Shanghai (Chinese: 上海; Wu Chinese: Wu pronunciation;
Mandarin: [ʂâŋ.xài] ( listen)) is one of the four
direct-controlled municipalities of
China and the most populous city
in the world, with a population of more than 24 million as of
2017[update]. It is a global financial centre and
transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in
Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of
Yangtze in the middle portion of the East
China coast. The
municipality borders the provinces of
Zhejiang to the
north, south and west, and is bounded to the east by the East China
As a major administrative, shipping and trading city,
Shanghai grew in
importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its
favourable port location and economic potential. The city was one of
five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British
China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty
of Nanking and 1844
Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the
Shanghai International Settlement
Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession. The city
then flourished as a centre of commerce between
China and other parts
of the world (predominantly the Occident), and became the primary
financial hub of the
Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. However,
with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was
limited to other socialist countries, and the city's global influence
declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng
Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the
return of finance and foreign investment to the city. It has since
re-emerged as a hub for international trade and finance; it is the
home of the
Shanghai Stock Exchange, one of the world's largest by
Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy
of mainland China; renowned for its
Lujiazui skyline, and
museums and historic buildings, such as those along The Bund, as well
as the City God Temple and the Yu Garden.
2.1 Ancient history
2.2 Imperial history
2.3 Rise and golden age
2.4 Wartime era
2.5 Modern history
6 Administrative divisions
11.1 Public transport
13.1 Parks and resorts
13.2 Environmental protection
Air pollution and government reaction
17 International relations
18 See also
20 Further reading
21 External links
The two Chinese characters in the city's name are 上 (shàng/zan,
"above") and 海 (hǎi/he,"sea"), together meaning "Upon-the-Sea". The
earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song
Dynasty, at which time there was already a river confluence and a town
with this name in the area. There are disputes as to exactly how the
name should be understood, but Chinese historians have concluded that
Shanghai was literally on the
Shanghai is officially abbreviated 沪 (Hù/Wu) in Chinese, a
contraction of 沪渎 (Hù Dú/Wu Doh, lit "
Harpoon Ditch"), a
4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of
Suzhou Creek when it was
the main conduit into the ocean. This character appears on all
motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today.
Another alternative name for
Shanghai is Shēn (申) or Shēnchéng
(申城, "Shen City"), from Lord Chunshen, a third-century BC nobleman
and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern
Shanghai. Sports teams and newspapers in
Shanghai often use Shen
in their names, such as
Shanghai Shenhua F.C.
Shanghai Shenhua F.C. and Shen Bao.
Huating (华亭) was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751,
during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by the
Zhao Juzhen at modern-day Songjiang, the
first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today,
Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city.
The city also has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of
the Orient" and "
Paris of the East".
History of Shanghai
History of Shanghai and Timeline of Shanghai
Shanghai International Settlement,
Concession, and Greater
Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period (approximately 771 to 476 BC), the
Shanghai area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, which was conquered by
the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of
Chu. During the
Warring States period
Warring States period (475 BC),
Shanghai was part
of the fief of
Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the
Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River. Its
former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave
Shanghai its nickname
of "Shen". Fishermen living in the
Shanghai area then created a
fishing tool called the hu, which lent its name to the outlet of
Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and
abbreviation for the city.
Songjiang Square Pagoda, built in the 11th century
Old City of Shanghai
Old City of Shanghai in the 17th century
Section of the old city walls of Shanghai
During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town (青龙镇) in
Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746
(fifth year of the Tang Tianbao era), it developed into what
contemporary sources called a "giant town of the Southeast", with
thirteen temples and seven pagodas. The famous Song scholar and artist
Mi Fu served as its mayor. The port had a thriving trade with
provinces along the
Yangtze River and the Chinese coast, as well as
foreign countries such as
Japan and Silla.
By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved
downstream of the
Wusong River to Shanghai, which was upgraded in
status from a village to a market town in 1074, and in 1172 a second
sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an
earlier dike. From the
Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai
officially became a municipality in 1927, central
administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at
the present-day Songjiang District.
Two important events helped promote Shanghai's development in the Ming
dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect
the town from raids by Japanese pirates. It measured 10 metres (33
feet) high and 5 kilometres (3 miles) in circumference. During the
Wanli reign (1573–1620),
Shanghai received an important
psychological boost from the erection of a City God Temple in 1602.
This honour was usually reserved for prefectural capitals and not
normally given to a mere county seat such as Shanghai. It probably
reflected the town's economic importance, as opposed to its low
During the Qing dynasty,
Shanghai became one of the most important sea
ports in the
Yangtze Delta region as a result of two important central
government policy changes: In 1684, the
Kangxi Emperor reversed the
Ming dynasty prohibition on oceangoing vessels – a ban that had been
in force since 1525; and in 1732 the
Yongzheng Emperor moved the
customs office for
Jiangsu province (江海关; see Customs House,
Shanghai) from the prefectural capital of Songjiang to Shanghai, and
Shanghai exclusive control over customs collections for Jiangsu's
foreign trade. As a result of these two critical decisions, by 1735
Shanghai had become the major trade port for all of the lower Yangtze
region, despite still being at the lowest administrative level in the
Rise and golden age
Shanghai in the 1930s, with the
Shanghai International Settlement
Shanghai International Settlement and
Shanghai French Concession
The Bund in 1928; the WWI monument in the foreground was destroyed by
the Japanese during WWII
Nanking Road (modern-day East
Nanjing Road) in the 1930s
Shanghai filmed in 1937
Tallest building of Asia for decades -
Shanghai Park Hotel
International attention to
Shanghai grew in the 19th century due to
European recognition of its economic and trade potential at the
Yangtze. During the
First Opium War
First Opium War (1839–1842), British forces
occupied the city. The war ended with the 1842 Treaty of Nanking,
which allowed the British to dictate opening the treaty ports,
Shanghai included, for international trade. The Treaty of the
Bogue signed in 1843, and the Sino-American
Treaty of Wanghia
Treaty of Wanghia signed
in 1844 forced Chinese concession to European and American desires for
visitation and trade on Chinese soil. Britain,
France (under the 1844
Treaty of Whampoa), and the
United States all carved out concessions
outside the walled city of Shanghai, which was still ruled by the
The Chinese-held old city of
Shanghai fell to the rebels of the Small
Swords Society in 1853 but was recovered by the Qing government in
February 1855. In 1854, the
Shanghai Municipal Council
Shanghai Municipal Council was created
to manage the foreign settlements. Between 1860–1862, the Taiping
rebels twice attacked
Shanghai and destroyed the city's eastern and
southern suburbs, but failed to take the city. In 1863, the
British settlement to the south of
Suzhou Creek (northern Huangpu
District) and the American settlement to the north (southern Hongkou
District) joined in order to form the
Settlement. The French opted out of the
Shanghai Municipal Council
Shanghai Municipal Council and
maintained its own concession to the south and southwest.
