Coordinates : 17°N 4°W / 17°N 4°W / 17; -4
Republic of Mali
* _République du Mali_ (French )
Mali ka Fasojamana_ (Bambara )
Flag Coat of arms
MOTTO: "Un peuple, un but, une foi" (French)
"One people, one goal, one faith"
Mali _ (French)
and largest city
12°39′N 8°0′W / 12.650°N 8.000°W / 12.650; -8.000
* Tieyaxo Bozo
* Toro So Dogon
* Mamara Senoufo
* Kita Maninkakan
* Syenara Senoufo
* 50% Mande
* 17% Fula
* 12% Voltaic (Senufo / Bwa )
Tuareg / Moor
* 6% Songhai
* 4% other
Unitary semi-presidential republic
Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta
• PRIME MINISTER
Abdoulaye Idrissa Maïga
• FROM FRANCEA
20 June 1960
• AS MALI
22 September 1960
1,240,192 km2 (478,841 sq mi) (23rd )
• WATER (%)
• APRIL 2009 CENSUS
14,517,176 (67th )
11.7/km2 (30.3/sq mi) (215th )
GDP (PPP )
• PER CAPITA
• PER CAPITA
low · 175th
West African CFA franc (XOF )
GMT (UTC +0)
DRIVES ON THE
ISO 3166 CODE
* As the
Sudanese Republic , with
Senegal as the
Mali Federation .
MALI (/ˈmɑːli/ (_ listen ); French: ), officially the REPUBLIC
OF MALI (French: République du Mali_), is a landlocked country in
Mali is the eighth-largest country in
Africa , with an
area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi). The
Mali is 14.5 million. Its capital is
Bamako . Mali
consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into
the middle of the
Sahara Desert , while the country's southern part,
where the majority of inhabitants live, features the
Niger and Senegal
rivers. The country's economy centers on agriculture and fishing. Some
of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third
largest producer of gold in the African continent, and salt. About
half the population lives below the international poverty line of
$1.25 (U.S.) a day. A majority of the population (90%) are Muslims .
Mali was once part of three West
African empires that
controlled trans-Saharan trade : the
Ghana Empire , the
Mali is named), and the
Songhai Empire . During its golden
age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy , literature,
and art. At its peak in 1300, the
Mali Empire covered an area about
twice the size of modern-day
France and stretched to the west coast of
Africa. In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for
France seized control of Mali, making it a part of
French Sudan .
French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with Senegal
in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the
Mali Federation .
Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the
Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent
Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in
1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of
Mali as a democratic, multi-party state.
In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern
Mali , in
Tuareg rebels took control of by April and declared the
secession of a new state,
Azawad . The conflict was complicated by a
military coup that took place in March and later fighting between
Islamist rebels. In response to
Islamist territorial gains,
the French military launched
Opération Serval in January 2013. A
month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north.
Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second round
run-off held on 11 August, and legislative elections were held on 24
November and 15 December 2013.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 French colonial rule
* 2.2.1 March Revolution
Amadou Toumani Touré presidency
Northern Mali conflict
Northern Mali conflict
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Regions and cercles
* 3.2 Extent of central government control
* 4 Politics and government
* 4.1 Foreign relations
* 4.2 Military
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Agriculture
* 5.2 Mining
* 5.3 Energy
* 5.4 Transport infrastructure
* 6 Society
* 6.1 Demographics
* 6.2 Ethnicity
* 6.3 Languages
* 6.4 Religion
* 6.5 Education
* 6.6 Health
* 7 Culture
* 7.1 Music
* 7.2 Literature
* 7.3 Sport
* 7.4 Cuisine
* 7.5 Media
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 Bibliography
* 11 External links
The name _Mali_ is taken from the name of the
Mali Empire . The name
was originally derived from the Mandinka or Bambara word _mali_,
meaning “hippopotamus”, but it eventually came to mean "the place
where the king lives". The word carries the connotation of strength.
Guinean writer Djibril Niane suggests in _Sundiata: An Epic of Old
Mali_ (1965) that it is not impossible that
Mali was the name given to
one of the capitals of the emperors. 14th century Moroccan traveller
Ibn Battuta reported that the capital of the
Mali Empire was called
Mali. One Mandinka tradition tells that the legendary first emperor
Sundiata Keita changed himself into a hippopotamus upon his death in
Sankarani River , and that it's possible to find villages in the
area of this river, termed "old Mali", which have
Mali for a name.
This name could have formerly been that of a city. In old Mali, there
is one village called Malikoma which means “New Mali.”
Another theory suggests that _Mali_ is a Fulani pronunciation of the
name of the Mande peoples . It is suggested that a sound shift led
to the change, whereby in Fulani the alveolar segment /nd/ shifts to
/l/ and the terminal vowel denasalises and raises, thus “Manden”
shifts to /Mali/.
