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The Sudetenland
Sudetenland
(/suːˈdeɪtənlænd/ ( listen); German: [zuˈdeːtn̩ˌlant]; Czech and Slovak: Sudety; Polish: Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans. These German speakers had predominated in the border districts of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia
Czech Silesia
from the time of the Austrian Empire. The word "Sudetenland" did not come into existence until the early 20th century and did not come to prominence until after the First World War, when the German-dominated Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
was dismembered and the Sudeten Germans
Sudeten Germans
found themselves living in the new country of Czechoslovakia. The Sudeten crisis of 1938 was provoked by the Pan-Germanist
Pan-Germanist
demands of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
that the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
be annexed to Germany, which in fact took place after the later infamous Munich Agreement. When Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was reconstituted after the Second World War, the Sudeten Germans
Sudeten Germans
were largely expelled, and the region today is inhabited almost exclusively by Czech speakers. Sudetenland
Sudetenland
is a compound word where land means "country" and Sudeten is the German name of the Sudetes
Sudetes
mountains, which run along the northern Czech border and Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
(now in Poland), although the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
encompassed areas well beyond those mountains. Parts of the current Czech regions of Karlovy Vary, Liberec, Olomouc, Moravia-Silesia, and Ústí nad Labem
Ústí nad Labem
are situated within the former Sudetenland.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early origins 1.2 Emergence of the term 1.3 World War I
World War I
and its aftermath 1.4 Within the Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938) 1.5 Sudeten Crisis 1.6 Sudetenland
Sudetenland
as part of Nazi Germany 1.7 Expulsions and resettlement after World War II

