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Macao (Chinese: 澳門, Cantonese: [ōu.mǔːn], /məˈkaʊ/ ( listen); Portuguese: Macau), officially the Macao Special
Special
Administrative Region of the People's Republic
Republic
of China, is an autonomous territory of China
China
on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia. Macau
Macau
is bordered by the city of Zhuhai
Zhuhai
in Mainland China
China
to the north and the Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
to the east and south. Hong Kong
Hong Kong
lies about 64 kilometres (40 mi) to its east across the Delta.[5] With a population of 650,900[3] living in an area of 30.5 km2 (11.8 sq mi), it is the most densely populated region in the world. A former Portuguese colony, it was returned to Chinese sovereignty on 20 December 1999. Macau
Macau
was administered by the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
and its inheritor states from the mid-16th century until late 1999, when it constituted the last remaining European colony in Asia.[6][7] Portuguese traders first settled in Macau
Macau
in the 1550s. In 1557, Macau
Macau
was leased to Portugal
Portugal
from Ming China
China
as a trading port. The Portuguese Empire administered the city under Chinese authority and sovereignty until 1887, when Macau
Macau
became a colony through an agreement forced by Portugal
Portugal
after instability in China. Sovereignty over Macau
Macau
was transferred back to China
China
on 20 December 1999. The Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau
Macau
and Macau Basic Law
Macau Basic Law
stipulate that Macau operate with a high degree of autonomy until at least 2049, fifty years after the transfer.[8] Under the policy of "one country, two systems", the Central People's Government of the People's Republic
Republic
of China
China
is responsible for military defense and foreign affairs while Macau
Macau
maintains its own legal system, public security force, monetary system, customs policy and immigration policy. Macau
Macau
participates in international organizations and events that do not require members to possess national sovereignty.[8][9] Macau
Macau
is a resort city in Southern China, known for its casinos and luxury hotels. Its gaming revenue has been the world's largest since 2006,[10] with the economy heavily dependent on gaming and tourism. According to The World Factbook, Macau
Macau
has the fourth highest life expectancy in the world.[11] Moreover, it has a very high Human Development Index, ranking 17th in the world as of 2016[update].[12] Macau
Macau
is among the world's richest regions and its GDP per capita by purchasing power parity was higher than that of any country in the world, according to the World Bank.[13] It is known as the pre-eminent gambling (or gaming) capital of the world, dwarfing other gambling centers.[14][15][16]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Portuguese Macau 2.2 Transfer of sovereignty and SAR status

3 Government and politics

3.1 Executive 3.2 Legislature 3.3 Judiciary 3.4 Military 3.5 International relations 3.6 Administrative divisions

4 Geography

4.1 Climate

5 Economy

5.1 Monetary system

6 Demographics

6.1 Language 6.2 Religion

7 Infrastructure

7.1 Education 7.2 Healthcare 7.3 Transport

8 Culture

8.1 Cuisine 8.2 Sports

9 Notable people 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References

12.1 Citations 12.2 Sources

13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology[edit] Main article: Names of Macau The present Chinese name (Chinese: 澳門; pinyin: Àomén; Cantonese Yale: Oumún) means "Bay Outlet". Macau
Macau
is otherwise known in Chinese as Haojing (濠鏡, literally "Moat Mirror") or Jinghai (鏡海, literally "Mirror Sea").[17] The name Macau
Macau
is thought to be derived from the A-Ma Temple
A-Ma Temple
(Chinese: 媽閣廟; pinyin: Māgé Miào; Cantonese
Cantonese
Yale: Māgok Miuh), a temple built in 1448 dedicated to Mazu, the goddess of seafarers and fishermen.[18] More precisely, the name Macau
Macau
corresponds to the Chinese name "媽港" (pinyin: Māgǎng), meaning "Mazu Harbor", and referring to the waters adjacent to the Ama Temple.[19] History[edit] Main articles: History of Macau, Portuguese Macau, and Transfer of sovereignty over Macau

Ruins of São Paulo
São Paulo
Cathedral, built in 1602 and destroyed by fire in 1835

The history of Macau
Macau
is traced back to the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
(221–206 BC), when the region now called Macau
Macau
came under the jurisdiction of Panyu County, Nanhai Prefecture (modern Guangdong).[17] The first recorded Chinese inhabitants of the area were people seeking refuge in Macau from invading Mongols
Mongols
during the Southern Song.[20] Under the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), fishermen migrated to Macau
Macau
from Guangdong
Guangdong
and Fujian. The Macau
Macau
native people were Tanka boat people. Macau
Macau
did not develop as a major settlement until the Portuguese arrived in the 16th century.[21] In 1513, Jorge Álvares
Jorge Álvares
became the first Portuguese to land in China. In 1535, Portuguese traders obtained the rights to anchor ships in Macau's harbours and to carry out trading activities, though not the right to stay onshore.[22] Around 1552–1553, they obtained temporary permission to erect storage sheds onshore, in order to dry out goods drenched by sea water;[23] they soon built rudimentary stone houses around the area now called Nam Van. Portuguese Macau[edit] In 1557, the Portuguese established a permanent settlement in Macau, paying an annual rent of 500 taels (18.9 kilograms / 41.6 pounds) of silver.[23] The Portuguese continued to pay an annual tribute up to 1863 in order to stay in Macau.[24] By 1564, Portugal
Portugal
commanded western trade with India, Japan, and China. In 1631 the Chinese restricted Portuguese commerce in China
China
to the port of Macau.[25] During the 17th century, some 5,000 slaves lived in Macau, in addition to 2,000 Portuguese and 20,000 Chinese.[26][27][28] As more Portuguese settled in Macau
Macau
to engage in trade, they made demands for self-administration; but this was not achieved until the 1840s.[29] In 1576, Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII
established the Roman Catholic Diocese of Macau.[30] In 1583, the Portuguese in Macau
Macau
were permitted to form a Senate to handle various issues concerning their social and economic affairs under strict supervision of the Chinese authority,[31] but there was no transfer of sovereignty.[20]

Macau, c. 1870

Macau
Macau
prospered as a port but it was the target of repeated failed attempts[32] by the Dutch to conquer it in the 17th century. On 24 June 1622, the Dutch attacked Macau
Macau
in the Battle of Macau, in the hope of turning it into a Dutch possession. The Portuguese repulsed their attack and the Dutch never tried to conquer Macau
Macau
again. The majority of the defenders were African slaves, with only a few Portuguese soldiers and priests. Captain Kornelis Reyerszoon was commander of the 800-strong Dutch invasion force.[33][34][35][36] The grieving Dutch Governor Jan Pz. Coen said after the defeat that "The slaves of the Portuguese at Macau
Macau
served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people there last year", and "Our people saw very few Portuguese" during the battle.[37][38][39][40] Following the First Opium War
First Opium War
(1839–42), Portugal
Portugal
occupied the empty islands of Taipa
Taipa
and Coloane
Coloane
in 1851 and 1864 respectively. On 1 December 1887, the Qing and Portuguese governments signed the Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking, under which China
China
ceded the right of "perpetual occupation and government of Macau
Macau
by Portugal" in compliance with the statements of the Protocol of Lisbon. In return, Macau
Macau
Government would cooperate with Hong Kong's smuggling trade in Indian opium and China
China
would profit from imposing customs taxes. Portugal
Portugal
was also obliged "never to alienate Macau
Macau
without previous agreement with China", therefore ensuring that negotiation between Portugal
Portugal
and France (regarding a possible exchange of Macau
Macau
and Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
with the French Congo) or with other countries would not go forward – so that the British commercial interests would be secured; Macau
Macau
officially became a territory under Portuguese administration.[20] In 1928, after the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
had been overthrown following the Xinhai Revolution, the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) government officially notified Portugal
Portugal
that it would abrogate the Treaty of Amity and Commerce;[41] the two powers signed a new Sino-Portuguese Friendship and Trade Treaty in place of the abrogated treaty. Changing only a few provisions concerning tariff principles and matters relating to business affairs, the new treaty did not alter the sovereignty of Macau
Macau
and Portuguese government of Macau
Macau
remained unchanged.[42] During World War II, unlike Portuguese Timor, which was occupied by the Japanese in 1942 along with Dutch Timor, the Japanese respected Portuguese neutrality in Macau, but only up to a point. Macau
Macau
enjoyed a brief period of economic prosperity as the only neutral port in South China
China
after the Japanese had occupied Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and Hong Kong. In August 1943, Japanese troops seized the British steamer Sian in Macau
Macau
and killed about 20 guards. The next month they demanded the installation of Japanese "advisors" under the threat of overt military occupation. The result was that a virtual Japanese protectorate was created over Macau.[43]

