Sudetenland (/suːˈdeɪtənlænd/ (listen);
German: [zuˈdeːtn̩ˌlant]; Czech and Slovak: Sudety; Polish:
Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern,
southern, and western areas of former
Czechoslovakia which were
inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans. These German speakers had
predominated in the border districts of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech
Silesia from the time of the Austrian Empire.
The word "Sudetenland" did not come into being until the early part of
the 20th century and did not come to prominence until almost two
decades into the century, after the First World War, when the
Austria-Hungary was dismembered and the Sudeten
Germans found themselves living in the new country of Czechoslovakia.
The Sudeten crisis of 1938 was provoked by the
Germany that the
Sudetenland be annexed to Germany, which happened
after the later
Munich Agreement. Part of the borderland was invaded
and annexed by Poland. When
Czechoslovakia was reconstituted after the
Second World War, the
Sudeten Germans were expelled and the region
today is inhabited almost exclusively by Czech speakers.
Sudetenland is a German compound of Land, meaning "country",
and Sudeten, the name of the Sudeten Mountains, which run along the
northern Czech border and
Lower Silesia (now in Poland). The
Sudetenland encompassed areas well beyond those mountains, however.
Parts of the now Czech regions of Karlovy Vary, Liberec, Olomouc,
Ústí nad Labem
Ústí nad Labem are within the area called
1.1 Early origins
1.2 Emergence of the term
World War I
World War I and its aftermath
1.4 Within the Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938)
1.5 Sudeten Crisis
Sudetenland as part of Germany
1.7 Expulsions and resettlement after World War II
2 See also
The areas later known as the
Sudetenland never formed a single
historical region, which makes it difficult to distinguish the history
Sudetenland apart from that of Bohemia, until the advent of
nationalism in the 19th century.
See also: History of German settlement in Central and Eastern Europe
The Celtic and
Boii tribes settled there and the region was first
mentioned on the map of Ptolemaios in the 2nd century AD. The Germanic
tribe of the
Marcomanni dominated the entire core of the region in
later centuries. Those tribes already built cities like Brno, but
moved west during the Migration Period. In the 7th century AD Slavic
people moved in and were united under Samo's realm. Later in the High
Germans settled into the less populated border region.
Stages of German eastern settlement, 700-1400
Middle Ages the regions situated on the mountainous border of
the Duchy and the Czech Kingdom of
Bohemia (Crown of Saint Václav)
had since the
Migration Period been settled mainly by western Slavic
Czechs. Along the
Bohemian Forest in the west, the Czech lands
bordered on the German Slavic tribes (German Sorbs) stem duchies of
Bavaria and Franconia; marches of the medieval German kingdom had also
been established in the adjacent Austrian lands south of the
Bohemian-Moravian Highlands and the northern Meissen region beyond the
Ore Mountains. In the course of the
Ostsiedlung (settlement of the
east) German settlement from the 13th century onwards continued to
move into the
Upper Lusatia region and the duchies of
Silesia north of
Sudetes mountain range.
From as early as the second half of the 13th century onwards these
Bohemian border regions were settled by ethnic Germans, who were
invited by the Přemyslid Bohemian kings — especially by Ottokar II
(1253–1278) and Wenceslaus II (1278–1305). After the extinction of
Přemyslid dynasty in 1306, the Bohemian nobility backed John of
Luxembourg as king against his rival Duke Henry of Carinthia. In 1322
King John of
Bohemia acquired (for the third time) the formerly
Egerland region in the west and was able to vassalize most of
the Piast Silesian duchies, acknowledged by King Casimir III of Poland
by the 1335 Treaty of Trentschin. His son, Bohemian King Charles IV,
King of the Romans
King of the Romans in 1346 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor
in 1355. He added the Lusatias to the Lands of the Bohemian Crown,
which then comprised large territories with a significant German
In the hilly border regions German settlers established major
manufactures of forest glass. The situation of the German population
was aggravated by the
Hussite Wars (1419–1434), though there were
Germans among the
Germans largely settled the hilly Bohemian border regions as
well as the cities of the lowlands; mainly people of Bavarian descent
in the South Bohemian and South Moravian Region, in Brno, Jihlava,
České Budějovice and the West Bohemian Plzeň Region; Franconian
people in Žatec; Upper Saxons in adjacent North Bohemia, where the
border with the Saxon Electorate was fixed by the 1459 Peace of Eger;
Silesians in the adjacent
Sudetes region with the County of
Kladsko, in the Moravian–Silesian Region, in
Svitavy and Olomouc.