2 See also 3 References

History[edit] The areas later known as the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
never formed a single historical region, which makes it difficult to distinguish the history of the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
apart from that of Bohemia, until the advent of nationalism in the 19th century. Early origins[edit] The Celtic and Boii
Boii
tribes settled there and the region was first mentioned on the map of Ptolemaios in the 2nd century AD. The Germanic tribe of the Marcomanni
Marcomanni
dominated the entire core of the region in later centuries. Those tribes already built cities like Brno, but moved west during the Migration Period. In the 7th century AD Slavic people moved in and were united under Samo's realm. Later in the High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
Germans
Germans
settled into the less populated border region. In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the regions situated on the mountainous border of the Duchy and the Kingdom of Bohemia
Bohemia
had since the Migration Period been settled mainly by western Slavic Czechs. Along the Bohemian Forest in the west, the Czech lands
Czech lands
bordered on the German Slavic tribes (German Sorbs) stem duchies of Bavaria and Franconia; marches of the medieval German kingdom had also been established in the adjacent Austrian lands south of the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands
Bohemian-Moravian Highlands
and the northern Meissen region beyond the Ore Mountains. In the course of the Ostsiedlung
Ostsiedlung
(settlement of the east) German settlement from the 13th century onwards continued to move into the Upper Lusatia
Upper Lusatia
region and the duchies of Silesia
Silesia
north of the Sudetes
Sudetes
mountain range. From as early as the second half of the 13th century onwards these Bohemian border regions were settled by ethnic Germans, who were invited by the Přemyslid Bohemian kings — especially by Ottokar II (1253–1278) and Wenceslaus II (1278–1305). After the extinction of the Přemyslid dynasty
Přemyslid dynasty
in 1306, the Bohemian nobility backed John of Luxembourg as king against his rival Duke Henry of Carinthia. In 1322 King John of Bohemia
Bohemia
acquired (for the third time) the formerly Imperial Egerland
Egerland
region in the west and was able to vassalize most of the Piast Silesian duchies, acknowledged by King Casimir III of Poland by the 1335 Treaty of Trentschin. His son, Bohemian King Charles IV, was elected King of the Romans
King of the Romans
in 1346 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1355. He added the Lusatias to the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, which then comprised large territories with a significant German population. In the hilly border regions German settlers established major manufactures of forest glass. The situation of the German population was aggravated by the Hussite Wars
Hussite Wars
(1419–1434), though there were also some Germans
Germans
among the Hussite
Hussite
insurgents. By then Germans
Germans
largely settled the hilly Bohemian border regions as well as the cities of the lowlands; mainly people of Bavarian descent in the South Bohemian and South Moravian Region, in Brno, Jihlava, České Budějovice
České Budějovice
and the West Bohemian Plzeň Region; Franconian people in Žatec; Upper Saxons in adjacent North Bohemia, where the border with the Saxon Electorate was fixed by the 1459 Peace of Eger; Germanic Silesians
Silesians
in the adjacent Sudetes
Sudetes
region with the County of Kladsko, in the Moravian–Silesian Region, in Svitavy
Svitavy
and Olomouc. The city of Prague
Prague
had a German-speaking majority from the last third of the 17th century until 1860, but after 1910 the proportion of German speakers had decreased to 6.7% of the population. From the Luxembourgs, the rule over Bohemia
Bohemia
passed through George of Podiebrad to the Jagiellon dynasty
Jagiellon dynasty
and finally to the House of Habsburg in 1526. Both Czech and German Bohemians suffered heavily in the Thirty Years War. Bohemia
Bohemia
lost 70% of its population. From the defeat of the Bohemian Revolt that collapsed at the 1620 Battle of White Mountain, the Habsburgs gradually integrated the Kingdom of Bohemia
Bohemia
into their monarchy. During the subsequent Counter-Reformation, less populated areas were resettled with Catholic Germans
Germans
from the Austrian lands. From 1627 the Habsburgs enforced the so-called Verneuerte Landesordnung ("Renewed Land's Constitution") and one of its consequences was that German according to mother tongue gradually became the primary and official language while Czech declined to a secondary role in the Empire. Also in 1749 Austrian Empire enforced German as the official language again. Emperor Joseph II in 1780 renounced the coronation ceremony as Bohemian king and unsuccessfully tried to push German through as sole official language in all Habsburg lands (including Hungary). Nevertheless, German cultural influence grew stronger during the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
and Weimar Classicism. On the other hand, in the course of the Romanticism
Romanticism
movement national tensions arose, both in the form of the Austroslavism
Austroslavism
ideology developed by Czech politicians like František Palacký
František Palacký
and Pan-Germanist
Pan-Germanist
activist raising the German question. Conflicts between Czech and German nationalists emerged in the 19th century, for instance in the Revolutions of 1848: while the German-speaking population of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia
Moravia
wanted to participate in the building of a German nation state, the Czech-speaking population insisted on keeping Bohemia
Bohemia
out of such plans. The Bohemian Kingdom remained a part of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
until its dismemberment after the First World War. Emergence of the term[edit]

Ethnic distribution in Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in 1911: regions with a German majority are depicted in pink, those with Czech majorities in blue.