The extent of the
Mali Empire 's peak The pages above are
Timbuktu Manuscripts written in Sudani script (a form of
Mali Empire showing established knowledge of astronomy and
mathematics. Today there are close to a million of these manuscripts
Timbuktu alone. Griots of
Sambala , king of Médina
Fula people , Mali), 1890. Main article:
History of Mali
Mali was once part of three famed West
African empires which
controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, slaves , and other
precious commodities. These Sahelian kingdoms had neither rigid
geopolitical boundaries nor rigid ethnic identities. The earliest of
these empires was the
Ghana Empire , which was dominated by the
Soninke , a Mande -speaking people. The empire expanded throughout
Africa from the 8th century until 1078, when it was conquered by
Mali Empire later formed on the upper
Niger River , and reached
the height of power in the 14th century. Under the
Mali Empire, the
ancient cities of
Timbuktu were centers of both trade and
Islamic learning. The empire later declined as a result of internal
intrigue, ultimately being supplanted by the
Songhai Empire . The
Songhai people originated in current northwestern
Nigeria . The
Songhai had long been a major power in West
Africa subject to the Mali
In the late 14th century, the Songhai gradually gained independence
Mali Empire and expanded, ultimately subsuming the entire
eastern portion of the
Mali Empire. The Songhai Empire's eventual
collapse was largely the result of a Moroccan invasion in 1591, under
the command of
Judar Pasha . The fall of the
Songhai Empire marked
the end of the region's role as a trading crossroads. Following the
establishment of sea routes by the European powers , the trans-Saharan
trade routes lost significance.
One of the worst famines in the region's recorded history occurred in
the 18th century. According to John Iliffe , "The worst crises were in
the 1680s, when famine extended from the Senegambian coast to the
Upper Nile and 'many sold themselves for slaves, only to get a
sustenance', and especially in 1738–56, when West Africa's greatest
recorded subsistence crisis, due to drought and locusts, reportedly
killed half the population of
FRENCH COLONIAL RULE
Cotton being processed in
Niono into 180 kg (400 lb) bales for
export to other parts of
Africa and to France, c. 1950.
Mali fell under the control of
France during the late 19th century.
By 1905, most of the area was under firm French control as a part of
French Sudan . In early 1959,
French Sudan (which changed its name to
the Sudanese Republic) and
Senegal united to become the Mali
Federation . The
Mali Federation gained independence from
France on 20
Senegal withdrew from the federation in August 1960, which allowed
Sudanese Republic to become the independent Republic of
Mali on 22
Modibo Keïta was elected the first president. Keïta
quickly established a one-party state, adopted an independent African
and socialist orientation with close ties to the East, and implemented
extensive nationalization of economic resources. In 1960, the
Mali was reported to be about 4.1 million.
On 19 November 1968, following progressive economic decline, the
Keïta regime was overthrown in a bloodless military coup led by
Moussa Traoré , a day which is now commemorated as
Liberation Day .
The subsequent military-led regime, with Traoré as president,
attempted to reform the economy. His efforts were frustrated by
political turmoil and a devastating drought between 1968 and 1974, in
which famine killed thousands of people. The Traoré regime faced
student unrest beginning in the late 1970s and three coup attempts.
The Traoré regime repressed all dissenters until the late 1980s.
The government continued to attempt economic reforms, and the
populace became increasingly dissatisfied. In response to growing
demands for multi-party democracy, the Traoré regime allowed some
limited political liberalization. They refused to usher in a
full-fledged democratic system. In 1990, cohesive opposition
movements began to emerge, and was complicated by the turbulent rise
of ethnic violence in the north following the return of many Tuaregs
to Mali. WWI Commemorative Monument to the "Armée Noire"
Anti-government protests in 1991 led to a coup, a transitional
government, and a new constitution . Opposition to the corrupt and
dictatorial regime of General
Moussa Traoré grew during the 1980s.
During this time strict programs, imposed to satisfy demands of the
International Monetary Fund, brought increased hardship upon the
country's population, while elites close to the government supposedly
lived in growing wealth. Peaceful student protests in January 1991
were brutally suppressed, with mass arrests and torture of leaders and
participants. Scattered acts of rioting and vandalism of public
buildings followed, but most actions by the dissidents remained
From 22 March through 26 March 1991, mass pro-democracy rallies and a
nationwide strike was held in both urban and rural communities, which
became known as les evenements ("the events") or the March Revolution.
In Bamako, in response to mass demonstrations organized by university
students and later joined by trade unionists and others, soldiers
opened fire indiscriminately on the nonviolent demonstrators. Riots
broke out briefly following the shootings. Barricades as well as
roadblocks were erected and Traoré declared a state of emergency and
imposed a nightly curfew. Despite an estimated loss of 300 lives over
the course of four days, nonviolent protesters continued to return to
Bamako each day demanding the resignation of the dictatorial president
and the implementation of democratic policies.
26 March 1991 is the day that marks the clash between military
soldiers and peaceful demonstrating students which climaxed in the
massacre of dozens under the orders of then President Moussa Traoré.
He and three associates were later tried and convicted and received
the death sentence for their part in the decision-making of that day.
Nowadays, the day is a national holiday in order to remember the
tragic events and the people that were killed. The coup is remembered
as Mali's March Revolution of 1991.
By 26 March, the growing refusal of soldiers to fire into the largely
nonviolent protesting crowds turned into a full-scale tumult, and
resulted in thousands of soldiers putting down their arms and joining
the pro-democracy movement. That afternoon, Lieutenant Colonel Amadou
Toumani Touré announced on the radio that he had arrested the
dictatorial president, Moussa Traoré. As a consequence, opposition
parties were legalized and a national congress of civil and political
groups met to draft a new democratic constitution to be approved by a
AMADOU TOUMANI TOURé PRESIDENCY
Alpha Oumar Konaré won Mali's first democratic, multi-party
presidential election, before being re-elected for a second term in
1997, which was the last allowed under the constitution. In 2002
Amadou Toumani Touré , a retired general who had been the leader of
the military aspect of the 1991 democratic uprising, was elected.
