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Moravia ( , also , ; cs, Morava ; german: link=no, Mähren ; pl, Morawy ; szl, Morawa; la, Moravia) is a
historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in time had a culture, cultural, ethnic group, ethnic, linguistics, linguistic or politics, political basis, regardless of latterday borders. They are u ...
in the east of the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It ...
and one of three historical
Czech lands#REDIRECT Czech lands The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands ( cs, České země ) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia. Together the three have formed the Czech part of Czechoslovakia since 1918, the Czech Soci ...
, with
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in time had a culture, cultural, ethnic gr ...

Bohemia
and
Czech Silesia Czech Silesia (, also , ; cs, České Slezsko; szl, Czeski Ślōnsk; sli, Tschechisch-Schläsing; german: Tschechisch-Schlesien; pl, Śląsk Czeski) is the name given to the part of the historical region Historical regions (or historical are ...
. The medieval and early modern
Margraviate of Moravia The Margraviate of Moravia ( cs, Markrabství moravské; german: Markgrafschaft Mähren) was one of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown existing from 1182 to 1918. It was officially administrated by a margrave in cooperation with a provincial diet. ...
was a
crown land Crown land (sometimes spelled crownland), also known as royal domain, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies . It is the equivalent of an and passes with the monarchy, being inseparable from it. Today, in s such as Cana ...
of the
Lands of the Bohemian Crown The Lands of the Bohemian Crown were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the Middle Ages, medieval and early modern periods connected by feudalism, feudal relations under the List of Bohemian monarchs, Bohemian kings. The cro ...
from 1348 to 1918, an
imperial state An Imperial State or Imperial Estate ( la, Status Imperii; german: Reichsstand, plural: ') was a part of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex o ...
of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
from 1004 to 1806, a crown land of the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural ...
from 1804 to 1867, and a part of
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exe ...

Austria-Hungary
from 1867 to 1918. Moravia was one of the five lands of
Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–19391945–1992 , p1 = Austria-Hungary , image_p1 = , s1 = Czech Rep ...
founded in 1918. In 1928 it was merged with
Czech Silesia Czech Silesia (, also , ; cs, České Slezsko; szl, Czeski Ślōnsk; sli, Tschechisch-Schläsing; german: Tschechisch-Schlesien; pl, Śląsk Czeski) is the name given to the part of the historical region Historical regions (or historical are ...
, and then dissolved in 1949 during the abolition of the land system following the communist coup d'état. Its area of 22,623.41 km2 is home to more than 3 million people. The people are historically named
Moravians Moravians (''Czech language, Czech: Moravané'' or Colloquialism, colloquially ''Moraváci'', outdated ''Moravci'') are a West Slavs, West Slavic ethnographic group from the Moravia region of the Czech Republic, who speak the Moravian dialects ...
, a subgroup of
Czechs The Czechs ( cs, Češi, ; singular masculine: ''Čech'' , singular feminine: ''Češka'' ), or the Czech people (), are a West Slavic ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person ...
, the other group being called
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in time had a culture, cultural, ethnic gr ...

Bohemia
ns. Moravia also had been home of a large German-speaking population until their expulsion in 1945. The land takes its name from the Morava river, which runs from its north to south, being its principal watercourse. Moravia's largest city and historical capital is
Brno Brno ( , ; german: Brünn, ) is a Statutory city (Czech Republic), city in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. Located at the confluence of the Svitava (river), Svitava and Svratka (river), Svratka rivers, Brno has about 380,000 inh ...

Brno
. Before being sacked by the
Swedish army The Swedish Army ( sv, svenska armén) is the land force An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest se ...

Swedish army
during the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western ...
,
Olomouc Olomouc (, , ; Haná dialect, locally ; , ; pl, Ołomuniec ; or ''Iuliomontium'') is a city in the east of the Czech Republic. It has about 100,000 inhabitants, and its larger urban zone has a population of about 384,000 inhabitants (2019). Loc ...

Olomouc
served as the Moravian capital, and it is still the seat of the
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Olomouc The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Olomouc ( cs, Arcidiecéze olomoucká, la, Archidioecesis Olomucensis) is the Metropolitan archdiocese In church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a ...
.


Toponymy

The region and former margraviate of Moravia, ''Morava'' in Czech, is named after its
principal Principal may refer to: Title or rank * Principal (academia) The principal is the chief executive and the chief academic officer of a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher ...
river Morava. It is theorized that the river's name is derived from
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
''*mori'': "waters", or indeed any word denoting ''water'' or a ''marsh''. The German name for Moravia is ''Mähren'', from the river's German name ''March''. This could have a different etymology, as ''march'' is a term used in the Medieval times for an outlying territory, a border or a frontier (cf. English ''
march March is the third month of the year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , reducing the average year from 3 ...
'').


Geography

Moravia occupies most of the eastern part of the Czech Republic. Moravian territory is naturally strongly determined, in fact, as the Morava , with strong effect of mountains in the west (''de facto'' main European continental divide) and partly in the east, where all the rivers rise. Moravia occupies an exceptional position in Central Europe. All the
highland Highlands or uplands are any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau. Generally speaking, upland (or uplands) refers to ranges of hills, typically up to . Highland (or highlands) is usually reserved for ranges of low mountains. Highlan ...

highland
s in the west and east of this part of Europe run west–east, and therefore form a kind of filter, making north–south or south–north movement more difficult. Only Moravia with the depression of the westernmost
Outer Subcarpathia Outer Subcarpathia ( pl, Podkarpacie Zewnętrzne; uk, Прикарпаття, ''Prykarpattia''; cs, Vněkarpatské sníženiny; german: Karpatenvorland) denotes the Depression (geology), depression area at the outer (western, northern and easte ...
, wide, between the
Bohemian Massif The Bohemian Massif (Bohemian Upland, cz, Česká vysočina or ''Český masiv'', german: Böhmische Masse or ''Böhmisches Massiv'') is in the geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("stud ...
and the
Outer Western Carpathians Divisions of the Carpathians are a categorization of the Carpathian mountains system. Below is a detailed overview of the major subdivisions and ranges of the Carpathian Mountains The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians () are a range of mou ...
(gripping the
meridian Meridian, or a meridian line may refer to Science * Meridian (astronomy), imaginary circle in a plane perpendicular to the planes of the celestial equator and horizon **Central meridian (planets) * Meridian (geography), an imaginary arc on the E ...
at a constant angle of 30°), provides a comfortable connection between the and Polish regions, and this area is thus of great importance in terms of the possible migration routes of large mammals – both as regards periodically recurring seasonal migrations triggered by climatic oscillations in the
prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, ...
, when permanent settlement started. Moravia borders
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in time had a culture, cultural, ethnic gr ...