In the wake of growing nationalism, the name "Sudetendeutsche" (Sudeten Germans) emerged by the early 20th century. It originally constituted part of a larger classification of three groupings of Germans
Germans
within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which also included "Alpine Deutschen" (English: Alpine Germans) in what later became the Republic of Austria
Austria
and "Balkandeutsche" (English: Balkan Germans) in Hungary and the regions east of it. Of these three terms, only the term "Sudetendeutsche" survived, because of the ethnic and cultural conflicts within Bohemia. World War I
World War I
and its aftermath[edit] During World War I, what would later be known as the Sudetenland experienced a rate of war deaths higher than most other German-speaking areas of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and exceeded only by German South Moravia
Moravia
and Carinthia. Thirty-four of each 1,000 inhabitants were killed.[1] Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
broke apart at the end of World War I. Late in October 1918, an independent Czechoslovak state, consisting of the lands of the Bohemian kingdom and areas belonging to the Kingdom of Hungary, was proclaimed. The German deputies of Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia in the Imperial Council (Reichsrat) referred to the Fourteen Points
Fourteen Points
of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
and the right proposed therein to self-determination, and attempted to negotiate the union of the German-speaking territories with the new Republic of German Austria, which itself aimed at joining Weimar Germany. The German-speaking parts of the former Lands of the Bohemian Crown remained in a newly created Czechoslovakia, a multi-ethnic state of several nations: Czechs, Germans, Slovaks, Hungarians, Poles
Poles
and Ruthenians. On 20 September 1918, the Prague
Prague
government asked the United States's opinion for the Sudetenland. President Woodrow Wilson sent Ambassador Archibald Coolidge
Archibald Coolidge
into Czechoslovakia. After Coolidge became witness of German Bohemian
German Bohemian
demonstrations,[2] Coolidge suggested the possibility of ceding certain German-speaking parts of Bohemia
Bohemia
to Germany
Germany
(Cheb) and Austria
Austria
(South Moravia
Moravia
and South Bohemia).[citation needed] He also insisted that the German-inhabited regions of West and North Bohemia
Bohemia
remain within Czechoslovakia. The American delegation at the Paris talks, with Allen Dulles as the American's chief diplomat in the Czechoslovak Commission who emphasized preserving the unity of the Czech lands, decided not to follow Coolidge's proposal.[3] Four regional governmental units were established:

Province of German Bohemia
Bohemia
(Provinz Deutschböhmen), the regions of northern and western Bohemia; proclaimed a constitutive state (Land) of the German-Austrian Republic with Reichenberg (Liberec) as capital, administered by a Landeshauptmann
Landeshauptmann
(state captain), consecutively: Rafael Pacher (1857–1936), 29 October – 6 November 1918, and Rudolf Ritter von Lodgman von Auen (1877–1962), 6 November – 16 December 1918 (the last principal city was conquered by the Czech army but he continued in exile, first at Zittau in Saxony and then in Vienna, until 24 September 1919). Province of the Sudetenland
Province of the Sudetenland
(Provinz Sudetenland), the regions of northern Moravia
Moravia
and Austrian Silesia; proclaimed a constituent state of the German-Austrian Republic with Troppau (Opava) as capital, governed by a Landeshauptmann: Robert Freissler (1877–1950), 30 October – 18 December 1918. This province's boundaries do not correspond to what would later be called the Sudetenland, which contained all the German-speaking parts of the Czech lands. Bohemian Forest
Bohemian Forest
Region (Böhmerwaldgau), the region of Bohemian Forest/South Bohemia; proclaimed a district (Kreis) of the existing Austrian Land of Upper Austria; administered by Kreishauptmann (district captain): Friedrich Wichtl (1872–1922) from 30 October 1918. German South Moravia
Moravia
(Deutschsüdmähren), proclaimed a District (Kreis) of the existing Austrian land Lower Austria, administered by a Kreishauptmann: Oskar Teufel (1880–1946) from 30 October 1918.

The U.S. commission to the Paris Peace Conference issued a declaration which gave unanimous support for "unity of Czech lands".[4] In particular the declaration stated:

The Commission was...unanimous in its recommendation that the separation of all areas inhabited by the German-Bohemians would not only expose Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
to great dangers but equally create great difficulties for the Germans
Germans
themselves. The only practicable solution was to incorporate these Germans
Germans
into Czechoslovakia.

Several German minorities according to their mother tongue in Moravia—including German-speaking populations in Brno, Jihlava, and Olomouc—also attempted to proclaim their union with German Austria, but failed. The Czechs
Czechs
thus rejected the aspirations of the German Bohemians and demanded the inclusion of the lands inhabited by ethnic Germans
Germans
in their state, despite the presence of more than 90% (as of 1921) ethnic Germans
Germans
(which led to the presence of 23.4% of Germans
Germans
in all of Czechoslovakia), on the grounds they had always been part of lands of the Bohemian Crown. The Treaty of Saint-Germain
Treaty of Saint-Germain
in 1919 affirmed the inclusion of the German-speaking territories within Czechoslovakia. Over the next two decades, some Germans
Germans
in the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
continued to strive for a separation of the German-inhabited regions from Czechoslovakia. Within the Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938)[edit]