The city of
Prague had a German-speaking majority from the last third
of the 17th century until 1860, but after 1910 the proportion of
German speakers had decreased to 6.7% of the population.
From the Luxembourgs, the rule over
Bohemia passed through George of
Podiebrad to the
Jagiellon dynasty and finally to the House of
Habsburg in 1526. Both Czech and German Bohemians suffered heavily in
the Thirty Years War.
Bohemia lost 70% of its population. From the
defeat of the Bohemian Revolt that collapsed at the 1620 Battle of
White Mountain, the Habsburgs gradually integrated the Kingdom of
Bohemia into their monarchy. During the subsequent
Counter-Reformation, less populated areas were resettled with Catholic
Germans from the Austrian lands. From 1627 the Habsburgs enforced the
so-called Verneuerte Landesordnung ("Renewed Land's Constitution") and
one of its consequences was that German according to mother tongue
gradually became the primary and official language while Czech
declined to a secondary role in the Empire. Also in 1749 Austrian
Empire enforced German as the official language again. Emperor Joseph
II in 1780 renounced the coronation ceremony as Bohemian king and
unsuccessfully tried to push German through as sole official language
in all Habsburg lands (including Hungary). Nevertheless, German
cultural influence grew stronger during the
Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment and
On the other hand, in the course of the
Romanticism movement national
tensions arose, both in the form of the
developed by Czech politicians like
František Palacký and
Pan-Germanist activist raising the German question. Conflicts between
Czech and German nationalists emerged in the 19th century, for
instance in the Revolutions of 1848: while the German-speaking
Moravia wanted to participate in the
building of a German nation state, the Czech-speaking population
insisted on keeping
Bohemia out of such plans. The Bohemian Kingdom
remained a part of the
Austrian Empire and
Austria-Hungary until its
dismemberment after the First World War.
Emergence of the term
Ethnic distribution in
Austria-Hungary in 1911: regions with a
German majority are depicted in pink, those with Czech majorities in
In the wake of growing nationalism, the name "Sudetendeutsche"
(Sudeten Germans) emerged by the early 20th century. It originally
constituted part of a larger classification of three groupings of
Germans within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which also included
"Alpine Deutschen" (English: Alpine Germans) in what later became the
Austria and "Balkandeutsche" (English: Balkan Germans) in
Hungary and the regions east of it. Of these three terms, only the
term "Sudetendeutsche" survived, because of the ethnic and cultural
conflicts within Bohemia.
World War I
World War I and its aftermath
During World War I, what would later be known as the Sudetenland
experienced a rate of war deaths higher than most other
German-speaking areas of
Austria-Hungary and exceeded only by German
Moravia and Carinthia. Thirty-four of each 1,000 inhabitants
Austria-Hungary broke apart at the end of World War I. Late in October
1918, an independent Czechoslovak state, consisting of the lands of
the Bohemian kingdom and areas belonging to the Kingdom of Hungary,
was proclaimed. The German deputies of Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia
in the Imperial Council (Reichsrat) referred to the
Fourteen Points of
Woodrow Wilson and the right proposed therein to
self-determination, and attempted to negotiate the union of the
German-speaking territories with the new Republic of German Austria,
which itself aimed at joining Weimar Germany.