The "O Porto
Porto
Interior" in Macau, c. 1900

When it was discovered that "neutral" Macau
Macau
was planning to sell aviation fuel to Japan, aircraft from the USS Enterprise bombed and strafed the hangar of the Naval Aviation Centre on 16 January 1945 to destroy the fuel. American air raids on targets in Macau
Macau
were also made on 25 February and 11 June 1945. Following Portuguese government protests, in 1950 the United States
United States
paid US$20,255,952 to the government of Portugal.[43] Between the end of the Pacific War
Pacific War
and the establishment of the People's Republic
Republic
of China, Macau
Macau
served as a safe haven for refugees of the Chinese Civil War.[44] After the establishment of the People's Republic
Republic
of China
China
in 1949, the Beijing
Beijing
government declared the Sino-Portuguese Treaty invalid as an "unequal treaty" imposed by foreigners on China. However, Beijing
Beijing
was not ready to settle the treaty question, allowing the maintenance of "the status quo" until a more appropriate time.[45] Influenced by the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
in mainland China
China
and by general dissatisfaction with Portuguese government, riots broke out in Macau in 1966. In the most serious, the so-called 12-3 incident, 6 people were killed and more than 200 people were injured.[46] On 28 January 1967, the Portuguese government issued a formal apology by means of an "admission of guilt".[47]

The Peoples Liberation Army
Peoples Liberation Army
enters Macau
Macau
for the first time

Shortly after Portugal's 1974 Carnation Revolution, which overthrew the Estado Novo dictatorship, the new government determined it would relinquish all its overseas possessions. In 1976, Lisbon
Lisbon
redefined Macau
Macau
as a "Chinese territory under Portuguese administration" and granted it a large measure of administrative, financial, and economic autonomy. Three years later, Portugal
Portugal
and China
China
agreed to regard Macau as "a Chinese territory under [temporary] Portuguese administration".[48] The Chinese and Portuguese governments commenced negotiations on the question of Macau
Macau
in June 1986. The two signed the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration the next year, making Macau
Macau
one of the special administrative regions of China.[49] Transfer of sovereignty and SAR status[edit] The Chinese government assumed formal sovereignty over Macau
Macau
on 20 December 1999 as a special administrative region (SAR) after over 400 years of Portuguese colonial rule.[50] This event also marked the end of the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
and European colonialism in Asia. The economy since then has continued to prosper with the sustained growth of tourism from mainland China
China
and the construction of new casinos.[51][52] Government and politics[edit] Main articles: Politics of Macau, Legislative
Legislative
Assembly of Macau, Legal system of Macau, and Civic and Municipal Affairs Bureau

Macau
Macau
Government Headquarters

The Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration and Macau
Macau
Basic Law, Macau's constitution, promulgated by China's National People's Congress
National People's Congress
in 1993, specify that Macau's social and economic system, lifestyle, rights, and freedoms are to remain unchanged for at least 50 years after the transfer of sovereignty to China
China
in 1999.[8] Under the principle of "one country, two systems", Macau
Macau
enjoys a high degree of autonomy in all areas except defence and foreign affairs.[8] Macau officials, rather than PRC officials, run Macau
Macau
through the exercise of separate executive, legislative, and judicial powers, as well as the right to final adjudication.[53] Macau
Macau
maintains its own currency (the Macanese pataca), customs territory, immigration and border controls and police force.[54][55] Executive[edit] The government in Macau
Macau
is headed by the Chief Executive of Macau, who is appointed by the central government upon the recommendation of an election committee, whose three hundred members are nominated by corporate and community bodies. The recommendation is made by an election within the committee.[56] The chief executive's cabinet is made up of five policy secretaries and two commissariats and is advised by the Executive Council of Macau, which has between seven and eleven members.[57] Edmund Ho, a community leader and former banker, was the first chief executive of the Macau
Macau
SAR, replacing General Vasco Rocha Vieira at midnight on 20 December 1999. Fernando Chui
Fernando Chui
is the current Chief Executive.[58] The chief executive and the cabinet have their offices in the Macau
Macau
Government Headquarters, located in the area of São Lourenço. Legislature[edit]

Legislative
Legislative
Assembly of Macau

The legislative organ of the territory is the Legislative
Legislative
Assembly, a 33-member body comprising 14 directly elected members, 12 indirectly elected members representing functional constituencies and seven members appointed by the chief executive.[59] Any permanent residents at or over 18 years of age are eligible to vote in direct elections.[60] Indirect election is limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" and a 300-member election committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies.[61] In February 2009, the Legislative
Legislative
Assembly passed the Macau
Macau
national security law based on a withdrawn security legislation previously introduced in Hong Kong.[62] Democracy advocates feared that the bill's excessively broad scope could lead to abuses, a concern which has been heightened after a number of prominent supporters of democracy in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
were denied entry into Macau
Macau
in the run-up to the bill's passage.[63] Judiciary[edit] Main article: Legal system of Macau

Seat of the Superior Tribunal of Macau

The original framework of the legal system, based largely on the Law of Portugal, the Portuguese civil law system, was preserved after 1999. The territory has its own independent judicial system with a High Court independent of both the local Government and the Central People's Government of the People's Republic
Republic
of China. Judges are selected by a committee and appointed by the chief executive. Foreign judges may serve on the courts.[64] The judicial organs of the Macau
Macau
are the Public Ministry; the Courts of First Instance, which are subdivided into the Basic Judicial
Judicial
Court and Administrative Court; the Court of the Second Instance and the Court of Final Appeal.[65] The legal system of Macau
Macau
is essentially based on the model of Portuguese law, and is thus part of the family of continental legal systems (Roman-Germanic). From 1987 to 1999, this legal system was completely modernized with a view to the transfer of sovereignty from Macau
Macau
to the People's Republic
Republic
of China. Thus, a number of new laws and codes have been adopted, including the Criminal Code (1995), the Civil Code (1999), the Commercial Code (1999), the Criminal Procedure Code (1996) and the Civil Procedure Code (1999). Following the transition, major reforms in the legal system continued, such as the use of Chinese language
Chinese language
in courts and legislations. From a constitutional point of view, the Macau
Macau
legal system is characterized by the existence of a text with constitutional force in the Macau
Macau
SAR, the Basic Law of the Macau
Macau
Special
Special
Administrative Region, promulgated by the National People's Congress
National People's Congress
in 1993. As a rule, the national laws of the People's Republic
Republic
of China
China
do not apply to Macau, except for those expressly indicated in Annex III of the Basic Law. At present, they are eleven and deal with matters not included in the autonomy of the Special
Special
Administrative Region, such as national defense and external relations. The gambling sector, being a fundamental economic activity for Macau, is subject to a very developed regulation, thus having a good and developed right of the game. There is no death penalty or life imprisonment in Macau, as they are not covered by the Macau
Macau
Criminal Code.

