Monism is the view that attributes oneness or singleness (Greek:
μόνος) to a concept (e.g., existence). Various kinds of monism
can be distinguished:
Priority monism states that all existing things go back to a source
that is distinct from them (e.g., in
Neoplatonism everything is
derived from The One). In this view only one thing is ontologically
basic or prior to everything else.
Existence monism posits that, strictly speaking, there exists only a
single thing (e.g., the universe), which can only be artificially and
arbitrarily divided into many things.
Substance monism ("stuff monism") asserts that a variety of existing
things can be explained in terms of a single reality or substance.
Substance monism posits that only one kind of stuff (e.g., matter or
mind) exists, although many things may be made out of this stuff.
3.2 Monistic philosophers
4.4 Asian traditions
188.8.131.52 Advaita Vedanta
184.108.40.206 Modern Hinduism
220.127.116.11 Levels of truth
4.5 Abrahamic faiths
18.104.22.168 Creator–creature distinction
22.214.171.124 Rejection of radical dualism
126.96.36.199 Christian Monism
5 See also
9 External links
There are two sorts of definitions for monism:
The wide definition: a philosophy is monistic if it postulates unity
of origin of all things; all existing things return to a source that
is distinct from them.
The restricted definition: this requires not only unity of origin but
also unity of substance and essence.
Although the term "monism" is derived from
Western philosophy to
typify positions in the mind–body problem, it has also been used to
typify religious traditions. In modern Hinduism, the term "absolute
monism" is being used for Advaita Vedanta.
The term "monism" was introduced in the 18th century by Christian von
Wolff in his work
Logic (1728), to designate types of
philosophical thought in which the attempt was made to eliminate the
dichotomy of body and mind and explain all phenomena by one
unifying principle, or as manifestations of a single substance.
The mind–body problem in philosophy examines the relationship
between mind and matter, and in particular the relationship between
consciousness and the brain. The problem was addressed by René
Descartes in the 17th century, resulting in Cartesian dualism, and by
pre-Aristotelian philosophers, in Avicennian philosophy,
and in earlier Asian and more specifically Indian traditions.
It was later also applied to the theory of absolute identity set forth
Hegel and Schelling. Thereafter the term was more broadly used,
for any theory postulating a unifying principle. The opponent
thesis of dualism also was broadened, to include pluralism.
According to Urmson, as a result of this extended use, the term is
According to Jonathan Schaffer, monism lost popularity due to the
Analytic philosophy in the early twentieth century, which
revolted against the neo-Hegelians. Carnap and Ayer, who were strong
proponents of positivism, "ridiculed the whole question as incoherent
The mind–body problem has reemerged in social psychology and related
fields, with the interest in mind–body interaction and the
rejection of Cartesian mind–body dualism in the identity thesis, a
modern form of monism.
Monism is also still relevant to the
philosophy of mind, where various positions are defended.
A diagram with neutral monism compared to Cartesian dualism,
physicalism and idealism.
Different types of monism include:
Substance monism, "the view that the apparent plurality of substances
is due to different states or appearances of a single substance"
Attributive monism, "the view that whatever the number of substances,
they are of a single ultimate kind"
Partial monism, "within a given realm of being (however many there may
be) there is only one substance"
Existence monism, "the view that there is only one concrete object
token (The One, "Τὸ Ἕν" or the Monad)"
Priority monism, "the whole is prior to its parts" or "the world has
parts, but the parts are dependent fragments of an integrated
Property monism, "the view that all properties are of a single type
(e.g., only physical properties exist)"
Genus monism, "the doctrine that there is a highest category; e.g.,
Views contrasting with monism are:
Metaphysical dualism, which asserts that there are two ultimately
irreconcilable substances or realities such as Good and Evil, for
Metaphysical pluralism, which asserts three or more fundamental
substances or realities.
Metaphysical nihilism, negates any of the above categories
(substances, properties, concrete objects, etc.).
Monism in modern philosophy of mind can be divided into three broad
Idealist, mentalistic monism, which holds that only mind or spirit
Neutral monism, which holds that one sort of thing fundamentally
exists, to which both the mental and the physical can be
Material monism (also called
Physicalism and materialism), which holds
that the material world is primary, and consciousness arises through
the interaction with the material world
a. Eliminative Materialism, according to which everything is physical
and mental things do not exist
b. Reductive physicalism, according to which mental things do exist
and are a kind of physical thing[note 1]
Certain positions do not fit easily into the above categories, such as
functionalism, anomalous monism, and reflexive monism. Moreover, they
do not define the meaning of "real".
