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The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a
landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign s ...
in
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both ...

Central Europe
. It is bordered by
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
to the south,
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
to the west,
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...

Poland
to the northeast, and
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
to the east. The Czech Republic has a hilly landscape that covers an area of with a mostly temperate
continental Continental may refer to: Places * Continent * Continental, Arizona, a small community in Pima County, Arizona, US * Continental, Ohio, a small town in Putnam County, US Arts and entertainment * Continental (album), ''Continental'' (album), an alb ...
and
oceanic climate An oceanic climate, also known as a maritime climate or marine climate, is the Köppen classification of climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the deg ...
. The
Duchy of Bohemia The Duchy of Bohemia, also later referred to in English as the Czech Duchy, ( cs, České knížectví) was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New Coll ...
was founded in the late 9th century under
Great Moravia Great Moravia ( la, Regnum Marahensium; el, Μεγάλη Μοραβία, ''Meghálī Moravía''; cz, Velká Morava ; sk, Veľká Morava ; pl, Wielkie Morawy), or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavs, West ...

Great Moravia
. It was formally recognized as an
Imperial State An Imperial State or Imperial Estate ( la, Status Imperii; german: Reichsstand, plural: ') was a part of the Holy Roman Empire with representation and the right to vote in the Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Imperial Diet ('). Rulers of thes ...
of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
in 1002 and became a kingdom in 1198. Following the
Battle of Mohács The Battle of Mohács (; hu, Mohácsi csata, tr, Mohaç Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history. It was fought on 29 August 1526 near Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a mon ...

Battle of Mohács
in 1526, the whole
Crown of Bohemia The Lands of the Bohemian Crown were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are sometimes also considered parts of Western Europe, Sou ...
was gradually integrated into the
Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy (german: Donaumonarchie), or Habsburg Empire (german: Habsburgerreich) is a modern umbrella term In linguistics, hyponymy (from Greek language, Greek ὑπό, ''hupó'', "u ...

Habsburg Monarchy
. The
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
Bohemian Revolt The Bohemian Revolt (german: Böhmischer Aufstand; cs, České stavovské povstání; 1618–1620) was an uprising of the Bohemian estates against the rule of the Habsburg dynasty that began the Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' Wa ...
led to the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
. After the
Battle of the White Mountain ), near Prague Prague (; cs, Praha , german: Prag, la, Praga) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia (; cz, Česko ), is a l ...
, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule. With the dissolution of the Holy Empire in 1806, the Crown lands became part of the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural ...
. In the 19th century, the
Czech lands#REDIRECT Czech lands The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands ( cs, České země ) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia. Together the three have formed the Czech part of Czechoslovakia since 1918, the Czech Soci ...
became more industrialized, and in 1918 most of it became part of the
First Czechoslovak Republic The First Czechoslovak Republic ( cs, První československá republika, sk, Prvá česko-slovenská republika), often colloquially referred to as the First Republic ( cs, První republika), was the first state that existed from 1918 to 1938, d ...
following the collapse of
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exe ...

Austria-Hungary
after
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. Czechoslovakia was the only country in Central and Eastern Europe to remain a
parliamentary democracy A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democracy, democratic government, governance of a sovereign state, state (or subordinate entity) where the Executive (government), executive derives its democratic legitimacy fr ...
during the entirety of the
interwar period In the history of the 20th century, the Interwar period lasted from 11 November 1918 to 1 September 1939 (20 years, 9 months and 21 days), the end of the First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as t ...
.Timothy Garton Ash ''The Uses of Adversity'' Granta Books, 1991 p. 60 After the
Munich Agreement The Munich Agreement ( cs, Mnichovská dohoda; sk, Mníchovská dohoda; german: Münchner Abkommen) was an agreement concluded at on 30 September 1938, by , the , the , and the . It provided "cession to Germany of the Sudeten German territ ...
in 1938,
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
systematically took control over the Czech lands.
Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–19391945–1992 , p1 = Austria-Hungary , image_p1 = , s1 = Czech Re ...
was restored in 1945 and became an
Eastern Bloc The Eastern Bloc, also known as the Communist Bloc, the Socialist Bloc and the Soviet Bloc, was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, East Asia, and Southeast Asia under the influence of the Soviet Union and its ideology ...
communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

communist
state following a
coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an overthrow) is a seizure and removal of a government and its powers. Typically, it is an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a politic ...
in 1948. Attempts at a liberalization of the government and economy were suppressed by a
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovere ...
-led invasion of the country during the
Prague Spring#REDIRECT Prague Spring The Prague Spring ( cs, Pražské jaro, sk, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization and mass protest in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic ( Czech and sk, Česk ...
in 1968. In November 1989, the
Velvet Revolution The Velvet Revolution ( cs, sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution ( sk, nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989. Popular demonstrations agains ...
ended communist rule in the country, and on 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia was dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic is a
unitary Unitary may refer to: * Unitary construction, in automotive design a common term for unibody (unitary body/chassis) construction * Lethal Unitary Chemical Agents and Munitions (Unitary), as chemical weapons opposite of Binary * Unitarianism, in Chr ...
parliamentary republicThe Parliamentary Republic can refer to: * A republican form of government with a Parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democracy, democratic government, governance of a sovereign state, state (o ...
and
developed country A developed country (or industrialized country, high-income country, more economically developed country (MEDC), advanced country) is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized governm ...
with an advanced,
high-income A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita of US$12,536 or more in 2019, calculated using the Atlas method. While the term "high-income" is often used interchangeably with "First World" an ...
social market economy. It is a
welfare state The welfare state is a form of government in which the state (or a well-established network of social institutions) protects and promotes the economic and social well-being of its citizens, based upon the principles of equal opportunity Equal o ...
with a
European social model The European social model is a concept that emerged in the discussion of economic globalization Globalization, or globalisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is the process of interaction and integration among people, co ...
,
universal health care Universal healthcare (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, or universal care) is a health care system in which all residents of a particular country or region are assured access to health care. It is generally organized aroun ...
and tuition-free
university education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education, is an optional final stage of formal learning Formal learning is educati ...
. It ranks 12th in the UN inequality-adjusted human development and 24th in the World Bank Human Capital Index ahead of the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. It ranks as the
9th safest and most peaceful country
9th safest and most peaceful country
and 31st in
democratic governance
democratic governance
. The Czech Republic is a member of
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental military alliance between 27 European ...
, the
EU
EU
,
OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 38 member countries, founded in 1961 to st ...

OECD
,
OSCE The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) or international organization is an organization composed primarily o ...
, and the
CoE
CoE
.