The German-speaking parts of the former Lands of the Bohemian Crown
remained in a newly created Czechoslovakia, a multi-ethnic state of
several nations: Czechs, Germans, Slovaks, Hungarians,
Ruthenians. On 20 September 1918, the
Prague government asked the
United States's opinion for the Sudetenland. President Woodrow Wilson
Archibald Coolidge into Czechoslovakia. After Coolidge
became witness of
German Bohemian demonstrations, Coolidge
suggested the possibility of ceding certain German-speaking parts of
Germany (Cheb) and
Moravia and South
Bohemia). He also insisted that the
German-inhabited regions of West and North
Bohemia remain within
Czechoslovakia. The American delegation at the Paris talks, with Allen
Dulles as the American's chief diplomat in the Czechoslovak Commission
who emphasized preserving the unity of the Czech lands, decided not to
follow Coolidge's proposal.
Four regional governmental units were established:
Province of German
Bohemia (Provinz Deutschböhmen), the regions of
northern and western Bohemia; proclaimed a constitutive state (Land)
of the German-Austrian Republic with Reichenberg (Liberec) as capital,
administered by a
Landeshauptmann (state captain), consecutively:
Rafael Pacher (1857–1936), 29 October – 6 November 1918, and
Rudolf Ritter von Lodgman von Auen (1877–1962), 6 November – 16
December 1918 (the last principal city was conquered by the Czech army
but he continued in exile, first at Zittau in Saxony and then in
Vienna, until 24 September 1919).
Province of the Sudetenland
Province of the Sudetenland (Provinz Sudetenland), the regions of
Moravia and Austrian Silesia; proclaimed a constituent state
of the German-Austrian Republic with Troppau (Opava) as capital,
governed by a Landeshauptmann: Robert Freissler (1877–1950), 30
October – 18 December 1918. This province's boundaries do not
correspond to what would later be called the Sudetenland, which
contained all the German-speaking parts of the Czech lands.
Bohemian Forest Region (Böhmerwaldgau), the region of Bohemian
Forest/South Bohemia; proclaimed a district (Kreis) of the existing
Austrian Land of Upper Austria; administered by Kreishauptmann
(district captain): Friedrich Wichtl (1872–1922) from 30 October
Moravia (Deutschsüdmähren), proclaimed a District
(Kreis) of the existing Austrian land Lower Austria, administered by a
Kreishauptmann: Oskar Teufel (1880–1946) from 30 October 1918.
The U.S. commission to the Paris Peace Conference issued a declaration
which gave unanimous support for "unity of Czech lands". In
particular the declaration stated:
.mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em
0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite
Commission was...unanimous in its recommendation that the separation
of all areas inhabited by the German-Bohemians would not only expose
Czechoslovakia to great dangers but equally create great difficulties
Germans themselves. The only practicable solution was to
Germans into Czechoslovakia.
Several German minorities according to their mother tongue in
Moravia—including German-speaking populations in Brno, Jihlava, and
Olomouc—also attempted to proclaim their union with German Austria,
but failed. The
Czechs thus rejected the aspirations of the German
Bohemians and demanded the inclusion of the lands inhabited by ethnic
Germans in their state, despite the presence of more than 90% (as of
Germans (which led to the presence of 23.4% of
all of Czechoslovakia), on the grounds they had always been part of
lands of the Bohemian Crown. The
Treaty of Saint-Germain
Treaty of Saint-Germain in 1919
affirmed the inclusion of the German-speaking territories within
Czechoslovakia. Over the next two decades, some
Germans in the
Sudetenland continued to strive for a separation of the
German-inhabited regions from Czechoslovakia.
Within the Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938)
Flag flown by Sudeten Germans
Konrad Henlein speaking in Carlsbad, 1937
According to the February 1921 census, 3,123,000 native German
speakers lived in Czechoslovakia—23.4% of the total population. The
controversies between the
Czechs and the German-speaking minority
lingered on throughout the 1920s, and intensified in the 1930s.