Bohemia
in the west,
Lower Austria Lower Austria (german: Niederösterreich; Austro-Bavarian Austro-Bavarian (also known as Austrian or Bavarian; or ; german: Bairisch ) is a West Germanic language spoken in parts of Bavaria and most of Austria. Before 1945, Austro-Bavarian w ...
in the southwest,
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
in the southeast,
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...

Poland
very shortly in the north, and
Czech Silesia Czech Silesia (, also , ; cs, České Slezsko; szl, Czeski Ślōnsk; sli, Tschechisch-Schläsing; german: Tschechisch-Schlesien; pl, Śląsk Czeski) is the name given to the part of the historical region Historical regions (or historical are ...
in the northeast. Its natural boundary is formed by the
Sudetes The Sudetes ( ; pl, Sudety; german: Sudeten; cs, Krkonošsko-jesenická subprovincie) are a in , shared by , and the . They are the highest part of . They stretch from the capital of in the northwest across to the region of in Poland and ...
mountains in the north, the
Carpathians The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians () are a range of mountains forming an arc throughout Central and Eastern Europe Central and Eastern Europe is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe Central Europe is the central regio ...

Carpathians
in the east and the
Bohemian-Moravian Highlands The Bohemian-Moravian Highlands ( cs, Českomoravská vrchovina or ''Vysočina''; german: Böhmisch-Mährische Höhe) is an extensive and long range of hills and low mountains over long, which runs in a northeasterly direction across the Czech Rep ...
in the west (the border runs from Králický Sněžník in the north, over Suchý vrch, across
Upper Svratka Highlands The Upper Svratka Highlands (Czech language, Czech: ''Hornosvratecká vrchovina'', German language, German: ''Hohe Schwarza Bergeland '', Polish language, Polish: ''Wyżyna Górnoswratecka'') is a mountain range in Moravia, Czech Republic. The High ...
and Javořice Highlands to
tripoint A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geography, geographical point at which the boundaries of three country, countries or Subnational administrative division, subnational entities meet. There are approximately 176 inte ...

tripoint
nearby in the south). The
Thaya The Thaya ( cs, Dyje ) is a river in Central Europe, the longest tributary to the river Morava (river), Morava. Its drainage basin is . It is ( with its longest source river German Thaya) long and meanders from west to east in the border area be ...

Thaya
river meanders along the border with
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
and the
tripoint A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geography, geographical point at which the boundaries of three country, countries or Subnational administrative division, subnational entities meet. There are approximately 176 inte ...

tripoint
of Moravia,
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
and
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
is at the
confluence In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ...

confluence
of the Thaya and Morava rivers. The northeast border with Silesia runs partly along the Moravice,
Oder The Oder ( , ; Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is ...

Oder
and
Ostravice Ostravice (german: Ostrawitz, pl, Ostrawica) is a municipality and village in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 2,400 inhabitants. It is a popular summer holiday resort under the Moravian-Silesian Beskids to which it ...

Ostravice
rivers. Between 1782 and 1850, Moravia (also thus known as ''Moravia-Silesia'') also included a small portion of the former province of
Silesia Silesia (, also , ) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), o ...

Silesia
– the
Austrian Silesia Austrian Silesia (german: Österreichisch-Schlesien (historically also ''Oesterreichisch-Schlesien, Oesterreichisch Schlesien, österreichisch Schlesien''); cs, Rakouské Slezsko; pl, Śląsk Austriacki), officially the Duchy of Upper and Lower ...
(when Frederick the Great annexed most of ancient Silesia (the land of upper and middle Oder river) to
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
, Silesia's southernmost part remained with the
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...

Habsburg
s). Today Moravia includes the
South Moravian Region The South Moravian Region ( cs, Jihomoravský kraj; , ; sk, Juhomoravský kraj) is an administrative unit () of the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a la ...
, the
Zlín Region Zlín Region ( cs, Zlínský kraj) is an administrative unit ( cs, kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the south-eastern part of the historical region of Moravia. It is named after its capital Zlín. Together with the Olomouc Region it forms a ...
, vast majority of the
Olomouc Region Olomouc Region ( cs, Olomoucký kraj; , ; pl, Kraj ołomuniecki) is an administrative unit ( cs, kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the north-western and central part of its historical region of Moravia (''Morava'') and in a small part of t ...
, southeastern half of the
Vysočina Region The Vysočina Region (; cs, Kraj Vysočina "Highlands Region", german: Region Hochland) is an administrative unit ( cs, kraj) of the Czech Republic, located partly in the south-eastern part of the historical region of Bohemia and partly in the so ...
and parts of the Moravian-Silesian,
Pardubice Pardubice (; , ) is a city in the Czech Republic. It has about 92,000 inhabitants. It is the capital city of the Pardubice Region and lies on the river Elbe, east of Prague. The historic centre is well preserved and is protected by law as an Cult ...

Pardubice
and South Bohemian regions. Geologically, Moravia covers a transitive area between the
Bohemian Massif The Bohemian Massif (Bohemian Upland, cz, Česká vysočina or ''Český masiv'', german: Böhmische Masse or ''Böhmisches Massiv'') is in the geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("stud ...
and the Carpathians (from northwest to southeast), and between the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
basin and the
North European Plain 300px, North European Plain coloured in green. The North European Plain (german: Norddeutsches Tiefland – North German Plain; ; pl, Nizina Środkowoeuropejska – Central European Plain; da, Nordeuropæiske Lavland and nl, Noord-Europese La ...
(from south to northeast). Its core geomorphological features are three wide valleys, namely the Dyje-Svratka Valley (''Dyjsko-svratecký úval''), the Upper Morava Valley (''Hornomoravský úval'') and the Lower Morava Valley (''Dolnomoravský úval''). The first two form the westernmost part of the
Outer Subcarpathia Outer Subcarpathia ( pl, Podkarpacie Zewnętrzne; uk, Прикарпаття, ''Prykarpattia''; cs, Vněkarpatské sníženiny; german: Karpatenvorland) denotes the Depression (geology), depression area at the outer (western, northern and easte ...
, the last is the northernmost part of the
Vienna Basin The Vienna Basin (german: Wiener Becken, cz, Vídeňská pánev, sk, Viedenská kotlina, HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians ...

Vienna Basin
. The valleys surround the low range of
Central Moravian Carpathians The Central Moravian Carpathians ( cs, Středomoravské Karpaty) are a mountain range within the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A ...
. The highest mountains of Moravia are situated on its northern border in
Hrubý Jeseník Image:Hrubý Jeseník, pohled z Uhlířského vrchu.jpg, 250px, Hrubý Jeseník Hrubý Jeseník (, , ) is a mountain range of Eastern Sudetes in northern Moravia and Czech Silesia. It is the second highest mountain range in the Czech Republic. I ...