While the lack of information makes it difficult in some cases to be
sure of the details, the following pre-Socratic philosophers thought
in monistic terms:
Anaximander: Apeiron (meaning 'the undefined infinite').
some, one thing, but we cannot know what.
Heraclitus: Change, symbolized by fire (in that everything is in
Parmenides argued that
Reality is an unmoving perfect sphere,
Neopythagorians such as
Apollonius of Tyana
Apollonius of Tyana centered their cosmologies
on the Monad or One.
Stoics taught that there is only one substance, identified as
Platonism under such works as those by Numenius taught that the
Universe emanates from the Monad or One.
Neoplatonism is monistic.
Plotinus taught that there was an ineffable
transcendent god, 'The One,' of which subsequent realities were
emanations. From The One emanates the Divine
Mind (Nous), the Cosmic
Soul (Psyche), and the World (Cosmos).
Baruch de Spinoza
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
F. H. Bradley
Main article: Pantheism
Pantheism is the belief that everything composes an all-encompassing,
immanent God, or that the universe (or nature) is identical with
divinity. Pantheists thus do not believe in a personal or
anthropomorphic god, but believe that interpretations of the term
Pantheism was popularized in the modern era as both a theology and
philosophy based on the work of the 17th century philosopher Baruch
Ethics was an answer to Descartes' famous dualist
theory that the body and spirit are separate. Spinoza held that
the two are the same, and this monism is a fundamental quality of his
philosophy. He was described as a "God-intoxicated man," and used the
God to describe the unity of all substance. Although the term
pantheism was not coined until after his death, Spinoza is regarded as
its most celebrated advocate.
H. P. Owen claimed that
Pantheists are "monists" ... they believe that there is only one
Being, and that all other forms of reality are either modes (or
appearances) of it or identical with it.
Pantheism is closely related to monism, as pantheists too believe all
of reality is one substance, called Universe,
God or Nature.
Panentheism, a slightly different concept (explained below), however
is dualistic. Some of the most famous pantheists are the Stoics,
Giordano Bruno and Spinoza.
Main article: Panentheism
Panentheism (from Greek πᾶν (pân) "all"; ἐν (en) "in"; and
θεός (theós) "God"; "all-in-God") is a belief system that posits
that the divine (be it a monotheistic God, polytheistic gods, or an
eternal cosmic animating force) interpenetrates every part of nature,
but is not one with nature.
Panentheism differentiates itself from
pantheism, which holds that the divine is synonymous with the
In panentheism, there are two types of substance, "pan" the universe
and God. The universe and the divine are not ontologically equivalent.
God is viewed as the eternal animating force within the universe. In
some forms of panentheism, the cosmos exists within God, who in turn
"transcends", "pervades" or is "in" the cosmos.
While pantheism asserts that 'All is God', panentheism claims that God
animates all of the universe, and also transcends the universe. In
addition, some forms indicate that the universe is contained within
God, like in the concept of Tzimtzum. Much
Hindu thought is highly
characterized by panentheism and pantheism. Hasidic Judaism
merges the elite ideal of nullification to paradoxical transcendent
Divine Panentheism, through intellectual articulation of inner
dimensions of Kabbalah, with the populist emphasis on the
Divine immanence in everything and deeds of kindness.
Paul Tillich has argued for such a concept within Christian theology,
as has liberal biblical scholar
Marcus Borg and mystical theologian
Matthew Fox, an Episcopal priest.[note 2]
Main article: Pandeism
Pandeism or pan-deism (from Ancient Greek: πᾶν,
translit. pan, lit. 'all' and Latin: deus meaning "god" in
the sense of deism), is a term describing beliefs coherently
incorporating or mixing logically reconcilable elements of pantheism
(that "God", or a metaphysically equivalent creator deity, is
identical to Nature) and classical deism (that the creator-god who
designed the universe no longer exists in a status where it can be
reached, and can instead be confirmed only by reason). It is therefore
most particularly the belief that the creator of the universe actually
became the universe, and so ceased to exist as a separate
Through this synergy pandeism claims to answer primary objections to
deism (why would
God create and then not interact with the universe?)
and to pantheism (how did the universe originate and what is its
The central problem in Asian (religious) philosophy is not the
body-mind problem, but the search for an unchanging Real or Absolute
beyond the world of appearances and changing phenomena, and the
search for liberation from dukkha and the liberation from the cycle of
rebirth. In Hinduism, substance-ontology prevails, seeing Brahman
as the unchanging real beyond the world of appearances. In
Buddhism process ontology is prevalent, seeing reality as empty of
an unchanging essence.