Citizens of many countries and all continents came to
Shanghai to live
and work during the ensuing decades; those who stayed for long periods
– some for generations – called themselves "Shanghailanders".
In the 1920s and 1930s, almost 20,000 White Russians and Russian Jews
fled the newly established
Soviet Union and took up residence in
Shanghai Russians constituted the second-largest
foreign community. By 1932,
Shanghai had become the world's fifth
largest city and home to 70,000 foreigners. In the 1930s, some
30,000 Jewish refugees from
Europe arrived in the city.
The Sino-Japanese War concluded with the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which
Japan to become another foreign power in Shanghai. Japan
built the first factories in Shanghai, which were soon copied by other
Shanghai was then the most important financial center
in the Far East. All this international activity gave
nickname "the Great Athens of China".
Under the Republic of China, Shanghai's political status was raised to
that of a municipality on 14 July 1927. Although the territory of the
foreign concessions was excluded from their control, this new Chinese
municipality still covered an area of 828.8 square kilometres
(320.0 sq mi), including the modern-day districts of
Baoshan, Yangpu, Zhabei, Nanshi, and Pudong. Headed by a Chinese mayor
and municipal council, the new city government's first task was to
create a new city center in Jiangwan town of Yangpu district, outside
the boundaries of the foreign concessions. The "Greater
included a public museum, library, sports stadium, and city hall,
which were partially constructed when the plan was interrupted by the
Zhabei District on fire.
"Bloody Saturday": a baby in the ruins of the old
Railway Station after Japanese bombing in August 1937
On 28 January 1932, Japanese forces invaded
Shanghai and the Chinese
resisted, fighting to a standstill; a ceasefire was brokered in May.
Battle of Shanghai
Battle of Shanghai in 1937 resulted in the occupation of the
Chinese administered parts of
Shanghai outside of the International
Settlement and the French Concession. The foreign concessions were
ultimately occupied by the Japanese on 8 December 1941 and remained
occupied until Japan's surrender in 1945, during which time many war
crimes were committed.
On 27 May 1949, the
People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army took control of Shanghai.
Under the new People's Republic of
Shanghai was one of
only three municipalities not merged into neighboring provinces over
the next decade (the others being
Beijing and Tianjin). Shanghai
underwent a series of changes in the boundaries of its subdivisions
over the next decade. After 1949, most foreign firms moved their
Shanghai to Hong Kong, as part of a foreign divestment
due to the Communist victory.
Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone
During the 1950s and 1960s,
Shanghai became the center for radical
leftism since it was the industrial centre of
China with most skilled
industrial workers. The radical leftist
Jiang Qing and her three
allies, together the Gang of Four, were based in the city. Yet,
even during the most tumultuous times of the Cultural Revolution,
Shanghai was able to maintain high economic productivity and relative
social stability. During most of the history of the PRC,
been a comparatively heavy contributor of tax revenue to the central
Shanghai in 1983 contributing more in tax revenue to
the central government than
Shanghai had received in investment in the
prior 33 years combined. This came at the cost of severely
crippling welfare of
Shanghainese people and Shanghai's
infrastructural and capital development. Its importance to the fiscal
well-being of the central government also denied it economic
liberalizations begun in 1978.
Shanghai was finally permitted to
initiate economic reforms in 1991, starting the massive development
still seen today and the birth of
Lujiazui in Pudong.
Main article: Geography of Shanghai
This map of
Shanghai (center and east),
Jiangsu (north), and Zhejiang
(south) shows the developed areas and some developing areas around
Nanjing (dark blue), and
Hangzhou in green. The regions in
light blue are some of the developed areas in the
Yangtze River Delta.
Provincial boundaries are in purple, sub-provincial boundaries in
This natural-color satellite image shows the urban area of
2016, along with its major islands of (from northwest to southeast)
Chongming, Changxing, Hengsha, and the
Jiuduansha shoals off Pudong.
Shanghai lies on China's east coast roughly equidistant from Beijing
and Guangzhou. The Old City and modern downtown
Shanghai are now
located in the center of an expanding peninsula between the Yangtze
River Delta to the north and
Hangzhou Bay to the south, formed by the
Yangtze's natural deposition and by modern land reclamation projects.
The provincial-level Municipality of
Shanghai administers both the
eastern area of this peninsula and many of its surrounding islands. It
is bordered on the north and west by Jiangsu, on the south by
Zhejiang, and on the east by the East
China Sea. Its northernmost
point is on Chongming Island, now the second-largest island in
China after its expansion during the 20th century. The
municipality does not, however, include an exclave of
northern Chongming or the two islands forming Shanghai's Yangshan
Port, which are part of Zhejiang's Shengsi County. This deep-water
port was made necessary by the increasing size of container ships but
also the silting of the Yangtze, which narrows to less than 20 meters
(66 ft) as far out as 45 miles (70 km) from Hengsha.
Shanghai is bisected by the Huangpu River, a man-made
tributary of the
Yangtze that was created by order of Lord Chunshen
during the Warring States period. The historic center of the city was
located on the west bank of the Huangpu (Puxi), near the mouth of
Suzhou Creek, connecting it with
Lake Tai and the Grand Canal. The
central financial district
Lujiazui has grown up on the east bank of
the Huangpu (Pudong). The destruction of local wetlands occasioned by
the creation of
Pudong International Airport along the peninsula's
eastern shore has been somewhat offset by the protection and expansion
of the nearby shoals of
Jiuduansha as a nature preserve.
Shanghai's location on an alluvial plain means that the vast majority
of its 6,340.5 km2 (2,448.1 sq mi) land area is flat,
with an average elevation of 4 m (13 ft). Its sandy soil
has required its skyscrapers to be built with deep concrete piles to
stop them from sinking into the soft ground of the central area. The
few hills such as She Shan lie to the southwest and the highest point
is the peak of
Dajinshan Island in
Hangzhou Bay (103 m or
338 ft). The city has many rivers, canals, streams and lakes
and is known for its rich water resources as part of the Lake Tai
Shanghai has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) and experiences
four distinct seasons. Winters are chilly and damp, with northwesterly
Siberia can cause nighttime temperatures to drop below
freezing, although most years there are only one or two days of
snowfall. Summers are hot and humid, with an average of 8.7 days
exceeding 35 °C (95 °F) annually; occasional downpours or
freak thunderstorms can be expected. The city is also susceptible to
typhoons in summer and the beginning of autumn, none of which in
recent years has caused considerable damage. The most pleasant
seasons are spring, although changeable and often rainy, and autumn,
which is generally sunny and dry. The city averages 4.2 °C
(39.6 °F) in January and 27.9 °C (82.2 °F) in July,
for an annual mean of 16.1 °C (61.0 °F). With monthly
percent possible sunshine ranging from 34% in March to 54% in August,
the city receives 1,895 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes
since 1951 have ranged from −10.1 °C (14 °F) on 31
January 1977 (unofficial record of −12.1 °C (10 °F) was
set on 19 January 1893) to 39.9 °C (104 °F) on 6 and 8
August 2013. A highest record of 40.9 °C (106 °F) was
registered in Xujiahui, a downtown station on 21 July
Climate data for
Shanghai (normals 1981–2010, extremes
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
China Meteorological Administration 
Panoramic view of the Bund
Panoramic view of Pudong's skyline from the Bund
Main article: Politics of Shanghai
The government of
Shanghai seated on
HSBC Building, the Bund
HSBC Building, the Bund from
1955–1995. The historic building, which was headquarters of The
Shanghai Banking Corporation from 1923 to 1955, now
Pudong Development Bank.