Flag flown by Sudeten Germans[5]

Konrad Henlein
Konrad Henlein
speaking in Carlsbad, 1937

Main article: Germans
Germans
in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1918–1938) According to the February 1921 census, 3,123,000 native German speakers lived in Czechoslovakia—23.4% of the total population. The controversies between the Czechs
Czechs
and the German-speaking minority lingered on throughout the 1920s, and intensified in the 1930s. During the Great Depression
Great Depression
the mostly mountainous regions populated by the German minority, together with other peripheral regions of Czechoslovakia, were hurt by the economic depression more than the interior of the country. Unlike the less developed regions (Ruthenia, Moravian Wallachia), the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
had a high concentration of vulnerable export-dependent industries (such as glass works, textile industry, paper-making, and toy-making industry). Sixty percent of the bijouterie and glass-making industry were located in the Sudetenland, 69% of employees in this sector were Germans
Germans
speaking according to mother tongue, and 95% of bijouterie and 78% of other glassware was produced for export. The glass-making sector was affected by decreased spending power and also by protective measures in other countries and many German workers lost their work.[6] The high unemployment, as well as the imposition of Czech in schools and all public spaces, made people more open to populist and extremist movements such as fascism, communism, and German irredentism. In these years, the parties of German nationalists and later the Nazi Sudeten German National Socialist Party (SdP) with its radical demands gained immense popularity among Germans
Germans
in Czechoslovakia. Sudeten Crisis[edit]

Czech inscriptions smeared by Sudeten German activists, March 1938, Teplice
Teplice
(German: Teplitz)

A Sudeten German Voluntary Force ("Sudetendeutsches Freikorps") unit in 1938

Main article: German occupation of Czechoslovakia The increasing aggressiveness of Hitler prompted the Czechoslovak military to build extensive border fortifications starting in 1936 to defend the troubled border region. Immediately after the Anschluß
Anschluß
of Austria
Austria
into the Third Reich
Third Reich
in March 1938, Hitler made himself the advocate of ethnic Germans
Germans
living in Czechoslovakia, triggering the "Sudeten Crisis". The following month, Sudeten Nazis, led by Konrad Henlein, agitated for autonomy. On 24 April 1938 the SdP proclaimed the Karlsbader Programm (de), which demanded in eight points the complete equality between the Sudeten Germans
Sudeten Germans
and the Czech people. The government accepted these claims on 30 June 1938.[clarification needed][7] In August, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
Neville Chamberlain
sent Lord Runciman on a Mission to Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in order to see if he could obtain a settlement between the Czechoslovak government and the Germans
Germans
in the Sudetenland. Lord Runciman's first day included meetings with President Beneš and Prime Minister Milan Hodža
Milan Hodža
as well as a direct meeting with the Sudeten Germans
Sudeten Germans
from Henlein's SdP. On the next day he met with Dr and Mme Beneš and later met non-Nazi Germans
Germans
in his hotel.[8] A full account of his report—including summaries of the conclusions of his meetings with the various parties—which he made in person to the Cabinet on his return to Britain is found in the Document CC 39(38).[9] Lord Runciman[10] expressed sadness that he could not bring about agreement with the various parties, but he agreed with Lord Halifax that the time gained was important. He reported on the situation of the Sudeten Germans, and he gave details of four plans which had been proposed to deal with the crisis, each of which had points which, he reported, made it unacceptable to the other parties to the negotiations. The four were: Transfer of the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
to the Reich; hold a plebiscite on the transfer of the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
to the Reich, organize a Four Power Conference on the matter, create a federal Czechoslovakia. At the meeting, he said that he was very reluctant to offer his own solution; he had not seen this as his task. The most that he said was that the great centres of opposition were in Eger and Asch, in the northwestern corner of Bohemia, which contained about 800,000 Germans and very few others. He did say that the transfer of these areas to Germany
Germany
would almost certainly be a good thing; he added that the Czechoslovak army would certainly oppose this very strongly, and that Beneš had said that they would fight rather than accept it.[11] British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
Neville Chamberlain
met with Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
in Berchtesgaden
Berchtesgaden
on 15 September and agreed to the cession of the Sudetenland; three days later, French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier did the same. No Czechoslovak representative was invited to these discussions. Germany
Germany
was now able to walk into the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
without firing a shot. Chamberlain met Hitler in Godesberg on 22 September to confirm the agreements. Hitler, aiming to use the crisis as a pretext for war, now demanded not only the annexation of the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
but the immediate military occupation of the territories, giving the Czechoslovak army no time to adapt their defence measures to the new borders. To achieve a solution, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
suggested a conference of the major powers in Munich
Munich
and on 29 September, Hitler, Daladier and Chamberlain met and agreed to Mussolini's proposal (actually prepared by Hermann Göring) and signed the Munich
Munich
Agreement, accepting the immediate occupation of the Sudetenland. The Czechoslovak government, though not party to the talks, submitted to compulsion and promised to abide by the agreement on 30 September. The Sudetenland
Sudetenland
was relegated to Germany
Germany
between 1 October and 10 October 1938. The Czech part of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was subsequently invaded by Germany
Germany
in March 1939, with a portion being annexed and the remainder turned into the Protectorate of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia. The Slovak part declared its independence from Czechoslovakia, becoming the Slovak Republic (Slovak State), a satellite state and ally of Nazi Germany. (The Ruthenian part – Subcarpathian Rus – made also an attempt to declare its sovereignty as Carpatho-Ukraine
Carpatho-Ukraine
but only with ephemeral success. This area was annexed by Hungary.) Part of the borderland was also invaded and annexed by Poland.