Great Depression the mostly mountainous regions populated
by the German minority, together with other peripheral regions of
Czechoslovakia, were hurt by the economic depression more than the
interior of the country. Unlike the less developed regions (Ruthenia,
Moravian Wallachia), the
Sudetenland had a high concentration of
vulnerable export-dependent industries (such as glass works, textile
industry, paper-making, and toy-making industry). Sixty percent of the
bijouterie and glass-making industry were located in the Sudetenland,
69% of employees in this sector were
Germans speaking according to
mother tongue, and 95% of bijouterie and 78% of other glassware was
produced for export. The glass-making sector was affected by decreased
spending power and also by protective measures in other countries and
many German workers lost their work.
The high unemployment, as well as the imposition of Czech in schools
and all public spaces, made people more open to populist and extremist
movements such as fascism, communism, and German irredentism. In these
years, the parties of German nationalists and later the Sudeten German
National Socialist Party (SdP) with its radical demands gained immense
Germans in Czechoslovakia.
Czech inscriptions smeared by Sudeten German activists, March 1938,
Teplice (German: Teplitz)
A Sudeten German Voluntary Force ("Sudetendeutsches Freikorps") unit
Main article: German occupation of Czechoslovakia
The increasing aggressiveness of Hitler prompted the Czechoslovak
military to build extensive border fortifications starting in 1936 to
defend the troubled border region. Immediately after the
Austria into the
Third Reich in March 1938, Hitler made himself the
advocate of ethnic
Germans living in Czechoslovakia, triggering the
"Sudeten Crisis". The following month, Sudeten Nazis, led by Konrad
Henlein, agitated for autonomy. On 24 April 1938 the SdP proclaimed
the Karlsbader Programm [de], which demanded in eight
points the complete equality between the
Sudeten Germans and the Czech
people. The government accepted these claims on 30 June
In August, British Prime Minister
Neville Chamberlain sent Lord
Runciman on a Mission to
Czechoslovakia in order to see if he could
obtain a settlement between the Czechoslovak government and the
Germans in the Sudetenland. Lord Runciman's first day included
meetings with President Beneš and Prime Minister
Milan Hodža as well
as a direct meeting with the
Sudeten Germans from Henlein's SdP. On
the next day he met with Dr and Mme Beneš and later met non-Nazi
Germans in his hotel.
A full account of his report—including summaries of the conclusions
of his meetings with the various parties—which he made in person to
the Cabinet on his return to Britain is found in the Document CC
39(38). Lord Runciman expressed sadness that he
could not bring about agreement with the various parties, but he
agreed with Lord Halifax that the time gained was important. He
reported on the situation of the Sudeten Germans, and he gave details
of four plans which had been proposed to deal with the crisis, each of
which had points which, he reported, made it unacceptable to the other
parties to the negotiations.
The four were: Transfer of the
Sudetenland to the Reich; hold a
plebiscite on the transfer of the
Sudetenland to the Reich, organize a
Four Power Conference on the matter, create a federal Czechoslovakia.
At the meeting, he said that he was very reluctant to offer his own
solution; he had not seen this as his task. The most that he said was
that the great centres of opposition were in Eger and Asch, in the
northwestern corner of Bohemia, which contained about 800,000 Germans
and very few others.
He did say that the transfer of these areas to
Germany would almost
certainly be a good thing; he added that the Czechoslovak army would
certainly oppose this very strongly, and that Beneš had said that
they would fight rather than accept it.
British Prime Minister
Neville Chamberlain met
Adolf Hitler in
Berchtesgaden on 15 September and agreed to the cession of the
Sudetenland; three days later, French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier
did the same. No Czechoslovak representative was invited to these
Germany was now able to walk into the
firing a shot.
Chamberlain met Hitler in Godesberg on 22 September to confirm the
agreements. Hitler, aiming to use the crisis as a pretext for war, now
demanded not only the annexation of the
Sudetenland but the immediate
military occupation of the territories, giving the Czechoslovak army
no time to adapt their defence measures to the new borders.