Like virtually all governing institutions in the mainland People's
Republic of China, the politics of
Shanghai is structured in a dual
party-government system, in which the Party Committee Secretary,
officially termed the Communist Party of
Committee Secretary (currently Li Qiang), outranks the Mayor
(currently Ying Yong).
Political power in
Shanghai is widely seen as a stepping stone to
higher positions in the national government. Since
Jiang Zemin became
the General Secretary of the Communist Party of
China in June 1989,
Shanghai party secretaries but one were elevated to the
Politburo Standing Committee, the de facto highest decision-making
body in China, including Jiang himself (Party General
Zhu Rongji (Premier),
Wu Bangguo (Chairman of the
National People's Congress),
Huang Ju (Vice Premier), Xi
Jinping (current General Secretary), and Yu Zhengsheng. Zeng
Qinghong, a former deputy party secretray of Shanghai, also rose to
the Politburo Standing Committee and became the Vice President and an
influential power broker. The only exception is Chen Liangyu, who
was fired in 2006 and later convicted of corruption. Officials
with ties to the
Shanghai administration form a powerful faction in
the national government, the so-called
Shanghai Clique, which was
often thought to compete against the rival
Youth League Faction over
personnel appointments and policy decisions. Xi Jinping, successor
Hu Jintao as General Secretary and President, was a compromise
candidate between the two groups with supporters in both camps.
Dong Yunhu was elected chairman of the 13th
Shanghai municipal CPPCC
in January 2018.
For a more comprehensive list, see List of administrative divisions of
Shanghai and List of township-level divisions of Shanghai.
Map of central Shanghai
Shanghai is administratively equal to a province and is divided into
16 county-level districts. Even though every district has its own
urban core, the real city center is between Bund to the east, Nanjing
Rd to the north, Old City Temple and
Huaihai Road to the south.
Prominent central business areas include
Lujiazui on the east bank of
the Huangpu River, and
The Bund and Hongqiao areas in the west bank of
the Huangpu River. The city hall and major administration units are
located in Huangpu District, which also serve as a commercial area,
including the famous
Nanjing Road. Other major commercial areas
Xintiandi and the classy
Huaihai Road (previously Avenue
Joffre) in Huangpu District and
Xujiahui (formerly Romanized as
Zikawei or Siccawei, reflecting the
Shanghainese pronunciation) in
Xuhui District. Many universities in
Shanghai are located in
residential areas of
Yangpu District and Putuo District.
Seven of the districts govern
Puxi (lit. "The West Bank"), the
older part of urban
Shanghai on the west bank of the Huangpu River.
These seven districts are collectively referred to as
(上海市区) or the core city (市中心), which comprise Huangpu,
Xuhui, Changning, Jing'an, Putuo, Hongkou, and Yangpu.
Pudong (lit. "The East Bank"), the newer part of urban and
Shanghai on the east bank of the Huangpu River, is governed
Pudong New Area (
Chuansha County until 1992, merged with Nanhui
District in 2009 and with oversight of the
Seven of the districts govern suburbs, satellite towns, and rural
areas further away from the urban core: Baoshan (Baoshan County until
1988), Minhang (original
Minhang District &
Shanghai County until
1992), Jiading (Jiading County until 1992), Jinshan (Jinshan County
until 1997), Songjiang (Songjiang County until 1998), Qingpu (Qingpu
County until 1999), and Fengxian (Fengxian County until 2001).
The islands of Changxing and Hengsha and most (but not all) of
Chongming Island form Chongming.
The former district of Nanhui was absorbed into
Pudong District in
2009. In 2011
Luwan District merged with Huangpu District.
As of 2015[update], these county-level divisions are further divided
into the following 210 township-level divisions: 109 towns, 2
townships, 99 subdistricts. Those are in turn divided into the
following village-level divisions: 3,661 neighborhood committees and
1,704 village committees.
Administrative divisions of Shanghai
Area in km2
Jiangsu Road Subdistrict
Jiangning Road Subdistrict
Zhenru Town Subdistrict
Jiaxing Road Subdistrict
Pingliang Road Subdistrict
Youyi Road Subdistrict
Xincheng Road Subdistrict
201200 & 201300
Divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations
zeon he zy
waon phu chiu
zi we chiu
zan nyin chiu
zin oe chiu
phu du chiu
ghon kheu chiu
yan phu chiu
min ghaon chiu
pau sae chiu
ka din chiu
Pudong New Area
phu ton sin chiu
cin se chiu
son kaon chiu
tsin phu chiu
von yi chiu
dzon min chiu
Main article: Economy of China
Panoramic view of Pudong's skyline in 2010
Increasing influence over global capital market:
Shanghai Port is the world's busiest container port
Lujiazui at night, Pudong
Shanghai is the commercial and financial center of China, and ranks
13th in the 2017 edition of the
Global Financial Centres Index (and
fourth most competitive in Asia after Singapore, Hong Kong, and Tokyo)
published by the
Z/Yen Group and
Qatar Financial Centre
Qatar Financial Centre Authority.
It also ranks the most expensive city to live in Mainland China,
according to the study of
Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit in 2017. It
was the largest and most prosperous city in
East Asia during the
1930s, and rapid re-development began in the 1990s. This is
exemplified by the
Pudong District, a former swampland reclaimed to
serve as a pilot area for integrated economic reforms. By the end of
2009, there were 787 financial institutions, of which 170 were
foreign-invested. In 2009, the
Shanghai Stock Exchange
Shanghai Stock Exchange ranked
third among worldwide stock exchanges in terms of trading volume and
sixth in terms of the total capitalization of listed companies, and
the trading volume of six key commodities including rubber, copper and
zinc on the
Shanghai Futures Exchange all ranked first in the
world. In September 2013, with the backing of
Chinese Premier Li
Keqiang the city launched the
China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade
Zone-the first free-trade zone in mainland China. The Zone introduced
a number of pilot reforms designed to create a preferential
environment for foreign investment. In April 2014,
The Banker reported
Shanghai "has attracted the highest volumes of financial sector
foreign direct investment in the
Asia-Pacific region in the 12 months
to the end of January 2014". In August 2014,
Shanghai was named
FDi magazine's Chinese Province of the Future 2014/15 due to
"particularly impressive performances in the Business Friendliness and
Connectivity categories, as well as placing second in the Economic
Potential and Human Capital and Lifestyle categories".
