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Bohemia
Coordinates: 50°N 15°E / 50°N 15°E / 50; 15This article needs additional citations for verification
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Italian Language
Italian ( italiano (help·info) [itaˈljaːno] or lingua italiana [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna]) is a Romance language. Italian is by most measures, together with the Sardinian language, the closest tongue to vulgar Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages.[7] Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City
Vatican City
and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia). It used to have official status in Albania, Malta
Malta
and Monaco, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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German Language
German (Deutsch, [dɔʏtʃ] (listen)) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol
South Tyrol
in Italy, the German-speaking Community
German-speaking Community
of Belgium
Belgium
and Liechtenstein. It is one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship
Opole Voivodeship
in Poland. The languages that are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch, including Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium.[4] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language in Italy, and subsequently throughout the western Roman Empire. Latin
Latin
has contributed many words to the English language. In particular, Latin
Latin
(and Ancient Greek) roots are used in English descriptions of theology, the sciences, medicine, and law. By the late Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(75 BC), Old Latin
Old Latin
had been standardised into Classical Latin
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Central European Summer Time
Central European Summer Time
European Summer Time
(CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time
Central European Time
(UTC+01:00) during the other part of the year
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Daylight Saving Time
Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time
(DST), also daylight savings time or daylight time (United States) and summer time (United Kingdom, European Union, and others), is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn.[1] In effect, DST causes a lost hour of sleep in the spring and an extra hour of sleep in the fall.[2][3] George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895.[4] The German Empire
German Empire
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
organized the first nationwide implementation starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the 1970s energy crisis
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Central European Time
Central European Time
Central European Time
(CET), used in most parts of Europe
Europe
and a few North African
North African
countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC). The time offset from UTC
UTC
can be written as UTC+01:00
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Time Zone
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes. Time
Time
zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time
Time
(UTC) by a whole number of hours (UTC−12:00 to UTC+14:00), but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes (e.g. Newfoundland
Newfoundland
Standard Time
Time
is UTC−03:30, Nepal
Nepal
Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:45, and Indian Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:30). Some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year, typically by adjusting local clock time by an hour
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Capital City
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place. Capital cities that are also the prime economic, cultural, or intellectual centres of a nation or an empire are sometimes referred to as primate cities
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Czech Socialist Republic
The Czech Socialist Republic
Czech Socialist Republic
(Česká socialistická republika in Czech; abbreviated ČSR) was a republic within the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic that is now the independent Czech Republic. The name was used from 1 January 1969 to March 1990.History[edit] After the occupation of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in 1968, liberalisation reforms were stopped and reverted. The only exception was the federalization of the country. The former centralist state Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was divided in two parts: the Czech Socialist Republic
Czech Socialist Republic
and the Slovak Socialist Republic by the Constitutional Law of Federation
Constitutional Law of Federation
of 28 October 1968, which went into effect on 1 January 1969
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Historical Region
Historical regions (or historical countries) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural, ethnic, linguistic or political basis, regardless of present-day borders. They are used as delimitations for studying and analysing social development of period-specific cultures without any reference to contemporary political, economic or social organisations.[1]The fundamental principle underlying this view is that older political and mental structures exist which exercise greater influence on the spatial-social identity of individuals than is understood by the contemporary world, bound to and often blinded by its own worldview - e.g. the focus on the nation-state.[2]Definitions of regions vary,[3] and regions can include macroregions such as Europe, territories of traditional states or smaller microregional areas
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List Of Sovereign States
The following is a list providing an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty. The 206 listed states can be divided into three categories based on membership within the United Nations
United Nations
system: 193 member states,[1] two observer states and 11 other states. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (190 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (16 states, of which there are six member states, one observer state and nine other states). Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below
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European Union
The European Union
European Union
(EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe.[11] Its members have a combined area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) and an estimated total population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one
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