Hitler in a speech at the Sportpalast in Berlin claimed that the
Sudetenland was "the last territorial demand I have to make in
Europe" and gave
Czechoslovakia a deadline of 28 September
at 2:00pm to cede the
Germany or face war.
To achieve a solution, Italian dictator
Benito Mussolini suggested a
conference of the major powers in
Munich and on 29 September, Hitler,
Daladier and Chamberlain met and agreed to Mussolini's proposal
(actually prepared by Hermann Göring) and signed the Munich
Agreement, accepting the immediate occupation of the Sudetenland. The
Czechoslovak government, though not party to the talks, submitted to
compulsion and promised to abide by the agreement on 30 September.
Sudetenland was assigned to
Germany between 1 October and 10
October 1938. The Czech part of
Czechoslovakia was subsequently
Germany in March 1939, with a portion being annexed and the
remainder turned into the Protectorate of
Bohemia and Moravia. The
Slovak part declared its independence from Czechoslovakia, becoming
the Slovak Republic (Slovak State), a satellite state and ally of
Germany. (The Ruthenian part – Subcarpathian Rus – made
also an attempt to declare its sovereignty as
only with ephemeral success. This area was annexed by Hungary.)
Part of the borderland was also invaded and annexed by Poland.
The Catholic Requiem of fallen Czech policemen and security officials
killed in a skirmish by Sudeten German Freecorps members, at Falkenau
an der Eger (Czech: Sokolov) in the Egerland
Ethnic Germans in the city of Eger (Czech: Cheb) greeting Hitler with
Nazi salute after he crossed the border into the formerly
Sudetenland on 3 October 1938
Volunteers of the Sudeten German Free Corps (German: Sudetendeutsches
Freikorps) receiving refreshments from the local population in the
city of Eger (Czech: Cheb)
Adolf Hitler drives through the crowd in Eger on 3 October 1938
Sudetenland as part of Germany
Sudeten German Party
Sudeten German Party and NSDAP, October 1938
Sudetenland was initially put under military administration, with
Wilhelm Keitel as military governor. On 21 October 1938, the
annexed territories were divided, with the southern parts being
incorporated into the neighbouring Reichsgaue Niederdonau, Oberdonau
and Bayerische Ostmark.
Election ballot, Reichsgau Sudetenland, December 1938
The northern and western parts were reorganized as the Reichsgau
Sudetenland, with the city of Reichenberg (present-day Liberec)
established as its capital.
Konrad Henlein (now openly a
administered the district first as
Reichskommissar (until 1 May 1939)
and then as
Reichsstatthalter (1 May 1939 – 4 May 1945). The
Sudetenland consisted of three administrative districts
(Regierungsbezirke): Eger (with Karlsbad as capital), Aussig (Aussig)
and Troppau (Troppau).
Sudetenland was administered by
Konrad Henlein for the duration of
Shortly after the annexation, the
Jews living in the
persecuted widely. Only a few weeks afterwards, the Kristallnacht
occurred. As elsewhere in Germany, many synagogues were set on fire
and numerous leading
Jews were sent to concentration camps. In later
years, the Nazis transported up to 300,000 Czech and Slovak
concentration camps, where many of them died or were
Czechs were not the only afflicted peoples; German
socialists, communists and pacifists were widely persecuted as well.
Some of the German socialists fled the
London to other countries. The
Gleichschaltung would permanently alter
the community in the Sudetenland.
Despite this, on 4 December 1938 there were elections in Reichsgau
Sudetenland, in which 97.32% of the adult population voted for NSDAP.
About a half million
Sudeten Germans joined the
Nazi Party which was
17.34% of the total German population in the
Sudetenland (the average
NSDAP membership participation in
Germany was merely 7.85% in 1944).