In the last two decades
Shanghai has been one of the fastest
developing cities in the world. Since 1992
Shanghai has recorded
double-digit growth almost every year except during the global
recession of 2008 and 2009. In 2011, Shanghai's total GDP grew to
1.92 trillion yuan (US$297 billion) with GDP per capita of
82,560 yuan (US $12,784). The three largest service industries are
financial services, retail, and real estate. The manufacturing and
agricultural sectors accounted for 39.9 percent and 0.7 percent of the
total output respectively. Average annual disposable income of
Shanghai residents, based on the first three quarters of 2009, was
Located at the heart of the
Yangtze River Delta,
Shanghai has the
world's busiest container port, which handled 29.05 million TEUs
Shanghai aims to be an international shipping center in
the near future.
Shanghai is one of the main industrial centers of China, playing a key
role in China's heavy industries. A large number of industrial zones,
Shanghai Hongqiao Economic and Technological Development
Zone, Jinqiao Export Economic Processing Zone, Minhang Economic and
Technological Development Zone, and
Shanghai Caohejing High-Tech
Development Zone, are backbones of Shanghai's secondary industry.
Heavy industries accounted for 78% of the gross industrial output in
2009. China's largest steelmaker Baosteel Group, China's largest
shipbuilding base – Hudong-Zhonghua
Shipbuilding Group, and the
Jiangnan Shipyard, one of China's oldest shipbuilders are all located
in Shanghai. Auto manufacture is another important industry.
SAIC Motor is one of the three largest automotive
corporations in China, and has strategic partnerships with Volkswagen
and General Motors.
The conference and meeting sector is also growing. In 2012, the city
hosted 780 international gatherings, up from 754 in 2011. The high
supply of hotel rooms has kept room rates lower than expected, with
the average room rate for four- and five-star hotels in 2012 at just
As of September 2013,
Shanghai is also home to the largest free-trade
zone in mainland China, the
China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone.
The zone covers an area of 29 km2 and integrates four existing
bonded zones — Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, Waigaoqiao Free Trade
Logistics Park, Yangshan Free Trade Port Area and
Comprehensive Free Trade Zone. Several preferential policies have been
implemented to attract foreign investment in various industries to the
FTZ. Because the Zone is not technically considered PRC territory for
tax purposes, commodities entering the zone are not subject to duty
and customs clearance as would otherwise be the case.
Main article: Demographics of Shanghai
Population size may be affected by changes to administrative
The 2010 census put Shanghai's total population at 23,019,148, a
growth of 37.53% from 16,737,734 in 2000. 20.6 million of the
total population, or 89.3%, are urban, and 2.5 million (10.7％) are
rural. Based on the population of its total administrative area,
Shanghai is the second largest of the four direct-controlled
municipalities of China, behind Chongqing, but is generally considered
the largest Chinese city because Chongqing's urban population is much
Shanghai also has 150,000 officially registered foreigners, including
31,500 Japanese, 21,000 Americans and 20,700 Koreans, but the real
number of foreign citizens in the city is probably much higher.
Shanghai is also a domestic immigration city, which means a huge
population of citizens come from other cities in China.
The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as
of 2010[update], a population of 34 million.
Non religious or traditional faiths (86.9%)
Due to its cosmopolitan history,
Shanghai has a blend of religious
heritage as shown by the religious buildings and institutions still
scattered around the city. According to a 2012 survey only around
13% of the population of
Shanghai belongs to organised religions, the
largest groups being Buddhists with 10.4%, followed by Protestants
with 1.9%, Catholics with 0.7% and other faiths with 0.1%. Around 87%
of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of
nature deities and ancestors, Confucian churches,
Taoism and folk
There are folk religious temples such as a Temple of the
Chenghuangshen (City God), at the heart of the old city, and a temple
dedicated to the
Three Kingdoms general Guan Yu. The White Cloud
Shanghai is an important Taoist centre in the city. The
Wenmiao (Temple of the God of Culture) is dedicated to Confucius.
Buddhism, in its Chinese varieties, has had a presence in Shanghai
since ancient times. The Longhua Temple, the largest temple in
Shanghai, and the Jing'an Temple, were first founded in the Three
Kingdoms period. Another important temple is the
Jade Buddha Temple,
which is named after a large statue of Buddha carved out of jade in
the temple. In recent decades, dozens of modern temples have been
built throughout the city.
Islam came into
Shanghai 700 years ago and a mosque was built in 1295
in Songjiang. In 1843, a teachers' college was also set up. The
Shanghai Muslim Association is located in the
Xiaotaoyuan Mosque in
Shanghai has one of the largest proportions of Catholics in China
(2003). Among Catholic churches, St Ignatius Cathedral in Xujiahui
is one of the largest, while
She Shan Basilica
She Shan Basilica is an active pilgrimage
Other forms of
Christianity in Shanghai include Eastern Orthodox
minorities and, since 1996, registered Christian Protestant churches.
During World War II thousands of Jews descended upon
Shanghai in an
effort to flee Hitler's regime. The Jews lived side-by-side in a
designated area called
Shanghai Ghetto and formed a vibrant community
centered on the Ohel Moishe Synagogue, which is preserved remnant
of this portion of Shanghai's complex religious past.
See also: List of universities and colleges in Shanghai
University City District in Songjiang
Shanghai ranked first in the 2009 and 2012 Program for International
Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide study of academic performance
of 15-year-old students conducted by the OECD.
including migrant children, scored highest in every aspect (math,
reading and science) in the world. The study concludes that
public-funded schools in
Shanghai have the highest educational quality
in the world. Critics of PISA results counter that, in
Shanghai and other Chinese cities, most children of migrant workers
can only attend city schools up to the ninth grade, and must return to
their parents' hometowns for high school due to hukou restrictions,
thus skewing the composition of the city's high school students in
favor of wealthier local families.
