MACAU (/məˈkaʊ/ ( listen ); 澳門; 澳门; literally: "Bay
Gate"), also spelled MACAO, is an autonomous region on the western
side of the Pearl River estuary in
East Asia .
Macau is bordered by
the city of
Zhuhai in Mainland
China to the north and the Pearl River
Delta to the east and south.
Hong Kong lies about 64 kilometres (40
mi) to its east across the Delta. With a population of 650,900
living in an area of 30.5 km2 (11.8 sq mi), it is the most densely
populated region in the world. A former Portuguese colony, it was
returned to Chinese sovereignty on 20 December 1999.
Macau was administered by the
Portuguese Empire and its inheritor
states from the mid-16th century until late 1999, when it constituted
the last remaining European colony in Asia. Portuguese traders first
Macau in the 1550s. In 1557,
Macau was leased to Portugal
China as a trading port. The
Portuguese Empire administered
the city under Chinese authority and sovereignty until 1887, when
Macau, through a mutual agreement between the two countries, became a
colony. Sovereignty over
Macau was transferred back to
China on 20
December 1999 . The
Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau and
Macau Basic Law
Macau Basic Law stipulate that
Macau operate with a high degree of
autonomy until at least 2049, fifty years after the transfer.
Under the policy of "one country, two systems ", the State Council of
the People\'s Republic of
China is responsible for military defense
and foreign affairs while
Macau maintains its own legal system ,
public security force , monetary system, customs policy, and
immigration policy .
Macau participates in international organizations
and events that do not require members to possess national
Macau is a resort city in Southern
China , known for its casinos and
luxury hotels. Its gaming revenue has been the world's largest since
2006, with the economy heavily dependent on gaming and tourism.
According to _
The World Factbook
The World Factbook _,
Macau has the fourth highest life
expectancy in the world. Moreover, it has a "very high Human
Development Index ", ranking 18th in the world as of 2014 .
among the world's richest regions, and as of 2015 its GDP per capita
by purchasing power parity is higher than that of any country in the
world, according to the
World Bank .
It is widely known as the pre-eminent gambling (or gaming) capital of
the world, greatly dwarfing other gambling centers/cities.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.2 Transfer of sovereignty and SAR status
* 3 Government and politics
* 3.1 Executive
* 3.2 Legislature
* 3.3 Judiciary
* 3.4 Military
* 3.5 Administrative divisions
* 4 Geography
* 4.1 Climate
* 5 Economy
* 6 Monetary system
* 7 Demographics
* 7.1 Religion
* 8 Education
* 9 Healthcare
* 10 Transport
* 11 Culture
* 11.1 Cuisine
* 12 Notable people
* 13 Sports
* 14 See also
* 15 Notes
* 16 References
* 16.1 Citations
* 16.2 Sources
* 17 Further reading
* 18 External links
Names of Macau
The present Chinese name (Chinese: 澳門; pinyin: _Àomén_;
Cantonese Yale: _Oumún_) means "Inlet Gates".
Macau is otherwise
known in Chinese as _Haojing_ (濠鏡, literally "Oyster Mirror") or
_Jinghai_ (鏡海, literally "Mirror Sea"). The name _Macau_ is
thought to be derived from the _
A-Ma Temple _ (Chinese: 媽閣廟;
pinyin: _Māgé Miào_;
Cantonese Yale: _Māgok Miuh_), a temple built
in 1448 dedicated to Mazu , the goddess of seafarers and fishermen.
It is said that when the Portuguese sailors landed at the coast just
outside the temple and asked the name of the place, the natives
replied "媽閣" (pinyin: _Māgé_;
Cantonese Yale: _Māgok_). The
Portuguese then named the peninsula "Macau".
History of Macau ,
Portuguese Macau , and Transfer of
Macau Macau, c. 1870. The "O Porto
Interior" in Macau, c. 1900.
The history of
Macau is traced back to the
Qin dynasty (221–206
BC), when the region now called
Macau came under the jurisdiction of
Panyu County, Nanhai Prefecture (modern
Guangdong ). The first
recorded Chinese inhabitants of the area were people seeking refuge in
Macau from invading
Mongols during the
Southern Song . Under the Ming
dynasty (1368–1644), fishermen migrated to
Fujian . The
Macau native people were Tanka boat people.
Macau did not develop as a major settlement until the Portuguese
arrived in the 16th century. In 1513,
Jorge Álvares became the first
Portuguese to land in China. In 1535, Portuguese traders obtained the
rights to anchor ships in Macau's harbours and to carry out trading
activities, though not the right to stay onshore. Around 1552–1553,
they obtained temporary permission to erect storage sheds onshore, in
order to dry out goods drenched by sea water; they soon built
rudimentary stone houses around the area now called Nam Van.
