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Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=
genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...

Boeotian Aeolic and Laconian grc-dor, Δεύς, Deús ; grc, Δέος, ''Déos'', label=
genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...

el, Δίας, ''Días'' is the
sky The sky is the panorama obtained from observing the universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. The Big Bang th ...
and
thunder god Polytheistic Polytheism is the worship of or belief in multiple deities A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictio ...
in
ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that ...
, who rules as king of the gods of
Mount Olympus Mount Olympus (; el, Όλυμπος, Ólympos, also , ) is the highest mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in ...

Mount Olympus
. His name is
cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
with the first element of his
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...
equivalent Equivalence or Equivalent may refer to: Arts and entertainment *Album-equivalent unit, a measurement unit in the music industry *Equivalence class (music) *''Equivalent VIII'', or ''The Bricks'', a minimalist sculpture by Carl Andre *''Equivalent ...
Jupiter Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and at ...
. His mythology and powers are similar, though not identical, to those of Indo-European deities such as Jupiter,
Perkūnas Perkūnas ( lt, Perkūnas, lv, Pērkons, Old Prussian: ''Perkūns'', ''Perkunos'', Yotvingian: ''Parkuns'', Latgalian: ''Pārkiuņs'') was the common Baltic god of thunder, and the second most important deity in the Baltic Pantheon (gods), ...
,
Perun In Slavic paganism, Slavic mythology, Perun (Cyrillic script, Cyrillic: Перýн) is the highest god of the Pantheon (religion), pantheon and the god of sky, thunder, lightning, storms, rain, law, war, fertility and oak trees. His other attri ...
,
Indra Indra (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. ...

Indra
, and
Dyaus Dyaus ( ), or Dyauspitar (Devanagari द्यौष्पितृ, ), is the Ṛgvedic sky deity. His consort is Prithvi Prithvi or Prithvi Mata (Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; , , ) is a of that belongs to the branch ...
. Zeus is the child of
Cronus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of s originally told by the , and a of . These stories concern the and , the lives and activities of , , and , and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own and practice ...
and Rhea, the youngest of his siblings to be born, though sometimes reckoned the eldest as the others required disgorging from Cronus's stomach. In most traditions, he is married to
Hera Hera (; grc-gre, Ἥρα, Hḗrā; grc, Ἥρη, Hḗrē, label=none in Ionic Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in ancient Greek and Latin poetry * Ionian mode, a musical mode or a diatonic s ...

Hera
, by whom he is usually said to have fathered
Ares Ares (; grc, Ἄρης, ''Árēs'' ) is the Greek god The following is a list of gods A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the laws of nature. This t ...

Ares
, Hebe, and
Hephaestus Hephaestus (; wikt:Hephaestus#Alternative forms, eight spellings; grc-gre, Ἥφαιστος, Hḗphaistos) is the Greek god of blacksmiths, metalworking, carpenters, craftsmen, artisans, sculpture, sculptors, metallurgy, Fire (classical ele ...
. At the
oracle An oracle is a person or agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which go ...

oracle
of
Dodona Dodona (; : Δωδώνα, ''Dōdṓnā'', and : Δωδώνη, ''Dōdṓnē'') in in northwestern was the oldest oracle, possibly dating to the according to . The earliest accounts in describe Dodona as an oracle of . Situated in a remote r ...
, his consort was said to be Dione, by whom the ''
Iliad The ''Iliad'' (; grc, Ἰλιάς, Iliás, ; sometimes referred to as the ''Song of Ilion'' or ''Song of Ilium'') is an in , traditionally attributed to . Usually considered to have been written down circa the 8th century BC, the ''Iliad'' i ...

Iliad
'' states that he fathered
Aphrodite Aphrodite; , , ) is an ancient Greek goddess associated with love Love encompasses a range of strong and positive emotional and mental states, from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest Interpersonal relationship, interpe ...

Aphrodite
. Zeus was also infamous for his erotic escapades. These resulted in many divine and heroic offspring, including
Athena Athena or Athene, often given the epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied ...

Athena
,
Apollo Apollo, grc, Ἀπόλλωνος, ''Apóllōnos'', label=genitive , ; , grc-dor, Ἀπέλλων, ''Apéllōn'', ; grc, Ἀπείλων, ''Apeílōn'', label=, ; grc-aeo, Ἄπλουν, ''Áploun'', la, Apollō, la, Apollinis, lab ...

Apollo
,
Artemis Artemis (; grc-gre, Ἄρτεμις Artemis, ) is the Greek goddess Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or ori ...

Artemis
,
Hermes Hermes (; grc-gre, Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/supernat ...

Hermes
,
Persephone In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature ...

Persephone
,
Dionysus Dionysus (; grc-gre, Διόνυσος) is the god of the grape-harvest, winemaking, fertility, orchards and fruit, vegetation, insanity, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, festivity and theatre in Religion in ancient Greece, ancient Greek reli ...

Dionysus
,
Perseus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of s originally told by the , and a of . These stories concern the and , the lives and activities of , , and , and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own and practices. ...

Perseus
,
Heracles Heracles ( ; grc-gre, Ἡρακλῆς, , glory/fame of ), born Alcaeus (, ''Alkaios'') or Alcides (, ''Alkeidēs''), was a divine in , the son of and , and the foster son of .By his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receive ...

Heracles
,
Helen of Troy In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy, Helen, Helena, (Ancient Greek: Ἑλένη ''Helénē'', ) also known as beautiful Helen, Helen of Argos, or Helen of Sparta, was said to have been the most beautiful woman in the world. She was believed to hav ...

Helen of Troy
,
Minos In , Minos (; grc-gre, Μίνως, ) was a of , son of and . Every nine years, he made pick seven young boys and seven young girls to be sent to 's creation, the , to be eaten by the . After his death, Minos became a judge of the dead in ...

Minos
, and the
Muse In ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and Greek mythology, mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and Cult (religious practice), cult practi ...

Muse
s. He was respected as an allfather who was chief of the gods and assigned roles to the others: "Even the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father, and all the gods rise in his presence." He was equated with many foreign
weather god A weather god, also frequently known as a storm god, is a deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as "a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polyth ...

weather god
s, permitting
PausaniasPausanias (; Greek language, Greek: Παυσανίας) is the name of several people: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias (general), Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pa ...
to observe "That Zeus is king in heaven is a saying common to all men". Zeus' symbols are the
thunderbolt A thunderbolt or lightning bolt is a symbolic representation of lightning when accompanied by a loud thunderclap. In Indo-European mythology, the thunderbolt was identified with the Proto-Indo-European mythology#Sky Father, 'Sky Father'; thi ...

thunderbolt
,
eagle Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey Birds of prey, also known as raptors, include species of bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class (biology), class Aves , characterised by feather ...

eagle
,
bull A bull is an intact (i.e., not castrated Castration (also known as orchiectomy or orchidectomy) is any action, surgery, surgical, chemical substance, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles: the male gonad ...
, and
oak An oak is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including on ...

oak
. In addition to his Indo-European inheritance, the classical "cloud-gatherer" (Greek: , ''Nephelēgereta'') also derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the
ancient Near East The ancient Near East was the home of early civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government, and symbol A symbol is a mark ...
, such as the
scepter A sceptre (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage ...
. Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek artists in one of three poses: standing, striding forward with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand, or seated in majesty.


Name

The god's name in the nominative is (''Zeús''). It is inflected as follows:
vocative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
: (');
accusative The accusative case (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase ...
: ();
genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
: ();
dative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as we ...
: ().
Diogenes Laërtius Diogenes Laërtius ( ; grc-gre, Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Dīogénēs Lāértios; ) was a biographer of the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the ...
quotes
Pherecydes of Syros Pherecydes of Syros (; grc-gre, Φερεκύδης ὁ Σύριος; fl. 6th century BC) was a Greek or Syrian thinker from the island of Syros. Pherecydes authored a cosmogony Cosmogony is any model concerning the origin of either the cosm ...
as spelling the name . ''Zeus'' is the Greek continuation of *'' ,'' the name of the
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
god of the daytime sky, also called *' ("Sky Father"). The god is known under this name in the
Rigveda The ''Rigveda'' or ''Rig Veda'' ( ', from ' "praise" and ' "knowledge") is an of s (''suktas''). It is one of the four sacred canonical (') known as the . The ''Rigveda'' is the oldest known text. Its early layers are one of the oldes ...
(
Vedic Sanskrit Vedic Sanskrit was an ancient language of the Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan invasi ...
'' Dyaus/Dyaus Pita''),
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
(compare ''
Jupiter Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and at ...
'', from ''Iuppiter'', deriving from the
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
vocative *'), deriving from the
root In vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), form a large group ...
*''dyeu''- ("to shine", and in its many derivatives, "sky, heaven, god"). Zeus is the only deity in the Olympic
pantheon Pantheon may refer to: * Pantheon (religion), the set of gods belonging to a particular religion, mythology or tradition * Pantheon (mythical creature), a mythical or imaginary creature used in heraldry, particularly in Britain Computing *Pant ...
whose name has such a transparent Indo-European etymology. The earliest attested forms of the name are the
Mycenaean Greek Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European family of lan ...
, ''di-we'' and , ''di-wo'', written in the
Linear B Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek. The script predates the Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or ...
syllabic script.
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thoug ...