Name

The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the
Boii The Boii (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it b ...
" ( Gallic tribe). The current English name comes from the
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
ethnonym associated with the area, which ultimately comes from the Czech word ''Čech''. The name comes from the Slavic tribe ( cs, Češi, Čechové) and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on
Říp Mountain Říp Mountain ( cs, hora Říp, ; german: anktGeorgsberg or Raudnitzer Berg), also known as Říp Hill, is a 459 m solitary hill rising up from the central Bohemian flatland where, according to legend, the first Czech people, Czechs settled. ...
. The etymology of the word ''Čech'' can be traced back to the
Proto-Slavic Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new company *''Perestroika'' (Russian for ...
root ''*čel-'', meaning "member of the people; kinsman", thus making it
cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
to the Czech word '' člověk'' (a person). The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in time had a culture, cultural, ethnic gr ...

Bohemia
(''Čechy'') in the west,
Moravia Moravia ( , also , ; cs, Morava ; german: link=no, Mähren ; pl, Morawy ; szl, Morawa; la, Moravia) is a in the east of the and one of three historical , with and . The medieval and early modern was a of the from 1348 to 1918, an ...

Moravia
(''Morava'') in the east, and
Czech Silesia Czech Silesia (, also , ; cs, České Slezsko; szl, Czeski Ślōnsk; sli, Tschechisch-Schläsing; german: Tschechisch-Schlesien; pl, Śląsk Czeski) is the name given to the part of the historical region Historical regions (or historical are ...
(''Slezsko''; the smaller, south-eastern part of
historical Silesia
historical Silesia
, most of which is located within modern Poland) in the northeast. Known as the ''lands of the Bohemian Crown'' since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including ''Czech/Bohemian lands'', ''Bohemian Crown'', ''Czechia'' and the ''lands of the Crown of
Saint Wenceslas In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holiness, likeness, or closeness to God. However, the use of the term "saint" depends on the context and Christian denomination, denomination. ...
''. When the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the
Austro-Hungarian empire Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exer ...

Austro-Hungarian empire
in 1918, the new name of ''Czechoslovakia'' was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within one country. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs recommended ''Czechia'' for the English short name. This form was not adopted at the time, leading to the long name ''Czech Republic'' being used in all circumstances. The Czech government approved ''Czechia'' as the official English short name in 2016. The short name has been listed by the United Nations and is used by other organizations such as the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
, the
CIA The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; ), known informally as "The Agency" and "The Company", is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States The federal government of the United States (U.S. ...
, and
Google Maps Google Maps is a web mapping Web most often refers to: * Spider web, a silken structure created by the animal * World Wide Web upright=1.35, A global map of the web index for countries in 2014 The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly know ...

Google Maps
.


Geography

The Czech Republic lies mostly between latitudes 48° and
51° N
51° N
and longitudes 12° and 19° E.
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in time had a culture, cultural, ethnic gr ...

Bohemia
, to the west, consists of a basin drained by the
Elbe The Elbe (, ; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo), historically in English also Elve, is one of the major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake o ...

Elbe
( cs, Labe) and the
Vltava The Vltava ( , ; german: Moldau ) is the longest river in the Czech Republic, running southeast along the Bohemian Forest and then north across Bohemia, through Český Krumlov, České Budějovice and Prague, and finally merging with the Elbe a ...

Vltava
rivers, surrounded by mostly low mountains, such as the
Krkonoše The Krkonoše, Karkonosze or Giant Mountains ( Czech: , Polish: , German: ''Riesengebirge'', Silesian German Silesian (Silesian: ', german: Schlesisch), Silesian German or Lower Silesian is a nearly extinct German dialect spoken in Silesia. ...

Krkonoše
range of the
Sudetes The Sudetes ( ; pl, Sudety; german: Sudeten; cs, Krkonošsko-jesenická subprovincie) are a in , shared by , and the . They are the highest part of . They stretch from the capital of in the northwest across to the region of in Poland and ...
. The highest point in the country,
Sněžka
Sněžka
at , is located here. Moravia, the eastern part of the country, is also hilly. It is drained mainly by the Morava River, but it also contains the source of the
Oder The Oder ( , ; Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is ...

Oder
River ( cs, Odra). Water from the Czech Republic flows to three different seas: the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
,
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that a ...

Baltic Sea
, and
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
. The Czech Republic also leases the
Moldauhafen Moldauhafen (Vltava The Vltava ( , ; german: Moldau ) is the longest river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and ...
, a
lot Lot or LOT may refer to: Common meanings Areas *Land lot, an area of land *Parking lot, for automobiles *Backlot, in movie production Sets of items *Lot number, in batch production *Lot, a set of goods for sale together in an auction; or a quantit ...
in the middle of the
Hamburg
Hamburg
Docks, which was awarded to Czechoslovakia by Article 363 of the
Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles (french: Traité de Versailles; german: Versailler Vertrag, ) was the most important of the peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government ...
, to allow the landlocked country a place where goods transported down river could be transferred to seagoing ships. The territory reverts to Germany in 2028.
Phytogeographically Phytogeography (from Greek language, Greek φυτόν, ''phytón'' = "plant" and γεωγραφία, ''geographía'' = "geography" meaning also distribution) or botanical geography is the branch of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic ...
, the Czech Republic belongs to the Central European province of the
Circumboreal Region The Circumboreal Region in phytogeography Phytogeography (from Greek φυτόν, ''phytón'' = "plant" and γεωγραφία, ''geographía'' = "geography" meaning also distribution) or botanical geography is the branch of biogeography that i ...
, within the
Boreal Kingdom '' on Lüneburg Heath near Schneverdingen Lüneburg Heath (german: Lüneburger Heide) is a large area of heath (habitat), heath, geest Geest is a type of landform, slightly raised above the surrounding countryside, that occurs on the plai ...
. According to the
World Wide Fund for Nature The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization An international non-governmental organization (INGO) is an organization which is independent of government involvement and extends the concept of a non-go ...
, the territory of the Czech Republic can be subdivided into four
ecoregion An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecologically Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including h ...
s: the
Western European broadleaf forests The Western European broadleaf forests is an ecoregion An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecology, ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than a bi ...
,
Central European mixed forests The Central European mixed forests ecoregion An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecology, ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than a biogeographi ...
, Pannonian mixed forests, and Carpathian montane conifer forests. There are four
national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state dec ...

national park
s in the Czech Republic. The oldest is Krkonoše National Park (
Biosphere Reserve A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area) is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna, or features of ...
), and the others are
Šumava National Park
Šumava National Park
(Biosphere Reserve), Podyjí National Park, Bohemian Switzerland. The three historical lands of the Czech Republic (formerly some countries of the Bohemian Crown) correspond with the river basins of the Elbe and the Vltava basin for Bohemia, the Morava one for Moravia, and the Oder river basin for Czech Silesia (in terms of the Czech territory).


