The Info List - Materialism

--- Advertisement ---

is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions. In Idealism, mind and consciousness are first-order realities to which matter is subject and secondary. In philosophical materialism the converse is true. Here mind and consciousness are by-products or epiphenomena of material processes (the biochemistry of the human brain and nervous system, for example) without which they cannot exist. According to this doctrine the material creates and determines consciousness, not vice versa. Materialists believe that Matter
and the physical laws that govern it constitute the most reliable guide to the nature of mind and consciousness. Materialist theories are mainly divided into three groups. Naive materialism identifies the material world with specific elements (e.g. the scheme of the four elements—fire, air, water and earth—devised by the Pre-Socratic philosopher
Pre-Socratic philosopher
Empedocles). Metaphysical materialism examines separated parts of the world in a static, isolated environment. Dialectical materialism
Dialectical materialism
adapts the Hegelian dialectic for materialism, examining parts of the world in relation to each other within a dynamic environment. Materialism
is closely related to physicalism, the view that all that exists is ultimately physical. Philosophical physicalism has evolved from materialism with the discoveries of the physical sciences to incorporate more sophisticated notions of physicality than mere ordinary matter, such as: spacetime, physical energies and forces, dark matter, and so on. Thus the term "physicalism" is preferred over "materialism" by some, while others use the terms as if they are synonymous. Philosophies contradictory to materialism or physicalism include idealism, pluralism, dualism, and other forms of monism.


1 Overview 2 History

2.1 Axial Age 2.2 Common Era 2.3 Modern era 2.4 New materialism

3 Scientific materialists 4 Defining matter 5 Physicalism 6 Criticism and alternatives

6.1 Quantum mysticism 6.2 Religious and spiritual views 6.3 Philosophical objections

6.3.1 Idealisms

6.4 Materialism
as methodology

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links


In 1748, French doctor and philosopher La Mettrie
La Mettrie
exposes the first materialistic definition of the human soul in L'Homme Machine