This means the
Sudetenland was one of the most pro-Nazi regions of the
Third Reich. Because of their knowledge of the Czech
Sudeten Germans were employed in the administration of
the ethnic Czech Protectorate of
Moravia as well as in
Nazi organizations (Gestapo, etc.). The most notable was Karl Hermann
Frank: the SS and Police general and Secretary of State in the
Administrative Divisions of Reichsgau Sudetenland
Expulsions and resettlement after World War II
Main article: Expulsion of
Germans from Czechoslovakia
The expulsion of
Czechoslovakia as the result of the
end of World War II
From the territory occupied by the Third Reich, 160,000 to 170,000
Czech-speaking inhabitants were forced to leave or were expelled
Shortly after the liberation of
Czechoslovakia in May 1945, the use of
the term Sudety (Sudetenland) in official communications was banned
and replaced by the term pohraniční území (border
After World War II in summer 1945 the
Potsdam Conference decided that
Sudeten Germans would have to leave
Czechoslovakia (see Expulsion of
Germans after World War II). As a consequence of the immense hostility
Germans that had grown within
Czechoslovakia due to Nazi
behavior, the overwhelming majority of
Germans were expelled (while
the relevant Czechoslovak legislation provided for the remaining
Germans who were able to prove their anti-Nazi affiliation).
The number of expelled
Germans in the early phase (spring–summer
1945) is estimated to be around 500,000 people. Following the Beneš
decrees and starting in 1946, the majority of the
expelled and in 1950 only 159,938 (from 3,149,820 in 1930) still lived
in the Czech Republic. The remaining Germans, proven anti-fascists and
skilled laborers, were allowed to stay in Czechoslovakia, but were
later forcefully dispersed within the country. Some German
Czechoslovakia are represented by the Sudetendeutsche
Many of the
Germans who stayed in
Czechoslovakia later emigrated to
Germany (more than 100,000). As the German population was
transferred out of the country, the former
Sudetenland was resettled,
Czechs but also by other nationalities of Czechoslovakia:
Slovaks, Greeks (arriving in the wake of the Greek Civil War
1946–49), Carpathian Ruthenians,
Romani people and
Jews who had
survived the Holocaust, and
Hungarians (though the
forced into this and later returned home—see
Hungarians in Slovakia:
Some areas—such as part of Czech Silesian-Moravian borderland,
Bohemia (Šumava National Park), western and northern
parts of Bohemia—remained depopulated for several strategic reasons
(extensive mining and military interests) or are now protected
national parks and landscapes. Moreover, before the establishment of
Iron Curtain in 1952–55, the so-called "forbidden zone" was
established (by means of engineer equipment) up to 2 km
(1.2 mi) from the border in which no civilians could reside. A
wider region, or "border zone" existed, up to 12 km from the
border, in which no "disloyal" or "suspect" civilians could reside or
work. Thus, the entire Aš-Bulge fell within the border zone; this
status remained until the
Velvet Revolution in 1989.
There remained areas with noticeable German minorities in the
westernmost borderland around Cheb, where skilled ethnic German miners
and workers continued in mining and industry until 1955, sanctioned
Yalta Conference protocols; in the
Egerland, German minority organizations continue to exist. Also, the
small town of
Kravaře (German: Deutsch Krawarn) in the multiethnic
Hlučín Region of
Czech Silesia has an ethnic German majority (2006),
including an ethnic German mayor.
In the 2001 census, approximately 40,000 people in the Czech Republic
claimed German ethnicity.
Areas annexed by Nazi Germany
Bohemian Forest Region
Germans after World War II
Germans from Czechoslovakia
German occupation of Czechoslovakia
German South Moravia
Pursuit of Nazi collaborators in Czechoslovakia
^ Rothenburg, G. The Army of Francis Joseph. West Lafayette: Purdue
University Press, 1976. p 218.
^ "em. o. Prof. Dr. Gerard Radnitzky, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy
of Science at the University of Trier, Germany, Vertreibung vor dem
Krieg geplant — Ethnic cleansing was planned before the war, 3.
May 2002" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-07-13.
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^ Bruegel, Johann Wolfgang (1973).
Czechoslovakia Before Munich.
Cambridge University Press. p. 44.
^ Bruegel, Johann Wolfgang (1973).