During this democratic period
Mali was regarded as one of the most
politically and socially stable countries in Africa.
Slavery persists in
Mali today with as many as 200,000 people held in
direct servitude to a master. In the
Tuareg Rebellion of 2012 ,
ex-slaves were a vulnerable population with reports of some slaves
being recaptured by their former masters.
NORTHERN MALI CONFLICT
Northern Mali conflict (2012–present) Tuareg
separatist rebels in Mali, January 2012
In January 2012 a
Tuareg rebellion began in Northern Mali, led by the
National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad . In March, military
Amadou Sanogo seized power in a coup d\'état , citing
Touré's failures in quelling the rebellion, and leading to sanctions
and an embargo by the
Economic Community of West African States . The
MNLA quickly took control of the north, declaring independence as
Azawad . However,
Islamist groups including
Ansar Dine and Al-Qaeda
in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) , who had helped the MNLA defeat the
government, turned on the
Tuareg and took control of the North with
the goal of implementing sharia in Mali.
On 11 January 2013, the
French Armed Forces intervened at the request
of the interim government. On 30 January, the coordinated advance of
the French and Malian troops claimed to have retaken the last
Islamist stronghold of Kidal, which was also the last of
three northern provincial capitals. On 2 February, the French
François Hollande , joined Mali's interim President,
Dioncounda Traoré , in a public appearance in recently recaptured
Satellite image of
Mali map of Köppen climate
classification. Landscape in
Hombori Main article: Geography
Mali is a landlocked country in West Africa, located southwest of
Algeria . It lies between latitudes 10° and 25°N , and longitudes
13°W and 5°E .
Mali is bordered by
Algeria to the northeast, Niger
to the east,
Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire to the south,
the south-west, and
Mauritania to the west.
At 1,242,248 square kilometres (479,635 sq mi), including the
disputed region of
Mali is the world's 24th-largest country
and is comparable in size to South
Angola . Most of the
country lies in the southern
Sahara Desert , which produces an
extremely hot, dust-laden Sudanian savanna zone.
Mali is mostly flat,
rising to rolling northern plains covered by sand . The Adrar des
Ifoghas massif lies in the northeast.
Mali lies in the torrid zone and is among the hottest countries in
the world. The thermal equator , which matches the hottest spots
year-round on the planet based on the mean daily annual temperature,
crosses the country. Most of
Mali receives negligible rainfall and
droughts are very frequent. Late June to early December is the rainy
season in the southernmost area. During this time, flooding of the
Niger River is common, creating the Inner
Niger Delta . The vast
northern desert part of
Mali has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate
classification (_BWh_) with long, extremely hot summers and scarce
rainfall which decreases northwards. The central area has a hot
semi-arid climate (
Köppen climate classification (_BSh_) with very
high temperatures year-round, a long, intense dry season and a brief,
irregular rainy season. The little southern band possesses a tropical
wet and dry climate (
Köppen climate classification (_Aw_) very high
temperatures year-round with a dry season and a rainy season.
Mali has considerable natural resources, with gold, uranium,
phosphates , kaolinite , salt and limestone being most widely
Mali is estimated to have in excess of 17,400 tonnes of
uranium (measured + indicated + inferred). In 2012, a further
uranium mineralized north zone was identified.
Mali faces numerous
environmental challenges, including desertification , deforestation ,
soil erosion , and inadequate supplies of potable water .
REGIONS AND CERCLES
Regions of Mali ,
Cercles of Mali , and Communes of
Mali has been divided into ten regions and the District
of Bamako. Each region has a governor. The implementation of the two
newest regions, Taoudénit (formerly part of Tombouctou Region) and
Ménaka Cercle in
Gao Region), has been ongoing
since January 2016; a governor and transitional council has been
appointed for both regions. The ten regions in turn are subdivided
into 56 _cercle_s and 703 _communes_ .
The _régions_ and Capital District are:
Census 1998 Population
Capital District 252
EXTENT OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CONTROL
In March 2012, the Malian government lost control over Tombouctou,
Gao and Kidal Regions and the north-eastern portion of
On 6 April 2012, the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad
unilaterally declared their secession from
Azawad , an act
Mali nor the international community recognised . The
government later regained control over these areas.
POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT
Politics of Mali Ex Malian Transition President
Until the military coup of 22 March 2012 and a second military coup
in December 2012,
Mali was a constitutional democracy governed by the
Constitution of 12 January 1992, which was amended in 1999. The
constitution provides for a separation of powers among the executive,
legislative , and judicial branches of government. The system of
government can be described as "semi-presidential". Executive power
is vested in a president, who is elected to a five-year term by
universal suffrage and is limited to two terms.
The president serves as a chief of state and commander in chief of
the armed forces. A prime minister appointed by the president serves
as head of government and in turn appoints the Council of Ministers.