Characteristic for various Asian religions is the discernment of
levels of truth, an emphasis on intuitive-experiential
understanding of the Absolute such as jnana, bodhi and
kensho, and an emphasis on the integration of these levels of truth
and its understanding.
Main articles: Hinduism, Hindu philosophy, and Hindu denominations
Adi Shankara with Disciples, by
Raja Ravi Varma
Raja Ravi Varma (1904)
Main article: Vedanta
Vedanta is the inquiry into and systematisation of the Vedas and
Upanishads, to harmonise the various and contrasting ideas that can be
found in those texts. Within Vedanta, different schools exist:
Advaita Vedanta, absolute monism, of which
Adi Shankara is the
Vishishtadvaita, qualified monism, is from the school of Ramanuja;
Shuddhadvaita, in-essence monism, is the school of Vallabha;
Dvaitadvaita, differential monism, is a school founded by Nimbarka;
Dvaita, dualism, is a school founded by
Madhvacharya is probably the
only Vedantic System that is opposed to all types of monism. It
God is eternally different from souls and matter in both
form and essence.
Achintya Bheda Abheda, a school of
Vedanta representing the philosophy
of inconceivable one-ness and difference.
Main article: Advaita Vedanta
Monism is most clearly identified in Advaita Vedanta, though
Renard points out that this may be a western interpretation, bypassing
the intuitive understanding of a nondual reality.
In Advaita Vedanta,
Brahman is the eternal, unchanging, infinite,
immanent, and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all
matter, energy, time, space, being, and everything beyond in this
Universe. The nature of
Brahman is described as transpersonal,
personal and impersonal by different philosophical schools.
Advaita Vedanta gives an elaborate path to attain moksha. It entails
more than self-inquiry or bare insight into one's real nature.
Jnana Yoga, is needed to "destroy one’s
tendencies (vAasanA-s)" before real insight can be attained.
Advaita took over from the Madhyamika the idea of levels of
reality. Usually two levels are being mentioned, but Shankara
uses sublation as the criterion to postulate an ontological hierarchy
of three levels:
Pāramārthika (paramartha, absolute), the absolute level, "which is
absolutely real and into which both other reality levels can be
resolved". This experience can't be sublated by any other
Vyāvahārika (vyavahara), or samvriti-saya (empirical or
pragmatical), "our world of experience, the phenomenal world that we
handle every day when we are awake". It is the level in which both
jiva (living creatures or individual souls) and
Iswara are true; here,
the material world is also true.
Prāthibhāsika (pratibhasika, apparent reality, unreality), "reality
based on imagination alone". It is the level in which appearances
are actually false, like the illusion of a snake over a rope, or a
Main article: Vaishnavism
Vaishnava schools are panentheistic and view the universe as part
Krishna or Narayana, but see a plurality of souls and substances
within Brahman. Monistic theism, which includes the concept of a
personal god as a universal, omnipotent
Supreme Being who is both
immanent and transcendent, is prevalent within many other schools of
Hinduism as well.
Main article: Tantra
Tantra sees the Divine as both immanent and transcendent. The Divine
can be found in the concrete world. Practices are aimed at
transforming the passions, instead of transcending them.
Main article: Hindu reform movements
The colonisation of India by the British had a major impact on Hindu
society. In response, leading Hindu intellectuals started to study
western culture and philosophy, integrating several western notions
into Hinduism. This modernised Hinduism, at its turn, has gained
popularity in the west.
A major role was played in the 19th century by
Swami Vivekananda in
the revival of Hinduism, and the spread of
Advaita Vedanta to the
west via the Ramakrishna Mission. His interpretation of Advaita
Vedanta has been called Neo-Vedanta. In Advaita, Shankara suggests
Nirvikalpa Samadhi are means to gain knowledge of the
already existing unity of
Brahman and Atman, not the highest goal
[Y]oga is a meditative exercise of withdrawal from the particular and
identification with the universal, leading to contemplation of oneself
as the most universal, namely, Consciousness. This approach is
different from the classical
Yoga of complete thought suppression.