belongs to the class of monist ontology. As such, it is different from ontological theories based on dualism or pluralism. For singular explanations of the phenomenal reality, materialism would be in contrast to idealism, neutral monism, and spiritualism. Despite the large number of philosophical schools and subtle nuances between many,[1][2][3] all philosophies are said to fall into one of two primary categories, which are defined in contrast to each other: idealism and materialism.[a] The basic proposition of these two categories pertains to the nature of reality, and the primary distinction between them is the way they answer two fundamental questions: "what does reality consist of?" and "how does it originate?" To idealists, spirit or mind or the objects of mind (ideas) are primary, and matter secondary. To materialists, matter is primary, and mind or spirit or ideas are secondary, the product of matter acting upon matter.[3] The materialist view is perhaps best understood in its opposition to the doctrines of immaterial substance applied to the mind historically, famously by René Descartes. However, by itself materialism says nothing about how material substance should be characterized. In practice, it is frequently assimilated to one variety of physicalism or another. Materialism
is often associated with reductionism, according to which the objects or phenomena individuated at one level of description, if they are genuine, must be explicable in terms of the objects or phenomena at some other level of description—typically, at a more reduced level. Non-reductive materialism explicitly rejects this notion, however, taking the material constitution of all particulars to be consistent with the existence of real objects, properties, or phenomena not explicable in the terms canonically used for the basic material constituents. Jerry Fodor
Jerry Fodor
influentially argues this view, according to which empirical laws and explanations in "special sciences" like psychology or geology are invisible from the perspective of basic physics. A lot of vigorous literature has grown up around the relation between these views. Modern philosophical materialists extend the definition of other scientifically observable entities such as energy, forces, and the curvature of space. However philosophers such as Mary Midgley
Mary Midgley
suggest that the concept of "matter" is elusive and poorly defined.[4] Materialism
typically contrasts with dualism, phenomenalism, idealism, vitalism, and dual-aspect monism. Its materiality can, in some ways, be linked to the concept of determinism, as espoused by Enlightenment thinkers. During the 19th century, Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
extended the concept of materialism to elaborate a materialist conception of history centered on the roughly empirical world of human activity (practice, including labor) and the institutions created, reproduced, or destroyed by that activity (see materialist conception of history). Later Marxists, such as Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
and Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
developed the notion of dialectical materialism which characterized later Marxist philosophy and method. History[edit] Axial Age[edit] Materialism
developed, possibly independently, in several geographically separated regions of Eurasia
during what Karl Jaspers termed the Axial Age
Axial Age
(c. 800–200 BC). In ancient Indian philosophy, materialism developed around 600 BC with the works of Ajita Kesakambali, Payasi, Kanada, and the proponents of the Cārvāka school of philosophy. Kanada became one of the early proponents of atomism. The Nyaya– Vaisesika school (c. 600 BC – 100 BC) developed one of the earliest forms of atomism, though their proofs of God and their positing that consciousness was not material precludes labelling them as materialists. Buddhist atomism and the Jaina school continued the atomic tradition. Xunzi (ca. 312–230 BC) developed a Confucian
doctrine centered on realism and materialism in Ancient China.[citation needed] Ancient Greek philosophers like Thales, Anaxagoras
(c. 500 BC – 428 BC), Epicurus
and Democritus
prefigure later materialists. The Latin poem De Rerum Natura
De Rerum Natura
by Lucretius
(ca. 99 BC – ca. 55 BC) reflects the mechanistic philosophy of Democritus
and Epicurus. According to this view, all that exists is matter and void, and all phenomena result from different motions and conglomerations of base material particles called "atoms" (literally: "indivisibles"). De Rerum Natura provides mechanistic explanations for phenomena such as erosion, evaporation, wind, and sound. Famous principles like "nothing can touch body but body" first appeared in the works of Lucretius. Democritus
and Epicurus
however did not hold to a monist ontology since they held to the ontological separation of matter and space i.e. space being "another kind" of being, indicating that the definition of "materialism" is wider than given scope for in this article. Common Era[edit] Chinese thinkers of the early common era said to be materialists include Yang Xiong (53 BC – AD 18) and Wang Chong
Wang Chong
(c AD 27 – AD 100). Later Indian materialist Jayaraashi Bhatta (6th century) in his work Tattvopaplavasimha ("The upsetting of all principles") refuted the Nyaya
Sutra epistemology. The materialistic Cārvāka philosophy appears to have died out some time after 1400. When Madhavacharya compiled Sarva-darśana-samgraha (a digest of all philosophies) in the 14th century, he had no Cārvāka/Lokāyata text to quote from, or even refer to.[5] In early 12th-century al-Andalus, the Arabian philosopher, Ibn Tufail (Abubacer), wrote discussions on materialism in his philosophical novel, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan (Philosophus Autodidactus), while vaguely foreshadowing the idea of a historical materialism.[6] Modern era[edit] The French cleric Pierre Gassendi
Pierre Gassendi
(1592–1665) represented the materialist tradition in opposition to the attempts of René Descartes (1596–1650) to provide the natural sciences with dualist foundations. There followed the materialist and atheist abbé Jean Meslier (1664–1729), Julien Offray de La Mettrie, the German-French Paul-Henri Thiry Baron d'Holbach
Baron d'Holbach
(1723–1789), the Encyclopedist Denis Diderot
Denis Diderot
(1713–1784), and other French Enlightenment thinkers; as well as (in England) John "Walking" Stewart (1747–1822), whose insistence in seeing matter as endowed with a moral dimension had a major impact on the philosophical poetry of William Wordsworth (1770–1850). The German materialist and atheist anthropologist Ludwig Feuerbach would signal a new turn in materialism through his book, The Essence of Christianity (1841), which presented a humanist account of religion as the outward projection of man's inward nature. Feuerbach's materialism would later heavily influence Karl Marx, who elaborated the concept of historical materialism, which is the basis for what Marx and Engels outlined as scientific socialism:

The materialist conception of history starts from the proposition that the production of the means to support human life and, next to production, the exchange of things produced, is the basis of all social structure; that in every society that has appeared in history, the manner in which wealth is distributed and society divided into classes or orders is dependent upon what is produced, how it is produced, and how the products are exchanged. From this point of view, the final causes of all social changes and political revolutions are to be sought, not in men's brains, not in men's better insights into eternal truth and justice, but in changes in the modes of production and exchange. They are to be sought, not in the philosophy, but in the economics of each particular epoch. — Friedrich Engels, Socialism: Scientific and Utopian