Hrubý Jeseník
, the highest peak is Praděd (1491 m). Second highest is the massive of Králický Sněžník (1424  m) the third are the
Moravian-Silesian Beskids The Moravian–Silesian Beskids (Czech language, Czech: , Slovak language, Slovak: ''Moravsko-sliezske Beskydy'') is a mountain range in the Czech Republic with a small part reaching to Slovakia. It lies on the historical division between Moravia ...
at the very east, with
Smrk Smrk may refer to: * Smrk (Jizera Mountains), the highest mountain in the Jizera Mountains of Bohemia, Czech Republic at 1124m * Smrk (Moravian-Silesian Beskids), a mountain in the Moravian-Silesian Beskids range in the Czech Republic * Smrk (Třeb ...
(1278 m), and then south from here
Javorníky The Maple Mountains, Javornik Mountains, or Javorniks (Czech and Slovak: ''Javorníky'') are a mountain range of the Slovak-Moravian Carpathians that forms part of the border between the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Its highest point is Veľký J ...

Javorníky
(1072). The
White Carpathians The White Carpathians ( cs, Bílé Karpaty; sk, Biele Karpaty; german: Weiße Karpaten; hu, Fehér-Kárpátok) are a mountain range on the border of the Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ), also known by its shor ...
along the southeastern border rise up to 970 m at Velká Javořina. The spacious, but moderate
Bohemian-Moravian Highlands The Bohemian-Moravian Highlands ( cs, Českomoravská vrchovina or ''Vysočina''; german: Böhmisch-Mährische Höhe) is an extensive and long range of hills and low mountains over long, which runs in a northeasterly direction across the Czech Rep ...
on the west reach 837 m at
Javořice Javořice german: Jaborschützeberg ; pl, Jaworzsycze (Maple hill); (837 metres) is the highest mountain of Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, southern part of Javořice Highlands (Moravia), Javořice Highlands ), Moravia and Bohemia Czech Republic. Lo ...
. The fluvial system of Moravia is very cohesive, as the region border is similar to the watershed of the Morava river, and thus almost the entire area is drained exclusively by a single stream. Morava's far biggest tributaries are Thaya (Dyje) from the right (or west) and
Bečva The Bečva () is a river in the Czech Republic. It is a left tributary of the river Morava River, Central Europe, Morava. The Bečva is created by two source streams, the Northern Rožnovská Bečva (whose valley separates the Moravian-Silesian Besk ...
(east). Morava and Thaya meet at the southernmost and lowest (148 m) point of Moravia. Small peripheral parts of Moravia belong to the catchment area of
Elbe The Elbe (, ; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo), historically in English also Elve, is one of the major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake o ...

Elbe
,
Váh The Váh (; german: Waag; hu, Vág; pl, WagWag
w Słowniku geograficznym Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów sło ...
and especially
Oder The Oder ( , ; Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is ...

Oder
(the northeast). The watershed line running along Moravia's border from west to north and east is part of the European Watershed. For centuries, there have been plans to build a
waterway A waterway is any navigable A body of water, such as a river, canal or lake, is navigable if it is deep, wide and calm enough for a water vessel (e.g. boats) to pass safely. Such a navigable water is called a ''waterway'', and is preferably w ...

waterway
across Moravia to join the Danube and Oder river systems, using the natural route through the
Moravian Gate The Moravian Gate ( cs, Moravská brána, pl, Brama Morawska, german: Mährische Pforte, sk, Moravská brána) is a geomorphological incised into shale at the foot of the North Caineville Plateau, Utah, within the pass carved by the Fremont Riv ...
.


History


Pre-history

Evidence of the presence of members of the human genus, ''
Homo ''Homo'' () is the genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), cir ...

Homo
'', dates back more than 600,000 years in the
paleontological Paleontology, also spelled palaeontology or palæontology (), is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene The Holocene ( ) is the current geological epoch. It began approximate ...
area of
Stránská skála Stránská skála (often without diacritics as Stranska skala) is a hill and refers to a Middle Pleistocene, Mid-Pleistocene-Cromerian interglacial most important Paleontology, paleontological site in Central Europe. It is situated in the eastern p ...

Stránská skála
. Attracted by suitable living conditions, early modern humans settled in the region by the
Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek palaios - old, lithos - stone), is a period in prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history ...
period. The Předmostí archeological (
Cro-magnon Early European modern humans (EEMH) or Cro-Magnons were the first early modern human Early modern human (EMH) or anatomically modern human (AMH) are terms used to distinguish ''Homo sapiens'' (the only extant Hominina species) that are an ...

Cro-magnon
) site in Moravia is dated to between 24,000 and 27,000 years old. Caves in Moravský kras were used by mammoth hunters.
Venus of Dolní Věstonice The Venus of Dolní Věstonice ( cz, Věstonická venuše) is a Venus figurines, Venus figurine, a ceramic statuette of a nude female figure dated to 29,000–25,000 Common Era, BCE (Gravettian Archaeological industry, industry). It was found a ...
, the oldest ceramic figure in the world, was found in the excavation of
Dolní Věstonice : ''For information on the Dolní Věstonice archaeological site, please see Dolní Věstonice (archaeology), Dolní Věstonice''. Dolní Věstonice (german: link=no, Unterwisternitz) is a small village in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Re ...
by Karel Absolon.


Roman era

Around 60 BC, the Celtic Volcae people withdrew from the region and were succeeded by the Germanic peoples, Germanic Quadi. Some of the events of the Marcomannic Wars took place in Moravia in AD 169–180. After the war exposed the weakness of Limes Romanus, Rome's northern frontier, half of the Roman legions (16 out of 33) were stationed along the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
. In response to increasing numbers of Germanic peoples, Germanic settlers in frontier regions like Pannonia (Roman province), Pannonia, Dacia, Rome established two new frontier provinces on the left shore of the Danube, Marcomannia and Sarmatians, Sarmatia, including today's Moravia and western Romans in Slovakia, Slovakia. In the 2nd century AD, a Roman fortress in Moravia (Mušov), Roman fortress stood on the vineyards hill known as german: link=no, Burgstall and cz, Hradisko ("hillfort"), situated above the former village Mušov and above today's beach resort at Pasohlávky. During the reign of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, the Legio X Gemina, 10th Legion was assigned to control the Germanic tribes who had been defeated in the Marcomannic Wars. In 1927, the archeologist Gnirs, with the support of president Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, began research on the site, located 80 km from Vindobona and 22 km to the south of Brno. The researchers found remnants of two masonry buildings, a ''praetorium'' and a ''Roman Baths (Bath), balneum'' ("bath"), including a ''hypocaustum''. The discovery of bricks with the stamp of the Legio X Gemina and coins from the period of the emperors Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius and Commodus facilitated dating of the locality.


