The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness,
perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory. It is usually
defined as the faculty of an entity's thoughts and consciousness.
It holds the power of imagination, recognition, and appreciation, and
is responsible for processing feelings and emotions, resulting in
attitudes and actions.
There is a lengthy tradition in philosophy, religion, psychology, and
cognitive science about what constitutes a mind and what are its
One open question regarding the nature of the mind is the mind–body
problem, which investigates the relation of the mind to the physical
brain and nervous system. Older viewpoints included dualism and
idealism, which considered the mind somehow non-physical. Modern
views often center around physicalism and functionalism, which hold
that the mind is roughly identical with the brain or reducible to
physical phenomena such as neuronal activity.[need quotation to
verify], though dualism and idealism continue to have many supporters.
Another question concerns which types of beings are capable of having
minds. For example, whether mind is exclusive to
humans, possessed also by some or all animals, by all living things,
whether it is a strictly definable characteristic at all, or whether
mind can also be a property of some types of human-made
Whatever its nature, it is generally agreed that mind is that which
enables a being to have subjective awareness and intentionality
towards their environment, to perceive and respond to stimuli with
some kind of agency, and to have consciousness, including thinking and
The concept of mind is understood in many different ways by many
different cultural and religious traditions. Some see mind as a
property exclusive to humans whereas others ascribe properties of mind
to non-living entities (e.g. panpsychism and animism), to animals and
to deities. Some of the earliest recorded speculations linked mind
(sometimes described as identical with soul or spirit) to theories
concerning both life after death, and cosmological and natural order,
for example in the doctrines of Zoroaster, the Buddha, Plato,
Aristotle, and other ancient Greek, Indian and, later, Islamic and
medieval European philosophers.
Important philosophers of mind include Plato, Descartes, Leibniz,
Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Searle, Dennett,
Fodor, Nagel, and Chalmers. Psychologists such as Freud and James,
and computer scientists such as Turing and Putnam developed
influential theories about the nature of the mind. The possibility of
non-human minds is explored in the field of artificial intelligence,
which works closely in relation with cybernetics and information
theory to understand the ways in which information processing by
nonbiological machines is comparable or different to mental phenomena
in the human mind.
The mind is also portrayed as the stream of consciousness where sense
impressions and mental phenomena are constantly changing
3 Mental faculties
4 Mental content
5 Relation to the brain
6 Evolutionary history of the human mind
Philosophy of mind
7.1 Mind/body perspectives
8 Scientific study
9 Mental health
10 Non-human minds
10.1 Animal intelligence
10.2 Artificial intelligence
11 In religion
11.2 Mortality of the mind
12 In pseudoscience
13 See also
15 External links
The original meaning of
Old English gemynd was the faculty of memory,
not of thought in general. Hence call to mind, come
to mind, keep in mind, to have mind of, etc. The word retains this
sense in Scotland.
Old English had other words to express "mind",
such as hyge "mind, spirit".
The meaning of "memory" is shared with Old Norse, which has munr. The
word is originally from a
PIE verbal root *men-, meaning "to think,
remember", whence also Latin mens "mind", Sanskrit manas "mind" and
Greek μένος "mind, courage, anger".
The generalization of mind to include all mental faculties, thought,
volition, feeling and memory, gradually develops over the 14th and
The attributes that make up the mind is debated. Some psychologists
argue that only the "higher" intellectual functions constitute mind,
particularly reason and memory. In this view the emotions —
love, hate, fear, and joy — are more primitive or subjective in
nature and should be seen as different from the mind as such. Others
argue that various rational and emotional states cannot be so
separated, that they are of the same nature and origin, and should
therefore be considered all part of it as mind.
In popular usage, mind is frequently synonymous with thought: the
private conversation with ourselves that we carry on "inside our
heads." Thus we "make up our minds," "change our minds" or are "of
two minds" about something. One of the key attributes of the mind in
this sense is that it is a private sphere to which no one but the
owner has access. No one else can "know our mind." They can only
interpret what we consciously or unconsciously communicate.