Portuguese coin (minted 1996) commemorating the arrival of the
China in 1513
In 1557, the Portuguese established a permanent settlement in
paying an annual rent of 500 taels (18.9 kilograms / 41.6 pounds ) of
silver. The Portuguese continued to pay an annual tribute up to 1863
in order to stay in Macau.
Portugal commanded western trade with
Japan , and
China. In 1631 the Chinese restricted Portuguese commerce in
the port of Macau.
During the 17th century, some 5,000 slaves lived in Macau, in
addition to 2,000 Portuguese and 20,000 Chinese.
As more Portuguese settled in
Macau to engage in trade, they made
demands for self-administration; but this was not achieved until the
1840s. In 1576,
Pope Gregory XIII established the Roman Catholic
Macau . In 1583, the Portuguese in
Macau were permitted to
form a Senate to handle various issues concerning their social and
economic affairs under strict supervision of the Chinese authority,
but there was no transfer of sovereignty.
Macau prospered as a port but it was the target of repeated failed
attempts by the Dutch to conquer it in the 17th century. On 24 June
1622, the Dutch attacked
Macau in the
Battle of Macau , in the hope of
turning it into a Dutch possession. The Portuguese repulsed their
attack and the Dutch never tried to conquer
Macau again. The majority
of the defenders were African slaves, with only a few Portuguese
soldiers and priests. Captain Kornelis Reyerszoon was commander of the
800-strong Dutch invasion force.
The grieving Dutch Governor Jan Pz. Coen said after the defeat that
"The slaves of the Portuguese at
Macau served them so well and
faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people
there last year", and "Our people saw very few Portuguese" during the
First Opium War
First Opium War (1839–42),
Portugal occupied the
empty islands of
Coloane in 1851 and 1864 respectively. On 1
December 1887, the Qing and Portuguese governments signed the
Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking , under which
China ceded the right
of "perpetual occupation and government of
Macau by Portugal" in
compliance with the statements of the Protocol of Lisbon. In return,
Macau Government would cooperate with Hong Kong's smuggling trade in
Indian opium and
China would profit from imposing customs taxes.
Portugal was also obliged "never to alienate
Macau without previous
agreement with China", therefore ensuring that negotiation between
Portugal and France (regarding a possible exchange of
Portuguese Guinea with the
French Congo ) or with other countries
would not go forward – so that the British commercial interests
would be secured;
Macau officially became a territory under Portuguese
In 1928, after the
Qing dynasty had been overthrown following the
Xinhai Revolution , the
Kuomintang (KMT) government officially
Portugal that it would abrogate the Treaty of Amity and
Commerce; the two powers signed a new Sino-Portuguese Friendship and
Trade Treaty in place of the abrogated treaty. Changing only a few
provisions concerning tariff principles and matters relating to
business affairs, the new treaty did not alter the sovereignty of
Macau and Portuguese government of
Macau remained unchanged.
World War II
World War II , unlike
Portuguese Timor , which was occupied by
the Japanese in 1942 along with Dutch Timor , the Japanese respected
Portuguese neutrality in Macau, but only up to a point.
a brief period of economic prosperity as the only neutral port in
China after the Japanese had occupied
Guangzhou and Hong Kong.
In August 1943, Japanese troops seized the British steamer _Sian_ in
Macau and killed about 20 guards. The next month they demanded the
installation of Japanese "advisors" under the threat of overt military
occupation. The result was that a virtual Japanese protectorate was
created over Macau.
When it was discovered that "neutral"
Macau was planning to sell
aviation fuel to Japan, aircraft from the USS _Enterprise_ bombed and
strafed the hangar of the Naval Aviation Centre on 16 January 1945 to
destroy the fuel. American air raids on targets in
Macau were also
made on 25 February and 11 June 1945. Following Portuguese government
protests, in 1950 the United States paid US$20,255,952 to the
government of Portugal.
Between the end of the
Pacific War and the establishment of the
People's Republic of China,
Macau served as a safe haven for refugees
Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War .
After the establishment of the People's Republic of
China in 1949,
Beijing government declared the Sino-Portuguese Treaty invalid as
an "unequal treaty " imposed by foreigners on China. However, Beijing
was not ready to settle the treaty question, allowing the maintenance
of "the status quo" until a more appropriate time.
Influenced by the
Cultural Revolution in mainland
China and by
general dissatisfaction with Portuguese government, riots broke out in
Macau in 1966. In the most serious, the so-called
12-3 incident , 6
people were killed and more than 200 people were injured. On 28
January 1967, the Portuguese government issued a formal apology by
means of an "admission of guilt".