Ancient Moravia

A variety of Germanic and major Slavic peoples, Slavic tribes crossed through Moravia during the Migration Period before Slavs established themselves in the 6th century AD. At the end of the 8th century, the Moravian Principality came into being in present-day south-eastern Moravia, Záhorie in south-western Slovakia and parts of
Lower Austria Lower Austria (german: Niederösterreich; Austro-Bavarian Austro-Bavarian (also known as Austrian or Bavarian; or ; german: Bairisch ) is a West Germanic language spoken in parts of Bavaria and most of Austria. Before 1945, Austro-Bavarian w ...
. In 833 AD, this became the state of Great Moravia with the conquest of the Principality of Nitra (present-day Slovakia). Their first king was Mojmír I (ruled 830–846). Louis the German invaded Moravia and replaced Mojmír I with his nephew Rastislav of Moravia, Rastiz who became St. Rastislav. St. Rastislav (846–870) tried to emancipate his land from the Carolingian Empire, Carolingian influence, so he sent envoys to Rome to get missionaries to come. When Rome refused he turned to Constantinople to the Michael III, Byzantine emperor Michael. The result was the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius who translated liturgical books into Old Church Slavonic, Slavonic, which had lately been elevated by the Pope to the same level as Latin and Greek. Methodius became the first Moravian archbishop, the first archbishop in Slavic world, but after his death the German influence again prevailed and the disciples of Methodius were forced to flee. Great Moravia reached its greatest territorial extent in the 890s under Svatopluk I. At this time, the empire encompassed the territory of the present-day
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It ...
and
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
, the western part of present Hungary (Pannonia), as well as Lusatia in present-day Germany and
Silesia Silesia (, also , ) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), o ...

Silesia
and the upper Vistula basin in southern
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...

Poland
. After Svatopluk's death in 895, the Bohemian princes defected to become vassals of the East Frankish ruler Arnulf of Carinthia, and the Moravian state ceased to exist after being overrun by Hungarian invasions of Europe, invading Magyars in 907.


Union with Bohemia

Following the defeat of the Magyars by Emperor Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, Otto I at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, Otto's ally Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, Boleslaus I, the Přemyslid ruler of
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in time had a culture, cultural, ethnic gr ...

Bohemia
, took control over Moravia. Bolesław I Chrobry of Poland annexed Moravia in 999, and ruled it until 1019, when the Přemyslid prince Bretislaus I of Bohemia, Bretislaus recaptured it. Upon his father's death in 1034, Bretislaus became the ruler of Bohemia. In 1055, he decreed that Bohemia and Moravia would be inherited together by primogeniture, although he also provided that his younger sons should govern parts (quarters) of Moravia as vassals to his oldest son. Throughout the Přemyslid era, junior princes often ruled all or part of Moravia from
Olomouc Olomouc (, , ; Haná dialect, locally ; , ; pl, Ołomuniec ; or ''Iuliomontium'') is a city in the east of the Czech Republic. It has about 100,000 inhabitants, and its larger urban zone has a population of about 384,000 inhabitants (2019). Loc ...

Olomouc
,
Brno Brno ( , ; german: Brünn, ) is a Statutory city (Czech Republic), city in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. Located at the confluence of the Svitava (river), Svitava and Svratka (river), Svratka rivers, Brno has about 380,000 inh ...

Brno
or Znojmo, with varying degrees of autonomy from the ruler of Bohemia. Dukes of Olomouc often acted as the "right hand" of Prague dukes and kings, while Dukes of Brno and especially those of Znojmo were much more insubordinate. Moravia reached its height of autonomy in 1182, when Emperor Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick I elevated Conrad II, Duke of Bohemia, Conrad II Otto of Znojmo to the status of a margrave, immediately subject to the emperor, independent of Bohemia. This status was short-lived: in 1186, Conrad Otto was forced to obey the supreme rule of Duke of Bohemia, Bohemian duke Frederick, Duke of Bohemia, Frederick. Three years later, Conrad Otto succeeded to Frederick as Duke of Bohemia and subsequently canceled his margrave title. Nevertheless, the margrave title was restored in 1197 when Vladislaus III of Bohemia resolved the succession dispute between him and his brother Ottokar I of Bohemia, Ottokar by abdicating from the Bohemian throne and accepting Moravia as a vassal land of Bohemian (i.e., Prague) rulers. Vladislaus gradually established this land as Margraviate, slightly administratively different from Bohemia. After the Battle of Legnica, the Mongol Empire, Mongols carried their raids into Moravia. The main line of the Přemyslid dynasty became extinct in 1306, and in 1310 John of Luxembourg became Margrave of Moravia and King of Bohemia. In 1333, he made his son Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles the next Margrave of Moravia (later in 1346, Charles also became the King of Bohemia). In 1349, Charles gave Moravia to his younger brother John Henry, Margrave of Moravia, John Henry who ruled in the margraviate until his death in 1375, after him Moravia was ruled by his oldest son Jobst of Moravia who was in 1410 elected the Holy Roman King but died in 1411 (he is buried with his father in the Church of St. Thomas (Brno), Church of St. Thomas in
Brno Brno ( , ; german: Brünn, ) is a Statutory city (Czech Republic), city in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. Located at the confluence of the Svitava (river), Svitava and Svratka (river), Svratka rivers, Brno has about 380,000 inh ...

Brno
– the Moravian capital from which they both ruled). Moravia and Bohemia remained within the Luxembourg dynasty of Holy Roman kings and emperors (except during the Hussite wars), until inherited by Albert II of Habsburg in 1437. After his death followed the interregnum until 1453; land (as the rest of lands of the Bohemian Crown) was administered by the landfriedens (''landfrýdy''). The rule of young Ladislaus the Posthumous subsisted only less than five years and subsequently (1458) the Hussite George of Poděbrady was elected as the king. He again reunited all Czech lands (then Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Upper & Lower Lusatia) into one-man ruled state. In 1466, Pope Paul II excommunicated George and forbade all Catholics (i.e. about 15% of population) from continuing to serve him. The Hungarian Crusades, crusade followed and in 1469 Matthias Corvinus conquered Moravia and proclaimed himself (with assistance of rebelling Bohemian nobility) as the king of Bohemia. The subsequent 21-year period of a divided kingdom was decisive for the rising awareness of a specific Moravian identity, distinct from that of Bohemia. Although Moravia was reunited with Bohemia in 1490 when Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary, Vladislaus Jagiellon, king of Bohemia, also became king of Hungary, some attachment to Moravian "freedoms" and resistance to government by Prague continued until the end of independence in 1620. In 1526, Vladislaus' son Louis II of Bohemia, Louis died in battle and the Habsburg Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand I was elected as his successor. File:Bohemia 1138–1254.jpg, Bohemia and Moravia in the 12th century File:Brno - Kostel sv. Tomáše, místodžitelský palác a alegorická postava spravedlnosti.jpg, Church of St. Thomas (Brno), Church of St. Thomas,
Brno Brno ( , ; german: Brünn, ) is a Statutory city (Czech Republic), city in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. Located at the confluence of the Svitava (river), Svitava and Svratka (river), Svratka rivers, Brno has about 380,000 inh ...