Climate

The Czech Republic has a temperate climate, situated in the transition zone between the oceanic climate, oceanic and continental climate types, with warm summers and cold, cloudy and snowy winters. The temperature difference between summer and winter is due to the landlocked geographical position. Temperatures vary depending on the elevation. In general, at higher altitudes, the temperatures decrease and precipitation (meteorology), precipitation increases. The wettest area in the Czech Republic is found around Bílý Potok (Liberec District), Bílý Potok in Jizera Mountains and the driest region is the Louny District to the northwest of Prague. Another factor is the distribution of the mountains. At the highest peak of
Sněžka
Sněžka
(), the average temperature is , whereas in the lowlands of the South Moravian Region, the average temperature is as high as . The country's capital, Prague, has a similar average temperature, although this is influenced by urban factors. The coldest month is usually January, followed by February and December. During these months, there is snow in the mountains and sometimes in the cities and lowlands. During March, April, and May, the temperature usually increases, especially during April, when the temperature and weather tends to vary during the day. Spring is also characterized by higher water levels in the rivers, due to melting snow with occasional flooding. The warmest month of the year is July, followed by August and June. On average, summer temperatures are about higher than during winter. Summer is also characterized by rain and storms. Autumn generally begins in September, which is still warm and dry. During October, temperatures usually fall below or and deciduous trees begin to shed their leaves. By the end of November, temperatures usually range around the freezing point. The coldest temperature ever measured was in Litvínovice near České Budějovice in 1929, at and the hottest measured, was at in Dobřichovice in 2012. Most rain falls during the summer. Sporadic rainfall is throughout the year (in Prague, the average number of days per month experiencing at least of rain varies from 12 in September and October to 16 in November) but concentrated rainfall (days with more than per day) are more frequent in the months of May to August (average around two such days per month). Severe thunderstorms, producing damaging straight-line winds, hail, and occasional tornadoes occur, especially during the summer period.


Environment

As of 2020, the Czech Republic ranks as the 21st most environmentally conscious country in the world in Environmental Performance Index. It had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 1.71/10, ranking it 160th globally out of 172 countries. The Czech Republic has four National Parks (
Šumava National Park
Šumava National Park
, Krkonoše National Park, České Švýcarsko National Park, Podyjí National Park) and 25 Protected Landscape Areas.


History


Prehistory

Archaeologists have found evidence of prehistoric human settlements in the area, dating back to the Paleolithic era. In the classical era, as a result of the 3rd century BC Celts, Celtic migrations, Bohemia became associated with the
Boii The Boii (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it b ...
. The Boii founded an oppidum near the site of modern Prague. Later in the 1st century, the Germanic tribes of the Marcomanni and Quadi settled there. Slavs from the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
–Carpathian Mountains, Carpathian region settled in the area (their migration was pushed by an invasion of peoples from Siberia and Eastern Europe into their area: Huns, Avars (Carpathians), Avars, Bulgars and Hungarian people, Magyars). In the sixth century, the Huns had moved westwards into Bohemia, Moravia, and some of present-day Austria and Germany. During the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting against nearby settled Pannonian Avars, Avars, became the ruler of the first documented Slavic state in Central Europe, Samo's Empire. The principality of
Great Moravia Great Moravia ( la, Regnum Marahensium; el, Μεγάλη Μοραβία, ''Meghálī Moravía''; cz, Velká Morava ; sk, Veľká Morava ; pl, Wielkie Morawy), or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavs, West ...

Great Moravia
, controlled by House of Mojmir, Moymir dynasty, arose in the 8th century. It reached its zenith in the 9th (during the reign of Svatopluk I of Moravia), holding off the influence of the Franks. Great Moravia was Christianized, with a role being played by the Byzantine Empire, Byzantine mission of Cyril and Methodius. They codified the Old Church Slavonic language, the first literary and liturgical language of the Slavs, and the Glagolitic alphabet.


Bohemia

The
Duchy of Bohemia The Duchy of Bohemia, also later referred to in English as the Czech Duchy, ( cs, České knížectví) was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New Coll ...
emerged in the late 9th century when it was unified by the Přemyslid dynasty. Bohemia was from 1002 until 1806 an Imperial State of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
. In 1212, Ottokar I of Bohemia, Přemysl Ottokar I extracted the Golden Bull of Sicily from the emperor, confirming Ottokar and his descendants' royal status; the Duchy of Bohemia was raised to a Realm, Kingdom. German immigrants settled in the Bohemian periphery in the 13th century. The Mongol Empire, Mongols in the Mongol invasion of Europe, invasion of Europe carried their raids into Moravia but were defensively defeated at Olomouc. After a series of dynastic wars, the House of Luxembourg gained the Bohemian throne. Efforts for a Bohemian Reformation, reform of the church in Bohemia started already in the late 14th century. Jan Hus's followers seceded from some practices of the Roman Church and in the Hussite Wars (1419–1434) defeated five crusades organized against them by Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, Sigismund. During the next two centuries, 90% of the population in Bohemia and Moravia were considered Hussites. The pacifist thinker Petr Chelčický inspired the movement of the Unity of the Brethren (Czech Republic), Bohemian Brethren (by the middle of the 15th century) that completely separated from the Roman Catholic Church. After 1526 Bohemia came increasingly under House of Habsburg, Habsburg control as the Habsburgs became first the elected and then in 1627 the hereditary rulers of Bohemia. Between 1583 and 1611 Prague was the official seat of the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf II and his court. The Defenestrations of Prague, Defenestration of Prague and subsequent revolt against the Habsburgs in 1618 marked the start of the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
. In 1620, the rebellion in Bohemia was crushed at the Battle of White Mountain and the ties between Bohemia and the Habsburgs' hereditary lands in Austria were strengthened. The leaders of the
Bohemian Revolt The Bohemian Revolt (german: Böhmischer Aufstand; cs, České stavovské povstání; 1618–1620) was an uprising of the Bohemian estates against the rule of the Habsburg dynasty that began the Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' Wa ...
were Old Town Square execution, executed in 1621. The nobility and the middle class Protestants had to either convert to Catholicism or leave the country. In the "Dark Age" of 1620 to the late 18th century, the population of the
Czech lands#REDIRECT Czech lands The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands ( cs, České země ) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia. Together the three have formed the Czech part of Czechoslovakia since 1918, the Czech Soci ...
declined by a third through the expulsion of Czech Protestants as well as due to the war, disease and Famines in Czech lands, famine. The Habsburgs prohibited all Christian confessions other than Catholic Church, Catholicism. The flowering of Czech Baroque architecture, Baroque culture shows the ambiguity of this historical period. Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turks and Crimean Khanate, Tatars invaded Moravia in 1663. In 1679–1680 the Czech lands faced the Great Plague of Vienna and an uprising of serfs. There were peasant uprisings influenced by famine. Serfdom was abolished between 1781 and 1848. Several battles of the Napoleonic Wars took place on the current territory of the Czech Republic. The end of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
in 1806 led to degradation of the political status of Bohemia which lost its position of an Prince-elector, electorate of the Holy Roman Empire as well as its own political representation in the Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Imperial Diet. Bohemian lands became part of the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural ...
. During the 18th and 19th century the Czech National Revival began its rise, with the purpose to revive Czech language, culture, and national identity. The Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire, Revolution of 1848 in Prague, striving for liberal reforms and autonomy of the Bohemian Crown within the Austrian Empire, was suppressed. It seemed that some concessions would be made also to Bohemia, but in the end, the Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, Franz Joseph I affected a compromise with Hungary only. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and the never realized coronation of Franz Joseph as King of Bohemia led to a disappointment of some Czech politicians. The Bohemian Crown lands became part of the so-called Cisleithania. The Czech Social Democratic and progressive politicians started the fight for universal suffrage. The first elections under Universal suffrage, universal male suffrage were held in 1907.