The unicameral National Assembly is Mali's sole legislative body,
consisting of deputies elected to five-year terms. Following the
2007 elections, the Alliance for Democracy and Progress held 113 of
160 seats in the assembly. The assembly holds two regular sessions
each year, during which it debates and votes on legislation that has
been submitted by a member or by the government.
Mali's constitution provides for an independent judiciary, but the
executive continues to exercise influence over the judiciary by virtue
of power to appoint judges and oversee both judicial functions and law
enforcement. Mali's highest courts are the Supreme Court, which has
both judicial and administrative powers, and a separate Constitutional
Court that provides judicial review of legislative acts and serves as
an election arbiter. Various lower courts exist, though village
chiefs and elders resolve most local disputes in rural areas.
Foreign relations of Mali Former President of
Amadou Toumani Touré and Minister-president of the Netherlands
Mali's foreign policy orientation has become increasingly pragmatic
and pro-Western over time. Since the institution of a democratic form
of government in 2002, Mali's relations with the West in general and
with the United States in particular have improved significantly.
Mali has a longstanding yet ambivalent relationship with France, a
former colonial ruler .
Mali was active in regional organizations
such as the
African Union until its suspension over the 2012 Malian
coup d\'état .
Working to control and resolve regional conflicts, such as in Ivory
Liberia , and
Sierra Leone , is one of Mali's major foreign
Mali feels threatened by the potential for the
spillover of conflicts in neighboring states, and relations with those
neighbors are often uneasy. General insecurity along borders in the
north, including cross-border banditry and terrorism, remain troubling
issues in regional relations.
Military of Mali
Mali\'s military forces consist of an army, which includes land
forces and air force, as well as the paramilitary Gendarmerie and
Republican Guard, all of which are under the control of Mali's
Ministry of Defense and Veterans, headed by a civilian . The military
is underpaid, poorly equipped, and in need of rationalization.
Economy of Mali A market scene in
Kalabougou potters. Cotton processing at CMDT.
Central Bank of West African States handles the financial affairs
Mali and additional members of the Economic Community of West
African States .
Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world.
The average worker's annual salary is approximately US$1,500.
Mali underwent economic reform, beginning in 1988 by signing
agreements with the
World Bank and the
International Monetary Fund .
During 1988 to 1996, Mali's government largely reformed public
enterprises. Since the agreement, sixteen enterprises were privatized,
12 partially privatized, and 20 liquidated. In 2005, the Malian
government conceded a railroad company to the Savage Corporation. Two
major companies, Societé de Telecommunications du
SOTELMA ) and
the Cotton Ginning Company (CMDT ), were expected to be privatized in
Between 1992 and 1995,
Mali implemented an economic adjustment
programme that resulted in economic growth and a reduction in
financial imbalances. The programme increased social and economic
conditions, and led to
Mali joining the
World Trade Organization on 31
Mali is also a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of
Business Law in
OHADA ). The gross domestic product (GDP) has
risen since. In 2002, the GDP amounted to US$3.4 billion, and
increased to US$5.8 billion in 2005, which amounts to an
approximately 17.6 percent annual growth rate.
Mali is a part of "French Zone" (_Zone Franc_), which means that it
CFA franc .
Mali is connected with the French government by
agreement since 1962 (creation of
BCEAO ). Today all seven countries
BCEAO (including Mali) are connected to French Central Bank.
Mali's key industry is agriculture. Cotton is the country's largest
crop export and is exported west throughout
Senegal and Ivory Coast.
During 2002, 620,000 tons of cotton were produced in
Mali but cotton
prices declined significantly in 2003. In addition to cotton, Mali
produces rice, millet , corn , vegetables, tobacco, and tree crops.
Gold, livestock and agriculture amount to 80% of Mali's exports.
Eighty percent of Malian workers are employed in agriculture. 15
percent of Malian workers are employed in the service sector.
Seasonal variations lead to regular temporary unemployment of
In 1991, with the assistance of the International Development
Mali relaxed the enforcement of mining codes which led
to renewed foreign interest and investment in the mining industry.
Gold is mined in the southern region and
Mali has the third highest
gold production in
Africa (after South
The emergence of gold as Mali's leading export product since 1999 has
helped mitigate some of the negative impact of the cotton and Ivory
Coast crises. Other natural resources include kaolin , salt,
phosphate , and limestone .
List of power stations in Mali
Electricity and water are maintained by the Energie du Mali, or EDM,
and textiles are generated by Industry Textile du Mali, or ITEMA.
Mali has made efficient use of hydroelectricity , consisting of over
half of Mali's electrical power. In 2002, 700 GWh of hydroelectric
power were produced in Mali.
Mali is an electric company that provides electricity to
Mali citizens. Only 55% of the population in cities have access to
Transport in Mali
Transport in Mali
In Mali, there is a railway that connects to bordering countries.
There are also approximately 29 airports of which 8 have paved
runways. Urban areas are known for their large quantity of green and
white taxicabs . A significant sum of the population is dependent on
public transportation .
A Bozo girl in
Bamako Main article:
Demographics of Mali
In July 2009, Mali's population was an estimated 14.5 million. The
population is predominantly rural (68 percent in 2002), and 5–10
percent of Malians are nomadic . More than 90 percent of the
population lives in the southern part of the country, especially in
Bamako , which has over 1 million residents.