See also: Nous, Reason, Modularity of mind, and Mental process
Broadly speaking, mental faculties are the various functions of the
mind, or things the mind can "do".
Thought is a mental act that allows humans to make sense of things in
the world, and to represent and interpret them in ways that are
significant, or which accord with their needs, attachments, goals,
commitments, plans, ends, desires, etc. Thinking involves the symbolic
or semiotic mediation of ideas or data, as when we form concepts,
engage in problem solving, reasoning, and making decisions. Words that
refer to similar concepts and processes include deliberation,
cognition, ideation, discourse and imagination.
Thinking is sometimes described as a "higher" cognitive function and
the analysis of thinking processes is a part of cognitive psychology.
It is also deeply connected with our capacity to make and use tools;
to understand cause and effect; to recognize patterns of significance;
to comprehend and disclose unique contexts of experience or activity;
and to respond to the world in a meaningful way.
Memory is the ability to preserve, retain, and subsequently recall,
knowledge, information or experience. Although memory has
traditionally been a persistent theme in philosophy, the late
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries also saw the study of memory
emerge as a subject of inquiry within the paradigms of cognitive
psychology. In recent decades, it has become one of the pillars of a
new branch of science called cognitive neuroscience, a marriage
between cognitive psychology and neuroscience.
Imagination is the activity of generating or evoking novel situations,
images, ideas or other qualia in the mind. It is a characteristically
subjective activity, rather than a direct or passive experience. The
term is technically used in psychology for the process of reviving in
the mind percepts of objects formerly given in sense perception. Since
this use of the term conflicts with that of ordinary language, some
psychologists have preferred to describe this process as "imaging" or
"imagery" or to speak of it as "reproductive" as opposed to
"productive" or "constructive" imagination. Things imagined are said
to be seen in the "mind's eye". Among the many practical functions of
imagination are the ability to project possible futures (or
histories), to "see" things from another's perspective, and to change
the way something is perceived, including to make decisions to respond
to, or enact, what is imagined.
Consciousness in mammals (this includes humans) is an aspect of the
mind generally thought to comprise qualities such as subjectivity,
sentience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between
oneself and one's environment. It is a subject of much research in
philosophy of mind, psychology, neuroscience, and cognitive science.
Some philosophers divide consciousness into phenomenal consciousness,
which is subjective experience itself, and access consciousness, which
refers to the global availability of information to processing systems
in the brain. Phenomenal consciousness has many different
experienced qualities, often referred to as qualia. Phenomenal
consciousness is usually consciousness of something or about
something, a property known as intentionality in philosophy of mind.
Mental contents are those items that are thought of as being "in" the
mind, and capable of being formed and manipulated by mental processes
and faculties. Examples include thoughts, concepts, memories,
emotions, percepts and intentions. Philosophical theories of mental
content include internalism, externalism, representationalism and
Memetics is a theory of mental content based on an analogy with
Darwinian evolution, which was originated by
Richard Dawkins and
Douglas Hofstadter in the 1980s. It is an evolutionary model of
cultural information transfer. A meme, analogous to a gene, is an
idea, belief, pattern of behaviour (etc.) "hosted" in one or more
individual minds, and can reproduce itself from mind to mind. Thus
what would otherwise be regarded as one individual influencing another
to adopt a belief, is seen memetically as a meme reproducing itself.
Relation to the brain
In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for "in the head"), is the
control center of the central nervous system, responsible for thought.
In most animals, the brain is located in the head, protected by the
skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing,
equilibrioception, taste and olfaction. While all vertebrates have a
brain, most invertebrates have either a centralized brain or
collections of individual ganglia. Primitive animals such as sponges
do not have a brain at all. Brains can be extremely complex. For
example, the human brain contains around 86 billion neurons, each
linked to as many as 10,000 others.