Plato
, in his ''Cratylus'', gives a folk etymology of Zeus meaning "cause of life always to all things", because of puns between alternate titles of Zeus (''Zen'' and ''Dia'') with the Greek words for life and "because of". This etymology, along with Plato's entire method of deriving etymologies, is not supported by modern scholarship.
Diodorus Siculus Diodorus Siculus, or Diodorus of Sicily ( grc-gre, Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης ;  1st century BC), was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern ...
wrote that Zeus was also called Zen, because the humans believed that he was the cause of life (zen). While
Lactantius Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius (c. 250 – c. 325) was an early Christian author who became an advisor to Roman emperor, Constantine I, guiding his Christian religious policy in its initial stages of emergence, and a tutor to his son Crisp ...

Lactantius
wrote that he was called Zeus and Zen, not because he is the giver of life, but because he was the first who lived of the children of
Cronus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of s originally told by the , and a of . These stories concern the and , the lives and activities of , , and , and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own and practice ...
.


Mythology


Birth

Cronus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of s originally told by the , and a of . These stories concern the and , the lives and activities of , , and , and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own and practice ...
sired several children by Rhea:
Hestia In the Ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and Greek mythology, mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and Cult (religious practice), cult p ...

Hestia
,
Demeter In ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and Greek mythology, mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and Cult (religious practice), cult ...

Demeter
,
Hera Hera (; grc-gre, Ἥρα, Hḗrā; grc, Ἥρη, Hḗrē, label=none in Ionic Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in ancient Greek and Latin poetry * Ionian mode, a musical mode or a diatonic s ...

Hera
,
Hades Hades (; grc-gre, ᾍδης, Háidēs; ), in the ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and Greek mythology, mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public ...

Hades
, and
Poseidon Poseidon (; grc-gre, Ποσειδῶν, ) was one of the Twelve Olympians upright=1.8, Fragment of a relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The t ...

Poseidon
, but swallowed them all as soon as they were born, since he had learned from
Gaia In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of s originally told by the , and a of . These stories concern the and , the lives and activities of , , and , and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own and practices. ...
and
Uranus Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. Its name is a reference to the Greek god of the sky, Uranus, who, according to Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and ...
that he was destined to be overthrown by his son as he had previously overthrown Uranus, his own father, an oracle that Rhea heard and wished to avert. When Zeus was about to be born, Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save him, so that Cronus would get his retribution for his acts against Uranus and his own children. Rhea gave birth to Zeus in Crete, handing Cronus a rock wrapped in swaddling clothes, which he promptly swallowed.


Infancy

Varying versions of the story exist: # According to
Hyginus Gaius Julius Hyginus (; 64 BC – AD 17) was a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
, Zeus was raised by a nymph named Amalthea. Since Saturn (Cronus) ruled over the
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wi ...

Earth
, the
heaven Heaven or the heavens, is a common religious cosmological or transcendent supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and . It also ...

heaven
s and the
sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
sea
, she hid him by dangling him on a
rope A rope is a group of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, or ropemaking. Thread (yarn), Thread is a type of yarn inte ...

rope
from a
tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with se ...

tree
so he was suspended between earth, sea and sky and thus, invisible to his father. # According to Apollodorus, Zeus was raised by a
goat The domestic goat or simply goat (''Capra hircus'') is a domesticated species of typically kept as . It was from the (''C. aegagrus'') of and . The goat is a member of the animal family and the subfamily , meaning it is closely related ...

goat
named Amalthea in a cave called Dictaeon Antron (
Psychro Cave Psychro Cave ( el, Σπήλαιο Ψυχρού) is an ancient Minoan civilization, Minoan sacred cave in Lasithi Plateau, Lasithi plateau in the Lasithi district of eastern Crete. Psychro is associated with the Diktaean Cave (Greek: ''Diktaion A ...
). A company of soldiers called Kouretes danced, shouted and clashed their spears against their shields so that Cronus would not hear the baby's cry.


King of the gods

After reaching manhood, Zeus forced Cronus to disgorge first the stone (which was set down at under the glens of
Parnassus Mount Parnassus (; el, Παρνασσός, ''Parnassós'') is a mountain of limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate rock, carbonate sedimentary rock. It is composed mostly of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are differ ...

Parnassus
to be a sign to mortal men, the
Omphalos An omphalos is a religious stone artifact, or baetylus. In Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often ...

Omphalos
) then his siblings in reverse order of swallowing. In some versions,
Metis Metis or Métis may refer to: Ethnic groups * Métis, certain groups of Canadians and Americans with both First Nations and European ancestry * Métis in Canada trace their descent to First Nations peoples and European settlers **Manitoba Métis ...
gave Cronus an
emetic Vomiting (also known as emesis and throwing up) is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach The stomach is a muscular, in the of humans and many other animals, including several s. The stomach has a dilat ...

emetic
to force him to disgorge the babies, or Zeus cut Cronus's
stomach The stomach is a muscular, in the of humans and many other animals, including several s. The stomach has a dilated structure and functions as a vital organ. In the digestive system the stomach is involved in the second phase of digestion, ...

stomach
open. Then Zeus released the brothers of Cronus, the
Hecatonchires In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of th ...
and the
Cyclopes In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of s originally told by the , and a of . These stories concern the and , the lives and activities of , , and , and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own and practices. M ...

Cyclopes
, from their dungeon in
Tartarus 250px, alt=Sisyphus depicted on a black-figure amphora vase , Underworld _upThe_legs_of_the_god__seven_realms_of_the_Hindus.html"__"title="Patala#Hinduism.html"__"title="Cosmic_Man.html"_;"title="Vishnu_as_the_Cosmic_Man">Vishnu_as_the_Cosm ...

Tartarus
, killing their guard,
Campe In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of s originally told by the , and a of . These stories concern the and , the lives and activities of , , and , and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own and practices. Mode ...
. As a token of their appreciation, the Cyclopes gave him
thunder Thunder is the sound caused by lightning Lightning is a naturally occurring electrostatic discharge during which two electrically charged regions in the atmosphere or ground temporarily equalize themselves, causing the instantaneous r ...

thunder
and the thunderbolt, or
lightning Lightning is a naturally occurring electrostatic discharge Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden flow of electricity Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan ...

lightning
, which had previously been hidden by Gaia. Together, Zeus, his brothers and sisters, Hecatonchires and Cyclopes overthrew Cronus and the other Titans, in the combat called the
Titanomachy In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of ...
. The defeated Titans were then cast into a shadowy underworld region known as Tartarus.
Atlas Blaeu's world map, originally prepared by Joan Blaeu for his ''Atlas Maior">Joan_Blaeu.html" ;"title="world map, originally prepared by Joan Blaeu">world map, originally prepared by Joan Blaeu for his ''Atlas Maior'', published in the first b ...

Atlas
, one of the titans who fought against Zeus, was punished by having to hold up the sky. After the battle with the Titans, Zeus shared the world with his elder brothers,
Poseidon Poseidon (; grc-gre, Ποσειδῶν, ) was one of the Twelve Olympians upright=1.8, Fragment of a relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The t ...

Poseidon
and
Hades Hades (; grc-gre, ᾍδης, Háidēs; ), in the ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and Greek mythology, mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public ...

Hades
, by drawing lots: Zeus received the sky and air, Poseidon the waters, and Hades the world of the dead (the underworld). Gaia resented the way Zeus had treated the Titans, because they were her children. Soon after taking the throne as king of the gods, Zeus had to fight some of Gaia's other children, including the
Gigantes In Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 m ...
. It was prophesied that the Gigantes, children of Gaia born from Uranus's blood, could not be killed by the gods alone, but they could be killed with the help of a mortal. Hearing this, Gaia sought for a certain plant (pharmakon) that would protect the Gigantes even from mortals. Before Gaia or anyone else could get it, Zeus forbade
Eos In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of ...

Eos
(Dawn),
Selene In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of ...

Selene
(Moon) and
Helios Helios; Homeric Greek: ), Latinized as Helius; Hyperion and Phaethon are also the names of his father and son respectively. often given the epithets Hyperion ("the one above") and Phaethon ("the shining"), is the deity, god and personification o ...

Helios
(Sun) to shine, harvested all of the plant himself and then he had
Athena Athena or Athene, often given the epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied ...