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Shanghai Jiao Tong University Library
Shanghai is the first city in the country to implement 9-year
mandatory education. The 2010 census shows that out of Shanghai's
total population, 22.0% had a college education, double the level from
2000, while 21.0% had high school, 36.5% middle school, and 1.35%
primary school education. 2.74% of residents age 15 and older were
Shanghai has more than 930 kindergartens, 1,200 primary and 850 middle
schools. Over 760,000 middle schools students and 871,000 primary
school students are taught by 76,000 and 64,000 teaching staff
Shanghai is a major center of higher education in
China with over 30
universities and colleges. A number of China's most prestigious
universities are based in Shanghai, including Fudan University,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Tongji University, East
University (these universities are selected as "985 universities" by
the Chinese Government in order to build world-class universities). In
NYU Shanghai was established in
New York University
New York University in
partnership with East
China Normal University as the first Sino-US
joint venture university. In 2013 the
Shanghai Municipality and the
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chinese Academy of Sciences founded the
ShanghaiTech University in the
Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park
Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park in Pudong. This new research university is
aiming to be a first-class institution on a national and international
level. The cadre school
China Executive Leadership Academy in
Pudong is also located in Shanghai, as well as the
International Business School.
Children with foreign passports are permitted to attend any public
school in Shanghai. Prior to 2007 they were permitted to attend 150
select public schools. In 2006 about 2,000 non-Chinese nationals under
18 years of age attended
Shanghai public schools. Students with
Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi (HSK) above 3 or 4 may attend public schools
Mandarin Chinese as the medium of instruction, while students
below HSK 3–4 may attend international divisions of public schools
or private international schools.
Shanghai has the largest number of international schools of any city
in China. In November 2015 Christopher Cottrell of the Global Times
Shanghai "prides itself on its international schools".
Main article: Public transport in Shanghai
The Maglev with a top speed of 431 km/h (268 mph) exiting
Pudong International Airport
Shanghai has an extensive public transport system, largely based on
metros, buses and taxis. Payment of all these public transportation
tools can be made by using the
Shanghai Public Transportation Card.
Shanghai's rapid transit system, the
Shanghai Metro, incorporates both
subway and light metro lines and extends to every core urban district
as well as neighboring suburban districts. As of 2017[update], there
are 16 metro lines (excluding the
Shanghai Maglev Train
Shanghai Maglev Train and Jinshan
Railway), 395 stations and 673 km (418 mi) of lines in
operation, making it the longest network in the world. On 31
December 2016, it set a record of daily ridership of 11.7
million. The fare depends on the length of travel distance
starting from 3 RMB.
Shanghai reintroduced trams, this time as a modern rubber
tyred Translohr system, in Zhangjiang area of East
Zhangjiang Tram. A separate conventional tram system being constructed
in Songjiang District. Additional tram lines are under study in
Subdistrict and Jiading District.
Shanghai also has the world's most extensive network of urban bus
routes, with nearly one thousand bus lines, operated by numerous
transportation companies. The system includes the world's oldest
continuously operating trolleybus system.
Bus fare normally costs 2
A typical VW Touran Taxi in Shanghai
Taxis are plentiful in Shanghai. The base fare is currently
¥14(sedan)/¥16(MPV) (inclusive of a ¥1 fuel surcharge; ¥18 between
11:00 pm and 5:00 am) which covers the first 3 km
(2 mi). Additional km cost ¥2.4 each (¥3.2 between
11:00 pm and 5:00 am).
See also: Expressways of Shanghai
Shanghai is a major hub of China's expressway network. Many national
expressways (prefixed with G) pass through or terminate in Shanghai,
G2 Beijing–Shanghai Expressway (overlapping G42
Shanghai–Chengdu), G15 Shenyang–Haikou, G40 Shanghai–Xi'an, G50
Shanghai–Chongqing, G60 Shanghai–
Kunming (overlapping G92
Shanghai–Ningbo), and G1501
Shanghai Ring Expressway. In addition,
there are also numerous municipal expressways prefixed with S (S1, S2,
Shanghai has one bridge-tunnel crossing spanning the mouth
Yangtze to the north of the city.
In the city center, there are several elevated expressways to lessen
traffic pressure on surface streets, but the growth car use has made
demand far outstrip capacity, with heavy congestion being commonplace.
There are bicycle lanes separate from car traffic on many surface
streets, but bicycles and motorcycles are banned from many main roads
including the elevated expressways. Recently, cycling has seen a
resurgence in popularity thanks to the emergence of a large number of
dockless app based bikeshares such as Mobike,
Bluegogo and Ofo.
Private car ownership in
Shanghai has been rapidly increasing in
recent years, but a new private car cannot be driven until the owner
buys a license in the monthly private car license plate auction.
Around 11,500 license plates are auctioned each month and the average
price is about 84,000 RMB ($12,758). According to the municipal
regulation in 2016, only those who are
Shanghai registered residents
or have paid social insurance or individual incomer tax for over 3
years in a row. The purpose of this policy is to limit the growth of
automobile traffic and to alleviate congestion.
The lobby of
Shanghai South Railway Station
Shanghai has four major railway stations:
Shanghai Railway Station,
Shanghai South Railway Station,
Shanghai West Railway Station, and
Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station. All are connected to the metro
network and serve as hubs in the railway network of China. Two main
railways terminate in Shanghai:
Jinghu Railway from Beijing, and
Huhang Railway from Hangzhou. Hongqiao Station also serves as the main
Shanghai terminus of three high-speed rail lines: the
Hangzhou High-Speed Railway, the Shanghai–Nanjing
High-Speed Railway, and the Beijing–
Shanghai High-Speed Railway.
Pudong International Airport terminal at night
Shanghai is one of the leading air transport gateways in Asia. The
city has two commercial airports:
Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport. Pudong
Airport is the main international airport, while Hongqiao Airport
mainly operates domestic flights with limited short-haul international
flights. In 2010 the two airports served 71.7 million passengers
Pudong 40.4 million, Hongqiao 31.3 million), and handled
3.7 million tons of cargo (
Pudong 3.22 million tons,
Hongqiao 480 thousand tons).
Major National Historical and Cultural Sites (Shanghai)
Major National Historical and Cultural Sites (Shanghai) and
List of tallest buildings in Shanghai
Renovated shikumen lanes in Xintiandi, now a high-end restaurant and
Paramount, a historical dancehall.
Art Deco structure, built
Shanghai Exhibition Centre, an example of Soviet neoclassical
architecture in Shanghai
Site of the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China, a
typical shikumen building in the former French Concession.