Understanding the relationship between the brain and the mind –
mind–body problem is one of the central issues in the history of
philosophy – is a challenging problem both philosophically and
scientifically. There are three major philosophical schools of
thought concerning the answer: dualism, materialism, and idealism.
Dualism holds that the mind exists independently of the brain;
materialism holds that mental phenomena are identical to neuronal
phenomena; and idealism holds that only mental phenomena
Through most of history many philosophers found it inconceivable that
cognition could be implemented by a physical substance such as brain
tissue (that is neurons and synapses). Descartes, who thought
extensively about mind-brain relationships, found it possible to
explain reflexes and other simple behaviors in mechanistic terms,
although he did not believe that complex thought, and language in
particular, could be explained by reference to the physical brain
The most straightforward scientific evidence of a strong relationship
between the physical brain matter and the mind is the impact physical
alterations to the brain have on the mind, such as with traumatic
brain injury and psychoactive drug use.
Churchland notes that this drug-mind interaction indicates an intimate
connection between the brain and the mind.
In addition to the philosophical questions, the relationship between
mind and brain involves a number of scientific questions, including
understanding the relationship between mental activity and brain
activity, the exact mechanisms by which drugs influence cognition, and
the neural correlates of consciousness.
Theoretical approaches to explain how mind emerges from the brain
include connectionism, computationalism and Bayesian brain.
Evolutionary history of the human mind
The evolution of human intelligence refers to several theories that
aim to describe how human intelligence has evolved in relation to the
evolution of the human brain and the origin of language.
The timeline of human evolution spans some 7 million years, from the
separation of the Pan genus until the emergence of behavioral
modernity by 50,000 years ago. Of this timeline, the first 3 million
years concern Sahelanthropus, the following 2 million concern
Australopithecus, while the final 2 million span the history of actual
Homo species (the Paleolithic).
Many traits of human intelligence, such as empathy, theory of mind,
mourning, ritual, and the use of symbols and tools, are already
apparent in great apes although in lesser sophistication than in
There is a debate between supporters of the idea of a sudden emergence
of intelligence, or "Great leap forward" and those of a gradual or
Theories of the evolution of intelligence include:
Robin Dunbar's social brain hypothesis
Geoffrey Miller's sexual selection hypothesis concerning Sexual
selection in human evolution
The ecological dominance-social competition (EDSC) explained by
Mark V. Flinn, David C. Geary and Carol V. Ward based mainly on work
by Richard D. Alexander.
The idea of intelligence as a signal of good health and resistance to
Group selection theory contends that organism characteristics that
provide benefits to a group (clan, tribe, or larger population) can
evolve despite individual disadvantages such as those cited above.
The idea that intelligence is connected with nutrition, and thereby
with status. A higher IQ could be a signal that an individual
comes from and lives in a physical and social environment where
nutrition levels are high, and vice versa.
Philosophy of mind
Philosophy of mind
Philosophy of mind
Philosophy of mind is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature
of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties,
consciousness and their relationship to the physical body. The
mind–body problem, i.e. the relationship of the mind to the body, is
commonly seen as the central issue in philosophy of mind, although
there are other issues concerning the nature of the mind that do not
involve its relation to the physical body. José Manuel Rodriguez
Delgado writes, "In present popular usage, soul and mind are not
clearly differentiated and some people, more or less consciously,
still feel that the soul, and perhaps the mind, may enter or leave the
body as independent entities."
Dualism and monism are the two major schools of thought that attempt
to resolve the mind–body problem. Dualism is the position that mind
and body are in some way separate from each other. It can be traced
back to Plato, Aristotle and the Nyaya,
Yoga schools of Hindu philosophy, but it was most precisely
René Descartes in the 17th century. Substance
dualists argue that the mind is an independently existing substance,
whereas Property dualists maintain that the mind is a group of
independent properties that emerge from and cannot be reduced to the
brain, but that it is not a distinct substance.