The Catholic Requiem of fallen Czech policemen and security officials killed in a skirmish by Sudeten German Freecorps members, at Falkenau an der Eger (Czech: Sokolov) in the Egerland

Ethnic Germans
Ethnic Germans
in the city of Eger (Czech: Cheb) greeting Hitler with the Nazi salute
Nazi salute
after he crossed the border into the formerly Czechoslovak Sudetenland
Sudetenland
on 3 October 1938

Volunteers of the Sudeten German Free Corps (German: Sudetendeutsches Freikorps) receiving refreshments from the local population in the city of Eger (Czech: Cheb)

Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
drives through the crowd in Eger, 3 October 1938

Sudetenland
Sudetenland
as part of Nazi Germany[edit]

Combining Sudeten German Party
Sudeten German Party
and NSDAP, October 1938

The Sudetenland
Sudetenland
was initially put under military administration, with General Wilhelm Keitel
Wilhelm Keitel
as military governor. On 21 October 1938, the annexed territories were divided, with the southern parts being incorporated into the neighbouring Reichsgaue Niederdonau, Oberdonau and Bayerische Ostmark.

Election ballot, Reichsgau Sudetenland, December 1938

The northern and western parts were reorganized as the Reichsgau Sudetenland, with the city of Reichenberg (present-day Liberec) established as its capital. Konrad Henlein
Konrad Henlein
(now openly a NSDAP
NSDAP
member) administered the district first as Reichskommissar
Reichskommissar
(until 1 May 1939) and then as Reichsstatthalter
Reichsstatthalter
(1 May 1939 – 4 May 1945). The Sudetenland
Sudetenland
consisted of three administrative districts (Regierungsbezirke): Eger (with Karlsbad as capital), Aussig (Aussig) and Troppau (Troppau).