In 2007, about 48 percent of Malians were younger than 12 years old,
49 percent were 15–64 years old, and 3 percent were 65 and older.
The median age was 15.9 years. The birth rate in 2014 is 45.53 births
per 1,000, and the total fertility rate (in 2012) was 6.4 children per
woman. The death rate in 2007 was 16.5 deaths per 1,000. Life
expectancy at birth was 53.06 years total (51.43 for males and 54.73
Mali has one of the world\'s highest rates of infant
mortality , with 106 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2007.
Largest cities or towns in Mali
1 297 281
Tuareg are historic, nomadic inhabitants of northern Mali.
Mali's population encompasses a number of sub-Saharan ethnic groups.
The Bambara (Bambara : _Bamanankaw_) are by far the largest single
ethnic group, making up 36.5 percent of the population.
Collectively, the Bambara, Soninké ,
Khassonké , and Malinké (also
called Mandinka ), all part of the broader
Mandé group, constitute 50
percent of Mali's population. Other significant groups are the Fula
(French: _Peul_; Fula : _Fulɓe_) (17 percent), Voltaic (12 percent),
Songhai (6 percent), and
Tuareg and Moor (10 percent).
In the far north, there is a division between Berber -descendent
Tuareg nomad populations and the darker-skinned Bella or Tamasheq
people, due to the historical spread of slavery in the region. An
estimated 800,000 people in
Mali are descended from slaves . Slavery
Mali has persisted for centuries. The
Arabic population kept
slaves well into the 20th century, until slavery was suppressed by
French authorities around the mid-20th century. There still persist
certain hereditary servitude relationships, and according to some
estimates, even today approximately 200,000 Malians are still
Mali has enjoyed a reasonably good inter-ethnic
relationships based on the long history of coexistence, some
hereditary servitude and bondage relationship exist, as well as ethnic
tension between settled Songhai and nomadic Tuaregs of the north. Due
to a backlash against the northern population after independence, Mali
is now in a situation where both groups complain about discrimination
on the part of the other group. This conflict also plays a role in
Northern Mali conflict
Northern Mali conflict where there is a tension between
both Tuaregs and the Malian government, and the Tuaregs and radical
Islamists who are trying to establish sharia law .
Languages of Mali
Mali's official language is French and over 40
African languages also
are spoken by the various ethnic groups. About 80 percent of Mali's
population can communicate in Bambara , which serves as an important
lingua franca .
Mali has 12 national languages beside French and Bambara , namely
Bomu , Tieyaxo Bozo , Toro So Dogon ,
Maasina Fulfulde , Hassaniya
Arabic , Mamara Senoufo , Kita Maninkakan , Soninke , Koyraboro Senni
, Syenara Senoufo ,
Tamasheq and Xaasongaxango . Each is spoken as a
first language primarily by the ethnic group with which it is
Religion in Mali
RELIGION IN MALI
A mosque entrance
Islam was introduced to West
Africa in the 11th century and remains
the predominant religion in much of the region. An estimated 90
percent of Malians are
Sunni , followed by a smaller
proportion of Ahmadi ), approximately 5 percent are Christian (about
two-thirds Roman Catholic and one-third Protestant) and the remaining
5 percent adhere to indigenous or traditional animist beliefs .
Atheism and agnosticism are believed to be rare among Malians, most of
whom practice their religion on a daily basis.
The constitution establishes a secular state and provides for freedom
of religion , and the government largely respects this right.
Islam as historically practiced in
Mali has been malleable and
adapted to local conditions; relations between Muslims and
practitioners of minority religious faiths have generally been
amicable. After the 2012 imposition of sharia rule in northern parts
of the country, however,
Mali came to be listed high (number 7) in the
Christian persecution index published by
Open Doors , which described
the persecution in the north as severe.
Education in Mali High school students in
Public education in
Mali is in principle provided free of charge and
is compulsory for nine years between the ages of seven and sixteen.
The system encompasses six years of primary education beginning at age
7, followed by six years of secondary education. Mali's actual
primary school enrollment rate is low, in large part because families
are unable to cover the cost of uniforms, books, supplies, and other
fees required to attend.
In the 2000–01 school year, the primary school enrollment rate was
61 percent (71 percent of males and 51 percent of females). In the
late 1990s, the secondary school enrollment rate was 15 percent (20
percent of males and 10 percent of females). The education system is
plagued by a lack of schools in rural areas, as well as shortages of
teachers and materials.
Estimates of literacy rates in
Mali range from 27–30 to 46.4
percent, with literacy rates significantly lower among women than men.
The University of
Bamako , which includes four constituent
universities, is the largest university in the country and enrolls
approximately 60,000 undergraduate and graduate students.
Health in Mali
Mali faces numerous health challenges related to poverty,
malnutrition , and inadequate hygiene and sanitation . Mali's health
and development indicators rank among the worst in the world. Life
expectancy at birth is estimated to be 53.06 years in 2012. In 2000,
62–65 percent of the population was estimated to have access to safe
drinking water and only 69 percent to sanitation services of some
kind. In 2001, the general government expenditures on health totalled
about US$4 per capita at an average exchange rate.