The 20th century philosopher Martin Heidegger suggested that
subjective experience and activity (i.e. the "mind") cannot be made
sense of in terms of Cartesian "substances" that bear "properties" at
all (whether the mind itself is thought of as a distinct, separate
kind of substance or not). This is because the nature of subjective,
qualitative experience is incoherent in terms of – or
semantically incommensurable with the concept of – substances
that bear properties. This is a fundamentally ontological
The philosopher of cognitive science Daniel Dennett, for example,
argues there is no such thing as a narrative center called the "mind",
but that instead there is simply a collection of sensory inputs and
outputs: different kinds of "software" running in parallel.
B.F. Skinner argued that the mind is an explanatory
fiction that diverts attention from environmental causes of
behavior; he considered the mind a "black box" and thought that
mental processes may be better conceived of as forms of covert verbal
David Chalmers has argued that the third person approach
to uncovering mind and consciousness is not effective, such as looking
into other's brains or observing human conduct, but that a first
person approach is necessary. Such a first person perspective
indicates that the mind must be conceptualized as something distinct
from the brain.
The mind has also been described as manifesting from moment to moment,
one thought moment at a time as a fast flowing stream, where sense
impressions and mental phenomena are constantly changing.
Monism is the position that mind and body are not physiologically and
ontologically distinct kinds of entities. This view was first
advocated in Western
Parmenides in the 5th Century BC
and was later espoused by the 17th Century rationalist Baruch
Spinoza. According to Spinoza's dual-aspect theory, mind and body
are two aspects of an underlying reality which he variously described
as "Nature" or "God".
Physicalists argue that only the entities postulated by physical
theory exist, and that the mind will eventually be explained in terms
of these entities as physical theory continues to evolve.
Idealists maintain that the mind is all that exists and that the
external world is either mental itself, or an illusion created by the
Neutral monists adhere to the position that perceived things in the
world can be regarded as either physical or mental depending on
whether one is interested in their relationship to other things in the
world or their relationship to the perceiver. For example, a red spot
on a wall is physical in its dependence on the wall and the pigment of
which it is made, but it is mental in so far as its perceived redness
depends on the workings of the visual system. Unlike dual-aspect
theory, neutral monism does not posit a more fundamental substance of
which mind and body are aspects.
The most common monisms in the 20th and 21st centuries have all been
variations of physicalism; these positions include behaviorism, the
type identity theory, anomalous monism and functionalism.
Many modern philosophers of mind adopt either a reductive or
non-reductive physicalist position, maintaining in their different
ways that the mind is not something separate from the body. These
approaches have been particularly influential in the sciences, e.g. in
the fields of sociobiology, computer science, evolutionary psychology
and the various neurosciences. Other philosophers,
however, adopt a non-physicalist position which challenges the notion
that the mind is a purely physical construct.
Reductive physicalists assert that all mental states and properties
will eventually be explained by scientific accounts of physiological
processes and states.
Non-reductive physicalists argue that although the brain is all there
is to the mind, the predicates and vocabulary used in mental
descriptions and explanations are indispensable, and cannot be reduced
to the language and lower-level explanations of physical
Continued progress in neuroscience has helped to clarify many of these
issues, and its findings have been taken by many to support
physicalists' assertions. Nevertheless, our knowledge is
incomplete, and modern philosophers of mind continue to discuss how
subjective qualia and the intentional mental states can be naturally
Simplified diagram of Spaun, a 2.5-million-neuron computational model
of the brain. (A) The corresponding physical regions and connections
of the human brain. (B) The mental architecture of Spaun.
Cognitive neuroscience and
Neuroscience studies the nervous system, the physical basis of the
mind. At the systems level, neuroscientists investigate how biological
neural networks form and physiologically interact to produce mental
functions and content such as reflexes, multisensory integration,
motor coordination, circadian rhythms, emotional responses, learning,
and memory. At a larger scale, efforts in computational neuroscience
have developed large-scale models that simulate simple, functioning
brains. As of 2012, such models include the thalamus, basal
ganglia, prefrontal cortex, motor cortex, and occipital cortex, and
consequentially simulated brains can learn, respond to visual stimuli,
coordinate motor responses, form short-term memories, and learn to
respond to patterns. Currently, researchers aim to program the
hippocampus and limbic system, hypothetically imbuing the simulated
mind with long-term memory and crude emotions.