Later, Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
outlined philosophical materialism in his book Materialism
and Empiriocriticism, which connected the political conceptions put forth by his opponents to their anti-materialist philosophies. Therein, Lenin attempted to answer questions concerning matter, experience, sensations, space and time, causality, and freedom. More recently thinkers such as Gilles Deleuze
Gilles Deleuze
have attempted to rework and strengthen classical materialist ideas.[7] Contemporary theorists such as Manuel DeLanda, working with this reinvigorated materialism, have come to be classified as "new materialist" in persuasion.[8] New materialism[edit] "New materialism" has now become its own specialized subfield of knowledge, with courses being offered on the topic at major universities, as well as numerous conferences, edited collections, and monographs devoted to it. Jane Bennett’s book Vibrant Matter
(Duke UP, 2010) has been particularly instrumental in bringing theories of monist ontology and vitalism back into a critical theoretical fold dominated by poststructuralist theories of language and discourse.[9] Scholars such as Mel Y. Chen and Zakiyyah Iman Jackson, however, have critiqued this body of new materialist literature for its neglect in considering the materiality of race and gender in particular.[10][11] Other scholars such as Hélene Vosters have questioned whether there is anything particularly "new" about this so-called "new materialism", as Indigenous and other animist ontologies have attested to what might be called the "vibrancy of matter" for centuries.[12] Scientific materialists[edit] See also: Physicalism and Scientific materialism Many current and recent philosophers—e.g., Daniel Dennett, Willard Van Orman Quine, Donald Davidson, and Jerry Fodor—operate within a broadly physicalist or materialist framework, producing rival accounts of how best to accommodate mind, including functionalism, anomalous monism, identity theory, and so on.[13] Scientific "Materialism" is often synonymous with, and has so far been described, as being a reductive materialism. In recent years, Paul and Patricia Churchland
Patricia Churchland
have advocated a radically contrasting position (at least, in regards to certain hypotheses); eliminativist materialism holds that some mental phenomena simply do not exist at all, and that talk of those mental phenomena reflects a totally spurious "folk psychology" and introspection illusion. That is, an eliminative materialist might believe that a concept like "belief" simply has no basis in fact—the way folk science speaks of demon-caused illnesses would be just one obvious example. Reductive materialism being at one end of a continuum (our theories will reduce to facts) and eliminative materialism on the other (certain theories will need to be eliminated in light of new facts), Revisionary materialism is somewhere in the middle.[13] Defining matter[edit] The nature and definition of matter—like other key concepts in science and philosophy—have occasioned much debate.[14] Is there a single kind of matter (hyle) which everything is made of, or multiple kinds? Is matter a continuous substance capable of expressing multiple forms (hylomorphism),[15] or a number of discrete, unchanging constituents (atomism)?[16] Does it have intrinsic properties (substance theory),[17][18] or is it lacking them (prima materia)? One challenge to the traditional concept of matter as tangible "stuff" came with the rise of field physics in the 19th century. Relativity shows that matter and energy (including the spatially distributed energy of fields) are interchangeable. This enables the ontological view that energy is prima materia and matter is one of its forms. On the other hand, the Standard Model of Particle physics
Particle physics
uses quantum field theory to describe all interactions. On this view it could be said that fields are prima materia and the energy is a property of the field. According to the dominant cosmological model, the Lambda-CDM model, less than 5% of the universe's energy density is made up of the "matter" described by the Standard Model of Particle Physics, and the majority of the universe is composed of dark matter and dark energy—with little agreement amongst scientists about what these are made of.[19] With the advent of quantum physics, some scientists believed the concept of matter had merely changed, while others believed the conventional position could no longer be maintained. For instance Werner Heisenberg
Werner Heisenberg
said "The ontology of materialism rested upon the illusion that the kind of existence, the direct 'actuality' of the world around us, can be extrapolated into the atomic range. This extrapolation, however, is impossible... atoms are not things." Likewise, some philosophers[which?] feel that these dichotomies necessitate a switch from materialism to physicalism. Others use the terms "materialism" and "physicalism" interchangeably.[20] The concept of matter has changed in response to new scientific discoveries. Thus materialism has no definite content independent of the particular theory of matter on which it is based. According to Noam Chomsky, any property can be considered material, if one defines matter such that it has that property.[21] Physicalism[edit] George Stack distinguishes between materialism and physicalism:

In the twentieth century, physicalism has emerged out of positivism. Physicalism restricts meaningful statements to physical bodies or processes that are verifiable or in principle verifiable. It is an empirical hypothesis that is subject to revision and, hence, lacks the dogmatic stance of classical materialism. Herbert Feigl defended physicalism in the United States and consistently held that mental states are brain states and that mental terms have the same referent as physical terms. The twentieth century has witnessed many materialist theories of the mental, and much debate surrounding them.[22]