Brno
, mausoleum of Moravian branch House of Luxembourg, rulers of Moravia; and the old governor's palace, a former Augustinian abbey File:Trebic podklasteri bazilika velka apsida.jpg, Třebíč, 12th century Romanesque St. Procopius Basilica in Třebíč, St. Procopius Basilica File:Moravská orlice.jpg, The Coat of arms of Moravia, Moravian banner of arms, which first appeared in the medieval era


Habsburg rule (1526–1918)

After the death of King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in 1526, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand I of Habsburg Monarchy, Austria was elected King of Bohemia and thus ruler of the Crown of Bohemia (including Moravia). The epoch 1526–1620 was marked by increasing animosity between Catholic Habsburg kings (emperors) and the Protestant Moravian nobility (and other Crowns') estates. Moravia, like Bohemia, was a Habsburg possession until the end of World War I. In 1573 the Jesuit order, Jesuit University of Olomouc was established; this was the first university in Moravia. The establishment of a special papal seminary, Collegium Nordicum, made the University a centre of the Catholic Reformation and effort to revive Catholicism in Central and Northern Europe. The second largest group of students were from Scandinavia.
Brno Brno ( , ; german: Brünn, ) is a Statutory city (Czech Republic), city in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. Located at the confluence of the Svitava (river), Svitava and Svratka (river), Svratka rivers, Brno has about 380,000 inh ...

Brno
and
Olomouc Olomouc (, , ; Haná dialect, locally ; , ; pl, Ołomuniec ; or ''Iuliomontium'') is a city in the east of the Czech Republic. It has about 100,000 inhabitants, and its larger urban zone has a population of about 384,000 inhabitants (2019). Loc ...

Olomouc
served as Moravia's capitals until 1641. As the only city to successfully resist the Swedish invasion, Brno become the sole capital following the capture of Olomouc. The Margraviate of Moravia had, from 1348 in Olomouc and Brno, its own Moravian Diet, Diet, or parliament, ''zemský sněm'' (''Landtag'' in German), whose deputies from 1905 onward were elected separately from the ethnically separate German and Czech constituencies. The oldest surviving theatre building in Central Europe, the Reduta Theatre, was established in 17th-century Moravia. Ottoman Ottoman Empire, Turks and Crimean Khanate, Tatars invaded the region in 1663, taking 12,000 captives. In 1740, Moravia was invaded by Prussian forces under Frederick the Great, and Olomouc was forced to surrender on 27 December 1741. A few months later the Prussians were repelled, mainly because of their unsuccessful siege of Brno in 1742. In 1758, Olomouc was Siege of Olomouc, besieged by Prussians again, but this time its defenders forced the Prussians to withdraw following the Battle of Domstadtl. In 1777, a new Moravian bishopric was established in Brno, and the Olomouc bishopric was elevated to an archbishopric. In 1782, the Margraviate of Moravia was merged with
Austrian Silesia Austrian Silesia (german: Österreichisch-Schlesien (historically also ''Oesterreichisch-Schlesien, Oesterreichisch Schlesien, österreichisch Schlesien''); cs, Rakouské Slezsko; pl, Śląsk Austriacki), officially the Duchy of Upper and Lower ...
into ''Moravia-Silesia'', with Brno as its capital. This lasted until 1850. Moravia was briefly one of 17 former crown lands of the Cisleithanian part of Austria-Hungary after 1867. According to Austro-Hungarian census of 1910 the proportion of Czechs in the population of Moravia at the time (2.622.000) was 71.8%, while the proportion of Germans was 27.6%. File:Growth of Habsburg territories.jpg, Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg Empire Crown lands: growth of the House of Habsburg, Habsburg territories and Habsburg Moravia, Moravia's status File:Verwaltungsgliederung der Markgrafschaft Mähren 1893.svg, Administrative division of Moravia as crown land of Austria in 1893


20th century

Following the break-up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, Moravia became part of Czechoslovakia. As one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia, it had restricted autonomy. In 1928 Moravia ceased to exist as a territorial unity and was merged with
Czech Silesia Czech Silesia (, also , ; cs, České Slezsko; szl, Czeski Ślōnsk; sli, Tschechisch-Schläsing; german: Tschechisch-Schlesien; pl, Śląsk Czeski) is the name given to the part of the historical region Historical regions (or historical are ...
into the Moravian-Silesian Land (yet with the natural dominance of Moravia). By the Munich Agreement (1938), the southwestern and northern peripheries of Moravia, which had a German-speaking majority, were annexed by Nazi Germany, and during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1939–1945), the remnant of Moravia was an administrative unit within the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. During the WW II, Second World War, 46,306 religious Jews were murdered in the The Holocaust, Holocaust. In 1945 after the end of World War II and Allied defeat of Germany, Czechoslovakia Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after World War II, expelled the ethnic German minority of Moravia to Germany and
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
. The Moravian-Silesian Land was restored with Moravia as part of it and towns and villages that were left by the former German inhabitants, were re-settled by Czechs, Slovaks and reemigrants. In 1949 the territorial division of Czechoslovakia was radically changed, as the Moravian-Silesian Land was abolished and Lands were replaced by "''kraje''" (regions), whose borders substantially differ from the historical Bohemian-Moravian border, so Moravia politically ceased to exist after more than 1100 years (833–1949) of its history. Although another administrative reform in 1960 implemented (among others) the North Moravian and the South Moravian regions (''Severomoravský'' and ''Jihomoravský kraj''), with capitals in Ostrava and Brno respectively, their joint area was only roughly alike the historical state and, chiefly, there was no land or federal autonomy, unlike Slovakia. After the fall of the Soviet Union and the whole Eastern Bloc, the Czechoslovak Federal Assembly (Czechoslovakia), Federal Assembly condemned the cancellation of Moravian-Silesian land and expressed "firm conviction that this injustice will be corrected" in 1990. However, after the Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, breakup of Czechoslovakia into
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It ...
and
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
in 1993, Moravian area remained integral to the Czech territory, and the latest administrative division of Czech Republic (introduced in 2000) is similar to the administrative division of 1949. Nevertheless, the federalism, federalist or separatism, separatist movement in Moravia is completely marginal. The centuries-lasting historical Bohemian-Moravian border has been preserved up to now only by the List of the Roman Catholic dioceses of the Czech Republic, Czech Roman Catholic Administration, as the Ecclesiastical Province of Moravia corresponds with the former Moravian-Silesian Land. The popular perception of the Bohemian-Moravian border's location is distorted by the memory of the 1960 regions (whose boundaries are still partly in use). File:JanCerny.jpg, Jan Černý, president of Moravia in 1922–1926, later also Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia File:Map of Moravia.jpg, A general map of Moravia in the 1920s File:First Czechoslovak Republic.SVG, In 1928, Moravia was merged into Moravia-Silesia, one of four lands of Czechoslovakia, together with Bohemia, Slovakia#Czechoslovakia (1918–1939), Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia#Subcarpathian Rus' (1920–1938), Subcarpathian Rus.