Athena
summon the mortal
Heracles Heracles ( ; grc-gre, Ἡρακλῆς, , glory/fame of ), born Alcaeus (, ''Alkaios'') or Alcides (, ''Alkeidēs''), was a divine in , the son of and , and the foster son of .By his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receive ...

Heracles
.
Porphyrion Image:Zeus contra Poryphion Pergamonaltar.JPG, 380px, Zeus (center left) against Porphyrion (far right), detail from the Pergamon Altar Gigantomachy frieze, Pergamon Museum Berlin. In Greek mythology, Porphyrion (Ancient Greek: Πορφυρίων) ...
, the king of the Gigantes,
Pindar Pindar (; grc-gre, Πίνδαρος , ; la, Pindarus; c. 518 – 438 BC) was an Greek lyric, Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes, Greece, Thebes. Of the Western canon, canonical nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, his work is the best preserv ...

Pindar
, ''Pythian'
8.12–18
attacked Heracles and Hera, but Zeus caused Porphyrion to lust after Hera, whom Porphyrion then tried to rape, but Zeus struck Porphyrion with his thunderbolt and Heracles (or Apollo) killed him with an arrow. Zeus, with the help of other Olympians and Heracles, destroyed the Gigantes. After the Gigantes failed to defeat Zeus, Gaia mated with Tartarus and gave birth to
Typhon Typhon (; el, Τυφῶν, ), also Typhoeus (; ), Typhaon () or Typhos (), was a monstrous serpentine giant and one of the deadliest creatures in Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, a ...
. The monstrous Typhon challenged the reign of Zeus. Zeus fought against him in a cataclysmic battle and defeated him with his thunderbolt. He then trapped Typhon in Tartarus. According to
Pindar Pindar (; grc-gre, Πίνδαρος , ; la, Pindarus; c. 518 – 438 BC) was an Greek lyric, Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes, Greece, Thebes. Of the Western canon, canonical nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, his work is the best preserv ...

Pindar
, however, Typhon was trapped in Mount Etna. Zeus' reign was once challenged by Hera, Poseidon, and Athena, who wished to bind Zeus and overthrow him. The Nereid
Thetis Thetis (; grc-gre, Θέτις ), is a figure from Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, ori ...

Thetis
called the Hecatoncheire Briareus to rescue Zeus. The other Olympians were scared of Briareus, who then freed Zeus.


Prometheus and conflicts with humans

When the gods met at Mecone to discuss which portions they will receive after a sacrifice, the titan
Prometheus In , Prometheus (; , , possibly meaning "")Smith"Prometheus". is a god of fire. Prometheus is best known for defying the gods by from them and giving it to humanity in the form of technology, knowledge, and more generally, . In some versions ...

Prometheus
decided to trick Zeus so that
humans Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species ...
receive the better portions. He sacrificed a large , and divided it into two piles. In one pile he put all the meat and most of the fat, covering it with the ox's grotesque stomach, while in the other pile, he dressed up the bones with fat. Prometheus then invited Zeus to choose; Zeus chose the pile of bones. This set a precedent for sacrifices, where humans will keep the fat for themselves and burn the bones for the gods. Zeus, enraged at Prometheus's deception, prohibited the use of fire by humans. Prometheus, however, stole fire from Olympus in a fennel stalk and gave it to humans. This further enraged Zeus, who punished Prometheus by binding him to a cliff, where an eagle constantly ate Prometheus's liver, which regenerated every night. Prometheus was eventually freed from his misery by
Heracles Heracles ( ; grc-gre, Ἡρακλῆς, , glory/fame of ), born Alcaeus (, ''Alkaios'') or Alcides (, ''Alkeidēs''), was a divine in , the son of and , and the foster son of .By his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receive ...

Heracles
. Now Zeus, angry at humans, decides to give humanity a punishing gift to compensate for the boon they had been given. He commands
Hephaestus Hephaestus (; wikt:Hephaestus#Alternative forms, eight spellings; grc-gre, Ἥφαιστος, Hḗphaistos) is the Greek god of blacksmiths, metalworking, carpenters, craftsmen, artisans, sculpture, sculptors, metallurgy, Fire (classical ele ...
to mold from earth the first woman, a "beautiful evil" whose descendants would torment the human race. After Hephaestus does so, several other gods contribute to her creation.
Hermes Hermes (; grc-gre, Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/supernat ...

Hermes
names the woman '
Pandora In Greek mythology, Pandora (Greek language, Greek: , derived from , ''pān'', i.e. "all" and , ''dōron'', i.e. "gift", thus "the all-endowed", "all-gifted" or "all-giving") was the first human woman created by Hephaestus on the instructions ...

Pandora
'. Pandora was given in marriage to Prometheus's brother
Epimetheus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of ...

Epimetheus
. Zeus gave her a
jar A jar is a rigid, cylindrical or slightly conical container, typically made of , , or , with a wide mouth or opening that can be closed with a , , lug cap, , roll-on cap, crimp-on cap, press-on cap, , heat sealed lidding film, an inner seal, ...
which contained many evils. Pandora opened the jar and released all the evils, which made mankind miserable. Only hope remained inside the jar. When Zeus was atop Mount Olympus he was appalled by
human sacrifice Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more humans as part of a ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and according to a set sequence. Rituals may be ...
and other signs of human decadence. He decided to wipe out mankind and flooded the world with the help of his brother
Poseidon Poseidon (; grc-gre, Ποσειδῶν, ) was one of the Twelve Olympians upright=1.8, Fragment of a relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The t ...

Poseidon
. After the flood, only
Deucalion In , Deucalion (; grc-gre, ) was the son of ; ancient sources name his mother as , , or .A to ''Odyssey'' 10.2 (=' fr. 4) reports that Hesiod called Deucalion's mother "Pryneie" or "Prynoe", corrupt forms which believed to conceal Pronoea's n ...

Deucalion
and
Pyrrha In , Pyrrha (; : Πύρρα) was the daughter of and and wife of of whom she had three sons, , , ; and three daughters , and . According to some accounts, Hellen or was credited to be born from Pyrrha's union with . Etymology In the word ...
remained. This flood narrative is a common motif in mythology.


In the ''Iliad''

The ''
Iliad The ''Iliad'' (; grc, Ἰλιάς, Iliás, ; sometimes referred to as the ''Song of Ilion'' or ''Song of Ilium'') is an in , traditionally attributed to . Usually considered to have been written down circa the 8th century BC, the ''Iliad'' i ...

Iliad
'' is a poem by
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
about the
Trojan war In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Homer), Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris (mythology), Paris of Troy took Helen of Troy, Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta. The war is one of the ...
and the battle over the City of
Troy Troy (Greek language, Greek: Τροία) or Ilium (Greek language, Greek: Ίλιον) was an ancient city located at Hisarlik in present-day Turkey, south-west of Çanakkale. It is known as the setting for the Greek mythology, Greek myth of the ...

Troy
, in which Zeus plays a major part. Scenes in which Zeus appears include: * Book 2: Zeus sends
Agamemnon In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of ...
a dream and is able to partially control his decisions because of the effects of the dream * Book 4: Zeus promises
Hera Hera (; grc-gre, Ἥρα, Hḗrā; grc, Ἥρη, Hḗrē, label=none in Ionic Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in ancient Greek and Latin poetry * Ionian mode, a musical mode or a diatonic s ...

Hera
to ultimately destroy the City of Troy at the end of the war * Book 7: Zeus and
Poseidon Poseidon (; grc-gre, Ποσειδῶν, ) was one of the Twelve Olympians upright=1.8, Fragment of a relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The t ...

Poseidon
ruin the Achaeans fortress * Book 8: Zeus prohibits the other Gods from fighting each other and has to return to
Mount Ida In Greek mythology, two sacred mountains are called Mount Ida, the "Mountain of the Goddess": Mount Ida (Crete), Mount Ida in Crete, and Mount Ida (Turkey), Mount Ida in the ancient Troad region of western Anatolia (in modern-day Turkey), which wa ...

Mount Ida
where he can think over his decision that the Greeks will lose the war * Book 14: Zeus is seduced by
Hera Hera (; grc-gre, Ἥρα, Hḗrā; grc, Ἥρη, Hḗrē, label=none in Ionic Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in ancient Greek and Latin poetry * Ionian mode, a musical mode or a diatonic s ...

Hera
and becomes distracted while she helps out the Greeks * Book 15: Zeus wakes up and realizes that his own brother,
Poseidon Poseidon (; grc-gre, Ποσειδῶν, ) was one of the Twelve Olympians upright=1.8, Fragment of a relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The t ...

Poseidon
has been aiding the Greeks, while also sending
Hector 250px, The bronze coin struck in 350–300 BC in Ophryneion, which was considered to be the site of the Tomb of Hector. Obverse depicts bearded Hector wearing triple crested helmet and reverse depicts infant Dionysos. In Greek mythology and R ...