By contrast, affective neuroscience studies the neural mechanisms of
personality, emotion, and mood primarily through experimental tasks.
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Cognitive science examines the mental functions that give rise to
information processing, termed cognition. These include perception,
attention, working memory, long-term memory, producing and
understanding language, learning, reasoning, problem solving, and
Cognitive science seeks to understand thinking "in
terms of representational structures in the mind and computational
procedures that operate on those structures".
See also: Neuropsychology, Psyche, and Unconscious mind
Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior, mental
functioning, and experience. As both an academic and applied
Psychology involves the scientific study of mental
processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, as well
as environmental influences, such as social and cultural influences,
and interpersonal relationships, in order to devise theories of human
behavior. Psychological patterns can be understood as low cost ways of
Psychology also refers to the application
of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including
problems of individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental
Psychology differs from the other social sciences (e.g. anthropology,
economics, political science, and sociology) due to its focus on
experimentation at the scale of the individual, or individuals in
small groups as opposed to large groups, institutions or societies.
Historically, psychology differed from biology and neuroscience in
that it was primarily concerned with mind rather than brain. Modern
psychological science incorporates physiological and neurological
processes into its conceptions of perception, cognition, behaviour,
and mental disorders.
Main article: Mental health
By analogy with the health of the body, one can speak metaphorically
of a state of health of the mind, or mental health. Merriam-Webster
defines mental health as "A state of emotional and psychological
well-being in which an individual is able to use his or her cognitive
and emotional capabilities, function in society, and meet the ordinary
demands of everyday life." According to the World Health Organization
(WHO), there is no one "official" definition of mental health.
Cultural differences, subjective assessments, and competing
professional theories all affect how "mental health" is defined. In
general, most experts agree that "mental health" and "mental disorder"
are not opposites. In other words, the absence of a recognized mental
disorder is not necessarily an indicator of mental health.
One way to think about mental health is by looking at how effectively
and successfully a person functions.
Feeling capable and competent;
being able to handle normal levels of stress, maintaining satisfying
relationships, and leading an independent life; and being able to
"bounce back," or recover from difficult situations, are all signs of
Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by
trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. This
usually includes increasing individual sense of well-being and
reducing subjective discomforting experience. Psychotherapists employ
a range of techniques based on experiential relationship building,
dialogue, communication and behavior change and that are designed to
improve the mental health of a client or patient, or to improve group
relationships (such as in a family). Most forms of psychotherapy use
only spoken conversation, though some also use various other forms of
communication such as the written word, art, drama, narrative story,
or therapeutic touch.
Psychotherapy occurs within a structured
encounter between a trained therapist and client(s). Purposeful,
theoretically based psychotherapy began in the 19th century with
psychoanalysis; since then, scores of other approaches have been
developed and continue to be created.
Animal cognition, or cognitive ethology, is the title given to a
modern approach to the mental capacities of animals. It has developed
out of comparative psychology, but has also been strongly influenced
by the approach of ethology, behavioral ecology, and evolutionary
psychology. Much of what used to be considered under the title of
"animal intelligence" is now thought of under this heading. Animal
language acquisition, attempting to discern or understand the degree
to which animal cognition can be revealed by linguistics-related
study, has been controversial among cognitive linguists.