Economy

An area in South Moravia, around Hodonín and Břeclav, is part of the Viennese Basin. Petroleum and lignite are found there in abundance. The main economic centres of Moravia are
Brno Brno ( , ; german: Brünn, ) is a Statutory city (Czech Republic), city in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. Located at the confluence of the Svitava (river), Svitava and Svratka (river), Svratka rivers, Brno has about 380,000 inh ...

Brno
,
Olomouc Olomouc (, , ; Haná dialect, locally ; , ; pl, Ołomuniec ; or ''Iuliomontium'') is a city in the east of the Czech Republic. It has about 100,000 inhabitants, and its larger urban zone has a population of about 384,000 inhabitants (2019). Loc ...

Olomouc
and Zlín, plus Ostrava lying directly on the Moravian–Silesian border. As well as agriculture in general, Moravia is noted for its viticulture; it contains 94% of the Czech Republic's vineyards and is at the centre of the Czech wine, country's wine industry. Moravian Wallachia, Wallachia have at least a 400-year-old tradition of slivovitz making. The Czech automotive industry also had a large role in the industry of Moravia in the 20th century; the factories of :cs:Wikov, Wikov in Prostějov and Tatra (company), Tatra in Kopřivnice produced many automobiles. Moravia is also the centre of the Czech firearm industry, as the vast majority of Czech firearms manufacturers (e.g. CZUB, Zbrojovka Brno, Czech Small Arms, Czech Weapons, ZVI, Great Gun) are found in Moravia. Almost all the well-known Czech sporting, self-defence, military and hunting firearms are made in Moravia. Meopta rifle scopes are of Moravian origin. The Bren gun, original Bren gun was conceived here, as were the assault rifles the CZ-805 BREN and Vz 58, Sa vz. 58, and the handguns CZ 75 and ZVI Kevin (also known as the "Micro Desert Eagle"). The
Zlín Region Zlín Region ( cs, Zlínský kraj) is an administrative unit ( cs, kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the south-eastern part of the historical region of Moravia. It is named after its capital Zlín. Together with the Olomouc Region it forms a ...
hosts several aircraft manufacturers, namely Let Kunovice (also known as Aircraft Industries, a.s.), Moravan, ZLIN AIRCRAFT a.s. Otrokovice (formerly known under the name Moravan Otrokovice), Evektor-Aerotechnik and Czech Sport Aircraft. Sport aircraft are also manufactured in Jihlava by Jihlavan Airplanes/Skyleader. Aircraft production in the region started in 1930s; after a period of low production post-1989, there are signs of recovery post-2010, and production is expected to grow from 2013 onwards. Tatra 77.jpg, The Tatra 77 (1934) Sportovní vůz Supersport.gif, WIKOV Supersport (1931) Michael Thonet 14.jpg, Thonet chair No. 14 M 290.002 Slovenská strela, Žleby zastávka – Žleby 02.jpg, The speed train Tatra ČSD Class M 290.0, M 290.0 Slovenská strela 1936 Zlin XIII OK-TBZ (8190833921).jpg, Zlín XIII aircraft on display at the National Technical Museum (Prague), National Technical Museum in Prague Zetor 25A.jpg, Zetor 25A tractor


Machinery industry

The machinery industry has been the most important industrial sector in the region, especially in South Moravia, for many decades. The main centres of machinery production are
Brno Brno ( , ; german: Brünn, ) is a Statutory city (Czech Republic), city in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. Located at the confluence of the Svitava (river), Svitava and Svratka (river), Svratka rivers, Brno has about 380,000 inh ...

Brno
(Zbrojovka Brno, Zetor, První brněnská strojírna, Siemens), Blansko (ČKD Blansko, Metra), Kuřim (TOS Kuřim), Boskovice (Minerva, Novibra) and Břeclav (Otis Elevator Company). A number of other, smaller machinery and machine parts factories, companies and workshops are spread over Moravia.


Electrical industry

The beginnings of the electrical industry in Moravia date back to 1918. The biggest centres of electrical production are
Brno Brno ( , ; german: Brünn, ) is a Statutory city (Czech Republic), city in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. Located at the confluence of the Svitava (river), Svitava and Svratka (river), Svratka rivers, Brno has about 380,000 inh ...

Brno
(VUES, ZPA Brno, EM Brno), Drásov (Brno-Country District), Drásov, Frenštát pod Radhoštěm and Mohelnice (Šumperk District), Mohelnice (currently Siemens).


Cities and towns


Cities

*
Brno Brno ( , ; german: Brünn, ) is a Statutory city (Czech Republic), city in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. Located at the confluence of the Svitava (river), Svitava and Svratka (river), Svratka rivers, Brno has about 380,000 inh ...

Brno
, c. 381,000 inhabitants, former land capital and nowadays capital of
South Moravian Region The South Moravian Region ( cs, Jihomoravský kraj; , ; sk, Juhomoravský kraj) is an administrative unit () of the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a la ...
; industrial, judicial, educational and research centre; railway and motorway junction *Ostrava, c. 288,000 inh. (central part, Moravská Ostrava, lies historically in Moravia, most of the outskirts are in
Czech Silesia Czech Silesia (, also , ; cs, České Slezsko; szl, Czeski Ślōnsk; sli, Tschechisch-Schläsing; german: Tschechisch-Schlesien; pl, Śląsk Czeski) is the name given to the part of the historical region Historical regions (or historical are ...
), capital of Moravian-Silesian Region, centre of heavy industry *
Olomouc Olomouc (, , ; Haná dialect, locally ; , ; pl, Ołomuniec ; or ''Iuliomontium'') is a city in the east of the Czech Republic. It has about 100,000 inhabitants, and its larger urban zone has a population of about 384,000 inhabitants (2019). Loc ...

Olomouc
, c. 101,000 inh., capital of
Olomouc Region Olomouc Region ( cs, Olomoucký kraj; , ; pl, Kraj ołomuniecki) is an administrative unit ( cs, kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the north-western and central part of its historical region of Moravia (''Morava'') and in a small part of t ...
, medieval land capital, seat of Roman Catholic archbishop, cultural centre of Haná, Hanakia and Central Moravia *Zlín, c. 75,000 inh., capital of
Zlín Region Zlín Region ( cs, Zlínský kraj) is an administrative unit ( cs, kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the south-eastern part of the historical region of Moravia. It is named after its capital Zlín. Together with the Olomouc Region it forms a ...
, modern city developed after World War I by the Bata Shoes company *Frýdek-Místek, c. 56,000 inh., twin-city lying directly on the old Moravian-Silesian border (the western part, Místek, is Moravian), in the industrial area around Ostrava *Jihlava, c. 51,000 inh. (mostly in Moravia, northwestern periphery lies in Bohemia), capital of
Vysočina Region The Vysočina Region (; cs, Kraj Vysočina "Highlands Region", german: Region Hochland) is an administrative unit ( cs, kraj) of the Czech Republic, located partly in the south-eastern part of the historical region of Bohemia and partly in the so ...
, centre of the Moravian Highlands *Prostějov, c. 44,000 inh., former centre of clothing and fashion industry, birthplace of Edmund Husserl *Přerov, c. 43,000 inh., important railway hub and archeological site (Předmostí u Přerova (archeology), Předmostí)