Shanghai has a rich collection of buildings and structures of various
architectural styles. The Bund, located by the bank of the Huangpu
River, is home to a row of early 20th-century architecture, ranging in
style from the neoclassical HSBC Building to the art deco Sassoon
House. Many areas in the former foreign concessions are also
well-preserved, the most notable being the French Concession. Shanghai
has one of the world's largest number of
Art Deco buildings as a
result of the construction boom during the 1920s and 1930s. One of the
most famous architects working in
Shanghai was László Hudec, a
Hungarian-Slovak architect who lived in the city between 1918 and
1947. Some of his most notable
Art Deco buildings include the Park
Hotel and the Grand Theater. Other prominent architects who
contributed to the
Art Deco style are Parker & Palmer, who
designed the Peace Hotel, Metropole Hotel, and the Broadway Mansions,
and Austrian architect GH Gonda, who designed the Capital Theatre. The
Bund's first revitalization started in 1986, with a new promenade by
the Dutch Architect Paulus Snoeren, and was completed in the
Shanghai World Financial Center
Shanghai World Financial Center (left) and
Jin Mao Tower
Jin Mao Tower (right)
In recent years, a great deal of architecturally distinctive and even
eccentric buildings have sprung up throughout Shanghai. Notable
examples of contemporary architecture include the
Shanghai Grand Theatre
Shanghai Grand Theatre in the
People's Square precinct, and the
Shanghai Oriental Art Center. Despite rampant redevelopment, the old
city still retains some traditional architecture and designs, such as
the Yuyuan Garden, an elaborate traditional garden in the Jiangnan
Shanghainese cultural element is the shikumen (石库门)
residences, which are two- or three-story townhouses, with the front
yard protected by a high brick wall. Each residence is connected and
arranged in straight alleys, known as a longtang (弄堂), pronounced
longdang in Shanghainese. The entrance to each alley is usually
surmounted by a stylistic stone arch. The whole resembles terrace
houses or townhouses commonly seen in Anglo-American countries, but
distinguished by the tall, heavy brick wall in front of each house.
The name "shikumen" means "stone storage door", referring to the
strong gateway to each house.
The shikumen is a cultural blend of elements found in Western
architecture with traditional Lower
Yangtze (Jiangnan) Chinese
architecture and social behavior. All traditional Chinese dwellings
had a courtyard, and the shikumen was no exception. Yet, to compromise
with its urban nature, it was much smaller and provided an "interior
haven" to the commotions in the streets, allowing for raindrops to
fall and vegetation to grow freely within a residence. The courtyard
also allowed sunlight and adequate ventilation into the rooms.
Less than Beijing, the city also has some examples of Soviet
neoclassical architecture or Stalinist architecture. These buildings
were mostly erected during the period from the founding of the
People's Republic in 1949 until the
Sino-Soviet Split in the late
1960s. During this decade, large numbers of Soviet experts, including
architects, poured into
China to aid the country in the construction
of a communist state. Examples of Soviet neoclassical architecture in
Shanghai include what is today the
Shanghai Exhibition Centre.
Pudong district of
Shanghai is home to a number of skyscrapers,
many of which rank among the tallest in the world. Among the most
prominent examples are the
Jin Mao Tower
Jin Mao Tower and the taller
Financial Center, which at 492 metres (1,614 ft) tall is the
third tallest skyscraper in mainland
China and ranks tenth in the
Shanghai Tower, completed in 2015, is the tallest building
in China, as well as the second tallest in the world. With a
height of 632 metres (2,073 ft), the building has 128 floors and
a total floor area of 380,000 square metres
(4,100,000 sq ft) above ground. The distinctive
Oriental Pearl Tower, at 468 metres (1,535 ft), is located
nearby, as is One Lujiazui, standing at 269 metres (883 ft).
Parks and resorts
People's Square seen from Urban Planning Exhibition Center
Enchanted Storybook Castle of
The extensive public park system in
Shanghai offers the citizens some
reprieve from the urban jungle. By the year 2012, the city had 157
parks, with 138 of them free of charge. Some of the parks, aside
from offering a green public space to locals, became popular tourist
attractions due to their unique location, history or architecture. The
former racetrack turned central park,
People's Square park, located in
the heart of downtown Shanghai, is especially well known for its
proximity to other major landmarks in the city. Fuxing Park, located
in the former French Concession of Shanghai, features formal
French-style gardens and is surrounded by high end bars and cafes.
Zhongshan Park in northwestern central
Shanghai is famous for its
monument of Chopin, the tallest statue dedicated to the composer in
the world. Built in 1914 as Jessfield Park, it once contained the
campus of St. John's University, Shanghai's first international
college; today, it is known for its extensive rose and peony gardens,
a large children's play area, and as the location of an important
transfer station on the city's metro system.
Shanghai Botanical Garden
is located 12 km (7 mi) southwest of the city center and was
established in 1978. One of the newest parks is in the
Xujiahui Park, built in 1999 on the former grounds of the Great
Chinese Rubber Works Factory and the EMI Recording Studio (now La
Villa Rouge restaurant). The park has a man-made lake with a sky
bridge running across the park, and offers a pleasant respite for
Xujiahui shoppers. Other well-known
Shanghai parks include: People's
Square Park, Gongqing Forest Park, Fuxing Park,
Zhongshan Park, Lu Xun
Park, Century Park, and Jing'an Park.
Shanghai Disney Resort
Shanghai Disney Resort Project was approved by the government on 4
November 2009, and opened in 2016. The $4.4 billion
theme park and resort in
Pudong features a castle that is the biggest
among Disney's resorts.
Public awareness of the environment is growing, and the city is
investing in a number of environmental protection projects. A 10-year,
US$1 billion cleanup of
Suzhou Creek, which runs through the
city-center, was expected to be finished in 2008, and the
government also provides incentives for transportation companies to
invest in LPG buses and taxis. Additionally, the government has moved
almost all the factories within the city center to either the
outskirts or other provinces in the recent decades.
Air pollution and government reaction
Huangpu District during the 2013 Eastern
Air pollution in
Shanghai is low compared to other Chinese cities, but
still substantial by world standards. During the December 2013
China smog, air pollution rates reached between 23 and 31
times the international standard. On 6 December 2013, levels
of PM2.5 particulate matter in
Shanghai rose above 600 micrograms per
cubic meter and in the surrounding area, above 700 micrograms per
cubic metre. Levels of PM2.5 in Putuo District reached 726
micrograms per cubic meter. As a result, the Shanghai
Municipal Education Commission received orders to suspend students'
outdoor activities. Authorities pulled nearly one-third of government
vehicles from the roads, while a mass of construction work was halted.
Most of inbound flights were cancelled, and more than 50 flights were
Pudong International Airport.
On 23 January 2014, Yang Xiong, the mayor of
announced that three main measures would be taken to manage the air
pollution in Shanghai, along with surrounding Anhui,
Zhejiang provinces. The measures involved delivery of the 2013
air cleaning program, linkage mechanism with the three surrounding
provinces and improvement of the ability of early warning of emergency
situation. On 12 February 2014, China's cabinet announced that a
10-billion-renminbi (US$1.7-billion) fund will be set up to help
companies to meet new environmental standards.
