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China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of over 1.381 billion . Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), it is the world's second-largest state by land area and third- or fourth-largest by total area . Governed by the Communist Party of China , it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin , Shanghai , and Chongqing ) and the Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong and Macau , also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan . China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower . China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain . For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties , beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty . Since then, China has then expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times
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Taiwan
TAIWAN (/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ ( listen )), officially the REPUBLIC OF CHINA (ROC), is a state in East Asia . Its neighbors include China (officially the People's Republic of China, PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state that is not a member of the United Nations and the largest economy outside the UN. The island of Taiwan , formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by Taiwanese aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning , the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty , the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War . While Taiwan was under Japanese rule, the Republic of China (ROC) was established on the mainland in 1912 after the fall of the Qing dynasty . Following the Japanese surrender to the Allies in 1945, the ROC took control of Taiwan. However, the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the ROC's loss of the mainland to the Communists , and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949
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PRC (other)
PRC is the People's Republic of China, the formal name of the country China. PRC may also refer to: CONTENTS* 1 Organisations * 1.1 Politics * 2 Science and technology * 2.1 Biology * 3 Other uses * 4 See also ORGANISATIONS * Postal Regulatory Commission , an independent regulatory agency in the US * Presbyterian Reformed Church (Australia) * Producers Releasing Corporation , Hollywood film studio 1939–1947 * Professional Regulation Commission , Philippines * Protestant Reformed Churches in America POLITICS * Communist Refoundation Party , (Partito della Rifondazione Comunista), Italy * Regionalist Party of Cantabria * Popular Resistance Committees , Palestinian militant organizations * People\'s Redemption Council , Liberian early 1980s military regimeSCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY * PRC (Palm OS) , computer code database file extension * PRC (file format) , a way to store 3D data in a PDF file * Primary reference clock, for synchronization in telecommunications * Prestressed reinforced concrete, a prestressed concrete BIOLOGY * Phase response curve , graph of biological responses to light or other time cues * Photosynthetic reaction centre , the molecular unit responsible for absorbing light in photosynthesis * Progesterone receptor C , one of the isoforms of the progesterone receptorOTHER USES * Ernest A
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Flag Of The People's Republic Of China
The FLAG OF THE PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA, also known as the FIVE-STAR RED FLAG, is a red field charged in the canton (upper corner nearest the flagpole) with five golden stars . The design features one large star, with four smaller stars in a semicircle set off towards the fly (the side farthest from the flag pole). The red represents the communist revolution; the five stars and their relationship represent the unity of the Chinese people under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC). The flag is now mostly used within PRC-controlled territories of Mainland China , Hong Kong and Macau . The flag was designed by Zeng Liansong , a citizen from Wenzhou , Zhejiang . He designed it in response to a circular distributed by the Preparatory Committee of the New Political Consultative Conference (Chinese : 新政治协商会议筹备会; pinyin : Xīn zhèngzhì xiéshāng huìyì chóubèi huì) in July 1949, shortly after they came to power following the Chinese Civil War . The design competition received 2,992 (or 3,012, see below ) entries, and Zeng's design was put into a pool of 38 finalists. After several meetings and slight modifications, Zeng's design was chosen as the national flag . The first flag was hoisted by the People\'s Liberation Army (PLA) on a pole overlooking Beijing's Tiananmen Square on 1 October 1949, at a ceremony announcing the founding of the People's Republic
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National Emblem Of The People's Republic Of China
The NATIONAL EMBLEM OF THE PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA contains in a red circle a representation of Tiananmen
Tiananmen
Gate , the entrance gate to the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
, where Mao declared the foundation of the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) in 1949. Above this representation are the five stars found on the national flag . The largest star represents the Communist Party of China
China
, while the four smaller stars represent the four social classes as defined in Maoism. The emblem is described as being "composed of patterns of the national flag": ...The red color of the flag symbolizes revolution and the yellow color of the stars the golden brilliant rays radiating from the vast red land. The design of four smaller stars surrounding a bigger one signifies the unity of the Chinese people under the leadership of the Communist Party of China
China
(CPC) — China
China
Yearbook 2004 The outer border of the red circle shows sheaves of wheat and the inner sheaves of rice , which together represent agricultural workers. At the center of the bottom portion of the border is a cog-wheel that represents industrial workers
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March Of The Volunteers
The "MARCH OF THE VOLUNTEERS", is the national anthem of the People\'s Republic of China , including its special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau . Unlike most previous Chinese anthems , it is written entirely in the vernacular , rather than in Classical Chinese . Its lyrics were composed as a dramatic poem by the poet and playwright , the Japan-educated Tian Han in 1934 and set to music by Nie Er the next year in Japan for the movie _Children of Troubled Times _. It was adopted as the PRC 's provisional anthem in 1949 in place of the _Three Principles of the People _ of the Republic of China and the Communist _"Internationale"_ . When Tian Han was imprisoned during the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s, the march was briefly and unofficially replaced by "The East Is Red ", then played without words, then played with altered words. Restored to its original version, the "March of the Volunteers" was raised to official status in 1982, adopted by Hong Kong and Macau upon their restorations to China in 1997 and 1999 respectively, and included in the Chinese Constitution 's Article 136 in 2004
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Beijing
