninké, Khassonké, and Malinké (also called Mandinka), all part of the broader Mandé
Mandé
group, constitute 50 percent of Mali's population.[69] Other significant groups are the Fula (French: Peul; Fula: Fulɓe) (17 percent), Voltaic (12 percent), Songhai (6 percent), and Tuareg
Tuareg
and Moor (10 percent).[69] In Mali
Mali
as well as Niger, the Moors
Moors
are also known as Azawagh
Azawagh
Arabs, named after the Azawagh
Azawagh
region of the Sahara.[84] They speak mainly Hassaniya Arabic
Arabic
which is one of the regional varieties of Arabic.[85] Personal names reflect Mali's complex regional identities.[86] In the far north, there is a division between Berber-descendent Tuareg nomad populations and the darker-skinned Bella or Tamasheq people, due to the historical spread of slavery in the region. An estimated 800,000 people in Mali
Mali
are descended from slaves.[34] Slavery
Slavery
in Mali has persisted for centuries.[87] The Arabic
Arabic
population kept slaves well into the 20th century, until slavery was suppressed by French authorities around the mid-20th century. There still persist certain hereditary servitude relationships,[88][89] and according to some estimates, even today approximately 200,000 Malians are still enslaved.[90] Although Mali
Mali
has enjoyed a reasonably good inter-ethnic relationships based on the long history of coexistence, some hereditary servitude and bondage relationship exist, as well as ethnic tension between settled Songhai and nomadic Tuaregs of the north.[82] Due to a backlash against the northern population after independence, Mali
Mali
is now in a situation where both groups complain about discrimination on the part of the other group.[91] This conflict also plays a role in the continuing Northern Mali conflict
Northern Mali conflict
where there is a tension between both Tuaregs and the Malian government, and the Tuaregs and radical Islamists who are trying to establish sharia law.[92] Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of Mali Mali's official language is French and over 40 African languages
African languages
also are spoken by the various ethnic groups.[82] About 80 percent of Mali's population can communicate in Bambara, which serves as an important lingua franca.[82] Mali
Mali
has 12 national languages beside French and Bambara, namely Bomu, Tieyaxo Bozo, Toro So Dogon, Maasina Fulfulde, Hassaniya Arabic, Mamara Senoufo, Kita Maninkakan, Soninke, Koyraboro Senni, Syenara Senoufo, Tamasheq and Xaasongaxango. Each is spoken as a first language primarily by the ethnic group with which it is associated. Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Mali

Religion in Mali[93]

Religion

Percent

Islam

90%

Christianity

5%

Indigenous

5%

A mosque entrance

Islam was introduced to West Africa
West Africa
in the 11th century and remains the predominant religion in much of the region. An estimated 90 percent of Malians are Muslim
Muslim
(mostly Sunni, [94]), approximately 5 percent are Christian (about two-thirds Roman Catholic and one-third Protestant) and the remaining 5 percent adhere to indigenous or traditional animist beliefs.[93] Atheism
Atheism
and agnosticism are believed to be rare among Malians, most of whom practice their religion on a daily basis.[95] The constitution establishes a secular state and provides for freedom of religion, and the government largely respects this right.[95] Islam as historically practiced in Mali
Mali
has been malleable and adapted to local conditions; relations between Muslims and practitioners of minority religious faiths have generally been amicable.[95] After the 2012 imposition of sharia rule in northern parts of the country, however, Mali
Mali
came to be listed high (number 7) in the Christian persecution index published by Open Doors, which described the persecution in the north as severe.[96][97] Education[edit] Main article: Education in Mali