Macau
Macau
Police vehicles

Military[edit] Main article: People's Liberation Army Macau
Macau
Garrison See also: Military of Macau under Portuguese rule
Military of Macau under Portuguese rule
and Liaison Office of the Central People's Government
Central People's Government
in the Macao Special
Special
Administrative Region Under Portuguese rule, Macau
Macau
often served as an expeditionary base to Japan
Japan
and other regions of East Asia
East Asia
from the 16th century onwards, while maintaining a strong garrison mainly to repel Dutch and mainland Chinese attacks. However, since the allied British settled Hong Kong, the need for a strong military presence in Macau
Macau
dimmed and it became limited before ceasing in 1974. However, despite having no Portuguese garrison left on the territory, a small security force managed by the local PSP was kept, which proved useful with the escalating triad warfare tensions towards the last decades of Portuguese administration. Also the Capitania dos Portos kept operating a coast guard and the Portuguese airforce kept airfields active until the opening of Macau International Airport
Macau International Airport
in the mid-1990s. In 1999, upon handover to the PRC, a substantial garrison of the People's Liberation Army was established in the city helping deliver the last blow to the violence perpetrated by the triads, who were weakened by police action and arrests prior to the handover. The garrison remains, with a large portion of the forces stationed in neighbouring Zhuhai
Zhuhai
as well. According to the Article 14, Macau
Macau
Basic Law, The Central People's Government shall be responsible for the defense of the Macao Special Administrative Region. And The Government of the Macao SAR shall be responsible for the maintenance of public order in the Region. International relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of Macau As a special administrative region (SAR) of the People's Republic
Republic
of China
China
(PRC), Macau's diplomatic relations and defence are the responsibility of the Central People's Government
Central People's Government
of the PRC. Except diplomatic relations and defence, nonetheless, Macau
Macau
has retained considerable autonomy in all aspects, including economic and commercial relations, customs control. According to Chapter VII of Macau's basic law, Macau
Macau
may, on its own, using the name Macau, China
China
or Macao, China, maintain and develop relations and conclude and implement agreements with foreign states and regions and relevant international organisations in the appropriate fields, including the economic, trade, financial and monetary, shipping, communications, tourism, cultural, science and technology, and sports fields. In addition, Macau
Macau
can participate in international organizations and conferences not limited to states. The Macau
Macau
government has maintained offices in Lisbon, Taipei, Beijing and in Brussels
Brussels
for the European Union
European Union
and Geneva
Geneva
for the World Trade Organization. The Special
Special
Administrative Region of Macau
Macau
is member of the World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
as well as other international cultural and commercial organizations. Macau
Macau
is twinned with:

Lisbon, Portugal Coimbra, Portugal Porto, Portugal Dili, Timor-Leste São Paulo, Brazil Linköping, Sweden Praia, Cape Verde Brussels, Belgium Maputo, Mozambique Da Nang, Vietnam San Francisco, United States Seoul, South Korea Calcutta, India Luanda, Angola

Macau
Macau
has established different friendship conventions and cultural memorandums with sister cities. Administrative divisions[edit]

Administrative divisions of Macau

Macau
Macau
is divided into 8 parishes.

Parish Chinese Area (km2)[66]

Nossa Senhora de Fátima 花地瑪堂區 3.2

Santo António 花王堂區 1.1

São Lázaro 望德堂區 0.6

São Lourenço 風順堂區 1.0

Sé 大堂區 3.4

Taipa 嘉模堂區 7.6

Cotai 路氹填海區 5.8

Coloane 聖方濟各堂區 7.6

Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Macau Macau
Macau
is situated 60 kilometres (37 mi) southwest of Hong Kong and 145 kilometres (90 mi) from Guangzhou
Guangzhou
of Mainland China. It also has 41 kilometres (25 mi) of coastline, yet only 310 metres (1,000 ft) of land border with Guangdong
Guangdong
of Mainland China.[5][67] It consists of the Macau Peninsula
Macau Peninsula
itself and the islands of Taipa
Taipa
and Coloane, which are now connected by landfill forming Cotai. The peninsula is formed by the Zhu Jiang
Zhu Jiang
(Pearl River) estuary on the east and the Xi Jiang
Xi Jiang
(West River) on the west.[67] It borders the Zhuhai
Zhuhai
Special Economic Zone
Special Economic Zone
in mainland China. The main border crossing between Macau
Macau
and China
China
is known as the Portas do Cerco (Barrier Gate) on the Macau
Macau
side, and the Gongbei Port of Entry on the Zhuhai
Zhuhai
side.[68]

Lago Nam Van, Macao

View of the casinos from Science Center

View of Taipa
Taipa
from Science Center

East China
China
Sea between Taipa
Taipa
and the Macau
Macau
Peninsula, Macau

Macau
Macau
Peninsula

Aerial view of Macau
Macau
at night

View of the old city in Macau
Macau
with tenement housing in the foreground

View of the old city

Macau Peninsula
Macau Peninsula
was originally an island, but a connecting sandbar gradually turned into a narrow isthmus. Land reclamation in the 17th century transformed Macau
Macau
into a peninsula with generally flat terrain, though numerous steep hills still mark the original land mass.[67] Alto de Coloane
Coloane
is the highest point in Macau, with an altitude of 170.6 metres (559.7 ft).[5] With a dense urban environment, Macau
Macau
has no arable land, pastures, forest, or woodland. In 2015, the Chinese government assigned Macau
Macau
administrative responsibility for 85 km2 (33 sq mi) of coastal ocean area.[69]

Macau
Macau
skyline

Climate[edit] Macau
Macau
has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cwa), despite its low elevation coastal location south of the Tropic of Cancer, with average relative humidity between 75% and 90%.[70] Similar to much of South China, seasonal climate is greatly influenced by the monsoons, and differences in temperature and humidity between summer and winter are noticeable, though not as great as in mainland China. The average annual temperature of Macau
Macau
is 22.7 °C (72.9 °F).[71] July is the warmest month, the average temperature being 28.9 °C (84.0 °F). The coolest month is January, with a mean temperature of 14.5 °C (58.1 °F).[70] Located on China's southern coast, Macau
Macau
has ample rainfall, with average annual precipitation being 2,120 millimetres (83 in). However, winter is mostly dry due to the influence of the vast Siberian High
Siberian High
affecting much of East Asia. Autumn in Macau, from October to November, is sunny and still pleasantly warm with lower humidity. Winter (December to early March) is generally mild with temperatures above 13 °C (55 °F) most of the time, although they can drop below 8 °C (46 °F) at times. Humidity starts to increase from late March. Summer is very warm to hot (often rising above 30 °C (86 °F) during the day). The hot weather is often followed by heavy rain, thunderstorms and occasional typhoons.[70]

Climate data for Macau
Macau
(1981–2010, extremes 1901–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 29.1 (84.4) 30.2 (86.4) 31.5 (88.7) 35.3 (95.5) 37.5 (99.5) 36.9 (98.4) 38.9 (102) 38.5 (101.3) 38.1 (100.6) 36.0 (96.8) 34.2 (93.6) 30.0 (86) 38.9 (102)

Average high °C (°F) 18.2 (64.8) 18.5 (65.3) 21.0 (69.8) 24.7 (76.5) 28.4 (83.1) 30.3 (86.5) 31.6 (88.9) 31.5 (88.7) 30.4 (86.7) 28.1 (82.6) 24.1 (75.4) 20.1 (68.2) 25.6 (78.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) 15.1 (59.2) 15.8 (60.4) 18.3 (64.9) 22.1 (71.8) 25.6 (78.1) 27.6 (81.7) 28.6 (83.5) 28.4 (83.1) 27.4 (81.3) 25.0 (77) 20.9 (69.6) 16.8 (62.2) 22.6 (72.7)

Average low °C (°F) 12.5 (54.5) 13.6 (56.5) 16.2 (61.2) 20.2 (68.4) 23.6 (74.5) 25.6 (78.1) 26.2 (79.2) 26.1 (79) 25.1 (77.2) 22.6 (72.7) 18.3 (64.9) 14.0 (57.2) 20.3 (68.5)

Record low °C (°F) −1.8 (28.8) 0.4 (32.7) 3.2 (37.8) 8.5 (47.3) 13.8 (56.8) 18.5 (65.3) 19.3 (66.7) 19.0 (66.2) 13.2 (55.8) 9.5 (49.1) 5.0 (41) 0.0 (32) −1.8 (28.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 26.5 (1.043) 59.5 (2.343) 89.3 (3.516) 195.2 (7.685) 311.1 (12.248) 363.8 (14.323) 297.4 (11.709) 343.1 (13.508) 219.5 (8.642) 79.0 (3.11) 43.7 (1.72) 30.2 (1.189) 2,058.1 (81.028)

Average precipitation days 5.5 9.9 11.7 12.0 13.9 17.7 16.0 16.0 12.3 6.1 4.6 4.5 130.2

Average relative humidity (%) 73.8 81.0 84.5 86.1 84.4 84.0 81.8 81.4 77.9 72.4 70.2 68.5 78.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 127.4 79.4 71.5 85.3 136.4 155.3 223.2 195.4 176.5 192.3 172.2 159.1 1,773.9

Source: Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau[72][73]