Efforts have been made to improve nutrition, and reduce associated
health problems, by encouraging women to make nutritious versions of
local recipes. For example, the International Crops Research Institute
for the Semi-Arid Tropics (
ICRISAT ) and the
Aga Khan Foundation ,
trained women's groups to make _equinut_, a healthy and nutritional
version of the traditional recipe _di-dèguè_ (comprising peanut
paste, honey and millet or rice flour). The aim was to boost nutrition
and livelihoods by producing a product that women could make and sell,
and which would be accepted by the local community because of its
Medical facilities in
Mali are very limited, and medicines are in
Malaria and other arthropod -borne diseases are
prevalent in Mali, as are a number of infectious diseases such as
cholera and tuberculosis . Mali's population also suffers from a high
rate of child malnutrition and a low rate of immunization . An
estimated 1.9 percent of the adult and children population was
afflicted with HIV/AIDS that year, among the lowest rates in
Africa . An estimated 85–91 percent of Mali's girls and
women have had female genital mutilation (2006 and 2001 data).
Culture of Mali Konoguel Mosque tower
The varied everyday culture of Malians reflects the country's ethnic
and geographic diversity. Most Malians wear flowing, colorful robes
called boubous that are typical of West Africa. Malians frequently
participate in traditional festivals, dances, and ceremonies.
Malian musical traditions are derived from the griots , who are known
as "Keepers of Memories". Malian music is diverse and has several
different genres. Some famous Malian influences in music are kora
Toumani Diabaté , the ngoni with Bassekou Kouyate
the virtuoso of the electric jeli ngoni , the late roots and blues
Ali Farka Touré , the
Tinariwen , and several
Afro-pop artists such as
Salif Keita , the duo
Amadou et Mariam ,
Oumou Sangare ,
Rokia Traore , and
Habib Koité . Dance also plays a
large role in Malian culture. Dance parties are common events among
friends, and traditional mask dances are performed at ceremonial
Though Mali's literature is less famous than its music,
always been one of Africa's liveliest intellectual centers. Mali's
literary tradition is passed mainly by word of mouth, with _jalis_
reciting or singing histories and stories known by heart. Amadou
Hampâté Bâ , Mali's best-known historian, spent much of his life
writing these oral traditions down for the world to remember.
The best-known novel by a Malian writer is
Yambo Ouologuem 's _Le
devoir de violence_, which won the 1968
Prix Renaudot but whose legacy
was marred by accusations of plagiarism. Other well-known Malian
writers include Baba Traoré, Modibo Sounkalo Keita, Massa Makan
Moussa Konaté , and
Fily Dabo Sissoko .
Malian children playing football in a Dogon village
The most popular sport in
Mali is football (soccer), which became
more prominent after
Mali hosted the
2002 African Cup of Nations .
Most towns and cities have regular games; the most popular teams
Djoliba AC ,
Stade Malien , and Real
Bamako , all based
in the capital. Informal games are often played by youths using a
bundle of rags as a ball.
Basketball is another major sport; the
Mali women\'s national
basketball team , led by
Hamchetou Maiga , competed at the 2008
Beijing Olympics . Traditional wrestling (_la lutte_) is also
somewhat common, though popularity has declined in recent years. The
game wari , a mancala variant, is a common pastime.
Malian cuisine Malian tea
Rice and millet are the staples of
Malian cuisine , which is heavily
based on cereal grains. Grains are generally prepared with sauces
made from edible leaves, such as spinach or baobab , with tomato
peanut sauce, and may be accompanied by pieces of grilled meat
(typically chicken, mutton , beef, or goat).
Malian cuisine varies
regionally. Other popular dishes include fufu , jollof rice , and
Media of Mali
In Mali, there are several newspapers such as _Les Echos_, _L'Essor_,
_Info Matin_, _Nouvel Horizon_, and _Le Républicain_. The
Telecommunications in Mali include 869,600 mobile phones, 45,000
televisions and 414,985 internet users.
* Geography portal
Ebola virus disease in Mali
Index of Mali-related articles
Outline of Mali
* ^ Presidency of Mali: Symboles de la République, L\'Hymne
National du Mali. Koulouba.pr.ml. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
* ^ "Mali\'s President
Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta names defence
Abdoulaye Idrissa Maïga as new Prime Minister". _
Retrieved 9 April 2017.
* ^ "
Mali preliminary 2009 census". Institut National de la
Statistique. Archived from the original on 18 April 2010. Retrieved 12
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Mali". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved
20 April 2012.
* ^ "Gini Index".
World Bank . Retrieved 2 March 2011.
* ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations
Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
* ^ Which side of the road do they drive on? Brian Lucas. August
2005. Retrieved 28 January 2009.
* ^ _
Mali gold reserves rise in 2011 alongside price_. Retrieved 17
* ^ _Human Development Indices_ Archived 12 January 2012 at the
Wayback Machine ., Table 3: Human and income poverty, p. 6. Retrieved
1 June 2009
* ^ "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World's Muslims: Unity
and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 9
August 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
* ^ Topics. MuslimHeritage.com (5 June 2003). Retrieved 8 October
* ^ Sankore University. Muslimmuseum.org. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
Mali Empire (ca. 1200- ) The Black Past: Remembered and
Reclaimed. The Black Past. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
* ^ Lydia Polgreen and Alan Cowell, "
Mali Rebels Proclaim
Independent State in North", _The New York Times_ (6 April 2012)
* ^ _A_ _B_ UN Security council condemns
Mali coup. Telegraph (23
March 2012). Retrieved 24 March 2013.