High school students in Kati

Public education in Mali
Mali
is in principle provided free of charge and is compulsory for nine years between the ages of seven and sixteen.[95] The system encompasses six years of primary education beginning at age 7, followed by six years of secondary education.[95] Mali's actual primary school enrollment rate is low, in large part because families are unable to cover the cost of uniforms, books, supplies, and other fees required to attend.[95] In the 2000–01 school year, the primary school enrollment rate was 61 percent (71 percent of males and 51 percent of females). In the late 1990s, the secondary school enrollment rate was 15 percent (20 percent of males and 10 percent of females).[95] The education system is plagued by a lack of schools in rural areas, as well as shortages of teachers and materials.[95] Estimates of literacy rates in Mali
Mali
range from 27–30 to 46.4 percent, with literacy rates significantly lower among women than men.[95] The University of Bamako, which includes four constituent universities, is the largest university in the country and enrolls approximately 60,000 undergraduate and graduate students.[98] Health[edit] Main article: Health in Mali Mali
Mali
faces numerous health challenges related to poverty, malnutrition, and inadequate hygiene and sanitation.[95] Mali's health and development indicators rank among the worst in the world.[95] Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 53.06 years in 2012.[99] In 2000, 62–65 percent of the population was estimated to have access to safe drinking water and only 69 percent to sanitation services of some kind.[95] In 2001, the general government expenditures on health totalled about US$4 per capita at an average exchange rate.[100] Efforts have been made to improve nutrition, and reduce associated health problems, by encouraging women to make nutritious versions of local recipes. For example, the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and the Aga Khan Foundation, trained women's groups to make equinut, a healthy and nutritional version of the traditional recipe di-dèguè (comprising peanut paste, honey and millet or rice flour). The aim was to boost nutrition and livelihoods by producing a product that women could make and sell, and which would be accepted by the local community because of its local heritage.[101] Medical facilities in Mali
Mali
are very limited, and medicines are in short supply.[100] Malaria
Malaria
and other arthropod-borne diseases are prevalent in Mali, as are a number of infectious diseases such as cholera and tuberculosis.[100] Mali's population also suffers from a high rate of child malnutrition and a low rate of immunization.[100] An estimated 1.9 percent of the adult and children population was afflicted with HIV/AIDS that year, among the lowest rates in Sub-Saharan
Sub-Saharan
Africa.[100] An estimated 85–91 percent of Mali's girls and women have had female genital mutilation (2006 and 2001 data).[102][103] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Mali

Konoguel Mosque tower

The varied everyday culture of Malians reflects the country's ethnic and geographic diversity.[104] Most Malians wear flowing, colorful robes called boubous that are typical of West Africa. Malians frequently participate in traditional festivals, dances, and ceremonies.[104] Music[edit] Malian musical traditions are derived from the griots, who are known as "Keepers of Memories".[105] Malian music is diverse and has several different genres. Some famous Malian influences in music are kora virtuoso musician Toumani Diabaté, the ngoni with Bassekou Kouyate the virtuoso of the electric jeli ngoni, the late roots and blues guitarist Ali Farka Touré, the Tuareg
Tuareg
band Tinariwen, and several Afro-pop artists such as Salif Keita, the duo Amadou et Mariam, Oumou Sangare, Rokia Traore, and Habib Koité. Dance also plays a large role in Malian culture.[106] Dance parties are common events among friends, and traditional mask dances are performed at ceremonial events.[106] Literature[edit] Though Mali's literature is less famous than its music,[107] Mali
Mali
has always been one of Africa's liveliest intellectual centers.[108] Mali's literary tradition is passed mainly by word of mouth, with jalis reciting or singing histories and stories known by heart.[108][109] Amadou Hampâté Bâ, Mali's best-known historian, spent much of his life writing these oral traditions down for the world to remember.[109] The best-known novel by a Malian writer is Yambo Ouologuem's Le devoir de violence, which won the 1968 Prix Renaudot but whose legacy was marred by accusations of plagiarism.[108][109] Other well-known Malian writers include Baba Traoré, Modibo Sounkalo Keita, Massa Makan Diabaté, Moussa Konaté, and Fily Dabo Sissoko.[108][109] Sport[edit]

Malian children playing football in a Dogon village

The most popular sport in Mali
Mali
is football (soccer),[110][111] which became more prominent after Mali
Mali
hosted the 2002 African Cup of Nations.[110][112] Most towns and cities have regular games;[112] the most popular teams nationally are Djoliba AC, Stade Malien, and Real Bamako, all based in the capital.[111] Informal games are often played by youths using a bundle of rags as a ball.[111] Basketball is another major sport;[111][113] the Mali
Mali
women's national basketball team, led by Hamchetou Maiga, competed at the 2008 Beijing Olympics.[114] Traditional wrestling (la lutte) is also somewhat common, though popularity has declined in recent years.[112] The game wari, a mancala variant, is a common pastime.[111] Cuisine[edit] Main article: Malian cuisine