Climate data for Macau

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average sea temperature °C (°F) 18.7 (65.7) 18.5 (65.3) 19.7 (67.5) 22.6 (72.7) 26.8 (80.2) 28.5 (83.3) 29.2 (84.6) 28.7 (83.7) 28.3 (82.9) 26.5 (79.7) 24.2 (75.6) 20.9 (69.6) 24.4 (75.9)

Mean daily daylight hours 11.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 13.0 13.0 13.0 13.0 12.0 12.0 11.0 11.0 12.1

Average Ultraviolet index 7 9 11 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11 9 7 7 9.7

Source: Weather Atlas[74]

Economy[edit] Main articles: Economy of Macau
Economy of Macau
and Gambling in Macau

Seat of the Banco Nacional Ultramarino

Employed population by occupation 2007[75]

Occupation no. ('000)

Senior officials/managers 14.6

Professionals 9.9

Technicians 28.1

Clerks 83.7

Service & sale workers 63.2

Workers in agriculture/fishery 0.8

Craft & similar workers 33.7

Macau's economy is based largely on tourism. Other chief economic activities in Macau
Macau
are export-geared textile and garment manufacturing, banking and other financial services.[76] The clothing industry provides about three quarters of export earnings, and the gaming, tourism and hospitality industry is estimated to contribute more than 50% of Macau's GDP, and 70% of Macau
Macau
government revenue.[57] Macau
Macau
is a founding member of the WTO
WTO
and has maintained sound economic and trade relations with more than 120 countries and regions, with European Union
European Union
and Portuguese-speaking countries in particular; Macau
Macau
is also a member of the IMF.[77] The World Bank
World Bank
classifies Macau as a high income economy[78] and the GDP per capita of the region in 2006 was US$28,436. After the 1999 Handover, China
China
eased travel restrictions and visits from the mainland rose rapidly. Together with the liberalization of Macau's gaming industry in 2001, which induced significant investment inflows, the average growth rate of the economy between 2001 and 2006 was approximately 13.1% annually.[79] In a World Tourism Organization
World Tourism Organization
report of international tourism for 2006, Macau
Macau
ranked 21st in the number of tourists and 24th in terms of tourism receipts.[80] From 9.1 million visitors in 2000, arrivals to Macau
Macau
has grown to 18.7 million visitors in 2005 and 22 million visitors in 2006, with over 50% of the arrivals coming from mainland China
China
and another 30% from Hong Kong.[81] Starting in 1962, the gambling industry had been operated under a government-issued monopoly license by Stanley Ho's Sociedade de Turismo e Diversões de Macau. The monopoly ended in 2002 and several casino owners from Las Vegas attempted to enter the market. With the opening of the Sands Macao,[82] in 2004 and Wynn Macau
Wynn Macau
in 2006,[83] gambling revenues from Macau's casinos grew considerably prosperous.[84][85][86] In 2007, Venetian Macau, at the time the second (in 2017 is seventh) largest building in the world by floor area, opened its doors to the public, followed by MGM Grand Macau. Numerous other hotel casinos, including Galaxy Cotai
Cotai
Megaresort, opened in 2011,[87] and plans for a $3.9 billion complex that will be known as Lisboa Palace is expected to be completed by 2017.[88] In February 2015, the gambling revenue in Macau
Macau
fell by 48.6 percent from a year earlier to 19.5 billion patacas ($2.4 billion), the biggest monthly decline that has ever been recorded. Reasons for this fall of revenue are related to the slowdown that the Chinese economy is having and a corruption crackdown by Chinese officials which has constrained lavish spending.[89] In 2002, the Macau
Macau
government ended the monopoly system and six casino operating concessions and subconcessions are granted to Sociedade de Turismo e Diversões de Macau, Wynn Resorts, Las Vegas Sands, Galaxy Entertainment Group, the partnership of MGM Mirage
MGM Mirage
and Pansy Ho (daughter of Stanley Ho), and the partnership of Melco and Publishing and Broadcasting Limited (PBL). Today, there are 16 casinos operated by the STDM, and they are still crucial in the casino industry in Macau, but in 2004, the opening of the Sands Macau
Sands Macau
ushered in the new era.[82][90][91] Gambling revenue has made Macau
Macau
the world's top casino market, surpassing Las Vegas.[92] The amount of performances performed in Macau
Macau
has also shown an increasing trend since the early 2010s, including the show House of Dancing Water,[93] concerts, industry trade shows and international art crossovers.[94] Macau
Macau
is an offshore financial centre, a tax haven, and a free port with no foreign exchange control regimes.[95][96][97] The Monetary Authority of Macau
Macau
regulates offshore finance,[98] while the Macau Trade and Investment Promotion Institute provides services for investment in Macau.[99] In 2007, Moody's Investors Service upgraded Macau's foreign and local currency government issuer ratings to 'Aa3' from 'A1', citing its government's solid finances as a large net creditor. The rating agency also upgraded Macau's foreign currency bank deposit ceiling to 'Aa3' from 'A1'.[100] As prescribed by the Macau
Macau
Basic Law, the government follows the principle of keeping expenditure within the limits of revenues in drawing up its budget, and strives to achieve a fiscal balance, avoid deficits and keep the budget commensurate with the growth rate of its gross domestic product. All financial revenue of the Macau
Macau
Special Administrative Region shall be managed and controlled by the region itself and shall not be handed over to the Central People's Government. The Central People's Government
Central People's Government
shall not levy any taxes in the Macau
Macau
Special
Special
Administrative Region.[101]

Sands Casino, Macau

Casino
Casino
Resort MGM Macau

Governador Nobre de Carvalho Bridge, Macau

City of Dreams

Monetary system[edit]

Both sides of 100 patacas issued by BNU on 13 July 1992

In Macau, the unit of currency is the pataca, which is currently pegged to the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
dollar at a rate of HK$1 = MOP1.03.[102] The name pataca is a Portuguese word which was applied to the Mexican dollars that were the main circulating coin in the wider region in the second half of the 19th century. In 1894, the pataca was introduced in both Macau
Macau
and Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
as a unit of account for the Mexican dollar and the other silver dollar coins in circulation. However, the pataca was not the official currency when it was first enacted.[102] In 1901, it was decided to grant the Banco Nacional Ultramarino
Banco Nacional Ultramarino
the exclusive rights to issue banknotes denominated in patacas, and in the year 1906, all foreign coins were outlawed.[102] However, the Chinese were suspicious of these paper patacas, being so accustomed to using silver for barter, and as such, the paper patacas circulated at a discount in relation to the silver dollar coins.[citation needed]In 1935, when China
China
and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
abandoned the silver standard, the Hong Kong dollar was pegged to sterling at the fixed rate of 1 shilling and 3 pence, whereas the pataca was pegged to the Portuguese escudo at a sterling equivalent rate of only 1 shilling. From 1945 to 1951, fractional coins of the pataca were minted for issue in Portuguese Timor; and, in 1952, similar issues were minted for Macau
Macau
including an actual pataca coin for the first time.[citation needed] Demographics[edit] Main articles: Demographics of Macau
Demographics of Macau
and Macau
Macau
people Macau
Macau
is the most densely populated region in the world,[103] with a population density of 21,185.28 persons per square kilometre in 2016.[3] Han Chinese
Han Chinese
make up 95% of Macau's population; another 2% is of Portuguese and/or mixed Chinese/Portuguese descent, an ethnic group often referred to as Macanese.[104] According to the 2006 by-census, 47% of the residents were born in mainland China, of whom 74.1% were born in Guangdong
Guangdong
and 15.2% in Fujian. Meanwhile, 42.5% of the residents were born in Macau, and those born in Hong Kong, the Philippines
Philippines
and Portugal
Portugal
shared 3.7%, 2.0% and 0.3% respectively.[104] The growth of population in Macau
Macau
mainly relies on immigrants from mainland China
China
and the influx of overseas workers since its birth rate is one of the lowest in the world.[105] According to The World Factbook, Macau
Macau
has the fourth highest life expectancy in the world,[11] while its infant mortality rate ranks among the lowest in the world.[106] Language[edit]

Residents' usual languages spoken at home[104]