Shortly after Portugal's 1974
Carnation Revolution , which overthrew
the Estado Novo dictatorship , the new government determined it would
relinquish all its overseas possessions. In 1976, Lisbon redefined
Macau as a "Chinese territory under Portuguese administration" and
granted it a large measure of administrative, financial, and economic
autonomy. Three years later,
China agreed to regard Macau
as "a Chinese territory under Portuguese administration". The
Chinese and Portuguese governments commenced negotiations on the
Macau in June 1986. The two signed the Sino-Portuguese
Joint Declaration the next year, making
Macau one of the special
administrative regions of
TRANSFER OF SOVEREIGNTY AND SAR STATUS
The Chinese government assumed formal sovereignty over
Macau on 20
December 1999 as a special administrative region (SAR) after over 400
years of Portuguese colonial rule. This event also marked the end of
Portuguese Empire and European colonialism in Asia. The economy
since then has continued to prosper with the sustained growth of
tourism from mainland
China and the construction of new casinos .
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
Politics of Macau ,
Legislative Assembly of Macau ,
Legal system of Macau , and
Civic and Municipal Affairs Bureau
The Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration and
Macau Basic Law, Macau's
constitution, promulgated by China's National People\'s Congress in
1993, specify that Macau's social and economic system, lifestyle,
rights, and freedoms are to remain unchanged for at least 50 years
after the transfer of sovereignty to
China in 1999. Under the
principle of "one country, two systems",
Macau enjoys a high degree of
autonomy in all areas except defence and foreign affairs. Macau
officials, rather than PRC officials, run
Macau through the exercise
of separate executive, legislative , and judicial powers, as well as
the right to final adjudication.
Macau maintains its own currency
Macanese pataca ), customs territory, immigration and border
controls and police force.
Macau Government Headquarters
The government in
Macau is headed by the
Chief Executive of Macau ,
who is appointed by the central government upon the recommendation of
an election committee, whose three hundred members are nominated by
corporate and community bodies. The recommendation is made by an
election within the committee. The chief executive's cabinet is made
up of five policy secretaries and is advised by the Executive Council
Macau , which has between seven and eleven members.
Edmund Ho , a
community leader and former banker, was the first chief executive of
Macau SAR, replacing General Vasco Rocha Vieira at midnight on 20
Fernando Chui is the current Chief Executive. The
chief executive and the cabinet have their offices in the Macau
Government Headquarters , located in the area of São Lourenço .
Legislative Assembly of Macau
The legislative organ of the territory is the
Legislative Assembly ,
a 33-member body comprising 14 directly elected members, 12 indirectly
elected members representing functional constituencies and seven
members appointed by the chief executive. Any permanent residents at
or over 18 years of age are eligible to vote in direct elections.
Indirect election is limited to organizations registered as "corporate
voters" and a 300-member election committee drawn from broad regional
groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies.
In February 2009, the
Legislative Assembly passed the
security law based on a withdrawn security legislation previously
introduced in Hong Kong. Democracy advocates feared that the bill's
excessively broad scope could lead to abuses, a concern which has been
heightened after a number of prominent supporters of democracy in Hong
Kong were denied entry into
Macau in the run-up to the bill's passage.
The original framework of the legal system, based largely on the Law
Portugal , the Portuguese civil law system, was preserved after
1999. The territory has its own independent judicial system with a
High Court . Judges are selected by a committee and appointed by the
chief executive. Foreign judges may serve on the courts.
Macau has a three-tier court system: the Court of the First Instance,
the Court of the Second Instance and the Court of Final Appeal .
Main article: People\'s Liberation Army
Macau Garrison See also:
Military of Macau under Portuguese rule and Liaison Office of the
Central People\'s Government in the Macao
Under Portuguese rule,
Macau often served as an expeditionary base to
Japan and other regions of
East Asia from the 16th century onwards,
while maintaining a strong garrison mainly to repel Dutch and mainland
Chinese attacks. However, since the allied British settled Hong Kong,
the need for a strong military presence in
Macau dimmed and it became
limited before ceasing in 1974. However, despite having no Portuguese
garrison left on the territory, a small security force managed by the
local PSP was kept, which proved useful with the escalating triad
warfare tensions towards the last decades of Portuguese
administration. Also the Capitania dos Portos kept operating a coast
guard and the Portuguese airforce kept airfields active until the
Macau International Airport in the mid-1990s. In 1999, upon
handover to the PRC, a substantial garrison of the People\'s
Liberation Army was established in the city helping deliver the last
blow to the violence perpetrated by the triads, who were weakened by
police action and arrests prior to the handover . The garrison
remains, with a large portion of the forces stationed in neighbouring
Zhuhai as well.
Administrative divisions of Macau.
Macau is divided into 8 parishes .