Vivekananda, according to Gavin Flood, was "a figure of great
importance in the development of a modern Hindu self-understanding and
in formulating the West's view of Hinduism." Central to his
philosophy is the idea that the divine exists in all beings, that all
human beings can achieve union with this "innate divinity", and
that seeing this divine as the essence of others will further love and
social harmony. According to Vivekananda, there is an essential
unity to Hinduism, which underlies the diversity of its many
forms. According to Flood, Vivekananda's view of
Hinduism is the
most common among Hindus today. This monism, according to Flood,
is at the foundation of earlier Upanishads, to theosophy in the later
Vedanta tradition and in modern Neo-Hinduism.
Main article: Buddhism
According to the Pāli Canon, both pluralism (nānatta) and monism
(ēkatta) are speculative views. A
Theravada commentary notes that the
former is similar to or associated with nihilism (ucchēdavāda), and
the latter is similar to or associated with eternalism
(sassatavada). See middle way.
Madhyamaka school of
Mahayana Buddhism, the ultimate nature of
the world is described as
Śūnyatā or "emptiness", which is
inseparable from sensorial objects or anything else. That appears to
be a monist position, but the
Madhyamaka views - including variations
like rangtong and shentong - will refrain from asserting any
ultimately existent entity. They instead deconstruct any detailed or
conceptual assertions about ultimate existence as resulting in absurd
Yogacara view, a minority school now only found
among the Mahayana, also rejects monism.
Levels of truth
Within Buddhism, a rich variety of philosophical and pedagogical
models can be found. Various schools of
Buddhism discern levels of
Two truths doctrine
Two truths doctrine of the Madhyamaka
The Three Natures of the Yogacara
Essence-Function, or Absolute-relative in Chinese and Korean Buddhism
The Trikaya-formule, consisting of
Truth body which embodies the very principle of
enlightenment and knows no limits or boundaries;
Sambhogakāya or body of mutual enjoyment which is a body of bliss
or clear light manifestation;
The Nirmāṇakāya or created body which manifests in time and
The Prajnaparamita-sutras and
Madhyamaka emphasize the non-duality of
form and emptiness: "form is emptiness, emptiness is form", as the
heart sutra says. In Chinese
Buddhism this was understood to mean
that ultimate reality is not a transcendental realm, but equal to the
daily world of relative reality. This idea fitted into the Chinese
culture, which emphasized the mundane world and society. But this does
not tell how the absolute is present in the relative world:
To deny the duality of samsara and nirvana, as the Perfection of
Wisdom does, or to demonstrate logically the error of dichotomizing
conceptualization, as Nagarjuna does, is not to address the question
of the relationship between samsara and nirvana -or, in more
philosophical terms, between phenomenal and ultimate reality [...]
What, then, is the relationship between these two realms?
This question is answered in such schemata as the
Five Ranks of
Tozan, the Oxherding Pictures, and Hakuin's Four ways of
God in Sikhism
Sikhism complies with the concept of Priority Monism. Sikh
philosophy advocates that all that our senses comprehend is an
God is the sole reality. Forms being subject to time shall
pass away. God's
Reality alone is eternal and abiding. The
thought is that Atma (soul) is born from, and a reflection of,
ParamAtma (Supreme Soul), and "will again merge into it", in the words
of the Tenth guru of Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh, "just as water merges
back into the water."
ਜਿਉ ਜਲ ਮਹਿ ਜਲੁ ਆਇ ਖਟਾਨਾ ॥
Jio Jal Mehi Jal Aae Khattaanaa
As water comes to blend with water,
ਤਿਉ ਜੋਤੀ ਸੰਗਿ ਜੋਤਿ ਸਮਾਨਾ ॥
Thio Jothee Sang Joth Samaanaa
His light blends into the Light.