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Philosophy of artificial intelligence
Computer simulation of the branching architecture of the dendrites of
Alan M. Turing
Alan M. Turing published "Computing machinery and
intelligence" in Mind, in which he proposed that machines could be
tested for intelligence using questions and answers. This process is
now named the Turing Test. The term Artificial
Intelligence (AI) was
first used by John McCarthy who considered it to mean "the science and
engineering of making intelligent machines". It can also refer to
intelligence as exhibited by an artificial (man-made, non-natural,
manufactured) entity. AI is studied in overlapping fields of computer
science, psychology, neuroscience and engineering, dealing with
intelligent behavior, learning and adaptation and usually developed
using customized machines or computers.
Research in AI is concerned with producing machines to automate tasks
requiring intelligent behavior. Examples include control, planning and
scheduling, the ability to answer diagnostic and consumer questions,
handwriting, natural language, speech and facial recognition. As such,
the study of AI has also become an engineering discipline, focused on
providing solutions to real life problems, knowledge mining, software
applications, strategy games like computer chess and other video
games. One of the biggest limitations of AI is in the domain of actual
machine comprehension. Consequentially natural language understanding
and connectionism (where behavior of neural networks is investigated)
are areas of active research and development.
The debate about the nature of the mind is relevant to the development
of artificial intelligence. If the mind is indeed a thing separate
from or higher than the functioning of the brain, then hypothetically
it would be much more difficult to recreate within a machine, if it
were possible at all. If, on the other hand, the mind is no more than
the aggregated functions of the brain, then it will be possible to
create a machine with a recognisable mind (though possibly only with
computers much different from today's), by simple virtue of the fact
that such a machine already exists in the form of the human brain.
Many religions associate spiritual qualities to the human mind. These
are often tightly connected to their mythology and ideas of afterlife.
The Indian philosopher-sage
Sri Aurobindo attempted to unite the
Eastern and Western psychological traditions with his integral
psychology, as have many philosophers and New religious movements.
Judaism teaches that "moach shalit al halev", the mind rules the
heart. Humans can approach the Divine intellectually, through learning
and behaving according to the Divine Will as enclothed in the Torah,
and use that deep logical understanding to elicit and guide emotional
arousal during prayer.
Christianity has tended to see the mind as
distinct from the soul (Greek nous) and sometimes further
distinguished from the spirit. Western esoteric traditions sometimes
refer to a mental body that exists on a plane other than the physical.
Hinduism's various philosophical schools have debated whether the
human soul (Sanskrit atman) is distinct from, or identical to,
Brahman, the divine reality.
Taoism sees the human being as contiguous
with natural forces, and the mind as not separate from the body.
Confucianism sees the mind, like the body, as inherently perfectible.
Buddhism and psychology, Vijñāna, Śūnyatā, Shentong,
Rangtong, and Yogacara
Buddhist teachings explain the moment-to-moment manifestation of the
mind-stream. The components that make up the mind are known as
the five aggregates (i.e., material form, feelings, perception,
volition, and sensory consciousness), which arise and pass away
continuously. The arising and passing of these aggregates in the
present moment is described as being influenced by five causal laws:
biological laws, psychological laws, physical laws, volitional laws,
and universal laws. The Buddhist practice of mindfulness
involves attending to this constantly changing mind-stream.
According to Buddhist philosopher Dharmakirti, the mind has two
fundamental qualities: "clarity and cognizes". If something is not
those two qualities, it cannot validly be called mind. "Clarity"
refers to the fact that mind has no color, shape, size, location,
weight, or any other physical characteristic, and "cognizes" that it
functions to know or perceive objects. "Knowing" refers to the
fact that mind is aware of the contents of experience, and that, in
order to exist, mind must be cognizing an object. You cannot have a
mind – whose function is to cognize an object – existing without
cognizing an object.
Mind, in Buddhism, is also described as being "space-like" and
Mind is space-like in the sense that it is not
physically obstructive. It has no qualities which would prevent it
from existing. In
Mahayana Buddhism, mind is illusion-like in the
sense that it is empty of inherent existence. This does not mean it
does not exist, it means that it exists in a manner that is counter to
our ordinary way of misperceiving how phenomena exist, according to
Buddhism. When the mind is itself cognized properly, without
misperceiving its mode of existence, it appears to exist like an
illusion. There is a big difference however between being "space and
illusion" and being "space-like" and "illusion-like".