Sudetenland
Sudetenland
was administered by Konrad Henlein
Konrad Henlein
for the duration of the war

Shortly after the annexation, the Jews
Jews
living in the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
were widely persecuted. Only a few weeks afterwards, the Kristallnacht occurred. As elsewhere in Germany, many synagogues were set on fire and numerous leading Jews
Jews
were sent to concentration camps. In later years, the Nazis transported up to 300,000 Czech and Slovak Jews
Jews
to concentration camps,[12] where many of them were killed or died. Jews and Czechs
Czechs
were not the only afflicted peoples; German socialists, communists and pacifists were widely persecuted as well. Some of the German socialists fled the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
via Prague
Prague
and London to other countries. The Gleichschaltung
Gleichschaltung
would permanently alter the community in the Sudetenland. Despite this, on 4 December 1938 there were elections in Reichsgau Sudetenland, in which 97.32% of the adult population voted for NSDAP. About a half million Sudeten Germans
Sudeten Germans
joined the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
which was 17.34% of the total German population in the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
(the average NSDAP
NSDAP
membership participation in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
was merely 7.85% in 1944). This means the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
was one of the most pro-Nazi regions of the Third Reich.[13] Because of their knowledge of the Czech language, many Sudeten Germans
Sudeten Germans
were employed in the administration of the ethnic Czech Protectorate of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia
Moravia
as well as in Nazi organizations (Gestapo, etc.). The most notable was Karl Hermann Frank: the SS and Police general and Secretary of State in the Protectorate.

Administrative Divisions of Reichsgau Sudetenland

Expulsions and resettlement after World War II[edit] Main article: Expulsion of Germans
Germans
from Czechoslovakia

The expulsion of Germans
Germans
from Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
as the result of the end of World War II

From the territory occupied by the Third Reich, 160,000 to 170,000 Czech-speaking inhabitants were forced to leave or were expelled

Shortly after the liberation of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in May 1945, the use of the term Sudety (Sudetenland) in official communications was banned and replaced by the term pohraniční území (border territory).[14] After World War II in summer 1945 the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
decided that Sudeten Germans
Sudeten Germans
would have to leave Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(see Expulsion of Germans
Germans
after World War II). As a consequence of the immense hostility against all Germans
Germans
that had grown within Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
due to Nazi behavior, the overwhelming majority of Germans
Germans
were expelled (while the relevant Czechoslovak legislation provided for the remaining Germans
Germans
who were able to prove their anti-Nazi affiliation). The number of expelled Germans
Germans
in the early phase (spring–summer 1945) is estimated to be around 500,000 people. Following the Beneš decrees and starting in 1946, the majority of the Germans
Germans
were expelled and in 1950 only 159,938 (from 3,149,820 in 1930) still lived in the Czech Republic. The remaining Germans, proven anti-fascists and skilled laborers, were allowed to stay in Czechoslovakia, but were later forcefully dispersed within the country.[15] Some German refugees from Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
are represented by the Sudetendeutsche Landsmannschaft. Many of the Germans
Germans
who stayed in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
later emigrated to West Germany
Germany
(more than 100,000). As the German population was transferred out of the country, the former Sudetenland
Sudetenland
was resettled, mostly by Czechs
Czechs
but also by other nationalities of Czechoslovakia: Slovaks, Greeks (arriving in the wake of the Greek Civil War 1946–49), Volhynian Czechs, Gypsies, Jews
Jews
and Hungarians
Hungarians
(though the Hungarians
Hungarians
were forced into this and later returned home—see Hungarians
Hungarians
in Slovakia: Population exchanges). Some areas—such as part of Czech Silesian-Moravian borderland, southwestern Bohemia
Bohemia
(Šumava National Park), western and northern parts of Bohemia—remained depopulated for several strategic reasons (extensive mining and military interests) or are now protected national parks and landscapes. Moreover, before the establishment of the Iron Curtain
Iron Curtain
in 1952–55, the so-called "forbidden zone" was established (by means of engineer equipment) up to 2 km (1.2 mi) from the border in which no civilians could reside. A wider region, or "border zone" existed, up to 12 km from the border, in which no "disloyal" or "suspect" civilians could reside or work. Thus, the entire Aš-Bulge fell within the border zone; this status remained until the Velvet Revolution
Velvet Revolution
in 1989. There remained areas with noticeable German minorities in the westernmost borderland around Cheb, where skilled ethnic German miners and workers continued in mining and industry until 1955, sanctioned under the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
protocols[citation needed]; in the Egerland, German minority organizations continue to exist. Also, the small town of Kravaře
Kravaře
(German: Deutsch Krawarn) in the multiethnic Hlučín Region
Hlučín Region
of Czech Silesia
Czech Silesia
has an ethnic German majority (2006), including an ethnic German mayor. In the 2001 census, approximately 40,000 people in the Czech Republic claimed German ethnicity. See also[edit]