* ^ "
Mali – la
France a mené une série de raids contre les
islamistes". _Le Monde_. 12 January 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
* ^ Wolny, Philip (2013-12-15). _Discovering the Empire of Mali_.
The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 7. ISBN 9781477718896 .
* ^ Sasnett, Martena Tenney; Sepmeyer, Inez Hopkins (1967-01-01).
_Educational Systems of Africa: Interpretations for Use in the
Evaluation of Academic Credentials_. University of California Press.
* ^ Imperato, Pascal James; Imperato, Gavin H. (2008-04-25).
_Historical Dictionary of Mali_. Scarecrow Press. p. 231. ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_ Aku Adjandeh, Evelyn (July 2014). "A STUDY OF PROVERBS
IN THINGS FALL APART AND SUNDIATA: AN EPIC OF OLD MALI (SUNDIATA)"
(PDF). UNIVERSITY OF GHANA, LEGON - INSTITUTE OF AFRICAN STUDIES. p.
* ^ Graft-Johnson, John Coleman De (1986-01-01). _African Glory:
The Story of Vanished Negro Civilizations_. Black Classic Press. p.
92. ISBN 9780933121034 .
* ^ Fyle, C. Magbaily (1999-01-01). _Introduction to the History of
African Civilization: Precolonial Africa_. University Press of
America. p. 11. ISBN 9780761814566 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_
Mali country profile , p. 1.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ Mali
country profile .
Mali was later responsible for the collapse of
Islamic Slave Army from the North. The defeat of Tukuror Slave Army,
was repeated by
Mali against the
France and Spanish Expeditionary Army
in the 1800s ("Blanc et memoires"). . p. 2.
* ^ John Iliffe (2007) _Africans: the history of a continent_.
Cambridge University Press. p. 69. ISBN 0-521-68297-5
* ^ Core document forming part of the reports of states parties:
United Nations Human Rights Website.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_
Mali country profile , p. 3.
* ^ "Mali\'s nomads face famine". BBC News. 9 August 2005.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 June
2011. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
Mali March 1991 Revolution
* ^ _A_ _B_ Nesbitt, Katherine. "Mali\'s March Revolution (1991)".
International Center on Nonviolent Conflict. Archived from the
original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
* ^ Bussa, Edward. "Mali\'s March to Democracy". threadster.com.
Retrieved 1 March 2012.
Mali country profile , p. 4.
* ^ USAID Africa: Mali. USAID. Retrieved 15 May 2008. Retrieved 3
* ^ _A_ _B_ Tran, Mark (23 October 2012). "
Mali conflict puts
freedom of \'slave descendants\' in peril". _The Guardian_. London.
Retrieved 24 November 2012.
* ^ York, Geoffrey (11 November 2012). "
Mali chaos gives rise to
slavery, persecution". _The Globe and Mail_. Toronto.
Mali clashes force 120 000 from homes. News24 (22 February
2012). Retrieved 23 February 2012.
* ^ Callimachi, Rukmini (3 April 2012) "Post-coup
Mali hit with
sanctions by African neighbours". _Globe and Mail_. Retrieved 4 May
* ^ "
Tuareg rebels declare independence in north Mali".
6 April 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
* ^ Tiemoko Diallo; Adama Diarra (28 June 2012). "Islamists declare
full control of Mali\'s north". Reuters. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
* ^ "
Mali Islamists want sharia not independence". Google News.
Agence France-Presse. 20 June 2012. Archived from the original on 16
December 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
* ^ "
Mali Possibilities and Challenges for Transitional Justice in
Mali". International Center for Transitional Justice. 9 January 2014.
Retrieved 25 August 2016.
* ^ "French Troops Retake Kidal Airport, Move into City". _USA
Today_. 30 January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013. French troops
retake the last remaining
Islamist urban stronghold in Mali.
* ^ "
Timbuktu hails French President Hollande". BBC
News. 2 February 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013.
Retrieved 4 February 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_
Mali country profile , p. 5.
* ^ Uranium Mine Ownership – Africa. Wise-uranium.org. Retrieved
24 March 2013.
* ^ Muller, CJ and Umpire, A (22 November 2012) An Independent
Technical Report on the Mineral Resources of Falea Uranium, Copper and
Silver Deposit, Mali, West Africa. Minxcon.
* ^ Uranium in Africa. World-nuclear.org. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
* ^ Martin, Phillip L. (2006). _Managing Migration: The Promise of
Cooperation_. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. p. 134. ISBN
* ^ DiPiazza , p. 37.
* ^ "Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Mali"
MINUSMA . 28 March 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
* ^ "Régionalisation: Deux Nouvelles régions créées au Mali".
Malijet. 21 January 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
* ^ "Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Mali"
MINUSMA . 30 December 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
* ^ _Loi N°99-035/ Du 10 Aout 1999 Portant Creation des
Collectivites Territoriales de Cercles et de Regions_ (PDF) (in
French), Ministère de l'Administration Territoriales et des
Collectivités Locales, République du Mali, 1999, archived from the
original (PDF) on 9 March 2012
* ^ "
Tuareg rebels declare the independence of Azawad, north of
Mali". Al Arabiya. 6 April 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
* ^ Video: US condemns
Mali coup amid reports of looting. Telegraph
(22 March 2012). Retrieved 24 March 2013.