Nossa Senhora de Fátima
Nossa Senhora do Carmo
São Francisco Xavier
Geography of Macau
Macau is situated 60 kilometres (37 mi) southwest of
Hong Kong and
145 kilometres (90 mi) from
Guangzhou of Mainland
China . It also has
41 kilometres (25 mi) of coastline, yet only 310 metres (1,000 ft) of
land border with
Guangdong of Mainland
China . It consists of the
Macau Peninsula itself and the islands of
Coloane , which
are now connected by landfill forming
Cotai . The peninsula is formed
Zhu Jiang (Pearl River) estuary on the east and the Xi Jiang
(West River) on the west. It borders the
Special Economic Zone
in mainland China. The main border crossing between
known as the
Portas do Cerco (Barrier Gate) on the
Macau side, and the
Gongbei Port of Entry on the
Lago Nam Van, Macao
View of the casinos from Science Center
Taipa from Science Center
China Sea between
Taipa and the
Aerial view of
Macau at night
View of the old city in
Macau with tenement housing in the foreground
View of the old city
Macau Peninsula was originally an island, but a connecting sandbar
gradually turned into a narrow isthmus . Land reclamation in the 17th
Macau into a peninsula with generally flat
terrain, though numerous steep hills still mark the original land
mass. Alto de
Coloane is the highest point in Macau, with an altitude
of 170.6 metres (559.7 ft). With a dense urban environment , Macau
has no arable land, pastures, forest, or woodland.
In 2015, the Chinese government assigned
responsibility for 85 km2 (33 sq mi) of coastal ocean area.
Macau has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen _Cwa_), with average
relative humidity between 75% and 90%. Similar to much of South
China, seasonal climate is greatly influenced by the monsoons , and
differences in temperature and humidity between summer and winter are
noticeable, though not as great as in mainland China. The average
annual temperature of
Macau is 22.7 °C (72.9 °F). July is the
warmest month, the average temperature being 28.9 °C (84.0 °F). The
coolest month is January, with a mean temperature of 14.5 °C (58.1
Located on China's southern coast,
Macau has ample rainfall, with
average annual precipitation being 2,120 millimetres (83 in). However,
winter is mostly dry due to the influence of the vast Siberian High
affecting much of East Asia. Autumn in Macau, from October to
November, is sunny and still pleasantly warm with lower humidity.
Winter (December to early March) is generally mild with temperatures
above 13 °C (55 °F) most of the time, although it can drop below 8
°C (46 °F) at times. Humidity starts to increase from late March.
Summer is very warm to hot (often rising above 30 °C (86 °F) during
the day). The hot weather is often followed by heavy rain,
thunderstorms and occasional typhoons.
CLIMATE DATA FOR MACAU (1981–2010, EXTREMES 1901–PRESENT)
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source: Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau
CLIMATE DATA FOR MACAU
AVERAGE SEA TEMPERATURE °C (°F)
MEAN DAILY DAYLIGHT HOURS
AVERAGE ULTRAVIOLET INDEX
SOURCE: WEATHER ATLAS
Economy of Macau and
Gambling in Macau
Employed population by
Service & sale workers
Workers in agriculture/fishery
Macau is also a member of the
IMF . The World Bank
Macau as a high income economy and the GDP per capita of
the region in 2006 was US$28,436. After the Handover in 1999, there
has been a rapid rise in the number of mainland visitors due to
China's easing of travel restrictions. Together with the
liberalization of Macau's gaming industry in 2001 that induces
significant investment inflows, the average growth rate of the economy
between 2001 and 2006 was approximately 13.1% annually.
World Tourism Organization report of international tourism for
Macau ranked 21st in the number of tourists and 24th in terms of
tourism receipts. From 9.1 million visitors in 2000, arrivals to
Macau has grown to 18.7 million visitors in 2005 and 22 million
visitors in 2006, with over 50% of the arrivals coming from mainland
China and another 30% from Hong Kong.
Starting in 1962, the gambling industry had been operated under a
government-issued monopoly license by
Stanley Ho 's Sociedade de
Turismo e Diversões de
Macau . The monopoly ended in 2002 and several
casino owners from Las Vegas attempted to enter the market. With the
opening of the
Sands Macao , in 2004 and
Wynn Macau in 2006,
gambling revenues from Macau's casinos grew considerably prosperous.
Venetian Macau , at the time the second (in 2017 is seventh)
largest building in the world by floor area, opened its doors to the
public, followed by
MGM Grand Macau . Numerous other hotel casinos,
Cotai Megaresort , opened in 2011, and plans for a
$3.9 billion complex that will be known as Lisboa Palace is expected
to be completed by 2017. In February 2015, the gambling revenue in
Macau fell by 48.6 percent from a year earlier to 19.5 billion patacas
($2.4 billion), the biggest monthly decline that has ever been
recorded. Reasons for this fall of revenue are related to the slowdown
that the Chinese economy is having and a corruption crackdown by
Chinese officials which has constrained lavish spending.