Language

%

Cantonese

85.7%

Mandarin

3.2%

Other Chinese varieties combined

6.7%

Portuguese

0.6%

English

1.5%

Others

2.3%

Many boards and establishments make use of names in Chinese and Portuguese

Macau's official languages are Chinese (Cantonese) and Portuguese.[107][108] Macau
Macau
still retains its own dialect of Portuguese, called Macanese Portuguese. Other languages—such as Mandarin, English, and Hokkien—are spoken by local communities.[109] The Macanese language, a distinctive creole generally known as Patuá, is still spoken by several dozen Macanese.[110] Since Macau
Macau
has an economy driven by tourism, 14.6% of the workforce is employed in restaurants and hotels, and 10.3% in the gambling industry.[109] With the opening of several casino resorts and other major constructions underway, many sectors reportedly experience a shortage of labour, and the government seeks to import labour from neighbouring regions. The number of imported workers stood at a record high of 98,505 in the second quarter of 2008, representing more than 25% of the labour force in Macau.[111] Some local workers complain about the lack of jobs due to the influx of cheap imported labour. Some also claim that the problem of illegal labour is severe.[112] Another concern is the widening of income inequality in the region. Macau's Gini coefficient, a popular measure of income inequality where a low value indicates a more equal income distribution, rose from 0.43 in 1998 to 0.48 in 2006. It is higher than those of neighbouring regions, such as mainland China
China
(0.447), South Korea
South Korea
(0.316) and Singapore (0.425).[113]

Ruins of St. Paul's

Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Macau Macau
Macau
residents are endowed with considerable religious tolerance and freedom. Most Chinese in Macau
Macau
are profoundly influenced by their own tradition and culture. While most are not religiously affiliated, many take part in Chinese folk religion
Chinese folk religion
( Taoism
Taoism
and Confucianism).[57] According to a survey conducted in 2005, 2007 and 2009, 55% of the population do not declare religious affiliation, 30% follows folk faiths, 10% are adherents of Buddhism or Taoism, and the remaining 5% are Christians .[114][115] Most Christians in Macao are members of the Catholic Church, which is organized and structured in Macau
Macau
in the Diocese of Macau. Infrastructure[edit] Education[edit] Main article: Education in Macau

University of Macau

A fifteen-year free education is currently being offered to residents, that includes a three-year kindergarten, followed by a six-year primary education and a six-year secondary education. The literacy rate of the territory is 93.5%. The illiterates are mainly among the senior residents aged 65 or above; the younger generation, for example the population aged 15–29, has a literacy rate of above 99%.[104] Currently, there is only one school in Macau
Macau
where Portuguese is the medium of instruction, Macau
Macau
Portuguese School. Macau
Macau
does not have its own region-wide education system; non-tertiary schools follow either the British, the Chinese, Portuguese, or the Canadian education system. There are currently 10 tertiary educational institutions in the region, four of them being public.[57] According to a post written in July 2017, The International School of Macao was ranked Macau's top private school.[116] In 2006, the Programme for International Student Assessment, a worldwide test of 15-year-old schoolchildren's scholastic performance coordinated by OECD, ranked Macau
Macau
as the fifth and sixth in science and problem solving respectively.[117] Nevertheless, educational attainment in Macau
Macau
is relatively low when compared to other high income countries. According to the 2006 by-census, among the resident population aged 14 and above, only 51.8% has a secondary education and 12.6% has a tertiary education.[104] As prescribed by the Basic Law of Macau
Macau
Chapter VI Article 121, the Government of Macau
Government of Macau
shall, on its own, formulate policies on education, including policies regarding the educational system and its administration, the language of instruction, the allocation of funds, the examination system, the recognition of educational qualifications, and the system of academic awards so as to promote educational development. The government shall also in accordance with law, gradually institute a compulsory education system. Community organizations and individuals may, in accordance with law, run educational undertakings of various kinds.[101] Healthcare[edit] See also: List of hospitals in Macau

Kiang Wu Hospital

Macau
Macau
is served by one major public hospital, the Hospital Conde S. Januário, and one major private hospital, the Hospital Kiang Wu, both located in Macau
Macau
Peninsula, as well as a university associated hospital called Macau University of Science and Technology Hospital
Macau University of Science and Technology Hospital
in Cotai. In addition to hospitals, Macau
Macau
also has numerous health centres providing free basic medical care to residents. Consultation in traditional Chinese medicine is also available.[118] None of the Macau
Macau
hospitals are independently assessed through international healthcare accreditation. There are no western-style medical schools in Macau, and thus all aspiring physicians in Macau have to obtain their education and qualification elsewhere.[57] Local nurses are trained at the Macau
Macau
Polytechnic Institute and the Kiang Wu Nursing
Nursing
College.[119][120] Currently there are no training courses in midwifery in Macau.[citation needed] A study by the University of Macau, commissioned by the Macau
Macau
SAR government, concluded that Macau is too small to have its own medical specialist training centre.[121] The Macau
Macau
Corps of Firefighters (Portuguese: Corpo de Bombeiros de Macau) is responsible for ambulance service (Ambulância de Macau). The Macau
Macau
Red Cross also operates ambulances ( Toyota HiAce
Toyota HiAce
vans) for emergency and non-emergencies to local hospitals with volunteer staff. The organization has a total of 739 uniformed firefighters and paramedics serving from 7 stations in Macau.[122] The Health Bureau in Macau
Macau
is mainly responsible for coordinating the activities between the public and private organizations in the area of public health, and assure the health of citizens through specialized and primary health care services, as well as disease prevention and health promotion.[123] The Macau
Macau
Centre for Disease Control and Prevention was established in 2001, which monitors the operation of hospitals, health centres, and the blood transfusion centre in Macau. It also handles the organization of care and prevention of diseases affecting the population, sets guidelines for hospitals and private healthcare providers, and issues licences.[124] As of 2016[update] Macau
Macau
healthcare authorities send many patients to Queen Mary Hospital in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
in certain cases, and many Macau residents intentionally seek healthcare in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
because they place more trust in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
doctors than in Mainland-trained doctors operating in Macau.[121] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Macau

Air Macau
Air Macau
Airbus A321

2011 Macau
Macau
Yacht Fair

Ponte de Amizade
Ponte de Amizade
(Friendship Bridge) from Macau Peninsula
Macau Peninsula
(left) to Taipa

Terminal of Macau International Airport
Macau International Airport
(left) and a section of the LRT (right)

In Macau, traffic drives on the left, unlike in either mainland China or Portugal, but like neighbouring Hong Kong. Macau
Macau
has a well-established public transport network connecting the Macau Peninsula, Cotai, Taipa
Taipa
Island and Coloane
Coloane
Island. Buses and taxis are the major modes of public transport in Macau. Currently three companies – Transmac, Transportas Companhia de Macau
Transportas Companhia de Macau
and Macau Nova Era de Autocarros Públicos operate franchised public bus services in Macau.[125] The trishaw, a hybrid of the tricycle and the rickshaw, is also available, though it is mainly for sightseeing purposes. The newest public bus operator, Macau
Macau
Nova Era, previously Reolian Public Transport Co., entered service on 1 August 2011. This new bus operator operates on the existing routes by Transmac
Transmac
and Transportas Companhia de Macau. Free Casino
Casino
Shuttle Buses are everywhere in Macau. Due to tourism being the main economic industry in Macau
Macau
a majority of the larger hotels provide free round trip shuttle bus services which cover the major tourist sites including the airport, Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal, Taipa
Taipa
Temporary Ferry Terminal and other sites. Some Larger hotels such as Venetian Hotel and Holiday Inn even provide a free shuttle between them. The frequency for each route is usually 15 minutes. The taxi system is noted for having a notoriously poor reputation among tourists and even locals. Common complaints include "constant overcharging, refusal of passengers when the destination or passenger type does not suit the driver, circuitous routes and even violent behaviour."[126] In recent years, the Macau
Macau
government have been making attempts to hold drivers to a higher standard of service through methods such as undercover police prosecuting drivers who violate the taxi regulations on the spot.[127] The Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal and the Taipa
Taipa
Temporary Ferry Terminal provides cross-border transportation services for passengers travelling between Macau
Macau
and Hong Kong, while the Yuet Tung Terminal in the Inner Harbour serves those travelling between Macau
Macau
and cities in mainland China, including Shekou and Shenzhen.[128] The Macau
Macau
Light Rapid Transit or Macau
Macau
LRT also known as Metro Ligeiro de Macau
Macau
is a mass transit system in Macau
Macau
under construction. It will serve the Macau
Macau
Peninsula, Taipa
Taipa
and Cotai, serving major border checkpoints such as the Border Gate, the Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal, the Lotus Bridge
Lotus Bridge
Border and the Macau
Macau
International Airport. It is planned to open in 2019. Macau
Macau
has one active international airport, known as Macau International Airport located at the eastern end of Taipa
Taipa
and neighbouring waters. The airport used to serve as one of the main transit hubs for passengers travelling between mainland China
China
and Taiwan, but now with the introduction of direct flights between those two regions, passenger traffic in this regard has lessened.[129][130] It is the primary hub for Air Macau. In 2006, the airport handled about 5 million passengers.[131] Culture[edit]