Towns

*Třebíč (35,000), another centre in the Highlands, with exceptionally preserved Jewish quarter *Znojmo (34,000), historical and cultural centre of southwestern Moravia *Kroměříž (29,000), historical town in southern Hanakia *Vsetín (26,000), centre of the Moravian Wallachia *Šumperk (26,000), centre of the north of Moravia, at the foot of
Hrubý Jeseník Image:Hrubý Jeseník, pohled z Uhlířského vrchu.jpg, 250px, Hrubý Jeseník Hrubý Jeseník (, , ) is a mountain range of Eastern Sudetes in northern Moravia and Czech Silesia. It is the second highest mountain range in the Czech Republic. I ...

Hrubý Jeseník
*Uherské Hradiště (25,000), cultural centre of the Moravian Slovakia *Břeclav (25,000), important railway hub in the very south of Moravia *Hodonín (25,000), another town in the Moravian Slovakia, the birthplace of Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk *Nový Jičín (23,000), historical town with hatting industry *Valašské Meziříčí (22,000), centre of chemical industry in Moravian Wallachia *Kopřivnice (22,000), centre of automotive industry (Tatra (company), Tatra), south from Ostrava *Vyškov (21,000), local centre at a motorway junction halfway between Brno and Olomouc *Žďár nad Sázavou (21,000), industrial town in the Highlands, near the border with Bohemia *Blansko (20,000), industrial town north from Brno, at the foot of the Moravian Karst


People

The Moravians are generally a Slavic ethnic group who speak various (generally more archaic) dialects of Czech language, Czech. Before the expulsion of Germans from Moravia the Moravian German minority also referred to themselves as "Moravians" (''Mährer''). Those expelled and their descendants continue to identify as Moravian. Some Moravians assert that Moravian language, Moravian is a language distinct from Czech language, Czech; however, their position is not widely supported by academics and the public. Some Moravians identify as an ethnically distinct group; the majority consider themselves to be ethnically Czech. In the census of 1991 (the first census in history in which respondents were allowed to claim Moravian nationality), 1,362,000 (13.2%) of the Czech population identified as being of Moravian nationality (or ethnicity). In some parts of Moravia (mostly in the centre and south), majority of the population identified as Moravians, rather than Czechs. In the census of 2001, the number of Moravians had decreased to 380,000 (3.7% of the country's population). In the census of 2011, this number rose to 522,474 (4.9% of the Czech population). Moravia historically had a large minority of ethnic Germans, some of whom had arrived as early as the 13th century at the behest of the Přemyslid dynasty. Germans continued to come to Moravia in waves, culminating in the 18th century. They lived in the main city centres and in the countryside along the border with Austria (stretching up to Brno) and along the border with Silesia at Jeseníky, and also in two language islands, around Jihlava and around Moravská Třebová. After the Second World War, the Czechoslovak government almost fully Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia, expelled them in retaliation for their support of Nazi Germany's invasion and dismemberment of Czechoslovakia (1938-1939) and subsequent German war crimes (1938-1945) towards the Czech, Moravian, and Jewish populations.


Moravians

File:Johan_amos_comenius_1592-1671.jpg, Comenius File:Gregor_Mendel_oval.jpg, Gregor Mendel File:Jan Vilímek - František Palacký 2.jpg, František Palacký File:Jasomir Mundy.jpg, Jaromír Mundy File:Tomáš_Garrigue_Masaryk_1925.PNG, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk File:Leoš_Janáček.jpg, Leoš Janáček File:Sigmund Freud, by Max Halberstadt (cropped).jpg, Sigmund Freud File:Edmund_Husserl_1910s.jpg, Edmund Husserl File:Alfons_Mucha_LOC_3c05828u.jpg, Alphonse Mucha File:Adolfloos.2.jpg, Adolf Loos File:Tomas_Bata.jpg, Tomáš Baťa File:Kurt_gödel.jpg, Kurt Gödel File:Fotothek_df_roe-neg_0006305_003_Emil_Zátopek-2.jpg, Emil Zátopek File:Milan Kundera redux.jpg, Milan Kundera File:Lendl_CU.jpg, Ivan Lendl Notable people from Moravia include (in order of birth): *Anton Pilgram (1450–1516), architect, sculptor and woodcarver *Jan Ámos Komenský (Comenius) (1592–1670), educator and theologian, last bishop of Unity of the Brethren (Czech Republic), Unity of the Brethren *Georg Joseph Kamel, Georg Joseph Camellus (1661–1706), Jesuit missionary to the Philippines, pharmacist and botanist *David Zeisberger (1717–1807) Moravian Church, Moravian missionary to the Leni Lenape, "Apostle to the Indians" *Georg Prochaska, Georgius Prochaska (1749–1820), ophthalmologist and physiologist *František Palacký (1798–1876), historian and politician, "The Father of the Czechs, Czech nation" *Gregor Mendel (1822–1884), founder of genetics *Ernst Mach (1838–1916), physicist and philosopher *Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (1850–1937), philosopher and politician, first president of Czechoslovakia *Leoš Janáček (1854–1928), composer *Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), founder of psychoanalysis *Edmund Husserl (1859–1938), philosopher *Alfons Mucha (1860–1939), painter *Zdeňka Wiedermannová-Motyčková (1868–1915), women's rights activist *Adolf Loos (1870–1933), architect, pioneer of functionalism (architecture), functionalism *Karl Renner (1870–1950), Austrian statesman, co-founder of Friends of Nature movement *Tomáš Baťa (1876–1932), entrepreneur, founder of Bata Shoes company *Joseph Schumpeter (1883–1950), economist and political scientist *Marie Jeritza (1887–1982), soprano singer *Hans Krebs (SS general), Hans Krebs (1888–1947), Nazi SS ''Brigadeführer'' executed for war crimes *Ludvík Svoboda (1895–1979), general of I Corps (Czechoslovakia), I Czechoslovak Army Corps, seventh president of Czechoslovakia *Klement Gottwald (1896–1953), first Czechoslovak communism, communist president *Erich Wolfgang Korngold (1897–1957), composer *George Placzek (1905–1955), physicist, participant in Manhattan Project *Kurt Gödel (1906–1978), theoretical mathematician *Oskar Schindler (1908–1974), Nazi Germany entrepreneur, saviour of almost 1,200 Jews during the WWII *Jan Kubiš (1913–1942), paratrooper who assassinated Nazi despotism, despot Reinhardt Heydrich, R. Heydrich *Bohumil Hrabal (1914–1997), writer *Thomas J. Bata (1914–2008), entrepreneur, son of Tomáš Baťa and former head of the Bata shoe company *Emil Zátopek (1922–2000), long-distance runner, List of multiple Olympic gold medalists, multiple Olympic gold medalist *Karel Reisz (1926–2002), filmmaker, pioneer of the British Free Cinema movement *Milan Kundera (born 1929), writer *Václav Nedomanský (born 1944), ice hockey player *Karel Kryl (1944–1994), poet and protest singer-songwriter *Karel Loprais (born 1949), truck race driver, multiple winner of the Dakar Rally *Ivana Trump (born 1949), socialite and business magnate, former wife of Donald Trump *Ivan Lendl (born 1959), tennis player *Petr Nečas (born 1964), politician, Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, Czech Prime Minister 2010–2013 *Jana Novotná (1968–2017), tennis player *Jiří Šlégr (born 1971), ice hockey player, member of the Triple Gold Club *Bohuslav Sobotka (born 1971), social-democracy, social-democratic politician, Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, Czech Prime Minister 2014–2017 *Magdalena Kožená (born 1973), mezzo-soprano *Markéta Irglová (born 1988), Academy awarded singer-songwriter *Petra Kvitová (born 1990), tennis player *Adam Ondra (born 1993), rock climber *Barbora Krejčíková (born 1996), tennis player