Czechoslovakia Before Munich.
Cambridge University Press. p. 45.
Sudetenland (flag)". Flaggenlexikon.de. Retrieved 2013-05-01.
^ Kárník, Zdeněk. České země v éře první republiky
(1918–1938). Díl 2. Praha 2002.
^ Zayas, Alfred Maurice de: Die Nemesis von Potsdam. Die
Anglo-Amerikaner und die Vertreibung der Deutschen, überarb. u.
erweit. Neuauflage, Herbig-Verlag, München, 2005.
^ iPad iPhone Android TIME TV Populist The Page (1938-08-15).
"CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Pax Runciman". TIME. Retrieved 2013-05-01.
^ "The Cabinet Papers | CAB 23 interwar conclusions".
Nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-05-01.
^ Note, what he reports is an expression of his opinion on the
situation. He may have been entirely mistaken on this, but it helps us
to understand how he saw the situation. For example, that he felt that
the Czechoslovakian government being blind to the situation, does not
make it true.
^ cab-23-95.pdf p71; CC 39(38) p 4.
^ Max Domarus;
Adolf Hitler (1990). Hitler: speeches and
proclamations, 1932-1945 : the chronicle of a dictatorship.
^ Santi Corvaja, Robert L. Miller. Hitler & Mussolini: The Secret
Meetings. New York, New York, USA: Enigma Books, 2008.
ISBN 9781929631421. Pp. 73.
^ Wheeler, Charles (2002-12-03). "Czechs' hidden revenge against
Germans". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-09-26.
^ Zimmermann, Volker: Die Sudetendeutschen im NS-Staat. Politik und
Stimmung der Bevölkerung im
Reichsgau Sudetenland (1938–1945).
Essen 1999. (ISBN 3-88474-770-3)
^ Zdeněk Beneš. Facing history: the evolution of Czech-German
relations in the Czech provinces, 1848–1948. Gallery, 2002. p. 218.
^ "Přesun v rámci rozptylu občanů německé národnosti."
vteTimeline of Czechoslovak statehood
Czechoslovak Socialist Republicf1960–1990
Czech and Slovak Federative Republic1990–1992
Bohemia and Moravia1939–1945
Kingdom of Hungary
Slovakia and Carpathian Ukrained
Zakarpattia Oblastg1944 / 1946 – 1991
a ČSR; boundaries and government established by the 1920
b Annexed by Nazi Germany.
c ČSR; included the autonomous regions of
Slovakia and Subcarpathian
d Annexed by Hungary (1939–1945).
e ČSR; declared a "people's democracy" (without a formal name change)
Ninth-of-May Constitution following the 1948 coup.
f ČSSR; from 1969, after the
Prague Spring, consisted of the Czech
Socialist Republic (ČSR) and
Slovak Socialist Republic
Slovak Socialist Republic (SSR).
Oblast of the Ukrainian SSR.
Oblast of Ukraine.
Wars (First, Second, Third)
Treaty of Dresden
Treaty of Teschen
Book of Henryków
Battle of Legnica
Battle of Leuthen
Jelenia Góra valley
Lower Silesian Wilderness
Zielona Góra Acclivity
Slezská Harta Dam
Niederschlesischer Oberlausitzkreis / Görlitz
Lower Silesian and Opole
Bielski Okręg Przemysłowy
Katowice urban area
Legnicko-Głogowski Okręg Miedziowy
Lower Silesian Coal Basin
Upper Silesian Coal Basin
Ostrava-Karviná / Rybnik Coal Areas
Upper Silesian metropolitan area
Regional costume (Śląskie stroje ludowe)
Evangelical Church in Berlin, Brandenburg and Silesian Upper Lusatia
Silesian Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession
Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland
Roman Catholic Church
Pentecostal Church in Poland
Moravian–Silesian Football League
National football team
Silesian German (Lower Silesian)
Coats of arms
Schlesien Unvergessene Heimat
Silesian Autonomy Movement
WorldCat Identities (via