Criticism and alternatives[edit] Quantum mysticism[edit] Some modern day physicists and science writers—such as Paul Davies and John Gribbin—have argued that materialism has been disproven by certain scientific findings in physics, such as quantum mechanics and chaos theory. In 1991, Gribbin and Davies released their book The Matter
Myth, the first chapter of which, "The Death of Materialism", contained the following passage:

Then came our Quantum theory, which totally transformed our image of matter. The old assumption that the microscopic world of atoms was simply a scaled-down version of the everyday world had to be abandoned. Newton's deterministic machine was replaced by a shadowy and paradoxical conjunction of waves and particles, governed by the laws of chance, rather than the rigid rules of causality. An extension of the quantum theory goes beyond even this; it paints a picture in which solid matter dissolves away, to be replaced by weird excitations and vibrations of invisible field energy. Quantum physics undermines materialism because it reveals that matter has far less "substance" than we might believe. But another development goes even further by demolishing Newton's image of matter as inert lumps. This development is the theory of chaos, which has recently gained widespread attention. —  Paul Davies
Paul Davies
and John Gribbin, The Matter
Myth, Chapter 1

Davies' and Gribbin's objections are shared by proponents of digital physics who view information rather than matter to be fundamental. Their objections were also shared by some founders of quantum theory, such as Max Planck, who wrote:

As a man who has devoted his whole life to the most clear headed science, to the study of matter, I can tell you as a result of my research about atoms this much: There is no matter as such. All matter originates and exists only by virtue of a force which brings the particle of an atom to vibration and holds this most minute solar system of the atom together. We must assume behind this force the existence of a conscious and intelligent Mind. This Mind
is the matrix of all matter. — Max Planck, Das Wesen der Materie, 1944

Religious and spiritual views[edit] According to Constantin Gutberlet writing in Catholic Encyclopedia (1911), materialism, defined as "a philosophical system which regards matter as the only reality in the world [...] denies the existence of God and the soul",[23] In this view materialism could be perceived incompatible with most world religions.[citation needed] Materialism could be conflated with atheism.[citation needed] However Friedrich Lange wrote in 1892 "Diderot has not always in the Encyclopaedia expressed his own individual opinion, but it is just as true that at its commencement he had not yet got as far as Atheism
and Materialism".[24] Most of Hinduism
and transcendentalism regards all matter as an illusion called Maya, blinding humans from knowing the truth. Transcendental experiences like the perception of Brahman
are considered to destroy the illusion.[citation needed] Joseph Smith, the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, taught: "There is no such thing as immaterial matter. All spirit is matter, but it is more fine or pure, and can only be discerned by purer eyes; We cannot see it; but when our bodies are purified we shall see that it is all matter."[25] This spirit element is believed to always have existed and to be co-eternal with God.[26] Philosophical objections[edit] Kant argued against all three forms of materialism, subjective idealism (which he contrasts with his "transcendental idealism"[27]) and dualism.[28] However, Kant also argues that change and time require an enduring substrate,[29] and does so in connection with his Refutation of Idealism.[30] Postmodern/poststructuralist thinkers also express a skepticism about any all-encompassing metaphysical scheme. Philosopher Mary Midgley,[31] among others,[32][33][34][35] argues that materialism is a self-refuting idea, at least in its eliminative form. Idealisms[edit] An argument for idealism, such as those of Hegel
and Berkeley, is ipso facto an argument against materialism. Matter
can be argued to be redundant, as in bundle theory, and mind-independent properties can in turn be reduced to subjective percepts. Berkeley presents an example of the latter by pointing out that it is impossible to gather direct evidence of matter, as there is no direct experience of matter; all that is experienced is perception, whether internal or external. As such, the existence of matter can only be assumed from the apparent (perceived) stability of perceptions; it finds absolutely no evidence in direct experience. If matter and energy are seen as necessary to explain the physical world, but incapable of explaining mind, dualism results. Emergence, holism, and process philosophy seek to ameliorate the perceived shortcomings of traditional (especially mechanistic) materialism without abandoning materialism entirely. Materialism
as methodology[edit] Some critics object to materialism as part of an overly skeptical, narrow or reductivist approach to theorizing, rather than to the ontological claim that matter is the only substance. Particle physicist and Anglican theologian John Polkinghorne
John Polkinghorne
objects to what he calls promissory materialism—claims that materialistic science will eventually succeed in explaining phenomena it has not so far been able to explain.[36] Polkinghorne prefers "dual-aspect monism" to materialism.[37] Some scientific materialists have been criticized, for example by Noam Chomsky, for failing to provide clear definitions for what constitutes matter, leaving the term "materialism" without any definite meaning. Chomsky also states that since the concept of matter may be affected by new scientific discoveries, as has happened in the past, scientific materialists are being dogmatic in assuming the opposite.[21] See also[edit]