In 2002, the
Macau government ended the monopoly system and six
casino operating concessions and subconcessions are granted to
Sociedade de Turismo e Diversões de Macau,
Wynn Resorts , Las Vegas
Sands , Galaxy Entertainment Group , the partnership of
MGM Mirage and
Pansy Ho (daughter of Stanley Ho), and the partnership of Melco and
Publishing and Broadcasting Limited (PBL). Today, there are 16 casinos
operated by the STDM, and they are still crucial in the casino
industry in Macau, but in 2004, the opening of the
Sands Macau ushered
in the new era. Gambling revenue has made
Macau the world's top
casino market , surpassing Las Vegas.
The amount of performances performed in
Macau has also shown an
increasing trend since the early 2010s, including the show _House of
Dancing Water_, concerts, industry trade shows and international art
Macau is an offshore financial centre , a tax haven , and a free port
with no foreign exchange control regimes. The Monetary Authority of
Macau regulates offshore finance, while the
Macau Trade and
Investment Promotion Institute provides services for investment in
Macau. In 2007, Moody\'s Investors Service upgraded Macau's foreign
and local currency government issuer ratings to 'Aa3' from 'A1',
citing its government's solid finances as a large net creditor. The
rating agency also upgraded Macau's foreign currency bank deposit
ceiling to 'Aa3' from 'A1'.
As prescribed by the
Macau Basic Law
Macau Basic Law , the government follows the
principle of keeping expenditure within the limits of revenues in
drawing up its budget, and strives to achieve a fiscal balance , avoid
deficits and keep the budget commensurate with the growth rate of its
gross domestic product. All financial revenue of the
Administrative Region shall be managed and controlled by the region
itself and shall not be handed over to the Central People\'s
Government . The Central People's Government shall not levy any taxes
Special Administrative Region.
MGM Macau *
Governador Nobre de Carvalho Bridge,
City of Dreams
In Macau, the unit of currency is the pataca , which is currently
pegged to the
Hong Kong dollar at a rate of HK$1 = MOP1.03. The name
pataca is a Portuguese word which was applied to the Mexican dollars
that were the main circulating coin in the wider region in the second
half of the 19th century. In 1894, the pataca was introduced in both
Portuguese Timor as a unit of account for the Mexican dollar
and the other silver dollar coins in circulation. However, the pataca
was not the official currency when it was first enacted. In 1901, it
was decided to grant the
Banco Nacional Ultramarino the exclusive
rights to issue banknotes denominated in patacas, and in the year
1906, all foreign coins were outlawed. However, the Chinese were
suspicious of these paper patacas, being so accustomed to using silver
for barter, and as such, the paper patacas circulated at a discount in
relation to the silver dollar coins.In 1935, when
China and Hong Kong
abandoned the silver standard, the
Hong Kong dollar was pegged to
sterling at the fixed rate of 1 shilling and 3 pence, whereas the
pataca was pegged to the Portuguese escudo at a sterling equivalent
rate of only 1 shilling. From 1945 to 1951, fractional coins of the
pataca were minted for issue in Portuguese Timor; and, in 1952,
similar issues were minted for
Macau including an actual pataca coin
for the first time.
Demographics of Macau
languages spoken at home
Other Chinese varieties
Macau is the most densely populated region in the world, with a
population density of 21,400 persons per square kilometre in 2016.
Han Chinese make up 95% of Macau's population; another 2% is of
Portuguese and/or mixed Chinese/Portuguese descent, an ethnic group
often referred to as Macanese . According to the 2006 by-census, 47%
of the residents were born in mainland China, of whom 74.1% were born
Guangdong and 15.2% in
Fujian . Meanwhile, 42.5% of the residents
were born in Macau, and those born in Hong Kong, the
Portugal shared 3.7%, 2.0% and 0.3% respectively.
The growth of population in
Macau mainly relies on immigrants from
China and the influx of overseas workers since its birth rate
is one of the lowest in the world. According to _The World Factbook
Macau has the fourth highest life expectancy in the world, while
its infant mortality rate ranks among the lowest in the world.
Macau's official languages are Chinese (
Cantonese ) and Portuguese .
Macau still retains its own dialect of Portuguese, called Macanese
Portuguese . Other languages such as Mandarin , English , and Hokkien
are spoken by local communities. The
Macanese language , a
distinctive creole generally known as _Patuá_, is still spoken by
several dozen Macanese.