Ethnographic regions

Moravia can be divided on dialectal and lore basis into several ethnographic regions of comparable significance. In this sense, it is more heterogenous than Bohemia. Significant parts of Moravia, usually those formerly inhabited by the German speakers, are dialectally indifferent, as they have been resettled by people from various Czech (and Slovak) regions. The principal cultural regions of Moravia are: *Haná, Hanakia (''Haná'') in the central and northern part *Lachia (''Lašsko'') in the northeastern tip *Horácko, Highlands (''Horácko'') in the west *Moravian Slovakia (''Slovácko'') in the southeast *Moravian Wallachia (''Valašsko'') in the east


Places of interest


World Heritage Sites

*Gardens and Castle at Kroměříž *Historic Centre of Telč *Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc *Jewish Quarter and St Procopius' Basilica in Třebíč *Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape *Pilgrimage Church of St John of Nepomuk at Zelená Hora *Tugendhat Villa in Brno


Other

*Hranice Abyss, the deepest known underwater cave in the world


See also

*Extreme points of Moravia *Flag of Moravia *German South Moravia *Moravian traditional music


Notes


References


Further reading

* ''The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful ...'' (1877), volume 15. London, Charles Knight (publisher), Charles Knight. Moravia. pp. 397–398. * ''Encyclopædia Britannica, The New Encyclopædia Britannica'' (2003). Chicago, New Delhi, Paris, Seoul, Sydney, Taipei, Tokyo. Volume 8. p. 309. Moravia. . * Filip, Jan (1964). ''The Great Moravia exhibition''. ČSAV (Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences). * Galuška, Luděk, Mitáček Jiří, Novotná, Lea (eds.) (2010) ''Treausures of Moravia: story of historical land''. Brno, Moravian Museum. . * National Geographic Society. Wonders of the Ancient World; National Geographic Atlas of Archaeology, Norman Hammond, consultant, Nat'l Geogr. Soc., (multiple staff authors), (Nat'l Geogr., R. H. Donnelley & Sons, Willard, OH), 1994, 1999, Reg or Deluxe Ed., 304 pp. Deluxe ed. photo (p. 248): "Venus, Dolní Věstonice (archaeology), Dolni Věstonice, 24,000 B.C." In section titled: "The Potter's Art", pp. 246–253. * Dekan, Jan (1981). Moravia Magna: The Great Moravian Empire, Its Art and Time, Minneapolis: Control Data Arts. . * Hugh, Agnew (2004). ''The Czechs and the
Lands of the Bohemian Crown The Lands of the Bohemian Crown were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the Middle Ages, medieval and early modern periods connected by feudalism, feudal relations under the List of Bohemian monarchs, Bohemian kings. The cro ...
''.Hoower Press, Stanford University, Stanford. . * Rona-Tas, Andras, Róna-Tas, András (1999) ''Hungarians & Europe in the Early Middle Ages: An Introduction to Early Hungarian History'' translated by Nicholas Bodoczky, Central European University Press, Budapest, . * Wihoda, Martin (2015), ''Vladislaus III, Duke of Bohemia, Vladislaus Henry: The Formation of Moravian Identity''. Brill Publishers . * Kirschbaum, Stanislav J. (1996) ''A History of Slovakia: The Struggle for Survival'' St. Martin's Press, New York, . * Constantine Porphyrogenitus De Administrando Imperio edited by Gy. Moravcsik, translated by R. J. H. Jenkins, Dumbarton Oaks Edition, Washington, D.C. (1993) * Hlobil, Ivo, Daniel, Ladislav (2000), ''The last flowers of the middle ages: from the gothic to the renaissance in Moravia and Silesia''. Olomouc/Brno, Moravian Gallery in Brno, Moravian Galery, Muzeum umění Olomouc * David, Jiří (2009). "Moravian estatism and provincial councils in the second half of the 17th century". ''Folia historica Bohemica. 1 2''4: 111–165. . * Svoboda, Jiří A. (1999), ''Hunters between East and West: the paleolithic of Moravia''. New York: Plenum Press, . * Absolon, Karel (1949), ''The diluvial anthropomorphic statuettes and drawings, especially the so-called Venus statuettes, discovered in Moravia'' New York, Salmony 1949. . * Musil, Rudolf (1971), ''G. Mendel's Discovery and the Development of Agricultural and Natural Sciences in Moravia''. Brno, Moravian Museum. * Šimsa, Martin (2009), ''Open-Air Museum of Rural Architecture in South-East Moravia''. Strážnice (Hodonín District), Strážnice, National Institute of Folk Culture. . * Miller, Michael R. (2010), ''The Jews of Moravia in the Age of Emancipation'', Cover of Rabbis and Revolution edition. Stanford University Press. . * Thomas J. Bata, Bata, Thomas J. (1990), ''Bata: Shoemaker to the World''. Stoddart Publishers Canada. . * Procházka, Jiří (2009), "Vienna obsessa. Thesaurus Moraviae". Brno, ITEM, .


External links


Moravian museum official website

Moravian gallery official website

Moravian library official website

Moravian land archive official website

Province of Moravia – Czech Catholic Church – official website

Welcome to the 2nd largest city of the CR

Welcome to Olomouc, city of good cheer...

Znojmo – City of Virtue
* {{Authority control Moravia, Counties of the Holy Roman Empire Geography of Central Europe Geography of the Czech Republic Historic counties in Moravia Historical regions in the Czech Republic Historical regions Subdivisions of Austria-Hungary