Czechoslovakia

In 1918, during the collapse of the
Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy (german: Donaumonarchie), or Habsburg Empire (german: Habsburgerreich) is a modern umbrella term In linguistics, hyponymy (from Greek language, Greek ὑπό, ''hupó'', "u ...

Habsburg Monarchy
at the end of World War I, the independent republic of Czechoslovakia, which joined the winning Allied powers, was created, with Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk in the lead. This new country incorporated the Bohemian Crown. The
First Czechoslovak Republic The First Czechoslovak Republic ( cs, První československá republika, sk, Prvá česko-slovenská republika), often colloquially referred to as the First Republic ( cs, První republika), was the first state that existed from 1918 to 1938, d ...
comprised only 27% of the population of the former Austria-Hungary, but nearly 80% of the industry, which enabled it to compete with Western industrial states.Stephen J. Lee. ''Aspects of European History 1789–1980''. Page 107. Chapter "Austria-Hungary and the successor states". Routledge. 28 January 2008. In 1929 compared to 1913, the gross domestic product increased by 52% and industrial production by 41%. In 1938 Czechoslovakia held 10th place in the world industrial production. Czechoslovakia was the only country in Central and Eastern Europe to remain a democracy throughout the entire the interwar period. Although the First Czechoslovak Republic was a unitary state, it provided certain rights to its minorities, the largest being Germans in Czechoslovakia (1918–1938), Germans (23.6% in 1921), Hungarians (5.6%) and Ukrainians (3.5%). Western Czechoslovakia was German occupation of Czechoslovakia, occupied by Nazi Germany, which placed most of the region into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. The Protectorate was proclaimed part of the Third Reich, and the president and prime minister were subordinated to Nazi Germany's ''Protector (title), Reichsprotektor''. Theresienstadt concentration camp, One Nazi concentration camp was located within the Czech territory at Terezín, north of Prague. The vast majority of the Protectorate's Jews were murdered in Nazi-run concentration camps. The Nazi ''Generalplan Ost'' called for the extermination, expulsion, Germanization or enslavement of most or all Czechs for the purpose of providing more Lebensraum, living space for the German people. There was Resistance in German-occupied Czechoslovakia, Czechoslovak resistance to Nazi occupation as well as reprisals against the Czechoslovaks for their anti-Nazi resistance. The German occupation ended on 9 May 1945, with the arrival of the Soviet and American armies and the Prague uprising. Most of Czechoslovakia's German-speakers were forcibly expelled from the country, first as a result of local acts of violence and then under the aegis of an "organized transfer" sanctified by the Soviet Union, the United States, and Great Britain at the Potsdam Conference . In the Czechoslovakian parliamentary election, 1946, 1946 elections, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Communist Party gained 38% of the votes and became the largest party in the Czechoslovak parliament, formed a coalition with other parties, and consolidated power. A
coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an overthrow) is a seizure and removal of a government and its powers. Typically, it is an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a politic ...
came in 1948 and a single-party government was formed. For the History of Czechoslovakia (1948–1989), next 41 years, the Czechoslovak Communist state is characterized by certain
Eastern Bloc The Eastern Bloc, also known as the Communist Bloc, the Socialist Bloc and the Soviet Bloc, was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, East Asia, and Southeast Asia under the influence of the Soviet Union and its ideology ...
's economic and political features. The
Prague Spring#REDIRECT Prague Spring The Prague Spring ( cs, Pražské jaro, sk, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization and mass protest in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic ( Czech and sk, Česk ...
political liberalization was stopped by the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. Analysts believe that the invasion caused the communist movement to fracture, ultimately leading to the Revolutions of 1989.


Czech Republic

In November 1989, Czechoslovakia returned to a liberal democracy through the
Velvet Revolution The Velvet Revolution ( cs, sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution ( sk, nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989. Popular demonstrations agains ...
. However, Slovak national aspirations strengthened (Hyphen War) and on 1 January 1993, the Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, country peacefully split into the independent country, countries of the Czech Republic and
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
. Both countries went through economic reforms and privatizations, with the intention of creating a market economy. This process was largely successful; in 2006 the Czech Republic was recognized by the World Bank as a "developed country", and in 2009 the Human Development Index ranked it as a nation of "Very High Human Development". From 1991, the Czech Republic, originally as part of Czechoslovakia and since 1993 in its own right, has been a member of the Visegrád Group and from 1995, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD. The Czech Republic joined
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental military alliance between 27 European ...
on 12 March 1999 and the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
on 1 May 2004. On 21 December 2007 the Czech Republic joined the Schengen Area. Until 2017, either the Czech Social Democratic Party or the Civic Democratic Party (Czech Republic), Civic Democratic Party led the governments of the Czech Republic. In October 2017, populist movement ANO 2011, led by the country's second-richest man, Andrej Babiš, won the 2017 Czech legislative election, elections with three times more votes than its closest rival, the centre-right Civic Democrats. In December 2017, Czech President Miloš Zeman appointed Andrej Babiš as the new prime minister. Following the results of the 2021 Czech legislative election, October 2021 election, Petr Fiala became the new Prime Minister. He formed a three-party coalition of Civic Democratic Party (Czech Republic), Civic Democratic Party, KDU-ČSL and TOP 09. In the election ther alliance, Spolu (Czech Republic), Spolu, narrowly defeated the ANO movement.