Mercedes-Benz Arena, previously known as the Expo Cultural Center
during the World Expo in 2010.
Main article: Haipai
See also: Wuyue culture
Shanghai is sometimes considered a center of innovation and progress
in China. It was in Shanghai, for example, that the first motor car
was driven and (technically) the first train tracks and modern sewers
were laid. It was also the intellectual battleground between socialist
writers who concentrated on critical realism, which was pioneered by
Lu Xun, Mao Dun,
Nien Cheng and the famous French novel by André
Malraux, Man's Fate, and the more "bourgeois", more romantic and
aesthetically inclined writers, such as Shi Zhecun, Shao Xunmei, Ye
Lingfeng and Eileen Chang.
In the past years
Shanghai has been widely recognized as a new
influence and inspiration for cyberpunk culture. Futuristic
buildings such as the
Oriental Pearl Tower
Oriental Pearl Tower and the neon-illuminated
Yan'an Elevated Road
Yan'an Elevated Road are a few examples that have helped to boost
Shanghai's cyberpunk image.
The vernacular language spoken in the city is Shanghainese, a dialect
Taihu Wu subgroup of the
Wu Chinese family. This makes it a
different language from the official language nationwide, which is
Mandarin, itself completely mutually unintelligible with Wu Chinese.
Shanghai residents are the descendants of immigrants from the two
adjacent provinces of
Zhejiang who moved to
the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The population of those
regions speak different dialects of Wu Chinese. From the 1990s, many
migrants outside of Wu-speaking area have come to
Shanghai for work.
They often cannot speak the local language and therefore use Mandarin
as a lingua franca.
Shanghainese is based on different dialects of Taihu Wu: the
Suzhou dialect, the
Ningbo dialect, and dialects of Shanghai's
traditional areas (now lie within the Hongkou, Baoshan and Pudong
districts). The prestige dialect of
Wu Chinese is spoken within the
Shanghai prior to its modern expansion. Known as "the local
tongue" (本地話), it is influenced to a lesser extent by the
languages of other nearby regions from which large numbers of people
have migrated to
Shanghai since the 20th century, and includes a
significant number of terms borrowed from European languages. The
prevalence of Mandarin fluency is generally higher for those born
after 1949 than those born before, while the prevalence of English
fluency is higher for people who received their secondary and tertiary
education before 1949 than those who did so after 1949 and before the
1990s. On the other hand, however,
Shanghainese started to decline and
fluency amongst young speakers weakened, as Mandarin and English are
being favoured and taught over the native language. In recent years
though, there have been movements within the city to protect and
promote the local language from ever fading out.
Shanghai Museum, located on the People's Square
Cultural curation in
Shanghai has seen significant growth since 2013,
with several new museums having been opened in the city. This is
in part due to the city's most recently released city development
plans, with aims in making the city "an excellent global city".
Shanghai has several museums of regional and national
Shanghai Museum has one of the best collections
of Chinese historical artifacts in the world, including a large
collection of ancient Chinese bronzes. The
China Art Museum, located
in the former
China Pavilion of Expo 2010, is the largest art museum
Power Station of Art
Power Station of Art is built in a converted power station,
similar to London's Tate Modern. The
Shanghai Natural History Museum
Shanghai Science and Technology Museum
Shanghai Science and Technology Museum are major natural
history and science museums. In addition, there is a variety of
smaller, specialist museums housed in important archaeological and
historical sites such as the Songze Museum, the Museum of the First
National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, the site of the
Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, the former Ohel Moshe
Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum), and the General Post
Office Building (
Shanghai Postal Museum). The
Rockbund Art Museum
Rockbund Art Museum is
also in Shanghai. There are also many art galleries, concentrated in
M50 Art District
M50 Art District and Tianzifang.
Shanghai is also home to one of
China's largest aquariums, the
Shanghai Ocean Aquarium. MoCA, Museum
of Contemporary Art of Shanghai, is a private museum centrally located
in People's Park on West
Nanjing Road, and is committed to promote
contemporary art and design.
Shanghai was the birthplace of Chinese cinema and theater.
China's first short film,
The Difficult Couple (1913), and the
country's first fictional feature film, An Orphan Rescues His
Grandfather (孤儿救祖记, Gu'er Jiu Zuji, 1923) were both produced
in Shanghai. These two films were very influential, and established
Shanghai as the center of Chinese film-making. Shanghai's film
industry went on to blossom during the early 1930s, generating great
stars such as Hu Die, Ruan Lingyu, Zhou Xuan, Jin Yan, and Zhao Dan.
Another film star, Jiang Qing, went on to become Madame Mao Zedong.
The exile of
Shanghainese filmmakers and actors as a result of the
Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War and the
Communist revolution contributed
enormously to the development of the
Hong Kong film industry. Many
Shanghainese popular culture ("
Shanghainese Pops") were
Hong Kong by the numerous
Shanghainese emigrants and
refugees after the Communist Revolution. The movie In the Mood for
Love, which was directed by
Wong Kar-wai (a native Shanghainese
himself), depicts a slice of the displaced
Shanghainese community in
Hong Kong and the nostalgia for that era, featuring 1940s music
by Zhou Xuan.
十万图之四 (No. 4 of a Hundred Thousand Scenes) by Ren Xiong, a
pioneer of the
Shanghai School of Chinese art, c. 1850.
Shanghai School" was an important Chinese school of traditional
arts during the
Qing Dynasty and the 20th century. Under the masters
from this school, traditional Chinese art developed into the modern
style of "Chinese painting". The
challenged and broke the elitist tradition of Chinese art, while
also paying technical homage to the ancient masters and improving on
existing traditional techniques. Members of this school were
themselves educated literati who had come to question their very
status and the purpose of art and had anticipated the impending
modernization of Chinese society. In an era of rapid social change,
works from the
Shanghai School were widely innovative and diverse and
often contained thoughtful yet subtle social commentary. The best
known figures from this school include Qi Baishi, Ren Xiong, Ren
Bonian, Zhao Zhiqian, Wu Changshuo, Sha Menghai, Pan Tianshou, Fu
Baoshi, Xie Zhiliu, He Tianjian, and Wang Zhen. In literature, the
term was used in the 1930s by some May Fourth Movement
intellectuals – notably
Zhou Zuoren and Shen Congwen –
as a derogatory label for the literature produced in
Shanghai at the
time. They argued that
Shanghai School literature was merely
commercial and therefore did not advance social progress. This became
known as the Jingpai versus
The "Songjiang School" (淞江派) was a small painting school during
the Ming Dynasty. It is commonly considered as a further development
of the Wu or Wumen School in the then-cultural center of the region,
Suzhou. The Huating School (华亭派) was another important art
school during the middle to late Ming Dynasty. Its main achievements
were in traditional Chinese painting, calligraphy, and poetry. It was
especially famous for its Renwen painting (人文画). Dong Qichang
was one of the masters from this school.