Hector
and
Apollo Apollo, grc, Ἀπόλλωνος, ''Apóllōnos'', label=genitive , ; , grc-dor, Ἀπέλλων, ''Apéllōn'', ; grc, Ἀπείλων, ''Apeílōn'', label=, ; grc-aeo, Ἄπλουν, ''Áploun'', la, Apollō, la, Apollinis, lab ...

Apollo
to help fight the Trojans ensuring that the City of Troy will fall * Book 16: Zeus is upset that he couldn't help save
Sarpedon Sarpedon (; grc, wikt:Σαρπηδών, Σαρπηδών) is the name of several figures in Greek mythology * Sarpedon (Trojan War hero), Sarpedon, a son of Zeus, who fought on the side of Troy in the Trojan War. Although in the ''Iliad'', he was t ...
's life because it would then contradict his previous decisions * Book 17: Zeus is emotionally hurt by the fate of
Hector 250px, The bronze coin struck in 350–300 BC in Ophryneion, which was considered to be the site of the Tomb of Hector. Obverse depicts bearded Hector wearing triple crested helmet and reverse depicts infant Dionysos. In Greek mythology and R ...

Hector
* Book 20: Zeus lets the other Gods lend aid to their respective sides in the war * Book 24: Zeus demands that
Achilles In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of s originally told by the , and a of . These stories concern the and , the lives and activities of , , and , and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own and practices. ...

Achilles
release the corpse of
Hector 250px, The bronze coin struck in 350–300 BC in Ophryneion, which was considered to be the site of the Tomb of Hector. Obverse depicts bearded Hector wearing triple crested helmet and reverse depicts infant Dionysos. In Greek mythology and R ...

Hector
to be buried honourably


Other myths

Zeus slept with his great-granddaughter,
Alcmene In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of t ...
, disguised as her husband
Amphitryon Amphitryon (; Ancient Greek: Ἀμφιτρύων, ''gen''.: Ἀμφιτρύωνος; usually interpreted as "harassing either side", Latin: Amphitruo), in Greek mythology, was a son of Alcaeus (mythology), Alcaeus, king of Tiryns in Argolis. His ...

Amphitryon
. This resulted in the birth of
Heracles Heracles ( ; grc-gre, Ἡρακλῆς, , glory/fame of ), born Alcaeus (, ''Alkaios'') or Alcides (, ''Alkeidēs''), was a divine in , the son of and , and the foster son of .By his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receive ...

Heracles
, who would be tormented by Zeus's wife
Hera Hera (; grc-gre, Ἥρα, Hḗrā; grc, Ἥρη, Hḗrē, label=none in Ionic Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in ancient Greek and Latin poetry * Ionian mode, a musical mode or a diatonic s ...

Hera
for the rest of his life. After his death, Heracles's mortal parts were incinerated and he joined the gods on Olympus. He married Zeus and Hera's daughter, Hebe, and had two sons with her, Alexiares and Anicetus. When
Hades Hades (; grc-gre, ᾍδης, Háidēs; ), in the ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and Greek mythology, mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public ...

Hades
requested to marry Zeus's daughter,
Persephone In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature ...

Persephone
, Zeus approved and advised Hades to abduct Persephone, as her mother
Demeter In ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and Greek mythology, mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and Cult (religious practice), cult ...

Demeter
wouldn't allow her to marry Hades. Zeus fell in love with
Semele Semele (; grc, Σεμέλη ), in Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A ...

Semele
, the daughter of
Cadmus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, natu ...
and
Harmonia In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of ...

Harmonia
, and started an affair with her. Hera discovered his affair with Semele when she later became pregnant, and persuaded Semele to sleep with Zeus in his true form. When Zeus showed his true form to Semele, his lightning and thunderbolts burned her to death. Zeus saved the fetus by stitching it into his thigh, and it would be born as
Dionysus Dionysus (; grc-gre, Διόνυσος) is the god of the grape-harvest, winemaking, fertility, orchards and fruit, vegetation, insanity, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, festivity and theatre in Religion in ancient Greece, ancient Greek reli ...

Dionysus
. Alternatively, In the
Orphic Orphism (more rarely Orphicism; grc, Ὀρφικά, Orphiká) is the name given to a set of religious beliefs and practices originating in the ancient Greek and Hellenistic The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history betw ...
tradition, Zeus wanted to marry his mother Rhea. After Rhea refused to marry him, Zeus turned into a snake and raped her. Rhea became pregnant and gave birth to
Persephone In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature ...

Persephone
. Zeus in the form of a snake would mate with his daughter Persephone, which resulted in the birth of
Dionysus Dionysus (; grc-gre, Διόνυσος) is the god of the grape-harvest, winemaking, fertility, orchards and fruit, vegetation, insanity, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, festivity and theatre in Religion in ancient Greece, ancient Greek reli ...

Dionysus
. Zeus granted Callirrhoe's prayer that her sons by
AlcmaeonAlcmaeon, Alkmaion, Alcmeon, or Alkmaon may refer to: * Alcmaeon, the great-grandson of Nestor, from whom the Alcmaeonidae claimed descent * Alcmaeon (mythology), one of the Epigoni * ''Alcmaeon in Corinth'', a lost play by Euripides * Alcmaeon (King ...
,
Acarnan In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of th ...
and Amphoterus, grow quickly so that they might be able to avenge the death of their father by the hands of Phegeus (king of Psophis), Phegeus and his two sons. Both Zeus and
Poseidon Poseidon (; grc-gre, Ποσειδῶν, ) was one of the Twelve Olympians upright=1.8, Fragment of a relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The t ...

Poseidon
wooed
Thetis Thetis (; grc-gre, Θέτις ), is a figure from Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, ori ...

Thetis
, daughter of Nereus. But when Themis (or Prometheus) prophesied that the son born of Thetis would be mightier than his father, Thetis was married off to the mortal Peleus.


Family


Seven wives of Zeus

According to Hesiod, Zeus had seven wives. His first wife was the Oceanids, Oceanid
Metis Metis or Métis may refer to: Ethnic groups * Métis, certain groups of Canadians and Americans with both First Nations and European ancestry * Métis in Canada trace their descent to First Nations peoples and European settlers **Manitoba Métis ...
, whom he swallowed on the advice of Gaia and
Uranus Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. Its name is a reference to the Greek god of the sky, Uranus, who, according to Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and ...
, so that no son of his by Metis would overthrow him, as had been foretold. Later, their daughter
Athena Athena or Athene, often given the epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied ...

Athena
would be born from the forehead of Zeus. Zeus then married his aunt and advisor Themis, who bore the three Horae (Seasons): Eunomia (Order), Dikē (Justice), Eirene (Peace); and the three Moirai (Fates): Clotho (Spinner), Lachesis (Allotter), and Atropos (Unbending). Zeus then married his third wife, another Oceanid, Eurynome (Oceanid), Eurynome, who bore the three Charites (Graces): Aglaea (Splendor), whom
Hephaestus Hephaestus (; wikt:Hephaestus#Alternative forms, eight spellings; grc-gre, Ἥφαιστος, Hḗphaistos) is the Greek god of blacksmiths, metalworking, carpenters, craftsmen, artisans, sculpture, sculptors, metallurgy, Fire (classical ele ...
married, Euphrosyne (Joy), and Thalia (Good Cheer). Zeus's fourth wife was his sister,
Demeter In ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and Greek mythology, mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and Cult (religious practice), cult ...

Demeter
, who bore
Persephone In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature ...

Persephone
. The fifth wife of Zeus was another aunt, the Titan Mnemosyne, whom he seduced in the form of a mortal shepherd. Zeus and Mnemosyne had the nine Muses: Clio, Euterpe, Thalia, Melpomene, Terpsichore, Erato, Polymnia, Urania, and Calliope. His sixth wife was the Titan Leto, who gave birth to
Apollo Apollo, grc, Ἀπόλλωνος, ''Apóllōnos'', label=genitive , ; , grc-dor, Ἀπέλλων, ''Apéllōn'', ; grc, Ἀπείλων, ''Apeílōn'', label=, ; grc-aeo, Ἄπλουν, ''Áploun'', la, Apollō, la, Apollinis, lab ...

Apollo
and
Artemis Artemis (; grc-gre, Ἄρτεμις Artemis, ) is the Greek goddess Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or ori ...

Artemis
on the island of Delos. Zeus's seventh and final wife was his elder sister
Hera Hera (; grc-gre, Ἥρα, Hḗrā; grc, Ἥρη, Hḗrē, label=none in Ionic Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in ancient Greek and Latin poetry * Ionian mode, a musical mode or a diatonic s ...

Hera
.


Zeus and Hera

Zeus was the brother and consort of
Hera Hera (; grc-gre, Ἥρα, Hḗrā; grc, Ἥρη, Hḗrē, label=none in Ionic Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in ancient Greek and Latin poetry * Ionian mode, a musical mode or a diatonic s ...