Government

The Czech Republic is a pluralist multi-party parliamentary democracy, parliamentary representative democracy. The Parliament of the Czech Republic, Parliament (''Parlament České republiky'') is bicameral, with the Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic, Chamber of Deputies ( cs, Poslanecká sněmovna, 200 members) and the Senate of the Czech Republic, Senate ( cs, Senát, 81 members). The Member of Parliament#Czech Republic, members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected for a four-year term by proportional representation, with a 5% election threshold. There are 14 voting districts, identical to the country's administrative regions. The Chamber of Deputies, the successor to the Czech National Council, has the powers and responsibilities of the now defunct federal parliament of the former Czechoslovakia. The members of the Senate are elected in single-seat electoral district, constituencies by two-round Two-round system, runoff voting for a six-year term, with one-third elected every even year in the autumn. This arrangement is modeled on the United States Senate, U.S. Senate, but each constituency is roughly the same size and the voting system used is a two-round runoff. The president is a formal head of state with limited and specific powers, who appoints the prime minister, as well the other members of the cabinet on a proposal by the prime minister. From 1993 until 2012, the President of the Czech Republic was selected by a joint session of the parliament for a five-year term, with no more than two consecutive terms (2x Václav Havel, 2x Václav Klaus). Since 2013 the presidential election is direct. Some commentators have argued that, with the introduction of direct election of the President, the Czech Republic has moved away from the parliamentary system and towards a Semi-presidential system, semi-presidential one. The Government of the Czech Republic, Government's exercise of executive power derives from the Constitution of the Czech Republic, Constitution. The members of the government are the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, Prime Minister, Deputy prime ministers and other ministers. The Government is responsible to the Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic, Chamber of Deputies. The Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, Prime Minister is the head of government and wields powers such as the right to set the agenda for most foreign and domestic policy and choose government ministers. , President of the Czech Republic, President , Miloš Zeman , Party of Civic Rights, SPOZ , 8 March 2013 , - , President of the Senate of the Czech Republic, President of the Senate , Miloš Vystrčil , Civic Democratic Party (Czech Republic), ODS , 19 February 2020 , - , President of the Chamber of Deputies (Czech Republic), Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies , Markéta Pekarová Adamová , TOP 09 , 10 November 2021 , - , Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, Prime Minister , Petr Fiala , Civic Democratic Party (Czech Republic), ODS , 28 November 2021


Law

The Czech Republic is a unitary state, with a Civil law (legal system), civil law system based on the continental type, rooted in Germanic legal culture. The basis of the legal system is the Constitution of the Czech Republic adopted in 1993. The Criminal code, Penal Code is effective from 2010. A new Civil code became effective in 2014. The court system includes district, county, and supreme courts and is divided into civil, criminal, and administrative branches. The Czech judiciary has a triumvirate of supreme courts. The Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic, Constitutional Court consists of 15 constitutional judges and oversees violations of the Constitution of the Czech Republic, Constitution by either the legislature or by the Government of the Czech Republic, government. The Supreme Court of the Czech Republic, Supreme Court is formed of 67 judges and is the court of highest appeal for most legal cases heard in the Czech Republic. The Supreme Administrative Court of the Czech Republic, Supreme Administrative Court decides on issues of procedural and administrative propriety. It also has jurisdiction over certain political matters, such as the formation and closure of political parties, jurisdictional boundaries between government entities, and the eligibility of persons to stand for public office. The Supreme Court and the Supreme Administrative Court are both based in Brno, as is the Supreme Public Prosecutor's Office.


Foreign relations

The Czech Republic has ranked as Global Peace Index, one of the safest or most peaceful countries for the past few decades. It is a member of the United Nations, the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
,
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental military alliance between 27 European ...
,
OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 38 member countries, founded in 1961 to st ...

OECD
, Council of Europe and is an observer to the Organization of American States. The embassies of most countries with diplomatic relations with the Czech Republic are located in Prague, while Consul (representative), consulates are located across the country. The Czech passport is Visa requirements for Czech citizens, restricted by visas. According to the 2018 Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index, Czech citizens have visa-free access to 173 countries, which ranks them 7th along with Malta and New Zealand. The World Tourism Organization ranks the Czech passport 24th. The US Visa Waiver Program applies to Czech nationals. The Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic, Minister of Foreign Affairs have primary roles in setting foreign policy, although the President of the Czech Republic, President also has influence and represents the country abroad. Membership in the European Union and NATO is central to the Czech Republic's foreign policy. The Office for Foreign Relations and Information (ÚZSI) serves as the foreign intelligence agency responsible for espionage and foreign policy briefings, as well as protection of Czech Republic's embassies abroad. The Czech Republic has ties with
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
,
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...

Poland
and Hungary as a member of the Visegrad Group, as well as with Germany, Israel, the United States and the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
and its Members of the European Union, members. Czech officials have supported dissenters in Belarus, Moldova, Myanmar and Cuba.


Military

The Army of the Czech Republic, Czech armed forces consist of the Czech Land Forces, the Czech Air Force and of specialized support units. The armed forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence (Czech Republic), Ministry of Defence. The President of the Czech Republic is Commander-in-chief of the armed forces. In 2004 the army transformed itself into a fully professional organization and compulsory military service was abolished. The country has been a member of
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental military alliance between 27 European ...
since 12 March 1999. Defence spending is approximately 1.28% of the GDP (2021). The armed forces are charged with protecting the Czech Republic and its allies, promoting global security interests, and contributing to NATO. Currently, as a member of NATO, the Czech military are participating in the Resolute Support Mission, Resolute Support and Kosovo Force, KFOR operations and have soldiers in Afghanistan, Mali, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Egypt, Israel and Operation Atalanta, Somalia. The Czech Air Force also served in the Baltic states and Iceland. The main equipment of the Czech military includes Saab JAS 39 Gripen, JAS 39 Gripen multi-role fighters, Aero L-159 Alca combat aircraft, Mil Mi-24, Mi-35 attack helicopters, armored vehicles (Pandur II, OT-64 SKOT, OT-64, OT-90, BMP-2, BVP-2) and tanks (T-72 and T-72M4CZ).


Administrative divisions

Since 2000, the Czech Republic has been divided into Regions of the Czech Republic, thirteen regions (Czech language, Czech: wikt:en:kraj#Czech, ''kraje'', singular ''kraj'') and the capital city of Prague. Every region has its own elected regional assembly and a regional governor. In Prague, the assembly and presidential powers are executed by the city council and the mayor. The older seventy-six Districts of the Czech Republic, districts (''okresy'', singular ''okres'') including three "statutory cities" (without Prague, which had special status) lost most of their importance in 1999 in an administrative reform; they remain as territorial divisions and seats of various branches of state administration. The smallest administrative units are Obec, ''obce'' (municipalities). As of 2021, the Czech Republic is divided into 6,254 municipalities. Cities and towns are also municipalities. The capital city of Prague is a region and municipality at the same time.