Antimaterialism - beliefs that are opposed to materialism Cārvāka Christian materialism Critical realism Cultural materialism Dialectical materialism Economic materialism Eliminative materialism Existence French materialism Grotesque body Historical materialism Hyle Immaterialism Incorporeality Madhyamaka
- a philosophy of middle way Material feminism Marxist philosophy
Marxist philosophy
of nature Metaphysical naturalism Model-dependent realism Naturalism (philosophy) Postmaterialism Physical ontology Philosophy
of mind Quantum energy Rational egoism Reality
in Buddhism Substance theory Transcendence (religion)


a. ^ Indeed, it has been noted it is difficult if not impossible to define one category without contrasting it with the other.[2][3]


^ Edwards, Paul, ed. (1972) [1967], The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Vols.1-4, ISBN 0-02-894950-1(Originally published 1967 in 8 volumes)  Alternative ISBN 978-0-02-894950-5 ^ a b Priest, Stephen (1991), Theories of the Mind, London: Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-013069-1  Alternative ISBN 978-0-14-013069-0 ^ a b c Novack, George (1979), The Origins of Materialism, New York: Pathfinder Press, ISBN 0-87348-022-8  ^ Mary Midgley
Mary Midgley
The Myths We Live By. ^ History of Indian Materialism, Ramakrishna Bhattacharya ^ Dominique Urvoy, "The Rationality of Everyday Life: The Andalusian Tradition? (Aropos of Hayy's First Experiences)", in Lawrence I. Conrad (1996), The World of Ibn Tufayl: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Ḥayy Ibn Yaqẓān, pp. 38-46, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09300-1. ^ Smith, Daniel; Protevi, John (1 January 2015). Zalta, Edward N., ed. Gilles Deleuze
Gilles Deleuze
(Winter 2015 ed.).  ^ Dolphijn, Rick; Tuin, Iris van der (1 January 2013). "New Materialism: Interviews & Cartographies".  ^ Bennett, Jane (4 January 2010). Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things. Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822346333.  ^ "Animal: New Directions in the Theorization of Race and Posthumanism". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-08.  ^ Chen, Mel Y. (10 July 2012). Animacies: Biopolitics, Racial Mattering, and Queer Affect. Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822352549.  ^ Schweitzer, M.; Zerdy, J. (14 August 2014). Performing Objects and Theatrical Things. Springer. ISBN 9781137402455.  ^ a b http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/materialism-eliminative/#SpeProFolPsy, by William Ramsey ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Matter". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ "Hylomorphism" Concise Britannica ^ "Atomism: Antiquity to the Seventeenth Century" Archived 9 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Dictionary of the History of Ideas " Atomism in the Seventeenth Century" Dictionary of the History of Ideas Article by a philosopher who opposes atomism Archived 21 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Information
on Buddhist atomism Archived 16 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Article on traditional Greek atomism " Atomism from the 17th to the 20th Century" Stanford Encyclopedia
Stanford Encyclopedia
of Philosophy ^ "'' Stanford Encyclopedia
Stanford Encyclopedia
of Philosophy'' on substance theory". Plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2013-06-24.  ^ "The Friesian School on Substance and Essence". Friesian.com. Retrieved 2013-06-24.  ^ Bernard Sadoulet "Particle Dark Matter
in the Universe: At the Brink of Discovery?" Science 5 January 2007: Vol. 315. no. 5808, pp. 61 - 63 ^ "Many philosophers and scientists now use the terms `material' and `physical' interchangeably" Dictionary of the Philosophy
of Mind ^ a b Chomsky, Noam (2000) New Horizons in the Study of Language and Mind ^ stack, George J. (1998), "Materialism", in Craig, E., Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Luther to Nifo (v. 6), Routledge, pp. 171–172, ISBN 978-0-415-18714-5  ^  Gutberlet, Constantin (1911). "Materialism". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 10. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Lange, Friedrich Albert (1892). History of Materialism
and Criticism of Its Present Importance. English and foreign philosophical library. 2: History of materialism until Kant (4 ed.). K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, & Company, Limited. pp. 25–26. Retrieved August 2015.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ Doctrine and Covenants
Doctrine and Covenants
131:7–8 ^ Smith, Joseph (1938). Smith, Joseph Fielding, ed. Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book. pp. 352–354. OCLC 718055. . ^ see Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Pure Reason
where he gives a "refutation of idealism" in pp345-52 (1st Ed) and pp 244-7 (2nd Ed) in the Norman Kemp Smith edition ^ Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Pure Reason
(A379, p352 NKS translation). "If, however, as commonly happens, we seek to extend the concept of dualism, and take it in the transcendental sense, neither it nor the two counter-alternatives — pneumatism [idealism] on the one hand, materialism on the other — would have any sort of basis [...] Neither the transcendental object which underlies outer appearances nor that which underlies inner intuition, is in itself either matter or a thinking being, but a ground (to us unknown)..." ^ "Kant argues that we can determine that there has been a change in the objects of our perception, not merely a change in our perceptions themselves, only by conceiving of what we perceive as successive states of enduring substances (see Substance)".Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Archived 6 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "All determination of time presupposes something permanent in perception. This permanent cannot, however, be something in me [...]" Critique of Pure Reason, B274, P245 (NKS translation) ^ see Mary Midgley
Mary Midgley
The Myths we Live by ^ Baker, L. (1987). Saving Belief Princeton, Princeton University Press ^ Reppert, V. (1992). "Eliminative Materialism, Cognitive Suicide, and Begging the Question". Metaphilosophy 23: 378-92. ^ Seidner, Stanley S. (10 June 2009) "A Trojan Horse: Logotherapeutic Transcendence and its Secular Implications for Theology". Mater Dei Institute. p 5. ^ Boghossian, P. (1990). "The Status of Content" Philosophical Review 99: 157-84. and (1991) "The Status of Content Revisited". Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 71: 264-78. ^ However, critics of materialism are equally guilty of prognosticating that it will never be able to explain certain phenomena. "Over a hundred years ago William James
William James
saw clearly that science would never resolve the mind-body problem." Are We Spiritual Machines? Dembski, W. ^ "Interview with John Polkinghorne". Crosscurrents.org. Retrieved 2013-06-24. 