Macau has an economy driven by tourism, 14.6% of the workforce
is employed in restaurants and hotels, and 10.3% in the gambling
industry. With the opening of several casino resorts and other major
constructions underway, many sectors reportedly experience a shortage
of labour, and the government seeks to import labour from neighbouring
The number of imported workers stood at a record high of 98,505 in
the second quarter of 2008, representing more than 25% of the labour
force in Macau. Some local workers complain about the lack of jobs
due to the influx of cheap imported labour. Some also claim that the
problem of illegal labour is severe. Another concern is the widening
of income inequality in the region. Macau's
Gini coefficient , a
popular measure of income inequality where a low value indicates a
more equal income distribution, rose from 0.43 in 1998 to 0.48 in
2006. It is higher than those of neighbouring regions, such as
South Korea (0.316) and
Religion in Macau
Most Chinese in
Macau are profoundly influenced by their own
tradition and culture, of which most take part in Chinese folk
religion , in which
Confucianism are comprehended.
According to a survey conducted between 2005, 2007 and 2009, 55% of
the population do not declare religious affiliation, 30% follows folk
faiths, 10% are adherents of Buddhism or Taoism, and the remaining 5%
part are Christians .
University of Macau Main article:
Education in Macau
A fifteen-year free education is currently being offered to
residents, that includes a three-year kindergarten, followed by a
six-year primary education and a six-year secondary education. The
literacy rate of the territory is 93.5%. The illiterates are mainly
among the senior residents aged 65 or above; the younger generation,
for example the population aged 15–29, has a literacy rate of above
99%. Currently, there is only one school in
Macau where Portuguese is
the medium of instruction,
Macau Portuguese School .
Macau does not have its own region-wide education system;
non-tertiary schools follow either the British, the Chinese, or the
Portuguese education system. There are currently 10 tertiary
educational institutions in the region, four of them being public. In
Programme for International Student Assessment , a worldwide
test of 15-year-old schoolchildren's scholastic performance
OECD , ranked
Macau as the fifth and sixth in science
and problem solving respectively. Nevertheless, education levels in
Macau are low among high income regions. According to the 2006
by-census, among the resident population aged 14 and above, only 51.8%
has a secondary education and 12.6% has a tertiary education.
As prescribed by the Basic Law of
Macau Chapter VI Article 121, the
Government of Macau shall, on its own, formulate policies on
education, including policies regarding the educational system and its
administration, the language of instruction, the allocation of funds,
the examination system, the recognition of educational qualifications,
and the system of academic awards so as to promote educational
development. The government shall also in accordance with law,
gradually institute a compulsory education system. Community
organizations and individuals may, in accordance with law, run
educational undertakings of various kinds.
List of hospitals in Macau
Macau is served by one major public hospital, the Hospital Conde S.
Januário , and one major private hospital, the
Hospital Kiang Wu ,
both located in
Macau Peninsula, as well as a university associated
Macau University of Science and Technology Hospital in
Cotai . In addition to hospitals,
Macau also has numerous health
centres providing free basic medical care to residents. Consultation
in traditional Chinese medicine is also available.
None of the
Macau hospitals are independently assessed through
international healthcare accreditation . There are no western-style
medical schools in Macau, and thus all aspiring physicians in Macau
have to obtain their education and qualification elsewhere. Local
nurses are trained at the
Macau Polytechnic Institute and the Kiang Wu
Nursing College. Currently there are no training courses in
midwifery in Macau. A study by the
University of Macau , commissioned
Macau SAR government, concluded that
Macau is too small to have
its own medical specialist training centre.
Macau Corps of Firefighters_ (Portuguese: _Corpo de Bombeiros de
Macau_) is responsible for ambulance service (Ambulância de Macau).
Macau Red Cross also operates ambulances (
Toyota HiAce vans) for
emergency and non-emergencies to local hospitals with volunteer staff.
The organization has a total of 739 uniformed firefighters and
paramedics serving from 7 stations in Macau.
The Health Bureau in
Macau is mainly responsible for coordinating the
activities between the public and private organizations in the area of
public health , and assure the health of citizens through specialized
and primary health care services, as well as disease prevention and
health promotion . The
Macau Centre for Disease Control and
Prevention was established in 2001, which monitors the operation of
hospitals, health centres, and the blood transfusion centre in Macau.
It also handles the organization of care and prevention of diseases
affecting the population, sets guidelines for hospitals and private
healthcare providers, and issues licences .
As of 2016
Macau healthcare authorities send many patients to Queen
Mary Hospital in
Hong Kong in certain cses, and many
intentionally seek healthcare in
Hong Kong because they place more
Hong Kong doctors than in Mainland-trained doctors operating
Transport in Macau
Transport in Macau
Air Macau Airbus A321
Macau Yacht Fair
Ponte de Amizade (Friendship Bridge) from
Macau Peninsula (left) to
Taipa Terminal of Macau
In Macau, traffic drives on the left , unlike in either mainland
China or Portugal, but like neighbouring Hong Kong.