Economy

The Czech Republic has a IMF advanced economy list, developed,
high-income A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita of US$12,536 or more in 2019, calculated using the Atlas method. While the term "high-income" is often used interchangeably with "First World" an ...
Trading nation, export-oriented social market economy based in services, manufacturing and innovation, that maintains a
welfare state The welfare state is a form of government in which the state (or a well-established network of social institutions) protects and promotes the economic and social well-being of its citizens, based upon the principles of equal opportunity Equal o ...
and the
European social model The European social model is a concept that emerged in the discussion of economic globalization Globalization, or globalisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is the process of interaction and integration among people, co ...
. The Czech Republic participates in the European Single Market as a member of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
and is therefore a part of the economy of the European Union, but uses its own currency, the Czech koruna, instead of the euro. It has a per capita GDP rate that is 91% of the EU average and is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD. Monetary policy is conducted by the Czech National Bank, whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution of the Czech Republic, Constitution. The Czech Republic ranks 12th in the UN inequality-adjusted human development and 24th in World Bank Human Capital Index. It was described by ''The Guardian'' as "one of Europe's most flourishing economies". The COVID-19 pandemic had an expected negative impact on the Czech economy, but economists predict the growth of 3,9% in 2021 and then 4,3% in 2022. , the country's GDP per capita at purchasing power parity is $40,793 and $22,942 at Real versus nominal value (economics), nominal value. According to Allianz A.G., in 2018 the country was an MWC (mean wealth country), ranking 26th in net financial assets. The country experienced a 4.5% Economic growth, GDP growth in 2017. The 2016 unemployment rate was the lowest in the EU at 2.4%,Unemployment rates, seasonally adjusted, September 2016
. Eurostat.
and the 2016 poverty rate was the second lowest of OECD members.Federica Cocco
Israel and the US have the highest poverty rates in the developed world
. ''Financial Times''. Published on 19 October 2016.
Czech Republic ranks 27th in the 2021 Index of Economic Freedom, 24th in the 2016 Global Innovation Index, 29th in the Global Competitiveness Report, 41st in the ease of doing business index and 25th in the Global Enabling Trade Report. The Czech Republic has a diverse economy that List of countries by economic complexity, ranks 7th in the 2016 Economic Complexity Index.Economic Complexity Rankings (ECI)
. The Atlas of Economic Complexity. Access date 3 October 2017.
The industrial sector accounts for 37.5% of the economy, while services account for 60% and agriculture for 2.5%. The largest trading partner for both export and import is
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
and the EU in general. Dividends worth CZK 270 billion were paid to the Foreign ownership, foreign owners of Czech companies in 2017, which has become a political issue. The country has been a member of the Schengen Area since 1 May 2004, having abolished border controls, completely opening its borders with all of its neighbors on 21 December 2007.


Industry

In 2018 the List of companies of the Czech Republic#Largest by revenue, largest companies by revenue in the Czech Republic were: one of the car automobile manufacturers in Central Europe Škoda Auto, utility company ČEZ Group, conglomerate Agrofert, energy trading company Energetický a průmyslový holding, EPH, oil processing company Unipetrol, electronics manufacturer Foxconn CZ and steel producer Třinec Iron and Steel Works, Moravia Steel. Other Czech transportation companies include: Škoda Transportation (tramways, trolleybuses, metro), Tatra (company), Tatra (heavy trucks, the second oldest car maker in the world), Avia (medium trucks), Karosa and SOR Libchavy (buses), Aero Vodochody (military aircraft), Let Kunovice (civil aircraft), Zetor (tractors), Jawa Moto (motorcycles) and Česká zbrojovka Strakonice, Čezeta (electric scooters). Škoda Transportation is the fourth largest tram producer in the world; nearly one third of all trams in the world come from Czech factories. The Czech Republic is also the world's largest Phonograph record, vinyl records manufacturer, with GZ Media producing about 6 million pieces annually in Loděnice (Beroun District), Loděnice. Česká zbrojovka Uherský Brod, Česká zbrojovka is among the ten largest firearms producers in the world and five who produce automatic weapons. In the food industry succeeded companies Agrofert, Kofola and Hamé (company), Hamé.


Energy

Production of Czech electricity exceeds consumption by about 10 Kilowatt hour, TWh per year, which are exported. Nuclear power presently provides about 30 percent of the total power needs, its share is projected to increase to 40 percent. In 2005, 65.4 percent of electricity was produced by steam and combustion power plants (mostly coal); 30 percent by nuclear power, nuclear plants; and 4.6 percent from renewable sources, including hydropower. The largest Czech power resource is Temelín Nuclear Power Station, with another nuclear power plant in Dukovany Nuclear Power Station, Dukovany. The Czech Republic is reducing its dependence on highly polluting low-grade Lignite, brown coal as a source of energy. Natural gas is procured from Russian Gazprom, roughly three-fourths of domestic consumption, and from Norwegian companies, which make up most of the remaining one-fourth. Russian gas is imported via Ukraine, Norwegian gas is transported through Germany. Gas consumption (approx. 100 TWh in 2003–2005) is almost double electricity consumption. South Moravia has small Oil and gas deposits in the Czech Republic, oil and gas deposits.


Transportation infrastructure

As of 2020, the road network in the Czech Republic is long, out of which are motorways. The Speed limits by country, speed limit is 50 km/h within towns, 90 km/h outside of towns and 130 km/h on motorways. The Czech Republic has one of the List of countries by rail transport network size, densest rail networks in the world. As of 2020, the country has of lines. Of that number, is electrified, are single-line tracks and are double and multiple-line tracks. The length of tracks is , out of which is electrified. České dráhy (the Czech Railways) is the main railway operator in the country, with about 180 million passengers carried yearly. Maximum speed is limited to 160 km/h. Václav Havel Airport Prague, Václav Havel Airport in Prague is the main international airport in the country. In 2019, it handled 17.8 million passengers. In total, the Czech Republic has List of airports in the Czech Republic, 91 airports, six of which provide international air services. The public international airports are in Brno–Tuřany Airport, Brno, Karlovy Vary Airport, Karlovy Vary, Mnichovo Hradiště Airport, Mnichovo Hradiště, Leoš Janáček Airport Ostrava, Mošnov (near Ostrava), Pardubice Airport, Pardubice and Prague. The non-public international airports capable of handling airliners are in Kunovice Airport, Kunovice and Vodochody Airport, Vodochody. Russia, via pipelines through Ukraine and to a lesser extent, Norway, via pipelines through Germany, supply the Czech Republic with liquid and natural gas.


Communications and IT

The Czech Republic ranks in the top 10 countries worldwide with the fastest average internet speed. By the beginning of 2008, there were over 800 mostly local Wireless Internet service provider, WISPs, with about 350,000 subscribers in 2007. Plans based on either General Packet Radio Service, GPRS, Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution, EDGE, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, UMTS or CDMA2000 are being offered by all three mobile phone operators (T-Mobile, O2, Vodafone) and internet provider U:fon. Government-owned Český Telecom slowed down broadband penetration. At the beginning of 2004, local-loop unbundling began and alternative operators started to offer ADSL and also Symmetric digital subscriber line, SDSL. This and later privatization of Český Telecom helped drive down prices. On 1 July 2006, Český Telecom was acquired by globalized company (Spain-owned) Telefónica group and adopted the new name Telefónica O2 Czech Republic. , VDSL and ADSL2+ are offered in variants, with download speeds of up to 50 Mbit/s and upload speeds of up to 5 Mbit/s. Cable internet is gaining more popularity with its higher download speeds ranging from 50 Mbit/s to 1 Gbit/s. Two computer security companies, Avast and AVG Technologies, AVG, were founded in the Czech Republic. In 2016, Avast led by Pavel Baudiš bought rival AVG for United States dollar, US$1.3 billion, together at the time, these companies had a user base of about 400 million people and 40% of the consumer market outside of China. Avast is the leading provider of antivirus software, with a 20.5% market share.


