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Materialism
MATERIALISM is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature , and that all things, including mental things and consciousness , are results of material interactions. Materialism is closely related to physicalism , the view that all that exists is ultimately physical. Philosophical physicalism has evolved from materialism with the discoveries of the physical sciences to incorporate more sophisticated notions of physicality than mere ordinary matter, such as: spacetime , physical energies and forces , dark matter , and so on. Thus the term "physicalism" is preferred over "materialism" by some, while others use the terms as if they are synonymous . Philosophies contradictory to materialism or physicalism include idealism , pluralism , dualism , and other forms of monism
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Economic Materialism
MATERIALISM is the importance a person attaches to acquiring and consuming material goods . The use of the term materialistic to describe a person's personality or a society tends to have a negative or critical connotation. Also called acquisitiveness, it is often associated with a value system which regards social status as being determined by affluence (see conspicuous consumption ), as well as the belief that possessions can provide happiness. Environmentalism
Environmentalism
can be considered a competing orientation to materialism. Materialism
Materialism
can be considered a pragmatic form of enlightened self-interest based on a prudent understanding of the character of market-oriented economy and society. However, studies have found that it is also associated with self-destructive behavior and depression
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Materialism (other)
MATERIALISM or MATERIALIST may refer to: * Materialism — the view that the universe consists only of organized matter and energy * Economic materialism the desire to accumulate material goods * Christian materialism is the combination of Christian theology with the ideas of materialism, which places a high value on material things. * Cultural materialism (anthropology) , an anthropologi
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Monism
MONISM is the view that attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept (e.g., existence). Various kinds of monism can be distinguished: * _Priority monism_ states that all existing things go back to a source that is distinct from them (e.g., in Neoplatonism everything is derived from The One). In this view only one thing is ontologically basic or prior to everything else. * _ Existence monism_ ("stuff monism") posits that, strictly speaking, there exists only a single thing (e.g., the universe), which can only be artificially and arbitrarily divided into many things. * _Substance monism_ ("stuff monism") asserts that a variety of existing things can be explained in terms of a single reality or substance
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Matter
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, MATTER is any substance that has mass and takes up space; this includes atoms and anything made up of these, but not other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound . More generally, however, in (modern ) physics , matter is not a fundamental concept because a universal definition of it is elusive; for example, the elementary constituents of atoms may be point particles, each having no volume individually. All the everyday objects that we can bump into, touch or squeeze are ultimately composed of atoms . This ordinary atomic matter is in turn made up of interacting subatomic particles —usually a nucleus of protons and neutrons , and a cloud of orbiting electrons . Typically, science considers these composite particles matter because they have both rest mass and volume. By contrast, massless particles , such as photons , are not considered matter, because they have neither rest mass nor volume
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Substance Theory
SUBSTANCE THEORY, or SUBSTANCE ATTRIBUTE THEORY, is an ontological theory about objecthood , positing that a _substance_ is distinct from its properties . A _thing-in-itself _ is a property-bearer that must be distinguished from the properties it bears. _Substance_ is a key concept in ontology and metaphysics , which may be classified into monist , dualist , or pluralist varieties according to how many substances or individuals are said to populate, furnish, or exist in the world. According to monistic views, there is only one substance. Stoicism and Spinoza , for example, hold monistic views, that pneuma or God , respectively, is the one substance in the world. These modes of thinking are sometimes associated with the idea of immanence . Dualism sees the world as being composed of two fundamental substances, for example, the Cartesian substance dualism of mind and matter
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Nature
NATURE, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe . "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large part of science . Although humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena. The word _nature_ is derived from the Latin word _natura_, or "essential qualities, innate disposition", and in ancient times, literally meant "birth". _Natura_ is a Latin translation of the Greek word _physis _ (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord. The concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe , is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-Socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since
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Mind
The MIND is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness , perception , thinking , judgement , and memory . It is usually defined as the faculty of an entity's thoughts and consciousness . It holds the power of imagination, recognition, and appreciation, and is responsible for processing feelings and emotions, resulting in attitudes and actions. There is a lengthy tradition in philosophy , religion , psychology , and cognitive science about what constitutes a mind and what is its distinguishing properties. One open question regarding the nature of the mind is the mind–body problem , which investigates the relation of the mind to the physical brain and nervous system. Pre-scientific viewpoints included dualism and idealism , which considered the mind somehow non-physical. Modern views center around physicalism and functionalism , which hold that the mind is roughly identical with the brain or reducible to physical phenomena such as neuronal activity