Macau has a
well-established public transport network connecting the Macau
Taipa Island and
Coloane Island . Buses and taxis
are the major modes of public transport in Macau. Currently three
Transportas Companhia de Macau and
Era de Autocarros Públicos operate franchised public bus services in
Macau. The trishaw , a hybrid of the tricycle and the rickshaw, is
also available, though it is mainly for sightseeing purposes. The
newest public bus operator,
Macau Nova Era, previously Reolian Public
Transport Co., entered service on 1 August 2011. This new bus operator
operates on the existing routes by
Transmac and Transportas Companhia
de Macau. Free
Casino Shuttle Buses are everywhere in Macau. Due to
tourism being the main economic industry in
Macau a majority of the
larger hotels provide free round trip shuttle bus services which cover
the major tourist sites including the airport, Outer Harbour Ferry
Taipa Temporary Ferry Terminal and other sites. Some Larger
hotels such as Venetian Hotel and Holiday Inn even provide a free
shuttle between them. The frequency for each route is usually 15
The taxi system is noted for having a notoriously poor reputation
among tourists and even locals. Common complaints include "constant
overcharging, refusal of passengers when the destination or passenger
type does not suit the driver, circuitous routes and even violent
behaviour." In recent years, the
Macau government have been making
attempts to hold drivers to a higher standard of service through
methods such as undercover police prosecuting drivers who violate the
taxi regulations on the spot.
The Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal and the
Taipa Temporary Ferry
Terminal provides cross-border transportation services for passengers
Macau and Hong Kong, while the Yuet Tung Terminal
in the Inner Harbour serves those travelling between
Macau and cities
in mainland China, including Shekou and
The MACAU LIGHT RAPID TRANSIT or MACAU LRT also known as METRO
LIGEIRO DE MACAU is a mass transit system in
Macau under construction.
It will serve the
Macau Peninsula ,
Cotai , serving major
border checkpoints such as the Border Gate , the Outer Harbour Ferry
Terminal , the
Lotus Bridge Border and the
Macau International Airport
. It is planned to open in 2019.
Macau has one active international airport, known as Macau
International Airport located at the eastern end of
neighbouring waters. The airport used to serve as one of the main
transit hubs for passengers travelling between mainland
Taiwan , but now with the introduction of direct flights between those
two regions, passenger traffic in this regard has lessened. It is
the primary hub for
Air Macau . In 2006, the airport handled about 5
HISTORIC CENTRE OF MACAO
Clockwise from top right:
Ruins of St. Paul\'s ;
Casino Lisboa ; St. Joseph Seminary Church ;
Governor Nobre de Carvalho Bridge ;
A-Ma Temple ;
Guia Fortress ;
Macau Tower .
UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE
People\'s Republic of
Portugal , People's Republic of China
22°10′00″N 113°33′00″E / 22.166666666667°N
113.55°E / 22.166666666667; 113.55
ii, iii, iv, vi
2005 (29th Session )
Culture of Macau Remains of the Cathedral of St.
The mixing of the Chinese and Portuguese cultures and religious
traditions for more than four centuries has left
Macau with an
inimitable collection of holidays, festivals and events. The biggest
event of the year is the
Macau Grand Prix in November, when the main
Macau Peninsula are converted to a racetrack bearing
similarities with the
Monaco Grand Prix . Other annual events include
Macau Arts festival in March, the International Fireworks Display
Contest in September, the International Music festival in October
and/or November, and the
Macau International Marathon in December.
Chinese New Year
Chinese New Year is the most important traditional festival
and celebration normally takes place in late January or early
February. The Pou Tai Un Temple in
Taipa is the place for the Feast
of Tou Tei, the Earth god, in February. The Procession of the Passion
of Our Lord is a well-known Roman Catholic rite and journey, which
travels from Saint Austin's Church to the Cathedral, also taking place
A-Ma Temple, which honours the Goddess Matsu , is in full swing in
April with many worshippers celebrating the A-Ma festival. In May it
is common to see dancing dragons at the Feast of the Drunken Dragon
and twinkling-clean Buddhas at the Feast of the Bathing of Lord
Coloane Village , the
Tam Kong is also honoured
on the same day. Dragon Boat festival is brought into play on Nam Van
Lake in June and Hungry Ghosts' festival, in late August and/or early
September every year. All events and festivities of the year end with
Winter Solstice in December.