Hera
. By Hera, Zeus sired
Ares Ares (; grc, Ἄρης, ''Árēs'' ) is the Greek god The following is a list of gods A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the laws of nature. This t ...

Ares
, Hebe and
Hephaestus Hephaestus (; wikt:Hephaestus#Alternative forms, eight spellings; grc-gre, Ἥφαιστος, Hḗphaistos) is the Greek god of blacksmiths, metalworking, carpenters, craftsmen, artisans, sculpture, sculptors, metallurgy, Fire (classical ele ...
, though some accounts say that Hera produced these offspring alone. Some also include Eileithyia, Eris (mythology), Eris, Enyo and Angelos (Greek mythology), Angelos as their daughters. In the section of the Iliad known to scholars as the Deception of Zeus, the two of them are described as having begun their sexual relationship without their parents knowing about it. Zeus mated with several nymphs and was seen as the father of many mythical mortal progenitors of Greeks, Hellenic dynasties. Aside from his seven wives, relationships with immortals included Dione (Titaness), Dione and Maia (mythology), Maia. Among mortals were
Semele Semele (; grc, Σεμέλη ), in Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A ...

Semele
, Io (mythology), Io, Europa (mythology), Europa and Leda (mythology), Leda (for more details, see below) and with the young Ganymede (mythology), Ganymede (although he was mortal Zeus granted him eternal youth and immortality). Many myths render Hera as jealous of his amorous conquests and a consistent enemy of Zeus' mistresses and their children by him. For a time, a nymph named Echo (mythology), Echo had the job of distracting Hera from his affairs by talking incessantly, and when Hera discovered the deception, she cursed Echo to repeat the words of others.


Transformation of Zeus


Children

1The Greeks variously claimed that the Moires/Fates were the daughters of Zeus and the Titaness Themis or of primordial beings like Chaos (mythology), Chaos, Nyx (mythology), Nyx, or Ananke (mythology), Ananke. 2The Charites/Graces were usually considered the daughters of Zeus and Eurynome but they were also said to be daughters of Dionysus and Aphrodite or of Helios and the naiad Aegle. 3Some accounts say that Ares, Hebe, and Hephaestus were born parthenogenesis, parthenogenetically. 4According to one version, Athena is said to be born parthenogenetically. 5Helen was either the daughter of Leda or Nemesis. 6Tyche is usually considered a daughter of Aphrodite and Hermes.


Roles and epithets

Zeus played a dominant role, presiding over the Ancient Greece, Greek Olympian pantheon. He fathered many of the heroes and was featured in many of their Cult (religion), local cults. Though the Homeric "cloud collector" was the god of the sky and thunder like his Near-Eastern counterparts, he was also the supreme cultural artifact; in some senses, he was the embodiment of Greek religion, religious beliefs and the archetype, archetypal Greek deity. Aside from local epithets that simply designated the deity as doing something random at some particular place, the epithets or titles applied to Zeus emphasized different aspects of his wide-ranging authority: *Zeus Aegiduchos or Aegiochos: Usually taken as Zeus as the bearer of the Aegis, the divine shield with the head of Medusa across it, although others derive it from "goat" () and ''okhē'' () in reference to Zeus' nurse, the divine goat Amalthea. *Zeus Agoraeus (Αγοραιος): Zeus as patron of the marketplace (agora) and punisher of dishonest traders. *Zeus Areius (Αρειος): either "warlike" or "the atoning one". *Zeus Eleutherios (Ἐλευθέριος): "Zeus the freedom giver" a cult worshiped in Ancient Athens, Athens *Zeus Horkios: Zeus as keeper of oaths. Exposed liars were made to dedicate a votive statue to Zeus, often at the sanctuary at Olympia *Zeus Olympios (Ολύμπιος): Zeus as king of the gods and patron of the Panhellenic Games at Olympia, Greece, Olympia *Zeus Panhellenios ("Zeus of All the Names of the Greeks, Greeks"): worshipped at Aeacus's temple on Aegina *Zeus Xenios (Ξένιος), Philoxenon, or Hospites: Zeus as the patron of hospitality (''xenia (Greek), xenia'') and guests, avenger of wrongs done to strangers Additional names and epithets for Zeus are also:


A

*Abrettenus (Ἀβρεττηνός) or Abretanus: surname of Zeus in Mysia *Achad: one of his names in Syria. *Acraeus (Akraios): his name at Smyrna. Acraea and Acraeus are also attributes given to various goddesses and gods whose temples were situated upon hills, such as Zeus,
Hera Hera (; grc-gre, Ἥρα, Hḗrā; grc, Ἥρη, Hḗrē, label=none in Ionic Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in ancient Greek and Latin poetry * Ionian mode, a musical mode or a diatonic s ...

Hera
,
Aphrodite Aphrodite; , , ) is an ancient Greek goddess associated with love Love encompasses a range of strong and positive emotional and mental states, from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest Interpersonal relationship, interpe ...

Aphrodite
, Pallas,
Artemis Artemis (; grc-gre, Ἄρτεμις Artemis, ) is the Greek goddess Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or ori ...

Artemis
, and others *Acrettenus: his name in Mysia. *Adad: one of his names in Syria. *Zeus Adados: A Hellenization of the Canaanite religion, Canaanite Hadad and Assyrian religion, Assyrian Adad, particularly his solar cult at Heliopolis (Syria), Heliopolis. *Adultus: from his being invoked by ''adults'', on their marriage. *Aleios (Ἄλειος) *Amboulios (Αμβουλιος, "Counsellor") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Ambulius *Apemius (Apemios, Απημιος): Zeus as the averter of ills *Apomyius (Απομυιος): Zeus as one who dispels flies *Aphesios (Αφεσιος; "Releasing (Rain)") *Astrapios (Αστραπαιος; "Lightninger"): Zeus as a
weather god A weather god, also frequently known as a storm god, is a deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as "a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polyth ...

weather god


B

*Basileus (Βασιλευς, "King, Chief, Ruler") *Bottiaeus/ Bottaios (Βοττιαίος, "of the Bottiaei"): Worshipped at Antioch Libanius wrote that Alexander the Great founded the temple of ''Zeus Bottiaios'', in the place where later the city of Antioch was built. *Dodonian Zeus, Zeus Bouleus/ Boulaios (Βουλαίος, "of the Council"): Worshipped at
Dodona Dodona (; : Δωδώνα, ''Dōdṓnā'', and : Δωδώνη, ''Dōdṓnē'') in in northwestern was the oldest oracle, possibly dating to the according to . The earliest accounts in describe Dodona as an oracle of . Situated in a remote r ...
, the earliest
oracle An oracle is a person or agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which go ...

oracle
, along with Zeus Naos *Brontios ("Thunderer"): Zeus as a
weather god A weather god, also frequently known as a storm god, is a deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as "a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polyth ...

weather god


C

*Cenaean (Kenaios/ Kenaius, Κηναῖος): a surname of Zeus, derived from cape Cenaeum


D

*Diktaios (Δικταιος): Zeus as lord of the Dikte mountain range, worshipped from Mycenaean Greece, Mycenaean times on Crete *Dodonian/ Dodonaios (Δωδωναῖος): meaning of
Dodona Dodona (; : Δωδώνα, ''Dōdṓnā'', and : Δωδώνη, ''Dōdṓnē'') in in northwestern was the oldest oracle, possibly dating to the according to . The earliest accounts in describe Dodona as an oracle of . Situated in a remote r ...