— SGGS. Pg 278,
Soul are fundamentally the same; identical in the same way as
Fire and its sparks. "Atam meh Ram, Ram meh Atam" which means "The
Ultimate Eternal reality resides in the
Soul and the
Soul is contained
in Him". As from one stream, millions of waves arise and yet the
waves, made of water, again become water; in the same way all souls
have sprung from the Universal
Being and would blend again into
Main article: Judaism
Jewish thought considers
God as separate from all physical, created
things (transcendent) and as existing outside of time (eternal).[note
According to Chasidic
Thought (particularly as propounded by the 18th
century, early 19th century founder of Chabad, Shneur Zalman of
God is held to be immanent within creation for two
A very strong Jewish belief is that "[t]he Divine life-force which
brings [the universe] into existence must constantly be present ...
were this life-force to forsake [the universe] for even one brief
moment, it would revert to a state of utter nothingness, as before the
Judaism holds as axiomatic that
God is an absolute
unity, and that he is Perfectly Simple—thus, if his sustaining power
is within nature, then his essence is also within nature.
Vilna Gaon was very much against this philosophy, for he felt that
it would lead to pantheism and heresy. According to some this is the
main reason for the Gaon's ban on Chasidism.
According to Maimonides,
God is an incorporeal being that caused
all other existence. In fact,
God is defined as the necessary existent
that caused all other existence. According to Maimonides, to admit
God is tantamount to admitting complexity to God,
which is a contradiction to
God as the First Cause and constitutes
heresy. While Hasidic mystics considered the existence of the physical
world a contradiction to God's simpleness,
Maimonides saw no
See also: Christian anthropology
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Christianity strongly maintains the creator–creature distinction as
fundamental. Christians maintain that
God created the universe ex
nihilo and not from his own substance, so that the creator is not to
be confused with creation, but rather transcends it (metaphysical
dualism) (cf. Genesis). Although, there is growing movement to have a
"Christian Panentheism". Even more immanent concepts and
theologies are to be defined together with God's omnipotence,
omnipresence and omniscience, due to God's desire for intimate contact
with his own creation (cf. Acts 17:27). Another use of the term
"monism" is in
Christian anthropology to refer to the innate nature of
humankind as being holistic, as usually opposed to bipartite and
Rejection of radical dualism
In On Free
Choice of the Will, Augustine argued, in the context of the
problem of evil, that evil is not the opposite of good, but rather
merely the absence of good, something that does not have existence in
C. S. Lewis
C. S. Lewis described evil as a "parasite" in Mere
Christianity, as he viewed evil as something that cannot exist without
good to provide it with existence. Lewis went on to argue against
dualism from the basis of moral absolutism, and rejected the dualistic
Satan are opposites, arguing instead that
no equal, hence no opposite. Lewis rather viewed
Satan as the opposite
of Michael the archangel. Due to this, Lewis instead argued for a more
limited type of dualism. Other theologians, such as Greg Boyd,
have argued in more depth that the Biblical authors held a "limited
dualism", meaning that
Satan do engage in real battle, but
only due to free will given by God, for the duration
Isaiah 45:5-7 5 I am the Lord, and there is none else, there is no God
beside me: I girded thee, though thou hast not known me: 6 That they
may know from the rising of the sun, and from the west, that there is
none beside me. I am the Lord, and there is none else. 7 I form the
light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the Lord
do all these things.
In Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, while human beings are not
ontologically identical with the Creator, they are nonetheless capable
with uniting with his Divine
Nature via theosis, and especially,
through the devout reception of the Holy Eucharist.
This is a supernatural union, over and above that natural union, of
St. John of the Cross
St. John of the Cross says, "it must be known that
and is present substantially in every soul, even in that of the
greatest sinner in the world, and this union is natural." Julian of
Norwich, while maintaining the orthodox duality of Creator and
creature, nonetheless speaks of
God as "the true Father and true
Mother" of all natures; thus, he indwells them substantially and thus
preserves them from annihilation, as without this sustaining
indwelling everything would cease to exist.
Some Christian theologians are avowed monists, such as Paul Tillich.
God is he "in whom we live and move and have our being" (
Acts 17.28), it follows that everything that has being partakes in
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Although Vincent J. Cornell argue that the Quran also provides a
monist image of
God by describing the reality as a unified whole, with
God being a single concept that would describe or ascribe all existing
things. But most argue that Semitic religious scriptures especially
Quran see Creation and
God as two separate existence. It explains
everything been created by
God and under his control, but at the same
God and creation as having independent existence
from each other.
Main article: Sufism
Sufi mystics advocate monism. One of the most notable being the
13th-century Persian poet
Rumi (1207–73) in his didactic poem
Masnavi espoused monism.