Macau preserves many historical properties in the urban area. The
Historic Centre of Macau , which includes some twenty-five historic
locations, was officially listed as a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site UNESCO on 15
July 2005 during the 29th session of the
World Heritage Committee ,
Durban , South Africa.
Na Tcha Temple ,
Senado Square ,
Kun Iam Ecumenical Centre,
Museum of Macau
Local cooking in
Macau consists of a blend of
Portuguese cuisines. Many unique dishes resulted from the spice blends
that the wives of Portuguese sailors used in an attempt to replicate
European dishes. Its ingredients and seasonings include those from
Europe, South America, Africa, India, and Southeast Asia, as well as
local Chinese ingredients. Typically, Macanese food is seasoned with
various spices and flavours including turmeric , coconut milk ,
cinnamon and bacalhau , giving special aromas and tastes. Famous
dishes include minchi, capella, galinha à Portuguesa , galinha à
Africana (African chicken), bacalhau , Macanese chili shrimps and
stir-fry curry crab.
Pork chop bun , ginger milk and Portuguese-style
egg tart are also very popular in Macau.
Stanley Ho , business magnate, father of
Macau gambling industry
Xian Xinghai (spelt as _Hsien Hsing-hai_ during his era),
冼星海 musician and composer during Sino-Japanese War, known work
Yellow River Cantata
Michelle Reis ,
Hong Kong actress and former Miss Hong Kong
Edmund Ho , business leader, chief executive of
Jenny Tseng , 甄妮
Cantonese pop singer and actress in the 70s
Ming-Na Wen , 温明娜 TV and movie actress, one of the first
Chinese-American actresses with a contract role
Macau F3 Grand Prix in progress.
Macau has its own professional football league, the Campeonato da 1ª
Divisão do Futebol , where the _Big Three _ professional football
Portugal have their own branches:
S.L. Benfica de Macau ,
Sporting Clube de Macau and
F.C. Porto de Macau . In general, football
(soccer) has the greatest popularity in Macau, which has a
representative international side,
Macau national football team .
Another common sport is rink hockey , which is often practised by the
Portuguese. The national team of
Macau is the most powerful of Asia,
always participates in the
Rink Hockey World Championship in B
category and has many
Rink Hockey Asian Championship titles. The last
Championship was won in
China , at the 2016 Asian Roller
Hockey Championship .
Macau also has a basketball team , which
qualified for the
Asian Basketball Championship twice.
The automobile racing event
Macau Grand Prix is arguably the most
important international sporting event in Macau, mainly with Formula 3
, motorcycle road racing and touring car races.
Macau owns a thoroughbred horse racing track called Taipa
Racecourse operated by the
Macau Jockey Club . The racecourse has a
15,000 seater grandstand .
* Geography portal
Foreign relations of Macau
Index of Macau-related articles
List of bridges and tunnels in Macau
Macao Science Center
Outline of Macau
Visa policy of Macau
Visa requirements for Chinese citizens of Macau
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Portugal to the port of Macau, in 1631. A
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soldiers 5000 slaves 20000 Chinese 1643 2000 moradores (Portuguese
inhabitants) 1644 40000 total inhabitants 1648 Jesuits record
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3-11-013417-9 . The Portuguese population of
Macau was never very
large. Between the period 1601–1669, a typical cross section of the
population consisted of about 600 casados, 100–200 other Portuguese,
some 5000 slaves and a growing number of Chinese
* ^ Zhidong Hao (2011). _
Macau History and Society_ (illustrated
Hong Kong University Press. p. 63. ISBN 988-8028-54-5 . This is
a time when there were most African slaves, about 5100. In comparison
there were about 1000 to 2000 during the later Portuguese rule in
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* ^ Historical figures of
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* ^ History of the Qing (清史稿)
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University Press. p. 238. ISBN 0-253-21873-X . Portuguese,"he
concluded;"The Portuguese beat us off from
Macau with their slaves."10
The same year as the Dutch ... an English witness recorded that the
Portuguese defense was conducted primarily by their African slaves
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1-884964-04-4 . A miscellaneous assemblage of Portuguese soldiers,
citizens, African slaves, friars, and Jesuits managed to withstand the
attack. Following this defeat, the Dutch made no further attempts to
take Macau, although they continued to harass
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Hong Kong University Press. p. 159. ISBN
962-209-486-4 . invaded
Macau on 24 June 1622 but was defeated by a
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but assured, since the city's ... still remained under construction
and its defenders numbered only about 60 soldiers and 90 civilians,
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* De Pina-Cabral (2002). _Between
China and Europe: Person, Culture
and Emotion in Macau_. Berg Publishers. ISBN 0-8264-5749-5 .
* Eayrs, James (2003). _
Macau Foreign Policy and Government Guide_.
International Business Publications, United States. ISBN 0-7397-6451-9
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