E

*Eleutherios (Ἐλευθέριος, "of freedom"). At Athens after the Battle of Plataea, Athenians built the Stoa of ''Zeus Eleutherios''. Some writers said that was called "of freedom" because free men built the portico near his shrine, while others because Athenians escaped subjection to the power of Persia and they were free. *Epidotes, Epidôtês/ Epidotes (Επιδωτης; "Giver of Good"): an epithet of Zeus at Mantineia and Sparta *Euênemos/ Euanemos (Ευηνεμος; "of Fair Winds", "Giver of Favourable Wind") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Evenemus/ Evanemus


G

*Zeus Georgos (, "Zeus the Farmer"): Zeus as god of crops and the harvest, worshipped in Athens


H

*Zeus Helioupolites ("Heliopolite" or "Heliopolitan Zeus"): A Hellenization of the Canaanite religion, Canaanite Baʿal (probably Hadad) worshipped as a sun god at Heliopolis (Syria), Heliopolis (modern Baalbek) in Syria *Herkeios (Ἑρκειος, "of the Courtyard") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Herceius *Hetareios (Ἑταιρεῖος, "of fellowship"): According to the ''Suda'', Zeus was called this among the Cretans. *Hikesios (Ἱκεσιος; "of Suppliants") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Hicesius *Hyetios (Ὑετιος; "of the Rain") *Hypatos (Ὑπατος, "Supreme, Most High") *Hypsistos (Ὕψιστος, "Supreme, Most High")


I

*Ikmaios (Ικμαιος; "of Moisture") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Icmaeus *Ithomatas (Ιθωμάτας)


K

*Zeus Kasios ("Zeus of Mount Kasios" the modern Jebel Aqra) or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Casius: a surname of Zeus, the name may have derived from either sources, one derived from ''Casion'', near Pelusium in Egypt. Another derived from Mount Kasios (Casius), which is the modern Jebel Aqra, is worshipped at a site on the Syrian–Turkish border, a Hellenization of the Canaanite religion, Canaanite mountain and
weather god A weather god, also frequently known as a storm god, is a deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as "a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polyth ...

weather god
Baal Zephon *Kataibates (Καταιβάτης, "descending") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Cataebates, because he was sending-down thunderbolts or because he was descending to earth due to his love of women. *Keraunios (Κεραυνιος; "of the Thunderbolt") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Ceraunius *Klarios (Κλαριος; "of the Lots") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Clarius *Konios (Κονιος; "of the Dust") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Conius *Koryphaios (Κορυφαιος, "Chief, Leader") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Coryphaeus *Kosmêtês (Κοσμητης; "Orderer") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Cosmetes *Ktesios (Κτησιος, "of the House, Property") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Ctesius


L

*Zeus Labrandos (Λαβρανδευς; "Furious, Raging", "Zeus of Labraunda"): Worshiped at Caria, depicted with a double-edged axe (''labrys''), a Hellenization of the Hurrian religion, Hurrian
weather god A weather god, also frequently known as a storm god, is a deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as "a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polyth ...

weather god
Teshub *Limenoskopos (Λιμενοσκοπος; "Watcher of Sea-Havens") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Limenoscopus occurs as a surname of several deities, Zeus,
Artemis Artemis (; grc-gre, Ἄρτεμις Artemis, ) is the Greek goddess Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or ori ...

Artemis
,
Aphrodite Aphrodite; , , ) is an ancient Greek goddess associated with love Love encompasses a range of strong and positive emotional and mental states, from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest Interpersonal relationship, interpe ...

Aphrodite
, Priapus and Pan (god), Pan


M

*Maimaktês (Μαιμακτης; "Boisterous", "the Stormy") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Maemactes, a surname of Zeus, derived from the Attic calendar month name 'Maimakterion' (Μαιμακτηριών, Romanization of Greek, Latinized Maemacterion) and which that month the ''Maimakteria'' was celebrated at Athens *Zeus Meilichios/ Meilikhios (Μειλίχιος; "Zeus the Easily-Entreated") *Mêkhaneus (Μηχανευς; "Contriver") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Mechaneus *Moiragetes (Μοιραγέτης; "Leader of the Fates", "Guide or Leade of Fate"):
PausaniasPausanias (; Greek language, Greek: Παυσανίας) is the name of several people: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias (general), Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pa ...
wrote that this was a surname of Zeus and
Apollo Apollo, grc, Ἀπόλλωνος, ''Apóllōnos'', label=genitive , ; , grc-dor, Ἀπέλλων, ''Apéllōn'', ; grc, Ἀπείλων, ''Apeílōn'', label=, ; grc-aeo, Ἄπλουν, ''Áploun'', la, Apollō, la, Apollinis, lab ...

Apollo
at Delphi, because Zeus knew the affairs of men, all that the Moirai, Fates give them and all that is not destined for them.


N

*Dodonian Zeus, Zeus Naos: Worshipped at
Dodona Dodona (; : Δωδώνα, ''Dōdṓnā'', and : Δωδώνη, ''Dōdṓnē'') in in northwestern was the oldest oracle, possibly dating to the according to . The earliest accounts in describe Dodona as an oracle of . Situated in a remote r ...
, the earliest
oracle An oracle is a person or agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which go ...

oracle
, along with Zeus Bouleus


O

*Ombrios (Ομβριος; "of the Rain", "Rain-Giver") *Ourios (Οὐριος, "of Favourable Wind"). Ancient writers wrote about a sanctuary at the opening of the Black Sea dedicated to the Zeus Ourios (ἱερὸν τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ Οὐρίου). In addition, on the island of Delos a dedication to Zeus Ourios was found. The dedication was made by a citizen of Ascalon, named Damon son of Demetrius, who escaped from pirates.


P

* Philios (Φιλιος; "of Friendship") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Philius * Phyxios (Φυξιος; "of Refuge") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Phyxius * Plousios (Πλουσιος; "of Wealth") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Plusius


S

*Skotitas (Σκοτιτας; "Dark, Murky") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Scotitas *Sêmaleos (Σημαλεος; "Giver of Signs") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Semaleus: *Sosipolis (Σωσίπολις; "City saviour"): There was a temple of Zeus Sosipolis at Magnesia on the Maeander


T

*Talos, Zeus Tallaios ("Solar Zeus"): Worshipped on Crete *Teleios (Τελειος; "of Marriage Rites") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Teleus *Theos Agathos (Θεος Αγαθος; "the Good God") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Theus Agathus *Tropaioukho/ Tropaiucho (τροπαιούχῳ, "Guardian of Trophies"): after the Battle of the 300 Champions, Othryades, dedicated the tropaion, trophy to "Zeus, Guardian of Trophies" .


X

* Xenios (Ξενιος; "of Hospitality, Strangers") or Romanization of Greek, Latinized Xenius


Cults of Zeus


Panhellenic cults

The major center where all Greeks converged to pay honor to their chief god was Olympia, Greece, Olympia. Their quadrennial festival featured the famous Games. There was also an altar to Zeus made not of stone, but of ash, from the accumulated remains of many centuries' worth of animals sacrificed there. Outside of the major inter-polis sanctuaries, there were no modes of worshipping Zeus precisely shared across the Greek world. Most of the titles listed below, for instance, could be found at any number of Greek temples from Asia Minor to Sicily. Certain modes of ritual were held in common as well: sacrificing a white animal over a raised altar, for instance.


Zeus Velchanos

With one exception, Greeks were unanimous in recognizing the birthplace of Zeus as Crete. Minoan culture contributed many essentials of ancient Greek religion: "by a hundred channels the old civilization emptied itself into the new", Will Durant observed, and Cretan Zeus retained his youthful Minoan features. The local child of the Great Mother, "a small and inferior deity who took the roles of son and consort", whose Minoan name the Greeks Hellenized as Velchanos, was in time assumed as an epithet by Zeus, as transpired at many other sites, and he came to be venerated in Crete as Zeus Velchanos ("boy-Zeus"), often simply the ''Kouros''. In Crete, Zeus was worshipped at a number of caves at Knossos, Mount Ida, Crete, Ida and Palaikastro. In the Hellenistic period a small sanctuary dedicated to Zeus Velchanos was founded at the Hagia Triada site of a long-ruined Minoan palace. Broadly contemporary coins from Phaistos show the form under which he was worshiped: a youth sits among the branches of a tree, with a cockerel on his knees. On other Cretan coins Velchanos is represented as an eagle and in association with a goddess celebrating a mystic marriage. Inscriptions at Gortyn and Lyttos record a ''Velchania'' festival, showing that Velchanios was still widely venerated in Hellenistic Crete. The stories of
Minos In , Minos (; grc-gre, Μίνως, ) was a of , son of and . Every nine years, he made pick seven young boys and seven young girls to be sent to 's creation, the , to be eaten by the . After his death, Minos became a judge of the dead in ...

Minos
and Epimenides suggest that these caves were once used for Incubation (ritual), incubatory divination by kings and priests. The dramatic setting of
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thoug ...

Plato
's ''Laws'' is along the pilgrimage-route to one such site, emphasizing archaic Cretan knowledge. On Crete, Zeus was represented in art as a long-haired youth rather than a mature adult and hymned as ''ho megas kouros'', "the great youth". Ivory statuettes of the "Divine Boy" were unearthed near the Labyrinth at Knossos by Sir Arthur Evans. With the Kouretes, a band of ecstatic armed dancers, he presided over the rigorous military-athletic training and secret rites of the Cretan ''paideia''. The myth of the death of Cretan Zeus, localised in numerous mountain sites though only mentioned in a comparatively late source, Callimachus, together with the assertion of Antoninus Liberalis that a fire shone forth annually from the birth-cave the infant shared with a Bees (mythology), mythic swarm of bees, suggests that Velchanos had been an annual vegetative spirit. The Hellenistic writer Euhemerus apparently proposed a theory that Zeus had actually been a great king of Crete and that posthumously, his glory had slowly turned him into a deity. The works of Euhemerus himself have not survived, but Christian patristic writers took up the suggestion.