Areas annexed by Nazi Germany Beneš decrees Expulsion of Germans
Germans
after World War II Expulsion of Germans
Germans
from Czechoslovakia       Germans
Germans
in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1918–1938) German occupation of Czechoslovakia Pursuit of Nazi collaborators in Czechoslovakia Sudetendeutsche Landsmannschaft Sudetenland
Sudetenland
Medal Bohemian Forest
Bohemian Forest
Region German South Moravia German Austria

References[edit]

Notes

^ Rothenburg, G. The Army of Francis Joseph. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 1976. p 218. ^ "em. o. Prof. Dr. Gerard Radnitzky, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy of Science at the University of Trier, Germany, Vertreibung vor dem Krieg geplant — Ethnic cleansing was planned before the war, 3. May 2002" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-01.  ^ Bruegel, Johann Wolfgang (1973). Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
Before Munich. Cambridge University Press. p. 44.  ^ Bruegel, Johann Wolfgang (1973). Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
Before Munich. Cambridge University Press. p. 45.  ^ " Sudetenland
Sudetenland
(flag)". Flaggenlexikon.de. Retrieved 2013-05-01.  ^ Kárník, Zdeněk. České země v éře první republiky (1918–1938). Díl 2. Praha 2002. ^ Zayas, Alfred Maurice de: Die Nemesis von Potsdam. Die Anglo-Amerikaner und die Vertreibung der Deutschen, überarb. u. erweit. Neuauflage, Herbig-Verlag, München, 2005. ^ iPad iPhone Android TIME TV Populist The Page (1938-08-15). "CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Pax Runciman". TIME. Retrieved 2013-05-01.  ^ "The Cabinet Papers CAB 23 interwar conclusions". Nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-05-01.  ^ Note, what he reports is an expression of his opinion on the situation. He may have been entirely mistaken on this, but it helps us to understand how he saw the situation. For example, that he felt that the Czechoslovakian government being blind to the situation, does not make it true. ^ cab-23-95.pdf p71; CC 39(38) p 4. ^ Wheeler, Charles (2002-12-03). "Czechs' hidden revenge against Germans". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-09-26.  ^ Zimmermann, Volker: Die Sudetendeutschen im NS-Staat. Politik und Stimmung der Bevölkerung im Reichsgau Sudetenland
Reichsgau Sudetenland
(1938–1945). Essen 1999. (ISBN 3-88474-770-3) ^ Zdeněk Beneš. Facing history: the evolution of Czech-German relations in the Czech provinces, 1848–1948. Gallery, 2002. p. 218. ^ "Přesun v rámci rozptylu občanů německé národnosti."

v t e

Timeline of Czechoslovak statehood

Pre-1918 1918–1938 1938–1945 1945–1948 1948–1989 1989–1992 1993–

Bohemia Moravia Silesia Austrian Empire First Republica Sudetenlandb Third Republic Czechoslovak Republice 1948–1960 Czechoslovak Socialist Republicf 1960–1990 Czech and Slovak Federative Republic 1990–1992 Czech Republic

Second  Republicc 1938–1939 Protectorate of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia 1939–1945

Slovakia Kingdom of Hungary Slovak Republic 1939–1945 Slovak Republic (Slovakia)

Southern Slovakia
Slovakia
and Carpatho-Ukrained

Carpathian Ruthenia Zakarpattia Oblastg 1944 / 1946 – 1991 Zakarpattia Oblasth 1991–present