Historic Centre of Macao

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Clockwise from top right: Ruins of St. Paul's; Casino
Casino
Lisboa; St. Joseph Seminary Church; Governor Nobre de Carvalho Bridge; A-Ma Temple; Guia Fortress; Macau Tower

Criteria Cultural: ii, iii, iv, vi

Reference 1110

Inscription 2005 (29th Session)

Area 16.1678 ha

Buffer zone 106.791 ha

Main article: Culture of Macau

Remains of the Cathedral of St. Paul, Macau

Senado Square

The mixing of the Chinese and Portuguese cultures and religious traditions for more than four centuries has left Macau
Macau
with an inimitable collection of holidays, festivals and events. The biggest event of the year is the Macau Grand Prix
Macau Grand Prix
in November,[132] when the main streets in Macau Peninsula
Macau Peninsula
are converted to a racetrack bearing similarities with the Monaco Grand Prix. Other annual events include Macau
Macau
Arts festival in March, the International Fireworks Display Contest in September, the International Music festival in October and/or November, and the Macau
Macau
International Marathon in December. The Lunar Chinese New Year
Chinese New Year
is the most important traditional festival and celebration normally takes place in late January or early February.[133] The Pou Tai Un Temple in Taipa
Taipa
is the place for the Feast of Tou Tei, the Earth god, in February. The Procession of the Passion of Our Lord is a well-known Roman Catholic rite and journey, which travels from Saint Austin's Church to the Cathedral, also taking place in February.[67] A-Ma Temple, which honours the Goddess Matsu, is in full swing in April with many worshippers celebrating the A-Ma festival. In May it is common to see dancing dragons at the Feast of the Drunken Dragon and twinkling-clean Buddhas at the Feast of the Bathing of Lord Buddha. In Coloane
Coloane
Village, the Taoist
Taoist
god Tam Kong
Tam Kong
is also honoured on the same day.[67] Dragon Boat festival is brought into play on Nam Van Lake in June and Hungry Ghosts' festival, in late August and/or early September every year. All events and festivities of the year end with Winter Solstice in December. Macau
Macau
preserves many historical properties in the urban area. The Historic Centre of Macau, which includes some twenty-five historic locations, was officially listed as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
on 15 July 2005 during the 29th session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Durban, South Africa.[134]

Na Tcha Temple, Macau

Fisherman's Wharf

Museum of Macau

Dom Pedro V theatre

A-Ma Temple

Cuisine[edit] Local cooking in Macau
Macau
consists of a blend of Cantonese
Cantonese
and Portuguese cuisines. Many unique dishes resulted from the spice blends that the wives of Portuguese sailors used in an attempt to replicate European dishes. Its ingredients and seasonings include those from Europe, South America, Africa, India, and Southeast Asia, as well as local Chinese ingredients.[135] Typically, Macanese food is seasoned with various spices and flavours including turmeric, coconut milk, cinnamon and bacalhau, giving special aromas and tastes.[136] Famous dishes include minchi, capella, galinha à Portuguesa, galinha à Africana (African chicken), bacalhau, Macanese chili shrimps and stir-fry curry crab. Pork chop bun, ginger milk and Portuguese-style egg tart are also very popular in Macau.[137] Sports[edit]

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2008 Macau
Macau
F3 Grand Prix in progress

Macau
Macau
has its own professional football league, the Campeonato da 1ª Divisão do Futebol, where the Big Three professional football clubs of Portugal
Portugal
have their own branches: S.L. Benfica de Macau, Sporting Clube de Macau
Macau
and F.C. Porto
Porto
de Macau. In general, football (soccer) has the greatest popularity in Macau, which has a representative international side, Macau
Macau
national football team. Another common sport is rink hockey, which is often practised by the Portuguese. The national team of Macau
Macau
is the most powerful of Asia, always participates in the Rink Hockey World Championship in B category and has many Rink Hockey Asian Championship
Rink Hockey Asian Championship
titles. The last Championship was won in Lishui, China, at the 2016 Asian Roller Hockey Championship. Macau
Macau
also has a basketball team, which qualified for the Asian Basketball Championship
Asian Basketball Championship
twice. The automobile racing event Macau Grand Prix
Macau Grand Prix
is arguably the most important international sporting event in Macau, mainly with Formula 3, motorcycle road racing and touring car races. Since 1989, Macau
Macau
owns a thoroughbred horse racing track called Taipa Racecourse operated by the Macau
Macau
Jockey Club. The racecourse has a 15,000 seater grandstand. Notable people[edit]

Stanley Ho, business magnate, father of Macau
Macau
gambling industry Xian Xinghai
Xian Xinghai
(spelt as Hsien Hsing-hai during his era), 冼星海 musician and composer during Sino-Japanese War, known work included Yellow River Cantata Michelle Reis, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
actress and former Miss Hong Kong Edmund Ho, business leader, chief executive of Macau
Macau
SAR Jenny Tseng, 甄妮 Cantonese
Cantonese
pop singer and actress in the 1970s and 1980s Ming-Na Wen, 温明娜 TV and movie actress, one of the first Chinese-American actresses with a contract role

See also[edit]

Macau
Macau
portal China
China
portal Asia
Asia
portal Geography portal

Foreign relations of Macau Index of Macau-related articles List of bridges and tunnels in Macau Macao Science Center Outline of Macau Visa policy of Macau Visa requirements for Chinese citizens of Macau Cuiheng
Cuiheng
New Area, since 31 March 2013, a co-operation pilot zone with Macau

Notes[edit]