Zeus Lykaios

The epithet Zeus Lykaios (Λύκαιος; "wolf-Zeus") is assumed by Zeus only in connection with the archaic festival of the Lykaia on the slopes of Lycaeus, Mount Lykaion ("Wolf Mountain"), the tallest peak in rustic Arcadia (ancient region), Arcadia; Zeus had only a formal connection with the rituals and myths of this primitive rite of passage with an ancient threat of cannibalism and the possibility of a werewolf transformation for the ephebos, ephebes who were the participants. Near the ancient ash-heap where the sacrifices took place was a forbidden precinct in which, allegedly, no shadows were ever cast. According to
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thoug ...

Plato
, a particular clan would gather on the mountain to make a sacrifice every nine years to Zeus Lykaios, and a single morsel of human entrails would be intermingled with the animal's. Whoever ate the human flesh was said to turn into a wolf, and could only regain human form if he did not eat again of human flesh until the next nine-year cycle had ended. There were games associated with the Lykaia, removed in the fourth century to the first urbanization of Arcadia, Megalopolis, Greece, Megalopolis; there the major temple was dedicated to Zeus Lykaios. There is, however, the crucial detail that ''Lykaios'' or ''Lykeios'' (epithets of Zeus and Apollo) may derive from Proto-Greek language, Proto-Greek *, "light", a noun still attested in compounds such as , "twilight", , "year" (lit. "light's course") etc. This, Cook argues, brings indeed much new 'light' to the matter as Achaeus of Eretria, Achaeus, the contemporary tragedian of Sophocles, spoke of Zeus Lykaios as "starry-eyed", and this Zeus Lykaios may just be the Arcadian Zeus, son of Aether, described by Cicero. Again under this new signification may be seen
PausaniasPausanias (; Greek language, Greek: Παυσανίας) is the name of several people: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias (general), Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pa ...
' descriptions of Lykosoura being 'the first city that ever the sun beheld', and of the altar of Zeus, at the summit of Mount Lykaion, before which stood two columns bearing gilded eagles and 'facing the sun-rise'. Further Cook sees only the tale of Zeus' sacred precinct at Mount Lykaion allowing no shadows referring to Zeus as 'god of light' (Lykaios).


Additional cults of Zeus

Although etymology indicates that Zeus was originally a sky god, many Greek cities honored a local Zeus who lived underground. Athenians and Sicilians honored Zeus Meilichios (Μειλίχιος; "kindly" or "honeyed") while other cities had Zeus Chthonios ("earthy"), Zeus Katachthonios (Καταχθόνιος; "under-the-earth") and Zeus Plousios ("wealth-bringing"). These deities might be represented as snakes or in human form in visual art, or, for emphasis as both together in one image. They also received offerings of black animal victims sacrificed into sunken pits, as did chthonic deities like
Persephone In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature ...

Persephone
and
Demeter In ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and Greek mythology, mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and Cult (religious practice), cult ...

Demeter
, and also the heroes at their tombs. Olympian gods, by contrast, usually received white victims sacrificed upon raised altars. In some cases, cities were not entirely sure whether the ''daimon'' to whom they sacrificed was a hero or an underground Zeus. Thus the shrine at Lebadaea in Boeotia might belong to the hero Trophonius or to Zeus Trephonius ("the nurturing"), depending on whether you believe
PausaniasPausanias (; Greek language, Greek: Παυσανίας) is the name of several people: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias (general), Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pa ...
, or Strabo. The hero Amphiaraus was honored as Zeus Amphiaraus at Oropus outside of Thebes, Greece, Thebes, and the Spartans even had a shrine to Zeus Agamemnon. Ancient Molossians, Molossian kings sacrificed to Zeus Areius (Αρειος). Strabo mention that at Tralles there was the Zeus Larisaeus (Λαρισαιος).


Non-panhellenic cults

In addition to the Panhellenic titles and conceptions listed above, local cults maintained their own idiosyncratic ideas about the king of gods and men. With the epithet Zeus Aetnaeus he was worshiped on Mount Etna, Mount Aetna, where there was a statue of him, and a local festival called the Aetnaea in his honor. Other examples are listed below. As Zeus Aeneius or Zeus Aenesius (Αινησιος), he was worshiped in the island of Cephalonia, where he had a temple on Mount Ainos, Mount Aenos.


Oracles of Zeus

Although most oracle sites were usually dedicated to
Apollo Apollo, grc, Ἀπόλλωνος, ''Apóllōnos'', label=genitive , ; , grc-dor, Ἀπέλλων, ''Apéllōn'', ; grc, Ἀπείλων, ''Apeílōn'', label=, ; grc-aeo, Ἄπλουν, ''Áploun'', la, Apollō, la, Apollinis, lab ...

Apollo
, the heroes, or various goddesses like Themis, a few oracular sites were dedicated to Zeus. In addition, some foreign oracles, such as Baʿal's at Heliopolis (Syria), Heliopolis, were interpretatio graeca, associated with Zeus in Greek or Jupiter in Latin.


The Oracle at Dodona

The cult of Zeus at
Dodona Dodona (; : Δωδώνα, ''Dōdṓnā'', and : Δωδώνη, ''Dōdṓnē'') in in northwestern was the oldest oracle, possibly dating to the according to . The earliest accounts in describe Dodona as an oracle of . Situated in a remote r ...
in Epirus, where there is evidence of religious activity from the second millennium BC onward, centered on a sacred oak. When the ''Odyssey'' was composed (circa 750 BC), divination was done there by barefoot priests called ''Selloi'', who lay on the ground and observed the rustling of the leaves and branches. By the time Herodotus wrote about Dodona, female priestesses called peleiades ("doves") had replaced the male priests. Zeus' consort at Dodona was not
Hera Hera (; grc-gre, Ἥρα, Hḗrā; grc, Ἥρη, Hḗrē, label=none in Ionic Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in ancient Greek and Latin poetry * Ionian mode, a musical mode or a diatonic s ...

Hera
, but the goddess Dione — whose name is a feminine form of "Zeus". Her status as a Titan (mythology), titaness suggests to some that she may have been a more powerful pre-Hellenic deity, and perhaps the original occupant of the oracle.


The Oracle at Siwa

The oracle of Ammon at the Siwa Oasis in the Western Desert of Egypt did not lie within the bounds of the Greek world before Alexander the Great, Alexander's day, but it already loomed large in the Greek mind during the archaic era: Herodotus mentions consultations with Zeus Ammon in his account of the Greco-Persian Wars, Persian War. Zeus Ammon was especially favored at Sparta, where a temple to him existed by the time of the Peloponnesian War. After Alexander made a trek into the desert to consult the oracle at Siwa, the figure arose in the Hellenistic imagination of a Libyan Sibyl.


Zeus and foreign gods

Zeus was identified with the Roman mythology, Roman god
Jupiter Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and at ...
and associated in the syncretic classical imagination (see ''interpretatio graeca'') with various other deities, such as the Egyptian mythology, Egyptian Amun, Ammon and the Etruscan mythology, Etruscan Tinia. He, along with
Dionysus Dionysus (; grc-gre, Διόνυσος) is the god of the grape-harvest, winemaking, fertility, orchards and fruit, vegetation, insanity, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, festivity and theatre in Religion in ancient Greece, ancient Greek reli ...

Dionysus
, absorbed the role of the chief Phrygian god Sabazios in the Syncretism, syncretic deity known in Rome as Sabazius. The Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes erected a statue of Zeus Olympios in the Judean Temple in Jerusalem. Hellenizing Jews referred to this statue as Baal Shamen (in English, Lord of Heaven). Zeus is also identified with the Hindu deity
Indra Indra (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. ...

Indra
. Not only they are the king of gods, but their weapon - thunder is similar.


Zeus and the sun

Zeus is occasionally conflated with the Hellenic sun god,
Helios Helios; Homeric Greek: ), Latinized as Helius; Hyperion and Phaethon are also the names of his father and son respectively. often given the epithets Hyperion ("the one above") and Phaethon ("the shining"), is the deity, god and personification o ...

Helios
, who is sometimes either directly referred to as Zeus' eye, or clearly implied as such. Hesiod, for instance, describes Zeus' eye as effectively the sun. This perception is possibly derived from earlier Proto-Indo-European religion, in which the sun is occasionally envisioned as the eye of Dyeus, *''Dyḗus Pḥatḗr'' (see Hvare-khshaeta). The Crete, Cretan Zeus Talos, Tallaios had solar elements to his cult. "Talos" was the local equivalent of Helios.


Zeus in philosophy

In Neoplatonism, Zeus' relation to the gods familiar from mythology is taught as the Demiurge or Divine nous, Mind, specifically within Plotinus's work the ''Enneads'' and the ''Platonic Theology'' of Proclus.