* ^ Hossiter, Adam (12 December 2012) Mali’s Prime Minister
Resigns After Arrest, Muddling Plans to Retake North. The New York
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_
Mali country profile , p. 14.
Constitution of Mali , Art. 30.
Constitution of Mali , Art. 29 & 46.
Constitution of Mali , Art. 38.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_
Mali country profile , p. 15.
Constitution of Mali , Art. 59 & 61.
* ^ (in French) Koné, Denis. Mali: "Résultats définitifs des
Législatives". _Les Echos _ (
Bamako ) (13 August 2007). Retrieved 24
Constitution of Mali , Art. 65.
Constitution of Mali , Art. 81.
Constitution of Mali , Art. 83–94.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_
Mali country profile , p. 17.
* ^ "ion suspends
Mali over coup". Al Jazeera. 23 March 2012.
Retrieved 23 March 2012.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ Central Intelligence
Agency (2009). "Mali". _
The World Factbook _. Retrieved 12 January
* ^ _A_ _B_
Mali country profile , p. 18.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ "Mali". U.S. State
Department . May 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2008.
Mali and the WTO. World Trade Organization. Retrieved 24 March
* ^ "OHADA.com: The business law portal in Africa". Retrieved 22
Mali country profile , p. 9.
* ^ Zone franc sur le site de la Banque de France.
Banque-france.fr. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Hale, Briony (13 May 1998). "Mali\'s Golden Hope".
BBC News. Retrieved 4 June 2008.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Cavendish, Marshall (2007). _World and Its
Peoples: Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa_. Tarrytown,
New York: Marshall Cavendish. p. 1367. ISBN 978-0-7614-7571-2 .
* ^ May, Jacques Meyer (1968). _The Ecology of
Malnutrition in the
French Speaking Countries of West
Africa and Madagascar_. New York:
Macmillan Publishing Company. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-02-848960-5 .
* ^ Campbell, Bonnie (2004). _Regulating Mining in Africa: For
Whose Benefit?_. Uppsala, Sweden: Nordic African Institute. p. 43.
ISBN 978-0-7614-7571-2 .
* ^ African Development Bank, p. 186.
* ^ Farvacque-Vitkovic, Catherine _et al._ (September 2007)
DEVELOPMENT OF THE CITIES OF MALI — Challenges and Priorities.
Africa Region Working Paper Series No. 104/a. World Bank
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_
Mali country profile , p. 6.
* ^ "
Mali Demographics Profile 2014".
* ^ Fortin, Jacey (16 January 2013). "Mali\'s Other Crisis: Slavery
Still Plagues Mali, And Insurgency Could Make It Worse".
_International Business Times_.
* ^ "Kayaking to Timbuktu, Writer Sees Slave Trade". National
Geographic News. 5 December 2002.
* ^ "Kayaking to Timbuktu, Original National Geographic Adventure
Slavery in Mali". National Geographic Adventure.
December 2002/January 2003.
* ^ MacInnes-Rae, Rick (26 November 2012). "Al-Qaeda complicating
anti-slavery drive in Mali". CBC News.
* ^ Bruce S. Hall, _A History of Race in
Muslim West Africa_,
1600–1960. Cambridge University Press, 2011, ISBN 9781107002876 :
"The mobilization of local ideas about racial difference has been
important in generating, and intensifying, civil wars that have
occurred since the end of colonial rule in all of the countries that
straddle the southern edge of the Sahara Desert. contemporary
conflicts often hearken back to an older history in which blackness
could be equated with slavery and non-blackness with predatory and
uncivilized banditry." (cover text)
* ^ see e.g. Mali\'s conflict and a \'war over skin colour\', Afua
Hirsch, _The Guardian_, Friday 6 July 2012.
* ^ _A_ _B_ International Religious Freedom Report 2008: Mali.
State.gov (19 September 2008). Retrieved 4 May 2012.
* ^ "The World\'s Muslims: Unity and Diversity" (PDF). Pew Forum on
Religious & Public life. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_
profile , p. 7.
* ^ Report points to 100 million persecuted Christians.. Retrieved
10 January 2013.
* ^ OPEN DOORS World Watch list 2012. Worldwatchlist.us. Retrieved
24 March 2013.
* ^ "Université de
Bamako – Bamako, Mali". Northwestern
University Feinberg School of Medicine. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
CIA World Factbook: Life Expectancy ranks
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_
Mali country profile , p. 8.
* ^ _Nourishing communities through holistic farming_, Impatient
optimists, Bill 2004 (DHS Comparative Reports No. 7). (PDF). Retrieved
18 January 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Pye-Smith, Charlie & Rhéal Drisdelle. _Mali: A
Prospect of Peace?_ Oxfam (1997). ISBN 0-85598-334-5 , p. 13.
* ^ Crabill, Michelle and Tiso, Bruce (January 2003).
Website. Fairfax County Public Schools. Retrieved 4 June 2008.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Music". Embassy of the Republic of
Mali in Japan.
Retrieved 8 July 2013.
* ^ Velton , p. 29.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Milet , p. 128.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Velton , p. 28.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Milet , p. 151.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ DiPiazza , p. 55.
* ^ _A_ _B_