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Consciousness
CONSCIOUSNESS is the state or quality of awareness , or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself. It has been defined variously in terms of sentience , awareness, qualia , subjectivity , the ability to experience or to feel , wakefulness , having a sense of selfhood or soul , the fact that there is something "that it is like" to "have" or "be" it, and the executive control system of the mind . In contemporary philosophy its definition is often hinted at via the logical possibility of its absence, the philosophical zombie , which is defined as a being whose behavior and function are identical to one's own yet there is "no-one in there" experiencing it. Despite the difficulty in definition, many philosophers believe that there is a broadly shared underlying intuition about what consciousness is
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Physicalism
In philosophy, PHYSICALISM is the ontological thesis that "everything is physical", that there is "nothing over and above" the physical, or that everything supervenes on the physical. Physicalism is a form of ontological monism —a "one substance " view of the nature of reality as opposed to a "two-substance" (dualism ) or "many-substance" (pluralism ) view. Both the definition of "physical" and the meaning of physicalism have been debated. Physicalism is closely related to materialism . Physicalism grew out of materialism with the success of the physical sciences in explaining observed phenomena
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Spacetime
In physics , SPACETIME is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single 4‑dimensional continuum . Spacetime
Spacetime
diagrams are useful in visualizing and understanding relativistic effects such as how different observers perceive where and when events occur. Until the turn of the 20th century, the assumption had been that the three-dimensional geometry of the universe (its description in terms of locations, shapes, distances, and directions) was distinct from time (the measurement of when events occur within the universe). However, Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
's 1905 special theory of relativity postulated that the speed of light through empty space has one definite value—a constant —that is independent of the motion of the light source
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Energy
In physics , ENERGY is the property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on or to heat the object. It can be converted in form , but not created or destroyed . The SI unit of energy is the joule , which is the energy transferred to an object by the mechanical work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton . Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field (gravitational , electric or magnetic ), the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature . Mass
Mass
and energy are closely related
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Force
In physics , a FORCE is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object . A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest ), i.e., to accelerate . Force
Force
can also be described intuitively as a push or a pull. A force has both magnitude and direction , making it a vector quantity. It is measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F. The original form of Newton\'s second law states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes with time
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Dark Matter
DARK MATTER is a hypothetical type of matter distinct from baryonic matter (ordinary matter such as protons and neutrons ), neutrinos and dark energy . Dark matter
Dark matter
has never been directly observed; however, its existence would explain a number of otherwise puzzling astronomical observations. The name refers to the fact that it does not emit or interact with observable electromagnetic radiation , such as light , and is thus invisible to the entire electromagnetic spectrum . Although dark matter has not been directly observed, its existence and properties are inferred from its gravitational effects such as the motions of baryonic matter, gravitational lensing , its influence on the universe's large-scale structure , on the formation of galaxies , and its effects on the cosmic microwave background
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Synonym
A SYNONYM is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language. Words that are synonyms are said to be SYNONYMOUS, and the state of being a synonym is called SYNONYMY. The word comes from Ancient Greek _sýn_ (σύν; "with") and _ónoma_ (ὄνομα; "name"). An example of synonyms are the words _begin_, _start_, _commence_, and _initiate_. Words can be synonymous when meant in certain senses , even if they are not synonymous in all of their senses. For example, if one talks about a _long time_ or an _extended time_, _long_ and _extended_ are synonymous within that context . Synonyms with exact meaning share a seme or denotational sememe , whereas those with inexactly similar meanings share a broader denotational or connotational sememe and thus overlap within a semantic field . Some academics call the former type cognitive synonyms to distinguish them from the latter type, which they call near-synonyms
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Idealism
In philosophy , IDEALISM is the group of philosophies which assert that reality, or reality as we can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial. Epistemologically , idealism manifests as a skepticism about the possibility of knowing any mind-independent thing. In a sociological sense, idealism emphasizes how human ideas—especially beliefs and values—shape society. As an ontological doctrine, idealism goes further, asserting that all entities are composed of mind or spirit. Idealism
Idealism
thus rejects physicalist and dualist theories that fail to ascribe priority to the mind. The earliest extant arguments that the world of experience is grounded in the mental derive from India and Greece. The Hindu idealists in India and the Greek Neoplatonists gave panentheistic arguments for an all-pervading consciousness as the ground or true nature of reality
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