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Macao Country Study Guide Volume 1 Strategic Information and Developments – Google Books. p. 49. Retrieved 15 September 2014.  ^ "Local NPC deputies' election slated for Dec 17". Macau
Macau
News. 27 November 2017. Archived from the original on 3 January 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2018.  ^ a b c "Preliminary Results of 2016 Population By-Census". Statistics and Census Service. Macao SAR Government. 23 December 2016. Archived from the original on 30 December 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2018.  ^ "DSEC - 統計資料". www.dsec.gov.mo. Archived from the original on 12 September 2015.  ^ a b c Macau
Macau
Yearbook 2007, 475. ^ Fung, 5. ^ " Macau
Macau
and the end of empire". BBC News. 18 December 1999. Archived from the original on 20 May 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2008.  ^ a b c d "Content of Basic Law of Macau". University of Macau. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2008.  ^ "Joint declaration of the Government of the People's Republic
Republic
of China
China
and The Government of the Republic
Republic
of Portugal
Portugal
on the question of Macau". GPB Govt of Macau. Archived from the original on 16 December 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2008.  ^ Barboza, David (23 January 2007). "Macao Surpasses Las Vegas as Gambling Center". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 May 2017.  ^ a b "Life expectancy at birth". CIA. Archived from the original on 20 January 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ Macau
Macau
in Figures, 2016 Archived 17 May 2016 at Wikiwix ^ ""GDP per capita, PPP (current international $)", World Development Indicators database". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.  ^ Branigan, Tania (11 May 2011). " Macau
Macau
– gaming capital of the world". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017.  ^ "Macau: The world's gambling capital". BBC News. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017.  ^ Riley, Charles (6 January 2014). "Macau's gambling industry is now 7 times bigger than Vegas". CNNMoney. Archived from the original on 10 June 2017.  ^ a b Macau
Macau
Yearbook 2007, 517. ^ " Macau
Macau
A-ma Temple". Travel China
China
Guide. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 8 September 2015.  ^ Wu, Z., and G. Jin. "The evolution of spellings of ‘Macau’: An examination of early Portuguese and Western archival materials." Macao–cultural interaction and literary representations (2014): 3-11. ^ a b c "The entry " Macau
Macau
history" in Macau
Macau
Encyclopedia" (in Chinese). Macau
Macau
Foundation. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 2 January 2008.  ^ Chan, 3–4. ^ Fung, 5–6. ^ a b Fung, 7. ^ Joseph Timothy Haydn (1885). Dictionary of dates, and universal reference. [With] (18 ed.). Oxford University. p. 522. MACAO (in Quang-tong, S. China) was given to the Portuguese as a commercial station in 1586 (in return for their assistance against pirates), subject to an annual tribute, which was remitted in 1863. Here Camoens composed part of the "Lusiad."  ^ The Mirror of literature, amusement, and instruction, Volume 7. London: J. Limbird. 1845. p. 262. The Chinese were obliged to restrict the commerce of Portugal
Portugal
to the port of Macau, in 1631. A partnership was then formed with some Chinese dealers in Canton, who were to furnish exports and take delivery of imports at Macau. This scheme did not suit the Chinese; they were dissatisfied with their partners, and speedily dissolved the connection.  (Princeton University). ^ George Bryan Souza (2004). The Survival of Empire: Portuguese Trade and Society in China
China
and the South China
China
Sea 1630–1754 (reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-521-53135-7. soldiers 5000 slaves 20000 Chinese 1643 2000 moradores (Portuguese inhabitants) 1644 40000 total inhabitants 1648 Jesuits record  ^ Stephen Adolphe Wurm; Peter Mühlhäusler; Darrell T. Tryon (1996). Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas. Walter de Gruyter. p. 323. ISBN 3-11-013417-9. The Portuguese population of Macau
Macau
was never very large. Between the period 1601–1669, a typical cross section of the population consisted of about 600 casados, 100–200 other Portuguese, some 5000 slaves and a growing number of Chinese  ^ Zhidong Hao (2011). Macau
Macau
History and Society (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong
Hong Kong
University Press. p. 63. ISBN 988-8028-54-5. This is a time when there were most African slaves, about 5100. In comparison there were about 1000 to 2000 during the later Portuguese rule in Macau.  ^ Historical figures of Macau, by CCTV. ^ "The entry "Catholic" in Macau
Macau
Encyclopedia" (in Chinese). Macau Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2008.  ^ Historical figures of Macau
Macau
by CCTV ^ History of the Qing (清史稿) ^ Indrani Chatterjee; Richard Maxwell Eaton, eds. (2006). Slavery and South Asian history (illustrated ed.). Indiana University Press. p. 238. ISBN 0-253-21873-X. Portuguese,"he concluded;"The Portuguese beat us off from Macau
Macau
with their slaves."10 The same year as the Dutch ... an English witness recorded that the Portuguese defense was conducted primarily by their African slaves  ^ Middle East and Africa. Taylor & Francis. 1996. p. 544. ISBN 1-884964-04-4. A miscellaneous assemblage of Portuguese soldiers, citizens, African slaves, friars, and Jesuits managed to withstand the attack. Following this defeat, the Dutch made no further attempts to take Macau, although they continued to harass  ^ Christina Miu Bing Cheng (1999). Macau: a cultural Janus (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong
Hong Kong
University Press. p. 159. ISBN 962-209-486-4. invaded Macau
Macau
on 24 June 1622 but was defeated by a handful of Portuguese priests, citizens and African slaves  ^ Steven Bailey (2007). Strolling in Macau: A Visitor's Guide to Macau, Taipa, and Coloane
Coloane
(illustrated ed.). ThingsAsian Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-9715940-9-0. On June 24, 1622, a Dutch fleet under Captain Kornelis Reyerszoon assembled a landing force of some 800 armed sailors, a number thought more than sufficient to overpower Macau's relatively weak garrison. Macau's future as a Dutch colony seemed all but assured, since the city's ... still remained under construction and its defenders numbered only about 60 soldiers and 90 civilians, who ranged from Jesuit priests to African slaves  ^ Ruth Simms Hamilton, ed. (2007). Routes of passage: rethinking the African diaspora, Volume 1, Part 1. Volume 1 of African diaspora research. Michigan State University Press. p. 143. ISBN 0-87013-632-1. Jan Coen, who had been sent to establish a Dutch base on the China
China
coast, wrote about the slaves who served the Portuguese so faithfully: "It was they who defeated and drove away our people last year." (the University of California) ^ Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos (1968). Studia, Issue 23. Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos. p. 89. 85, quotes a report from the Dutch governor-general, Coen, in 1623: "The slaves of the Portuguese at Macau
Macau
served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away from our people last year". (University of Texas) ^ Themba Sono (1993). Japan
Japan
and Africa: the evolution and nature of political, economic and human bonds, 1543–1993. HSRC. p. 23. ISBN 0-7969-1525-3. A year later, Captain Coen was still harping on the same theme: 'The slaves of the Portuguese at Macau
Macau
served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people there last year'.  ^ Charles Ralph Boxer (1968). Fidalgos in the Far East 1550–1770 (2nd, illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford U.P. p. 85. The enemy, it was reported, 'had lost many more men than we, albeit mostly slaves. Our people saw very few Portuguese'. A year later he was still harping on the same theme. 'The slaves of the Portuguese at Macau
Macau
served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people there  (University of Michigan). ^ Macau
Macau
Yearbook 2007, 518. ^ Fung, 409–410. ^ a b p.116 Garrett, Richard J. The Defences of Macau: Forts, Ships and Weapons Over 450 Years Hong Kong
Hong Kong
University Press, 1 February 2010 ^ p.117 Garrett, Richard J. The Defences of Macau: Forts, Ships and Weapons Over 450 Years Hong Kong
Hong Kong
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Sources[edit]

Books

Fung, Bong Yin (1999). Macau: A General Introduction (in Chinese). Joint Publishing (H.K.) Co. Ltd. ISBN 962-04-1642-2.  Chan, S. S. (2000). The Macau
Macau
Economy. Publications Centre, University of Macau. ISBN 99937-26-03-6.  Godinho, Jorge (2007). Macau
Macau
business law and legal system. LexisNexis, Hong Kong. ISBN 978-962-8937-27-1.  Government Information Bureau (2007). Macau
Macau
Yearbook 2007. Government Information Bureau of the Macau
Macau
SAR. ISBN 978-99937-56-09-5. 

Further reading[edit]

Cremer (Editor) (1988). Macau: City of Commerce and Culture. University of Washington Pr. ISBN 0-295-96608-4. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Berlie, Jean A. (1999). Macao 2000. Oxford University Press editor, Oxford, United Kingdom. ISBN 0-19-592074-0.  Berlie, Jean A. (2000). Macau's overview at the turn of the century. St. John's University Institute of Asian Studies editor, New York.  De Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China
China
and Europe: Person, Culture and Emotion in Macau. Berg Publishers. ISBN 0-8264-5749-5.  Eayrs, James (2003). Macau
Macau
Foreign Policy and Government Guide. International Business Publications, United States. ISBN 0-7397-6451-9. 

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Note: Taiwan
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Chengdub Nanjingb Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb

Sub-provincial cities

Changchunb Chengdub Dalianc2 Guangzhoub2 Hangzhoub Harbinb Jinanb Nanjingb Ningboc2 Qingdaoc2 Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb Xiamenc1

Provincial capitals (Prefecture-level)

Changsha Fuzhou2 Guiyang Haikou Hefei Kunming Lanzhou Nanchang Shijiazhuang Taiyuan Xining Zhengzhou Taibei5

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Hohhot Lhasa Nanning Ürümqi Yinchuan

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Anshan Baotou Benxi Datong Fushun Handan Huainan Jilin Luoyang Suzhou Tangshan Qiqihar Wuxi Xuzhou Zibo

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Hebei

Shijiazhuang* Tangshan* Qinhuangdao2 Handan* Xingtai Baoding Zhangjiakou Chengde Cangzhou Langfang Hengshui

Shanxi

Taiyuan* Datong* Yangquan Changzhi Jincheng Shuozhou Jinzhong Yuncheng Xinzhou Linfen Lüliang

Inner Mongolia

Hohhot* Baotou* Wuhai Chifeng Tongliao Ordos Hulunbuir Bayannur Ulanqab

Liaoning

Shenyang* Dalian* Anshan* Fushun* Benxi* Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou Fuxin Liaoyang Panjin Tieling Chaoyang Huludao