Further reading[edit]

Buchner, L. (1920). [books.google.com/books?id=tw8OuwAACAAJ Force
and Matter]. New York, Peter Eckler Publishing Co. Churchland, Paul (1981). Eliminative Materialism
and the Propositional Attitudes. The Philosophy
of Science. Boyd, Richard; P. Gasper; J. D. Trout. Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press. Field, Hartry H. (1981), "Mental representation", in Block, Ned Joel, Readings in Philosophy
of Psychology, 2, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 9780416746006  Flanagan, Owen J. (1991). Science of the Mind
2e. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-56056-6. Retrieved 19 December 2012.  Fodor, J.A. (1974). Special
Sciences, Synthese, Vol.28. Gunasekara, Victor A. (2001). "Buddhism and the Modern World". Basic Buddhism: A Modern Introduction to the Buddha's Teaching". 18 January 2008 Kim, J. (1994) Multiple Realization and the Metaphysics
of Reduction, Philosophy
and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 52. La Mettrie, La Mettrie, Julien Offray de (1748). L'Homme Machine (Man a Machine) Lange, Friedrich A.,(1925) The History of Materialism. New York, Harcourt, Brace, & Co. Moser, Paul K.; Trout, J. D. (1995). Contemporary Materialism: A Reader. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-10863-8. Retrieved 19 December 2012.  Priest, Stephen (1991), Theories of the Mind, London: Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-013069-1  Alternative ISBN 978-0-14-013069-0 Schopenhauer, Arthur (1969). The World as Will and Representation. New York, Dover Publications, Inc. Seidner, Stanley S. (10 June 2009). "A Trojan Horse: Logotherapeutic Transcendence and its Secular Implications for Theology". Mater Dei Institute Turner, MS (5 January 2007). "Quarks and the cosmos". Science. 315 (5808): 59–61. doi:10.1126/science.1136276. PMID 17204637.  Vitzthum, Richard C. (1995) Materialism: An Affirmative History and Definition. Amherst, New York, Prometheus Books.