Tourism

Prague is the fifth most visited city in Europe after London, Paris, Istanbul and Rome. In 2001, the total earnings from tourism reached 118 billion Czech koruna, CZK, making up 5.5% of Measures of national income and output, GNP and 9% of overall export earnings. The industry employs more than 110,000 people – over 1% of the population. Guidebooks and tourists reporting overcharging by taxi drivers and pickpocketing problems are mainly in Prague, though the situation has improved recently. Since 2005, Prague's mayor, Pavel Bém, has worked to improve this reputation by cracking down on petty crime and, aside from these problems, Prague is a "safe" city. The Czech Republic's crime rate is described as "low". One of the tourist attractions in the Czech Republic is the Nether district Vítkovice in Ostrava. The Czech Republic boasts List of World Heritage Sites in the Czech Republic, 16 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 3 of them are transnational. , further 14 sites are on the tentative list. Architectural heritage is an object of interest to visitors – it includes List of castles in the Czech Republic, castles and châteaux from different historical epoques, namely Karlštejn Castle, Český Krumlov and the Lednice–Valtice Cultural Landscape. There are 12 List of cathedrals in the Czech Republic, cathedrals and 15 churches elevated to the rank of Minor basilica, basilica by the Pope, calm monasteries. Away from the towns, areas such as Bohemian Paradise, Bohemian Forest and the Giant Mountains attract visitors seeking outdoor pursuits. There is a number of beer festivals. The country is also known for its various List of museums in the Czech Republic, museums. puppeteer, Puppetry and marionette exhibitions are with a number of puppet theatre festival, festivals throughout the country. Aquapalace Prague in Čestlice is the largest water park in the country.


Science

The
Czech lands#REDIRECT Czech lands The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands ( cs, České země ) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia. Together the three have formed the Czech part of Czechoslovakia since 1918, the Czech Soci ...
have a long and well-documented history of scientific innovation. Today, the Czech Republic has a highly sophisticated, developed, high-performing, innovation-oriented scientific community supported by the government, industry, and leading Czech Universities. Czech scientists are embedded members of the global scientific community. They contribute annually to multiple international academic journals and collaborate with their colleagues across boundaries and fields. The Czech Republic was ranked 24th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, up from 26th in 2019. Historically, the
Czech lands#REDIRECT Czech lands The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands ( cs, České země ) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia. Together the three have formed the Czech part of Czechoslovakia since 1918, the Czech Soci ...
, especially Prague, have been the seat of scientific discovery going back to early modern times, including Tycho Brahe, Nicolaus Copernicus, and Johannes Kepler. In 1784 the scientific community was first formally organized under the charter of the Royal Czech Society of Sciences. Currently, this organization is known as the Czech Academy of Sciences. Similarly, the
Czech lands#REDIRECT Czech lands The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands ( cs, České země ) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia. Together the three have formed the Czech part of Czechoslovakia since 1918, the Czech Soci ...
have a well-established history of scientists, including Nobel laureates biochemists Gerty Cori, Gerty and Carl Ferdinand Cori, chemist Jaroslav Heyrovský and physicist Peter Grünberg. Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was born in Příbor, Gregor Mendel, the founder of genetics, was born in Hynčice (Vražné), Hynčice and has spent most of his life in Brno. Most of the scientific research was recorded in Latin or in German and archived in libraries supported and managed by religious groups and other denominations as evidenced by historical locations of international renown and heritage such as the Strahov Monastery and the Clementinum in Prague. Increasingly, Czech scientists publish their work and that of their history in English.


Demographics

The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2020 was estimated at 1.71 children born/woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1. The Czech Republic's population subsequently has an average age of 43.3 years. The life expectancy in 2021 is estimated at 79.5 years (76.55 years male, 82.61 years female). About 77,000 people immigrate to the Czech Republic annually. Vietnamese people in the Czech Republic, Vietnamese immigrants began settling in the country during the Communist period, when they were invited as guest workers by the Czechoslovak government. In 2009, there were about 70,000 Vietnamese in the Czech Republic. Most decide to stay in the country permanently. According to results of the 2011 census, the majority of the inhabitants of the Czech Republic are Czechs (64.3%), followed by Moravians (ethnic group), Moravians (5.0%), Slovaks (1.4%), Ukrainians (0.5%), Poles (0.4%), Vietnamese people, Viets (0.3%), Germans (0.2%) and Silesians (0.1%). As the 'nationality' was an optional item, a number of people left this field blank (25.3%). According to some estimates, there are about 250,000 Romani people in the Czech Republic. The Polish minority in the Czech Republic, Polish minority resides mainly in the Zaolzie region. There were 496,413 (4.5% of population) foreigners residing in the country in 2016, according to the Czech Statistical Office, with the largest groups being Ukrainians in the Czech Republic, Ukrainian (22%), Slovaks in the Czech Republic, Slovak (22%), Vietnamese people, Vietnamese (12%), Russians, Russian (7%) and Germans in the Czech Republic, German (4%). Most of the foreign population lives in Prague (37.3%) and Central Bohemia Region (13.2%). The History of the Jews in the Czech Republic, Jewish population of Bohemia and Moravia, 118,000 according to the 1930 census, was nearly annihilated by the Nazi Germans during the Holocaust. There were approximately 3,900 Jews in the Czech Republic in 2021. The former Czech prime minister, Jan Fischer (politician), Jan Fischer, is of Jewish faith.