Malian tea

Rice and millet are the staples of Malian cuisine, which is heavily based on cereal grains.[115][116] Grains are generally prepared with sauces made from edible leaves, such as spinach or baobab, with tomato peanut sauce, and may be accompanied by pieces of grilled meat (typically chicken, mutton, beef, or goat).[115][116] Malian cuisine varies regionally.[115][116] Other popular dishes include fufu, jollof rice, and maafe. Media[edit] Main article: Media of Mali In Mali, there are several newspapers such as Les Echos, L'Essor, Info Matin, Nouvel Horizon, and Le Républicain.[117] The Telecommunications in Mali
Telecommunications in Mali
include 869,600 mobile phones, 45,000 televisions and 414,985 Internet users.[118] See also[edit]

Geography portal Africa
Africa
portal Mali
Mali
portal

Ebola virus disease in Mali Index of Mali-related articles Mali
Mali
conflict Outline of Mali

References[edit]

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Mali
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Mali
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country profile, p. 1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Mali
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country profile. Mali
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country profile, p. 3. ^ "Mali's nomads face famine". BBC News. 9 August 2005. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-01.  Mali
Mali
March 1991 Revolution ^ a b Nesbitt, Katherine. "Mali's March Revolution (1991)". International Center on Nonviolent Conflict. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2012.  ^ Bussa, Edward. "Mali's March to Democracy". threadster.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.  ^ Mali
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country profile, p. 4. ^ USAID Africa: Mali. USAID. Retrieved 15 May 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2008. ^ a b Tran, Mark (23 October 2012). " Mali
Mali
conflict puts freedom of 'slave descendants' in peril". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 24 November 2012.  ^ York, Geoffrey (11 November 2012). " Mali
Mali
chaos gives rise to slavery, persecution". The Globe and Mail. Toronto.  ^ Mali
Mali
clashes force 120 000 from homes. News24 (22 February 2012). Retrieved 23 February 2012. ^ Callimachi, Rukmini (3 April 2012) "Post-coup Mali
Mali
hit with sanctions by African neighbours". Globe and Mail. Retrieved 4 May 2012. ^ " Tuareg
Tuareg
rebels declare independence in north Mali". France
France
24. 6 April 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2012.  ^ Tiemoko Diallo; Adama Diarra (28 June 2012). "Islamists declare full control of Mali's north". Reuters. Retrieved 28 July 2012.  ^ " Mali
Mali
Islamists want sharia not independence". Google News. Agence France-Presse. 20 June 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2012.  ^ " Mali
Mali
Possibilities and Challenges for Transitional Justice in Mali". International Center for Transitional Justice. 9 January 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2016.  ^ "French Troops Retake Kidal Airport, Move into City". USA Today. 30 January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.  French troops retake the last remaining Islamist
Islamist
urban stronghold in Mali. ^ " Mali
Mali
conflict: Timbuktu
Timbuktu
hails French President Hollande". BBC News. 2 February 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2013.  ^ a b c d e Mali
Mali
country profile, p. 5. ^ Uranium Mine Ownership – Africa. Wise-uranium.org. Retrieved 24 March 2013. ^ Muller, CJ and Umpire, A (22 November 2012) An Independent Technical Report on the Mineral Resources of Falea Uranium, Copper and Silver Deposit, Mali, West Africa. Minxcon. ^ Uranium in Africa. World-nuclear.org. Retrieved 24 March 2013. ^ Martin, Phillip L. (2006). Managing Migration: The Promise of Cooperation. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-7391-1341-7.  ^ DiPiazza, p. 37. ^ "Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Mali" (PDF). MINUSMA. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2017.  ^ "Régionalisation: Deux Nouvelles régions créées au Mali". Malijet. 21 January 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2017.  ^ "Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Mali" (PDF). MINUSMA. 30 December 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2017.  ^ Loi N°99-035/ Du 10 Aout 1999 Portant Creation des Collectivites Territoriales de Cercles et de Regions (PDF) (in French), Ministère de l'Administration Territoriales et des Collectivités Locales, République du Mali, 1999, archived from the original (PDF) on 9 March 2012  ^ " Tuareg
Tuareg
rebels declare the independence of Azawad, north of Mali". Al Arabiya. 6 April 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012.  ^ Video: US condemns Mali
Mali
coup amid reports of looting. Telegraph (22 March 2012). Retrieved 24 March 2013. ^ Hossiter, Adam (12 December 2012) Mali’s Prime Minister Resigns After Arrest, Muddling Plans to Retake North. The New York Times ^ a b c d e f Mali
Mali
country profile, p. 14. ^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 30. ^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 29 & 46. ^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 38. ^ a b c d e f Mali
Mali
country profile, p. 15. ^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 59 & 61. ^ (in French) Koné, Denis. Mali: "Résultats définitifs des Législatives". Les Echos (Bamako) (13 August 2007). Retrieved 24 June 2008. ^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 65. ^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 81. ^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 83–94. ^ a b c d e f g Mali