Mind is not
composed of space, it just shares some descriptive similarities to
Mind is not an illusion, it just shares some descriptive
qualities with illusions.
Buddhism posits that there is no inherent, unchanging identity
(Inherent I, Inherent Me) or phenomena (Ultimate self, inherent self,
Atman, Soul, Self-essence, Jiva, Ishvara, humanness essence, etc.)
which is the experiencer of our experiences and the agent of our
actions. In other words, human beings consist of merely a body and a
mind, and nothing extra. Within the body there is no part or set of
parts which is – by itself or themselves – the person. Similarly,
within the mind there is no part or set of parts which are themselves
"the person". A human being merely consists of five aggregates, or
skandhas and nothing else.
In the same way, "mind" is what can be validly conceptually labelled
onto our mere experience of clarity and knowing. There is something
separate and apart from clarity and knowing which is "Awareness", in
Buddhism. "Mind" is that part of experience the sixth sense door,
which can be validly referred to as mind by the concept-term "mind".
There is also not "objects out there, mind in here, and experience
somewhere in-between". There is a third thing called "awareness" which
exists being aware of the contents of mind and what mind cognizes.
There are five senses (arising of mere experience: shapes, colors, the
components of smell, components of taste, components of sound,
components of touch) and mind as the sixth institution; this means,
expressly, that there can be a third thing called "awareness" and a
third thing called "experiencer who is aware of the experience". This
awareness is deeply related to "no-self" because it does not judge the
experience with craving or aversion.
Clearly, the experience arises and is known by mind, but there is a
third thing calls Sati what is the "real experiencer of the
experience" that sits apart from the experience and which can be aware
of the experience in 4 levels. (Maha Sathipatthana Sutta.)
Sensations (Changes of the body mind.)
Contents of the mind. (Changes of the body mind.)
To be aware of these four levels one needs to cultivate equanimity
toward Craving and Aversion. This is Called Vipassana which is
different from the way of reacting with Craving and Aversion. This is
the state of being aware and equanimous to the complete experience of
here and now. This is the way of Buddhism, with regards to mind and
the ultimate nature of minds (and persons).
Mortality of the mind
Consciousness after death
Due to the mind–body problem, a lot of interest and debate surrounds
the question of what happens to one's conscious mind as one's body
dies. During brain death all brain function permanently ceases,
according to the current neuroscientific view which sees these
processes as the physical basis of mental phenomena, the mind fails to
survive brain death and ceases to exist. This permanent loss of
consciousness after death is often called "eternal oblivion". The
belief that some spiritual or incorporeal component (soul) exists and
that it is preserved after death is described by the term "afterlife".
Parapsychology is the scientific study of certain types of paranormal
phenomena, or of phenomena which appear to be paranormal, for
instance precognition, telekinesis and telepathy.
The term is based on the Greek para (beside/beyond), psyche
(soul/mind), and logos (account/explanation) and was coined by
Max Dessoir in or before 1889.
J. B. Rhine
J. B. Rhine later
popularized "parapsychology" as a replacement for the earlier term
"psychical research", during a shift in methodologies which brought
experimental methods to the study of psychic phenomena.
Parapsychology is controversial, with many scientists believing that
psychic abilities have not been demonstrated to
exist. The status of parapsychology as a science
has also been disputed, with many scientists regarding the
discipline as pseudoscience.
Outline of human intelligence – topic tree presenting the traits,
capacities, models, and research fields of human intelligence, and
Outline of thought – topic tree that identifies many types of
thoughts, types of thinking, aspects of thought, related fields, and
Hard problem of consciousness
Mind at Large
Philosophy of mind
Problem of other minds
Subjective character of experience
Theory of mind
^ Oliver Elbs, Neuro-Esthetics: Mapological foundations and
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