Two women wear Shanghai-styled qipao while playing golf in this 1930s
Shanghai soap advertisement.
Shanghainese cultural artifacts include the cheongsam
(Shanghainese: zansae), a modernization of the traditional Manchurian
qipao. This contrasts sharply with the traditional qipao, which was
designed to conceal the figure and be worn regardless of age. The
cheongsam went along well with the western overcoat and the scarf, and
portrayed a unique East Asian modernity, epitomizing the Shanghainese
population in general. As Western fashions changed, the basic
cheongsam design changed, too, introducing high-neck sleeveless
dresses, bell-like sleeves, and the black lace frothing at the hem of
a ball gown. By the 1940s, cheongsams came in transparent black,
beaded bodices, matching capes and even velvet. Later, checked fabrics
became also quite common. The 1949 Communist Revolution ended the
cheongsam and other fashions in Shanghai. However, the Shanghainese
styles have seen a recent revival as stylish party dresses. The
fashion industry has been rapidly revitalizing in the past decade.
Like Shanghai's architecture, local fashion designers strive to create
a fusion of western and traditional designs, often with innovative if
In recent times
Shanghai has established its own fashion week called
Shanghai Fashion Week. It is held twice every year in October and
April. The April session is a part of
Shanghai International Fashion
Culture Festival which usually lasts for a month, while Shanghai
Fashion Week lasts for seven days, and the main venue is in Fuxing
Park, Shanghai, while the opening and closing ceremony is in Shanghai
Fashion Center. Supported by the People's Republic Ministry of
Shanghai Fashion Week is a major business and culture event
of national significance hosted by the
Shanghai Municipal Government.
Shanghai Fashion Week is aiming to build up an international and
professional platform, gathering all of the top design talents of
Asia. The event features international designers but the primary
purpose is to showcase Chinese designers. The international
presence has included many of the most promising young British fashion
In regard to foreign publications in Shanghai, Hartmut Walravens of
the IFLA Newspapers Section said that when the Japanese controlled
Shanghai in the 1940s "it was very difficult to publish good papers
– one either had to concentrate on emigration problems, or cooperate
like the Chronicle".
Oriental Sports Daily
Shanghai Review of Books
Xinmin Evening News
Wen Hui Bao
Wenhui Book Review
Newspapers formerly published in
Der Ostasiatische Lloyd
Der Ostasiatische Lloyd (German)
China Daily News
Shanghai Evening Post & Mercury
Shanghai Jewish Chronicle
Shanghai Post (German paper)
Shen Bao (
Shanghai Media Group
Chinese Grand Prix
Chinese Grand Prix in Shanghai
Shanghai Masters in Qizhong Stadium
Shanghai is home to several football teams, including two in the
Chinese Super League
Chinese Super League –
Shanghai Greenland Shenhua and
Another professional team,
Shanghai Shenxin, is currently in China
League One. China's top tier basketball team, the
Shanghai Sharks of
the Chinese Basketball Association, developed
Yao Ming before he
entered the NBA.
Shanghai also has an ice hockey team,
and a baseball team, the
Shanghai Golden Eagles, which plays in the
China Baseball League.
Shanghai is the hometown of many outstanding and well-known Chinese
professional athletes, such as Yao Ming, the 110-meter hurdler Liu
Xiang, the table-tennis player
Wang Liqin and the former world women's
single champion and current Olympic silver medalist badminton player
Beginning in 2004,
Shanghai started hosting the Chinese Grand Prix,
one round of the Formula One World Championship. The race was staged
Shanghai International Circuit. In 2010,
Shanghai also became
the host city of German Touring Car Masters (DTM), which raced in a
street circuit in Pudong.
Shanghai also holds the
Shanghai Masters tennis tournament which is
part of ATP World Tour Masters 1000, and the
BMW Masters and WGC-HSBC
Champions golf tournaments.
Shanghai Cricket Club
Shanghai Cricket Club is a cricket club based in Shanghai. The
club dates back to 1858 when the first recorded cricket match was
played between a team of British Naval officers and a
Following a 45-year dormancy after the founding of the People's
China in 1949, the club was re-established in 1994 by
expatriates living in the city and has since grown to over 300
Shanghai cricket team was a cricket team that played
various international matches between 1866 and 1948. With cricket in
the rest of
China almost non-existent, for that period they were the
de facto Chinese national side.
On 21 September 2017,
Shanghai will be one of two cities to host an
National Hockey League
National Hockey League (NHL) ice hockey exhibition game that will
Los Angeles Kings
Los Angeles Kings vs. the
Vancouver Canucks as an effort
to garner fan interest in
China before the start of the 2017–18
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in China
Shanghai is twinned with:
Japan – since 1973
Japan – 1974
Italy – 1979
Netherlands – 1979
United States – 1979
Japan – 1980
Croatia – 1980
North Korea – 1982
Philippines – 1983
Belgium – 1984
Pakistan – 1984
United States – 1985
Canada – 1985
Greece – 1985
Poland – 1985
Japan – 1986
Germany – 1986
Morocco – 1986
Sweden – 1986
France – 1987
Brazil – 1988
Russia – 1988
Turkey – 1989
Ho Chi Minh City,
Vietnam – 1990
Egypt – 1992
South Korea – 1993
Vanuatu – 1994
New Zealand – 1994
Israel – 1994
Uzbekistan – 1994
Portugal – 1995
Prague, Czech Republic
Yemen – 1995
Namibia – 1995
City of London,
United Kingdom – 1996
Santiago de Cuba,
Cuba – 1996
Argentina – 1997
Finland – 1998
Mexico – 1998
United Kingdom – 1999
Mozambique – 1999
United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates – 2000
Thailand – 2000
South Africa – 2001
Ecuador – 2001
Chile – 2001
Spain – 2001
Norway – 2001
Romania – 2002
Algeria – 2003
Sri Lanka – 2003
Denmark – 2003
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New Zealand – 2003
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Cyprus – 2004
Ireland – 2005
United States – 2006
United States – 2007
Switzerland – 2007
Sweden – 2007
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina – 2008
United Kingdom – 2009
Brazil – 2009
Cambodia – 2009
Finland – 2012
Hungary – 2013
Bulgaria – 2014
India – 2014
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Thailand – 2014
United States – 2015
List of attractions in Shanghai
List of cities with most skyscrapers
List of economic and technological development zones in Shanghai
List of fiction set in Shanghai
List of films set in Shanghai
List of universities and colleges in Shanghai
Shanghai Detention Center
Shanghai International Football Tournament
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