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Materialism

Look up materialism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Media related to Materialism
at Wikimedia Commons

 "Materialism". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). 1911.  Stanford Encyclopedia:

Physicalism Eliminative Materialism

Philosophical Materialism
(by Richard C. Vitzthum) from infidels.org Dictionary of the Philosophy
of Mind
on Materialism
from the University of Waterloo

v t e

Environmental humanities


Crop art Environmental art Environmental sculpture Land art Landscape painting Photography

conservation landscape nature wildlife

Sculpture trail Site-specific art Sustainable art


Cultural ecology Cultural landscape Ecolinguistics Ecological anthropology Ecosemiotics Environmental anthropology Ethnoecology Traditional ecological knowledge


Ecocomposition Ecocriticism Ecopoetry Geocriticism Nature
writing Outdoor literature Zoopoetics


of nature Constructivism Cosmology Critical realism Deep ecology Ecofeminism Ecophenomenology Ecosophy Environmental ethics Environmental justice Environmental philosophy Materialism Natural philosophy Philosophy
of mind Philosophy
of science Social ecology


Ecotheology Environmental theology Religion and environmentalism Spiritual ecology Stewardship


Anthrozoology Ecomusicology Environmental communication Environmental education

adult arts-based

Environmental history Environmental interpretation Environmental journalism Environmental law Outdoor education Psychogeography Thematic interpretation


Animal studies Bioethics Biophilia hypothesis Do it yourself
Do it yourself
(ethic) Natural history
Natural history
(museums) Popular science Property
theory (common property) Science, technology and society

science studies

Simple living Slow food Spirit of place Sustainability studies


Arts and Crafts movement Acoustic ecology Biomimicry Ecodesign Ecological design Ecomuseum Educational trail Environmental design Landscape architecture

assessment planning

center New Urbanism Sustainable architecture Sustainable design Sustainable fashion Themed walk Urban acupuncture

Environment portal Category Commons Journals Degrees

v t e



Parmenides Plato Aristotle Plotinus Duns Scotus Thomas Aquinas Francisco Suárez Nicolas Malebranche René Descartes John Locke David Hume Thomas Reid Immanuel Kant Isaac Newton Arthur Schopenhauer Baruch Spinoza Georg W. F. Hegel George Berkeley Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Henri Bergson Friedrich Nietzsche Charles Sanders Peirce Joseph Maréchal Ludwig Wittgenstein Martin Heidegger Alfred N. Whitehead Bertrand Russell Dorothy Emmet G. E. Moore Jean-Paul Sartre Gilbert Ryle Hilary Putnam P. F. Strawson R. G. Collingwood Adolph Stöhr Rudolf Carnap Saul Kripke Willard V. O. Quine G. E. M. Anscombe Donald Davidson Michael Dummett David Malet Armstrong David Lewis Alvin Plantinga Peter van Inwagen Derek Parfit more ...


Abstract object theory Action theory Anti-realism Determinism Dualism Enactivism Essentialism Existentialism Free will Idealism Libertarianism Liberty Materialism Meaning of life Monism Naturalism Nihilism Phenomenalism Realism Physicalism Pirsig's metaphysics of Quality Platonic idealism Relativism Scientific realism Solipsism Subjectivism Substance theory Type theory


Abstract object Anima mundi Being Category of being Causality Choice Cogito ergo sum Concept Embodied cognition Entity Essence Existence Experience Hypostatic abstraction Idea Identity Identity and change Information Insight Intelligence Intention Linguistic modality Matter Meaning Memetics Mental representation Mind Motion Necessity Notion Object Pattern Perception Physical body Principle Property Qualia Quality Reality Soul Subject Substantial form Thought Time Truth Type–token distinction Universal Unobservable Value more ...

Related topics

Axiology Cosmology Epistemology Feminist metaphysics Interpretations of quantum mechanics Meta- Ontology Philosophy
of mind Philosophy
of psychology Philosophy
of self Philosophy
of space and time Teleology Theoretical physics

Category Portal

v t e






Epistemology Logic Ethics Aesthetics


Action Art

Culture Design Music Film

Business Color Cosmos Dialogue Education Environment Futility Happiness Healthcare History Human nature Humor Feminism Language Life Literature Mathematics Mind

Pain Psychology

of psychiatry Philosophy
of perception Philosophy Religion Science

Physics Chemistry Biology Geography

Sexuality Social science

Culture Economics Justice Law Politics Society

Space and time Sport Technology

Artificial intelligence Computer science Engineering Information


Schools of thought

By era

Ancient Western

Medieval Renaissance Early modern Modern Contemporary



Agriculturalism Confucianism Legalism Logicians Mohism Chinese naturalism Neotaoism Taoism Yangism Zen