Rumi says in the Masnavi,
In the shop for Unity (wahdat); anything that you see there except the
One is an idol.
The most influential of the Islamic monists was the Sufi philosopher
Ibn Arabi (1165–1240). He developed the concept of 'unity of being'
(Arabic: waḥdat al-wujūd), a pantheistic monoist philosophy. Born
in al-Andalus, he made an enormous impact on the Muslim world, where
he was crowned "the great Master". In the centuries following his
death, his ideas became increasingly controversial.
Main article: Bahá'í
Faith and the unity of religion
Bahá'í teachings have a strong emphasis on social and
ethical issues, there exist a number of foundational texts that have
been described as mystical. Some of these include statements of a
monist nature (e.g.,
The Seven Valleys and the Hidden Words). The
differences between dualist and monist views are reconciled by the
teaching that these opposing viewpoints are caused by differences in
the observers themselves, not in that which is observed. This is not a
'higher truth/lower truth' position.
God is unknowable. For man it is
impossible to acquire any direct knowledge of
God or the Absolute,
because any knowledge that one has, is relative.
Main article: Nondualism
According to nondualism, many forms of religion are based on an
experiential or intuitive understanding of "the Real". Nondualism,
a modern reinterpretation of these religions, prefers the term
"nondualism", instead of monism, because this understanding is
"nonconceptual", "not graspable in an idea".[note 6][note 7]
To these nondual traditions belong
Hinduism (including Vedanta, some
forms of Yoga, and certain schools of Shaivism), Taoism, Pantheism,
Rastafari and similar systems of thought.
^ Such as Behaviourism, Type-identity theory and
^ See Creation Spirituality
^ For a discussion of the resultant paradox, see Tzimtzum.
^ See also Negative theology.
^ See the "Guide for the Perplexed", especially chapter I:50.
^ In Dutch: "Niet in een denkbeeld te vatten".
^ According to Renard,
Alan Watts has explained the difference between
"non-dualism" and "monism" in The Supreme Identity, Faber and Faber
1950, p.69 and 95; The Way of Zen, Pelican-edition 1976, p.59-60.
According to Renard,
Alan Watts has been one of the main contributors
to thepopularisation of the notion of "nondualism".
^ a b c d e f Brugger 1972.
^ Strawson, G. (2014 in press): "Nietzsche's metaphysics?". In: Dries,
M. & Kail, P. (eds): "Nietzsche on
Mind and Nature". Oxford
University Press. PDF of draft[dead link]
^ Cross & Livingstone 1974.
^ Chande 2000, p. 277.
^ Dasgupta 1992, p. 70.
^ a b "monism", Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition.
Retrieved 29 October 2014.
^ jrank.org, Monism
^ a b c d e Luke Mastin (2008), "Monism"
^ Robert M. Young (1996). "The mind-body problem". In RC Olby; GN
Cantor; JR Christie; MJS Hodges. Companion to the History of Modern
Science (Paperback reprint of Routledge 1990 ed.). Taylor and Francis.
pp. 702–11. ISBN 0415145783.
^ Robinson, Howard (Nov 3, 2011). Edward N. Zalta, ed. "Dualism". The
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2011 Edition).
^ Henrik Lagerlund (2010). "Introduction". In Henrik Lagerlund.
Forming the Mind: Essays on the Internal Senses and the Mind/Body
Avicenna to the Medical Enlightenment (Paperback reprint
of 2007 ed.). Springer Science+Business Media. p. 3.
^ a b c d e f g h i Urmson 1991, p. 297.
^ Schaffer 2010.
^ Fiske 2010, p. 195.
^ Fiske 2010, p. 195-196.
^ Mandik 2010.
^ McLaughlin 2009.
^ a b c Schaffer, Jonathan, Monism: The Priority of the Whole,
^ Schaffer, Jonathan, "Monism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of
Philosophy (Summer 2015 Edition),
Edward N. Zalta
Edward N. Zalta (ed.),
^ a b c d Mandik 2010, p. 76.
^ Lenin, Vladimir (1909).
Materialism and Empirio-criticism. World
Socialist Web Site: Foreign Languages Publishing House.
^ Abernethy, Langford & pp.1-7.
^ Abernethy, Langford & pp.8,9.
^ De la causa, principio e Uno, London, 1584
^ De monade (De monade, numero et figura liber consequens quinque de
minimo magno et mensura), Frankfurt, 1591
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