Austria-Hungary

Czechoslovak government-in-exile

a ČSR; boundaries and government established by the 1920 constitution. b Annexed by Nazi Germany. c ČSR; included the autonomous regions of Slovakia
Slovakia
and Carpathian Ruthenia. d Annexed by Hungary (1939–1945).

e ČSR; declared a "people's democracy" (without formal name change) under the Ninth-of-May Constitution following the 1948 coup. f ČSSR; from 1969, after the Prague
Prague
Spring, consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic (ČSR) and Slovak Socialist Republic
Slovak Socialist Republic
(SSR). g Oblast of the Ukrainian SSR. h Oblast of Ukraine.

v t e

Silesia
Silesia
topics

History

Offensives Uprisings Wars (First, Second, Third) Upper Silesia
Silesia
plebiscite Treaty of Dresden Treaty of Teschen Book of Henryków Battle of Legnica Battle of Leuthen more...

Geography

Areas

Jelenia Góra valley Kłodzko Valley Lower Silesian Wilderness Obniżenie Milicko-Głogowskie Ostrava Valley Oświęcim Basin Przedgórze Sudeckie Silesian Walls Silesian Foothills Silesian Lowlands Silesian Przesieka Silesian Upland Silesian-Lusatian Lowlands Silesian-Moravian Foothills Wał Trzebnicki Zielona Góra Acclivity

Lakes

Jezioro Goczałkowickie Jezioro Otmuchowskie Jezioro Sławskie Nyskie Slezská Harta Dam

Mountains

Carpathian

Silesian Beskids Moravian-Silesian Beskids

Sudetes

Eastern Central Western

Rivers

Elbe

Divoká Orlice Jizera Úpa

Oder

Barycz Bóbr Kaczawa Kłodnica Kwisa Liswarta Mała Panew Nysa Kłodzka Olza Ślęza

Vistula

Biała Brynica Gostynia Przemsza Pszczynka Rawa

Politics

Subdivisions

Former

Duchies

Piasts dukes

Silesian Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(1920–39)

parliament politicians treasury

State country Silesia
Silesia
Province

Upper Silesia Lower Silesia

Sudetenland New Silesia Austrian Silesia Eastern Silesia

Current

Jeseník District Moravian–Silesian Region Niederschlesischer Oberlausitzkreis / Görlitz

Voivodeships

Lower Silesian Lubusz Voivodeships Opole Silesian

EP constituencies

Lower Silesian and Opole Silesian

Economy

Bielski Okręg Przemysłowy Katowice urban area Legnicko-Głogowski Okręg Miedziowy Lower Silesian Coal Basin Upper Silesian Coal Basin

Industrial Region Ostrava-Karviná / Rybnik Coal Areas

Upper Silesian metropolitan area Tourism

Society

Culture

Architecture

Familok

Regional costume (Śląskie stroje ludowe)

Cuisine

Black noodles Bryja Ciapkapusta Dumplings Galert Hauskyjza Karminadle Kołocz Kreple Krupniok (Kaszanka) Makówki Moczka Modra kapusta Siemieniotka Szałot Wodzionka Żur śląski

Religion

Evangelical Church in Berlin, Brandenburg and Silesian Upper Lusatia Silesian Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland Roman Catholic Church Pentecostal Church in Poland

Sport

Football Association Moravian–Silesian Football League National football team Silesian Stadium

Languages

Silesian

Bytom Cieszyn Jabłonków Lach Lower Namysłów Niemodlin Opole Prudnik Sulkovian Syców Texas

Czech German

Silesian German (Lower Silesian)

Moravian Polish

Symbols

Coats of arms Flags

Unofficial anthems

Schlesien Unvergessene Heimat Schlesierlied Slezská hymna

Other topics

Demographics Landsmannschaft Schlesien Silesian Autonomy Movement Silesians

Category Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 248530085 LCCN: sh85129

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