Aristotelianism Atomism Cynicism Cyrenaics Eleatics Eretrian school Epicureanism Hermeneutics Ionian

Ephesian Milesian

Megarian school Neoplatonism Peripatetic Platonism Pluralism Presocratic Pyrrhonism Pythagoreanism Neopythagoreanism Sophistic Stoicism


Samkhya Nyaya Vaisheshika Yoga Mīmāṃsā Ājīvika Ajñana Cārvāka Jain

Anekantavada Syādvāda


Śūnyatā Madhyamaka Yogacara Sautrāntika Svatantrika


Mazdakism Zoroastrianism Zurvanism



Christian philosophy Scholasticism Thomism Renaissance humanism

East Asian

Korean Confucianism Edo Neo-Confucianism Neo-Confucianism



Acintya bheda abheda Advaita Bhedabheda Dvaita Dvaitadvaita Shuddhadvaita Vishishtadvaita



Averroism Avicennism Illuminationism ʿIlm al-Kalām Sufi





Cartesianism Kantianism Neo-Kantianism Hegelianism Marxism Spinozism


Anarchism Classical Realism Liberalism Collectivism Conservatism Determinism Dualism Empiricism Existentialism Foundationalism Historicism Holism Humanism Idealism

Absolute British German Objective Subjective Transcendental

Individualism Kokugaku Materialism Modernism Monism Naturalism Natural law Nihilism New Confucianism Neo-Scholasticism Pragmatism Phenomenology Positivism Reductionism Rationalism Social contract Socialism Transcendentalism Utilitarianism



Applied ethics Analytic feminism Analytical Marxism Communitarianism Consequentialism Critical rationalism Experimental philosophy Falsificationism Foundationalism / Coherentism Generative linguistics Internalism and Externalism Logical positivism Legal positivism Normative ethics Meta-ethics Moral realism Neo-Aristotelian Quinean naturalism Ordinary language philosophy Postanalytic philosophy Quietism Rawlsian Reformed epistemology Systemics Scientism Scientific realism Scientific skepticism Contemporary utilitarianism Vienna Circle Wittgensteinian


Critical theory Deconstruction Existentialism Feminist Frankfurt School New Historicism Hermeneutics Neo-Marxism Phenomenology Postmodernism Post-structuralism Social constructionism Structuralism Western Marxism


Kyoto School Objectivism Russian cosmism more...



Formalism Institutionalism Aesthetic response


Consequentialism Deontology Virtue

Free will

Compatibilism Determinism Libertarianism


Atomism Dualism Monism Naturalism


Constructivism Empiricism Idealism Particularism Fideism Rationalism / Reasonism Skepticism Solipsism


Behaviorism Emergentism Eliminativism Epiphenomenalism Functionalism Objectivism Subjectivism


Absolutism Particularism Relativism Nihilism Skepticism Universalism


Action Event Process


Anti-realism Conceptualism Idealism Materialism Naturalism Nominalism Physicalism Realism

by region Philosophy-related lists Miscellaneous

By region

African Ethiopian Aztec Native America Eastern Chinese Egyptian Czech Indian Indonesian Iranian Japanese Korean Vietnam Pakistani Western American Australian British Danish French German Greek Italian Polish Romanian Russian Slovene Spanish Turkish


Outline Index Years Problems Schools Glossary Philosophers Movements Publications


Women in philosophy Sage (philosophy)

Portal Category Book

v t e

of mind


Behaviorism (Radical) Biological naturalism Cognitive psychology Mind–body dualism Eliminative materialism Emergent materialism Emergentism Epiphenomenalism Functionalism Idealism Interactionism Materialism Monism Naïve realism


Neutral monism Occasionalism Psychoanalysis Parallelism Phenomenalism Phenomenology Physicalism

identity theory

dualism Representational Solipsism Substance dualism


Abstract object Artificial intelligence Chinese room Cognition Cognitive closure Concept Concept
and object Consciousness Hard problem of consciousness Hypostatic abstraction Idea Identity Ingenuity Intelligence Intentionality Introspection Intuition Language of thought Materialism Mental event Mental image Mental process Mental property Mental representation Mind Mind–body problem

Non-physical entity

New mysterianism Pain Problem of other minds Propositional attitude Qualia Tabula rasa Understanding Zombie more...

Related topics

Metaphysics Philosophy
of artificial intelligence / information / perception / self

Portal Category Philosophers category Project Task Force

Authority control

GND: 41277