Mali
country profile, p. 17. ^ "ion suspends Mali
Mali
over coup". Al Jazeera. 23 March 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(2009). "Mali". The World Factbook. Retrieved 12 January 2010.  ^ a b Mali
Mali
country profile, p. 18. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Mali". U.S. State Department. May 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2008.  ^ Mali
Mali
and the WTO. World Trade Organization. Retrieved 24 March 2013. ^ "OHADA.com: The business law portal in Africa". Retrieved 22 March 2009.  ^ Mali
Mali
country profile, p. 9. ^ Zone franc sur le site de la Banque de France. Banque-france.fr. Retrieved 24 March 2013. ^ a b c Hale, Briony (13 May 1998). "Mali's Golden Hope". BBC News. Retrieved 4 June 2008.  ^ a b c d Cavendish, Marshall (2007). World and Its Peoples: Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Tarrytown, New York: Marshall Cavendish. p. 1367. ISBN 978-0-7614-7571-2.  ^ May, Jacques Meyer (1968). The Ecology of Malnutrition
Malnutrition
in the French Speaking Countries of West Africa
West Africa
and Madagascar. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-02-848960-5.  ^ Campbell, Bonnie (2004). Regulating Mining in Africa: For Whose Benefit?. Uppsala, Sweden: Nordic African Institute. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-7614-7571-2.  ^ African Development Bank, p. 186. ^ Farvacque-Vitkovic, Catherine et al. (September 2007) DEVELOPMENT OF THE CITIES OF MALI — Challenges and Priorities. Africa
Africa
Region Working Paper Series No. 104/a. World Bank ^ a b c d e f g Mali
Mali
country profile, p. 6. ^ " Mali
Mali
Demographics Profile 2014".  ^ For an introduction to the culture of the Azawagh
Azawagh
Arabs, see Rebecca Popenoe, Feeding Desire — Fatness, Beauty and Sexuality among a Saharan People. Routledge, London (2003) ISBN 0-415-28096-6 ^ Popenoe (2003), p. 16-17. ^ "Popular baby names of MALI, West Africa". NamSor Blog. 2017-11-24. Retrieved 2017-11-24.  ^ Fortin, Jacey (16 January 2013). "Mali's Other Crisis: Slavery
Slavery
Still Plagues Mali, And Insurgency Could Make It Worse". International Business Times.  ^ "Kayaking to Timbuktu, Writer Sees Slave Trade". National Geographic News. 5 December 2002. ^ "Kayaking to Timbuktu, Original National Geographic Adventure Article discussing Slavery
Slavery
in Mali". National Geographic Adventure. December 2002/January 2003. ^ MacInnes-Rae, Rick (26 November 2012). "Al-Qaeda complicating anti-slavery drive in Mali". CBC News.  ^ Bruce S. Hall, A History of Race in Muslim
Muslim
West Africa, 1600–1960. Cambridge University Press, 2011, ISBN 9781107002876: "The mobilization of local ideas about racial difference has been important in generating, and intensifying, civil wars that have occurred since the end of colonial rule in all of the countries that straddle the southern edge of the Sahara
Sahara
Desert. [...] contemporary conflicts often hearken back to an older history in which blackness could be equated with slavery and non-blackness with predatory and uncivilized banditry." (cover text) ^ see e.g. Mali's conflict and a 'war over skin colour', Afua Hirsch, The Guardian, Friday 6 July 2012. ^ a b International Religious Freedom Report 2008: Mali. State.gov (19 September 2008). Retrieved 4 May 2012. ^ "The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity" (PDF). Pew Forum on Religious & Public life. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2014.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Mali
Mali
country profile, p. 7. ^ Report points to 100 million persecuted Christians.. Retrieved 10 January 2013. ^ OPEN DOORS World Watch list 2012. Worldwatchlist.us. Retrieved 24 March 2013. ^ "Université de Bamako
Bamako
– Bamako, Mali". Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.  ^ CIA
CIA
World Factbook: Life Expectancy ranks ^ a b c d e Mali
Mali
country profile, p. 8. ^ Nourishing communities through holistic farming, Impatient optimists, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 30 April 2013. ^ WHO Female genital mutilation
Female genital mutilation
and other harmful practices. Who.int (6 May 2011). Retrieved 4 May 2012. ^ Female genital cutting in the Demographic Health Surveys: a critical and comparative analysis. Calverton, MD: ORC Marco; 2004 (DHS Comparative Reports No. 7). (PDF). Retrieved 18 January 2013. ^ a b Pye-Smith, Charlie & Rhéal Drisdelle. Mali: A Prospect of Peace? Oxfam (1997). ISBN 0-85598-334-5, p. 13. ^ Crabill, Michelle and Tiso, Bruce (January 2003). Mali
Mali
Resource Website. Fairfax County Public Schools. Retrieved 4 June 2008. ^ a b "Music". Embassy of the Republic of Mali
Mali
in Japan. Archived from the original on 8 July 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.  ^ Velton, p. 29. ^ a b c d Milet, p. 128. ^ a b c d Velton, p. 28. ^ a b Milet, p. 151. ^ a b c d e DiPiazza, p. 55. ^ a b c Hudgens, Jim, Richard Trillo, and Nathalie Calonnec. The Rough Guide to West Africa. Rough Guides (2003). ISBN 1-84353-118-6, p. 320. ^ "Malian Men Basketball". Africabasket.com. Retrieved 3 June 2008. ^ Chitunda, Julio. "Ruiz looks to strengthen Mali
Mali
roster ahead of Beijing". FIBA.com (13 March 2008). Retrieved 24 June 2008. ^ a b c Velton, p. 30. ^ a b c Milet, p. 146. ^ Murison, Katharine, ed. (2002). Africa
Africa
South of the Sahara
Sahara
2003. Taylor & Francis. pp. 652–53. ISBN 978-1-85743-131-5.  ^ Batvina, Iryna. "Culture of Mali". www.best-country.com. Retrieved 2016-09-18. 