Zeus in the Bible

Zeus is mentioned in the New Testament twice, first in Acts 14:8–13: When the people living in Lystra saw the Apostle Paul heal a lame man, they considered Paul and his partner Barnabas to be gods, identifying Paul with
Hermes Hermes (; grc-gre, Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/supernat ...

Hermes
and Barnabas with Zeus, even trying to offer them sacrifices with the crowd. Two ancient inscriptions discovered in 1909 near Lystra testify to the worship of these two gods in that city. One of the inscriptions refers to the "priests of Zeus", and the other mentions "Hermes Most Great" and "Zeus the sun-god". The second occurrence is in Acts 28:11: the name of the ship in which the prisoner Paul set sail from the island of Malta bore the figurehead "Sons of Zeus" aka Castor and Pollux. The deuterocanonical book of 2 Maccabees 6:1, 2 talks of King Antiochus IV (Epiphanes), who in his attempt to stamp out the Jewish religion, directed that the temple at Jerusalem be profaned and rededicated to Zeus (Jupiter Olympius).


Zeus in Gnostic literature

Pistis Sophia, a Gnosticism, Gnostic text discovered in 1773 and possibly written between the 3rd and 4th centuries AD alludes to Zeus. He appears there as one of five grand rulers gathered together by a divine figure named Yew.


In modern culture


Movies

Zeus was portrayed by Axel Ringvall in ''Jupiter på jorden'', the first known film adaption to feature Zeus; Niall MacGinnis in ''Jason and the Argonauts (1963 film), Jason and the Argonauts'' and Angus MacFadyen in the Jason and the Argonauts (TV miniseries), 2000 remake; Laurence Olivier in the original ''Clash of the Titans (1981 film), Clash of the Titans'', and Liam Neeson in the Clash of the Titans (2010 film), 2010 remake, along with the 2012 sequel ''Wrath of the Titans''; Rip Torn in the Disney animated feature ''Hercules (1997 film), Hercules'', Sean Bean in ''Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Lightning Thief'' (2010).


TV series

Zeus was portrayed by Anthony Quinn in the 1990s TV series ''Hercules: The Legendary Journeys''; Corey Burton in the TV series ''Hercules (1998 TV series), Hercules''; Hakeem Kae-Kazim in ''Troy: Fall of a City''; and Jason O'Mara in the Netflix animated series ''Blood of Zeus''.


Video games

Zeus has been portrayed by Corey Burton in ''God of War II'', ''God of War III'', ''God of War: Ascension'', ''PlayStation All-Stars Battle Royale'' & ''Kingdom Hearts 3'' and Eric Newsome in Dota 2. Zeus is also featured in the 2002 Ensemble Studios game ''Age of Mythology'' where he is one of 12 gods that can be worshipped by Greek players.


Other

Depictions of Zeus as a bull, the form he took when abducting Europa (mythology), Europa, are found on the Greek 2-euro (currency), euro coin and on the United Kingdom identity card for visa holders. Mary Beard (classicist), Mary Beard, professor of Classics at Cambridge University, has criticised this for its apparent celebration of rape.''A Point of View: The euro's strange stories''
BBC, retrieved 20 November 2011


Genealogy of the Olympians


Argive genealogy


Gallery

File:Marie Pierre Abduction of Europa.JPG, The abduction of Europa from Zeus File:Calyx-krater olympian assembly MAN.jpg, Olympian assembly, from left to right: Apollo, Zeus and Hera File:Schloss Rastatt-Goldener Mann.jpg, The "Golden Man" Zeus statue File:Getty Villa - Collection (5305219094).jpg, Enthroned Zeus (Greek, c. 100 BC) - modeled after the Olympian Zeus by Pheidas (c. 430 BC) File:Zeus with Hera.jpg, Zeus and Hera File:Paris-33 (29998023800).jpg, Zeus statue File:Poseidon Zeus Marabouparken.JPG, Zeus/Poseidon statue


See also

* Family tree of the Greek gods * Agetor * Ambulia – Spartan epithet used for
Athena Athena or Athene, often given the epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied ...

Athena
, Zeus, and Castor and Pollux * Hetairideia – Thessalian Festival to Zeus * Temple of Zeus, Olympia * Zanes of Olympia – Statues of Zeus


Footnotes


Notes


References

* Apollodorus, ''Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes.'' Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921.
Online version at the Perseus Digital Library
* ''Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World. Antiquity, Volume 15'', Tuc-Zyt, editors: Hubert Cancik, Helmuth Schneider, Brill Publishers, Brill, 2009.
Online version at Brill
* Burkert, Walter, (1985) [1977]. ''Greek Religion'', especially section III.ii.1 (Harvard University Press) * Arthur Bernard Cook, Cook, Arthur Bernard, ''Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion'' (3 volume set), (1914–1925). New York, Bibilo & Tannen: 1964. ** Volume 1: ''Zeus, God of the Bright Sky'', Biblo-Moser, 1 June 1964, (reprint) ** Volume 2: ''Zeus, God of the Dark Sky (Thunder and Lightning)'', Biblo-Moser, 1 June 1964, ** Volume 3: ''Zeus, God of the Dark Sky (earthquakes, clouds, wind, dew, rain, meteorites)'' * Cicero, Cicero, Marcus Tullius, ''De Natura Deorum'' in ''Cicero: On the Nature of the Gods. Academics'', translated by H. Rackham, Loeb Classical Library No. 268, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, first published 1933, revised 1951.
Online version at Harvard University Press Internet Archive
*
Diodorus Siculus Diodorus Siculus, or Diodorus of Sicily ( grc-gre, Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης ;  1st century BC), was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern ...
, ''Diodorus Siculus: The Library of History''. translated by C. H. Oldfather, twelve volumes, Loeb Classical Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, Ltd. 1989
Online version by Bill Thayer
* Maurice Druon, Druon, Maurice, ''The Memoirs of Zeus'', 1964, Charles Scribner's and Sons. (tr. Humphrey Hare) * Farnell, Lewis Richard, ''Cults of the Greek States'' 5 vols. Oxford; Clarendon 1896–1909. Still the standard reference. * Farnell, Lewis Richard, ''Greek Hero Cults and Ideas of Immortality'', 1921. * Timothy Gantz, Gantz, Timothy, ''Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources'', Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: (Vol. 1), (Vol. 2). * Hard, Robin, ''The Routledge Handbook of Greek Mythology: Based on H.J. Rose's "Handbook of Greek Mythology"'', Psychology Press, 2004.
Google Books
* Hesiod, ''Theogony'', in ''The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White''. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann Ltd. 1914
Online version at the Perseus Digital Library
* Hesiod, ''Works and Days'', in ''The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White'', Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914
Online version at the Perseus Digital Library
*
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
, ''The Iliad with an English Translation by A. T. Murray, Ph.D. in Two Volumes''. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924
Online version at the Perseus Digital Library
*
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
; ''The Odyssey with an English Translation by A. T. Murray, Ph.D. in Two Volumes''. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919
Online version at the Perseus Digital Library
* Gaius Julius Hyginus, Hyginus, Gaius Julius, ''De Astronomica'', in ''The Myths of Hyginus'', edited and translated by Mary A. Grant, Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1960
Online version at ToposText
* Gaius Julius Hyginus, Hyginus, Gaius Julius, ''Fabulae'', in ''The Myths of Hyginus'', edited and translated by Mary A. Grant, Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1960
Online version at ToposText
* Otto Kern, Kern, Otto. ''Orphicorum Fragmenta'', Berlin, 1922
Internet Archive
* Meisner, Dwayne A., ''Orphic Tradition and the Birth of the Gods'', Oxford University Press, 2018.
Google Books
* William Mitford, Mitford, William, ''The History of Greece'', 1784. Cf. Volume 1, Chapter II "Religion of the Early Greeks" * Moore, Clifford H., ''The Religious Thought of the Greeks'', 1916. * Nilsson, Martin P.
''Greek Popular Religion''
1940. * Nilsson, Martin P., ''History of Greek Religion'', 1949. *
PausaniasPausanias (; Greek language, Greek: Παυσανίας) is the name of several people: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias (general), Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pa ...
, ''Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes.'' Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1918
Online version at the Perseus Digital Library
* Erwin Rohde, Rohde, Erwin, ''Psyche: The Cult of Souls and Belief in Immortality among the Greeks'', 1925. * William Smith (lexicographer), Smith, William, ''Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology'', 1870
Ancientlibrary.com
William Smith, ''Dictionary'': "Zeus

* Strabo, Geographica, ''Geography'', Editors, H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A., London. George Bell & Sons. 1903
Online version at the Perseus Digital Library


External links



stories of Zeus in myth

summary, stories, classical art

cult and statues

from ''National Geographic'' {{Authority control Zeus, Deities in the Iliad Jovian deities Justice gods Kings in Greek mythology Mythological rapists Oracular gods Shapeshifting Sky and weather gods Thunder gods Metamorphoses characters