Jilin

Changchun* Jilin Siping Liaoyuan Tonghua Baishan Songyuan Baicheng

Heilongjiang

Harbin* Qiqihar* Jixi Hegang Shuangyashan Daqing Yīchun Jiamusi Qitaihe Mudanjiang Heihe Suihua

Jiangsu

Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

Anhui

Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

Shandong

Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic
Republic
of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

v t e

Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
Metropolitan Region (Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area)

Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
Economic Zone

Guangdong
Guangdong
Province

Guangzhou

Panyu Huadu Nansha Zengcheng Conghua

Shenzhen

Bao'an

Zhuhai

Hengqin

Dongguan Zhongshan

Cuiheng

Foshan Jiangmen

Enping Taishan Kaiping Heshan

Huizhou Zhaoqing

Sihui Gaoyao

Special
Special
administrative regions

 Hong Kong

New Territories Kowloon Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Island

 Macau

Macau
Macau
Peninsula Taipa Coloane Cotai

v t e

Major cities along the Pearl River

Cities (from upper reaches to lower reaches)

Major Tributaries

v t e

Bei River

Bei

Nanxiong Shaoguan

Zhenjiang Wujiang Qujiang

Yingde Qingyuan

Qingxin Qingcheng

Foshan

Sanshui waterways with Xi Nanhai Chancheng Sanshui

Guangzhou

Panyu Nansha

merged into the Shiziyang

v t e

Dong River

Dong

Heyuan

Yuancheng

Huizhou

Huicheng

Dongguan Guangzhou

Zengcheng Huangpu

merged into the Shiziyang

v t e

Xi River

Xi

Gui→Li

Guilin

Diecai Qixing Xiufeng Xiangshan Yanshan

Wuzhou

Changzhou Wanxiu

merged into the Xi

Xun

Yong→Yu

Zuo

Chongzuo

Jiangzhou

Nanning

Jiangnan Xixiangtang

merged into the Yong→Yu

You

Baise

Youjiang

Nanning

Xixiangtang

merged into the Yong→Yu

tributaries of Zuo & You Nanning

Jiangnan Xixiangtang Qingxiu Liangqing Yongning

Guigang

Qintang Gangnan Gangbei

Guiping merged into the Xun

Qian

Liu

Long

Hechi

Jinchengjiang

Yizhou merged into the Liu

Rong

Liuzhou

Liubei Liunan Chengzhong Yufeng

merged into the Liu

tributaries of Long & Rong merged into the Qian

Hongshui

Beipan

Xuanwei Liupanshui

Liuzhi

merged into the Hongshui

Nanpan

Qujing

Qilin

merged into the Hongshui

tributaries of Beipan & Nanpan Heshan Laibin

Xingbin

merged into the Qian

tributaries of Liu & Hongshui Guiping merged into the Xun

tributaries of Yong→Yu & Qian Wuzhou

Changzhou Longxu Wanxiu

merged into the Xi

tributaries of Gui→Li & Xun Wuzhou

Wanxiu

Yunfu

Yun'an

Zhaoqing

Gaoyao Duanzhou Dinghu

Foshan

Sanshui waterways with Bei Gaoming Nanhai Shunde

Heshan Jiangmen

Pengjiang waterways with Shiziyang
Shiziyang
& Lingdingyang

Zhongshan Jiangmen

Jianghai Xinhui

Zhuhai

Doumen Jinwan Xiangzhou

South China
China
Sea

Pearl River

Pearl

Guangzhou

Baiyun

Foshan

Nanhai

Guangzhou

Liwan Haizhu Yuexiu Tianhe Huangpu

Dongguan Shiziyang

Shiziyang

Pearl tributary of Dong Dongguan Guangzhou

Panyu tributary of Bei Nansha

waterways with Xi

Lingdingyang

Lingdingyang

Shiziyang Guangzhou

Nansha District

waterways with Xi Zhongshan Shenzhen

Bao'an District Guangming New District Longhua New District Nanshan District, Shenzhen Futian District Luohu District Yantian District Longgang District Pingshan New District Dapeng New District

Zhuhai

Xiangzhou Jinwan District Doumen District

Hong Kong

New Territories Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Island Kowloon

Macau

Macau
Macau
Peninsula Taipa Coloane Cotai

Jiuzhouyang

Jiuzhouyang

Lingdingyang South China
China
Sea

Major cities along the Yangtze River · Major cities along the Yellow River

v t e

Countries and dependencies of Asia

Sovereign states

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Cyprus Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Palestine Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand East Timor
East Timor
(Timor-Leste) Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Taiwan

Dependencies and special administrative regions

Australia

Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands

China

Hong Kong Macau

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia British Indian Ocean Territory

v t e

East Asia

Countries

China
China
(Hong Kong • Macau) Japan Korea
Korea
(North • South) Mongolia Taiwan

Ethnic groups

Han Joseon Mongols Yamato

Culture

Age reckoning Architecture‎ Art Blepharoplasty Buddhism Calligraphy Chopsticks Cinema Cuisine Cultural sphere Decorative knotwork Dragon Gardens Gothic typeface Han characters Hell money Hip-and-gable roof Languages Literature Mādhyamaka Music Music industry Mythology Philosophy Religion Scripts Seal Sino-Xenic pronunciations Stereotypes Surnames Yellow fever Yogācāra Zodiac

Environment

East Asia
East Asia
Climate Partnership Monsoon Rainy season Flora

Politics and economics

China–Japan– South Korea
South Korea
trilateral summit Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia Capitalism East Asia
East Asia
Summit East Asian Bureau of Economic Research East Asian Community Four Asian Tigers Human rights in East Asia Ports Stock exchanges

History

Archaeology Archaeological cultures Bronze Age Iron Age Former countries

Sports

EAFF East Asian Championship East Asian Football Federation East Asian Games East Asian Judo Championships

Education

Association of East Asian Research Universities CrossAsia East Asian Bureau of Economic Research East Asian Economic Review East Asia
East Asia
Image Collection East Asian Institute East Asia
East Asia
Law Review East Asian studies Journal of East Asian Studies Ludwigshafen East Asia
East Asia
Institute Society for Cultural Interaction in East Asia

Military

Horses in East Asian warfare Miyamoto Musashi Sun Tzu The Art of War The Book of Five Rings

Science and technology

Needham Research Institute Printing Swords Traditional medicine

v t e

Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Community of Portuguese Language Countries
(CPLP)

Category

Membership

Members

Angola Brazil Cape Verde East Timor Equatorial Guinea Guinea-Bissau Mozambique Portugal São Tomé and Príncipe

Observers

Georgia Japan Mauritius Namibia Senegal Turkey

Organization

CPLP Games Flag TV CPLP

ACOLOP

Lusophony Games

Portuguese-using countries

v t e

World Trade Organization

System

Accession and membership Appellate Body Dispute Settlement Body International Trade Centre Chronology of key events

Issues

Criticism Doha Development Round Singapore
Singapore
issues Quota Elimination Peace Clause

Agreements

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Agriculture Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Technical Barriers to Trade Trade Related Investment Measures Trade in Services Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Government Procurement Information Technology Marrakech Agreement Doha Declaration Bali Package

Ministerial Conferences

1st (1996) 2nd (1998) 3rd (1999) 4th (2001) 5th (2003) 6th (2005) 7th (2009) 8th (2011) 9th (2013) 10th (2015)

People

Roberto Azevêdo
Roberto Azevêdo
(Director-General) Pascal Lamy Supachai Panitchpakdi Alejandro Jara Rufus Yerxa

Members

Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belize Benin Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo Republic
Republic
of the Congo Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Cuba Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Gabon The Gambia Georgia Ghana Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong1 Iceland India Indonesia Israel Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lesotho Liberia Liechtenstein Macau1 Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Qatar Russia Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Switzerland Tajikistan Taiwan2 Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

European Union

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom

Special
Special
administrative regions of the People's Republic
Republic
of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". Officially the Republic
Republic
of China, participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", and "Chinese Taipei" in short.

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong ( Porto
Porto
Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia
East Asia
and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau
Macau
[China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

Coordinates: 22°10′N 113°33′E / 22.167°N 113.550°E / 22.167; 113.550

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 144869371 LCCN: n00020499 GND: 4036791-5 SUDOC: 09200

.