BEIJING, formerly romanized as PEKING, is the capital of the People\'s Republic of China and the world's third most populous city proper . It is also one of the world's most populous capital cities. The city, located in northern China , is governed as a direct-controlled municipality under the national government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts . Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighbouring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together the three divisions form the Jingjinji metropolitan region and the national capital region of China. As a city combining both modern and traditional architecture , Beijing is an ever-changing megacity rich in history but also truly modern, exemplified in its global influence in politics , business "> , the city's subway network is the busiest and second longest in the world , after Shanghai\'s subway system . The city\'s history dates back three millennia . As the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China , Beijing has been the political center of the country for much of the past eight centuries. With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls , Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital
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Shanghai
SHANGHAI is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million as of 2014 . It is a global financial centre and transport hub, with the world\'s busiest container port . Located in the Yangtze River Delta , it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast. The municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north, south and west, and is bounded to the east by the East China Sea . As a major administrative, shipping and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential. The city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War . The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession . The city then flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world (predominantly Western countries), and became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s
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Standard Chinese
STANDARD CHINESE, also known as MODERN STANDARD MANDARIN, STANDARD MANDARIN, or simply MANDARIN, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore
Singapore
. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect , its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects , and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese . Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is an analytic language , though with many compound words . There exist two standardised forms of the language, namely PUTONGHUA in Mainland China
China
and GUOYU in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(plus Hanyu Pinyin romanization for teaching), while Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters (plus Bopomofo for teaching). There are many characters that are identical between the two systems
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Mongolian Language
монгол хэл ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ PRONUNCIATION /mɔŋɢɔ̆ɮ xeɮ/ NATIVE TO Mongolia , REGION All of Mongolia and Inner Mongolia ; parts of Liaoning , Jilin , Heilongjiang , Xinjiang and Gansu provinces in China NATIVE SPEAKERS 5.2 million (200
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Standard Tibetan
STANDARD TIBETAN is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages . It is based on the speech of Lhasa
Lhasa
, an Ü-Tsang (Central Tibetan) dialect. For this reason, Standard Tibetan
Standard Tibetan
is often called LHASA TIBETAN. Tibetan is an official language of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. The written language is based on Classical Tibetan and is highly conservative . CONTENTS * 1 Registers * 2 Grammar * 2.1 Syntax and word order * 3 Numerals * 4 Writing system
Writing system
* 5 Phonology of modern Lhasa
Lhasa
Tibetan * 5.1 Vowels * 5.2 Tones * 5.3 Consonants * 6 Verbal system * 7 Scholarship * 8 Contemporary usage * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links REGISTERSLike many languages, Standard Tibetan
Standard Tibetan
has a variety of language registers : * _Phal-skad_ ("demotic language"): the vernacular speech. * _Zhe-sa_ ("polite respectful speech"): the formal spoken style, particularly prominent in Lhasa
Lhasa
. * _Chos-skad_ ("religious language"): the literary style in which the scriptures and other classical works are written.GRAMMAR Main article: Modern Standard Tibetan grammar SYNTAX AND WORD ORDERTibetan is an ergative language
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Uyghur Language
China * Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region REGULATED BY Working Committee of Ethnic Language and Writing of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 ug Uighur, Uyghur ISO 639-2 uig Uighur, Uyghur ISO 639-3 uig Uighur, Uyghur GLOTTOLOG uigh1240 Uighur Geographical extent of Uyghur in China THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA . THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS UYGHUR TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see unjoined letters or other symbols instead of Uyghur script .The UYGHUR or UIGHUR language (/ˈwiːɡər/ ئۇيغۇر تىلى, _Уйғур тили_, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or ئۇيغۇرچە, _Уйғурчә_, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as EASTERN TURKI, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China . Significant communities of Uyghur-speakers are located in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, and various other countries have Uyghur-speaking expatriate communities
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Standard Zhuang
STANDARD ZHUANG (autonym : Zhuang : _Vahcuengh_ (pre-1982: _Vaƅcueŋƅ_; Sawndip : 话壮); simplified Chinese : 壮语; traditional Chinese : 壯語; pinyin : _Zhuàngyǔ_) is the official standardized form of the Zhuang languages , which are a branch of the Northern Tai languages . Its pronunciation is based on that of the Yongbei Zhuang dialect of Shuangqiao, Guangxi in Wuming District , Guangxi with some influence from Fuliang, also in Wuming District, while its vocabulary is based mainly on northern dialects. The official standard covers both spoken and written Zhuang. It is the national standard of the Zhuang languages, though in Yunnan a local standard is used. CONTENTS * 1 Phonology * 2 Classification * 3 Domains of use * 4 Official Exam * 5 Differences from Wuming Zhuang * 6 Writing systems * 7 Example * 8 References PHONOLOGY _ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it
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Languages Of China
English , Portuguese (in Macau ) SIGN LANGUAGES Chinese Sign Language Tibetan Sign Language COMMON KEYBOARD LAYOUTS Chinese input methods Part of a series on the CULTURE OF CHINA HISTORY PEOPLE LANGUAGES Traditions * Values * Etiquette * Marriage * Funerals * Tea ceremony * Clothing * Games Mythology and folklore * Mythology * folklore CUISINE FESTIVALS Religion * New religions * Taoism Art * Ikebana * Bonsai * Gardens * Pottery Literature * Poetry Music and performing arts * Music * Performing arts Media * Radio * Television * Cinema * Mobile phone culture * Anime Sport * Martial arts Monuments * World Heritage Sites * Architecture Symbols * Flag * Coat of arms Organisations * Museums * * China portal * v * t * e The LANGUAGES OF CHINA are the languages that are spoken by China's 56 recognized ethnic groups . The predominant language in China, which is divided into seven major dialect groups (often classified as distinct languages by foreign linguists), is known as _Hanyu_ (simplified Chinese : 汉语; traditional Chinese : 漢語; pinyin : _Hànyǔ_). and its study is considered a distinct academic discipline in China
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP or ETHNICITY is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral , language , social , cultural or national experiences . Ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion). Ethnicity is often used synonymously with ambiguous terms such as nation or people . In English, it can also have the connotation of something exotic (cf. " White ethnic ", "ethnic restaurant", etc.), generally related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the founding population of an area was established
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