Bibliography[edit]

"Constitution of Mali" (PDF) (in French).  A student-translated English version is also available. DiPiazza, Francesca Davis (2006). Mali
Mali
in Pictures. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Learner Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8225-6591-8.  " Mali
Mali
country profile" (PDF). Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Federal Research Division. January 2005.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Milet, Eric & Manaud, Jean-Luc (2007). Mali
Mali
(in French). Editions Olizane. ISBN 2-88086-351-1.  Velton, Ross (2004). Mali. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 1-84162-077-7. 

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Boutros Boutros-Ghali Abdou Diouf Michaëlle Jean

Culture

French language UN French Language Day International Francophonie Day Jeux de la Francophonie Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie Senghor University AFFOI TV5Monde LGBT rights

Category

v t e

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
(OIC)

Members

Afghanistan Albania Algeria Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Benin Burkina Faso Brunei Cameroon Chad Comoros Djibouti Egypt Gabon Gambia Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Indonesia Iran Iraq Ivory Coast Jordan Kuwait Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Lebanon Libya Maldives Malaysia Mali Mauritania Morocco Mozambique Niger Nigeria Oman Pakistan Palestine Qatar Saudi Arabia Senegal Sierra Leone Somalia Sudan Suriname Tajikistan Turkey Tunisia Togo Turkmenistan Uganda Uzbekistan United Arab Emirates Yemen

Suspended

Syria

Observers

Countries and territories

Bosnia and Herzegovina Central African Republic Northern Cyprus1 Russia Thailand

Muslim communities

Moro National Liberation Front

International organizations

Economic Cooperation Organization African Union Arab League Non-Aligned Movement United Nations

1 As the "Turkish Cypriot State".

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 160696874 GND: 4074505-3 SELIBR: 153286 BNF: cb11932407g (data) HDS:

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