Largest cities


Religion

The Czech Republic has 75% to 79% of people not declaring any religion or faith in polls and the percentage of convinced Atheism, atheists being third highest (30%) behind China (47%) and Japan (31%).Global Index of Religion and AtheismPress Release
. 2012. secularpolicyinstitute.net
The Czech people have been historically characterized as "tolerant and even indifferent towards religion". Christianization in the 9th and 10th centuries introduced Catholic Church, Catholicism. After the Bohemian Reformation, most Czechs became Hussites, followers of Jan Hus, Petr Chelčický and other regional Protestant Reformers. Taborites and Utraquists were Hussite groups. During the Hussite Wars, Utraquists sided with the Catholic Church. Following the joint Utraquist—Catholic victory, Utraquism was accepted as a distinct form of Christianity to be practiced in Kingdom of Bohemia, Bohemia by the Catholic Church while all remaining Hussite groups were prohibited. After the Reformation, some Bohemians went with the Lutheranism, teachings of Martin Luther, especially Sudeten Germans. In the wake of the Reformation, Utraquist Hussites took a renewed increasingly anti-Catholic stance, while some of the defeated Hussite factions were revived. After the Habsburgs regained control of Bohemia, the whole population was forcibly converted to Catholicism—even the Utraquist Hussites. Going forward, Czechs have become more wary and pessimistic of religion as such. A history of resistance to the Catholic Church followed. It suffered a schism with the neo-Hussite Czechoslovak Hussite Church in 1920, lost the bulk of its adherents during the Communist era and continues to lose in the modern, ongoing secularization. Protestantism never recovered after the Counter-Reformation was introduced by the Habsburg Monarchy, Austrian Habsburgs in 1620. According to the 2011 census, 34% of the population stated they had no religion, 10.3% was Catholic, 0.8% was Protestant (0.5% Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren, Czech Brethren and 0.4% Czechoslovak Hussite Church, Hussite), and 9% followed other forms of religion both denominational or not (of which 863 people answered they are Neopaganism, Pagan). 45% of the population did not answer the question about religion. From 1991 to 2001 and further to 2011 the adherence to Catholicism decreased from 39% to 27% and then to 10%; Protestantism similarly declined from 3.7% to 2% and then to 0.8%. The Muslim population is estimated to be 20,000 representing 0.2% of the population.


Welfare

Education in the Czech Republic is compulsory for 9 years and citizens have access to a tuition-free
university education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education, is an optional final stage of formal learning Formal learning is educati ...
, while the average number of years of education is 13.1. Additionally, the Czech Republic has a "relatively equal" educational system in comparison with other countries in Europe. Founded in 1348, Charles University was the first university in
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both ...

Central Europe
. Other major universities in the country are Masaryk University, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Technical University, Palacký University, Olomouc, Palacký University, Academy of Performing Arts in Prague, Academy of Performing Arts and University of Economics, Prague, University of Economics. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the
OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 38 member countries, founded in 1961 to st ...

OECD
, currently ranks the Czech education system as the 15th most successful in the world, higher than the OECD average. The UN Education Index ranks the Czech Republic 10th (positioned behind Denmark and ahead of South Korea). Healthcare in the Czech Republic is similar in quality to other developed nations. The Czech universal health care system is based on a Health insurance mandate, compulsory insurance model, with fee-for-service care funded by mandatory employment-related insurance plans. According to the 2016 Euro health consumer index, a comparison of healthcare in Europe, the Czech healthcare is 13th, ranked behind Sweden and two positions ahead of the United Kingdom.


Culture


Art

Venus of Dolní Věstonice is the treasure of prehistoric art. Theodoric of Prague was a painter in the Gothic era who decorated the castle Karlstejn. In the Baroque era, there were Wenceslaus Hollar, Jan Kupecký, Karel Škréta, Anton Raphael Mengs or Petr Brandl, sculptors Matthias Braun and Ferdinand Brokoff. In the first half of the 19th century, Josef Mánes joined the romantic movement. In the second half of the 19th century had the main say the so-called "National Theatre generation": sculptor Josef Václav Myslbek and painters Mikoláš Aleš, Václav Brožík, Vojtěch Hynais or Julius Mařák. At the end of the century came a wave of Art Nouveau. Alfons Mucha became the main representative. He is known for Art Nouveau posters and his cycle of 20 large canvases named the Slav Epic, which depicts the history of Czechs and other Slavs. , the Slav Epic can be seen in the Veletržní Palace of the National Gallery in Prague, which manages the largest collection of art in the Czech Republic. Max Švabinský was another Art nouveau painter. The 20th century brought an avant-garde revolution. In the Czech lands mainly expressionist and cubist: Josef Čapek, Emil Filla, Bohumil Kubišta, Jan Zrzavý. Surrealism emerged particularly in the work of Toyen, Josef Šíma and Karel Teige. In the world, however, he pushed mainly František Kupka, a pioneer of abstract painting. As illustrators and cartoonists in the first half of the 20th century gained fame Josef Lada, Zdeněk Burian or Emil Orlík. Art photography has become a new field (František Drtikol, Josef Sudek, later Jan Saudek or Josef Koudelka). The Czech Republic is known for its individually made, mouth-blown, and decorated Bohemian glass.


Architecture

The earliest preserved stone buildings in Bohemia and Moravia date back to the time of the Christianization in the 9th and 10th centuries. Since the Middle Ages, the Czech lands have been using the same architectural styles as most of Western Europe, Western and Central Europe. The oldest still standing churches were built in the Romanesque architecture, Romanesque style. During the 13th century, it was replaced by the Czech Gothic architecture, Gothic style. In the 14th century, Emperor Charles IV invited architects from France and Germany, Matthias of Arras and Peter Parler, to his court in Prague. During the Middle Ages, some fortified castles were built by the king and aristocracy, as well as some monasteries. The Renaissance architecture, Renaissance style penetrated the Bohemian Crown in the late 15th century when the older Gothic style started to be mixed with Renaissance elements. An example of pure Renaissance architecture in Bohemia is the Queen Anne's Summer Palace, which was situated in the garden of Prague Castle. Evidence of the general reception of the Renaissance in Bohemia, involving an influx of Italian architects, can be found in spacious chateaus with arcade courtyards and geometrically arranged gardens. Emphasis was placed on comfort, and buildings that were built for entertainment purposes also appeared. In the 17th century, the Baroque style spread throughout the Crown of Bohemia. In the 18th century, Bohemia produced an architectural peculiarity – the ''Baroque Gothic style'', a synthesis of the Gothic and Baroque styles. During the 19th century stands the Revival architecture, revival architectural styles. Some churches were restored to their presumed medieval appearance and there were constructed buildings in the Romanesque Revival architecture, Neo-Romanesque, Gothic Revival architecture, Neo-Gothic and Renaissance Revival architecture, Neo-Renaissance styles. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the new art style appeared in the Czech lands – Art Nouveau. Bohemia contributed an unusual style to the world's architectural heritage when Czech architects attempted to transpose the Cubism of painting and sculpture into architecture. Between World Wars I and II, Functionalism (architecture), Functionalism, with its sober, progressive forms, took over as the main architectural style. After World War II and the Communist coup in 1948, art in Czechoslovakia became Soviet-influenced. The Czechoslovak avant-garde artistic movement is known as the ''Brussels style came up'' in the time of political liberalization of Czechoslovakia in the 1960s. Brutalism dominated in the 1970s and 1980s. The Czech Republic is not shying away from the more modern trends of international architecture.


Literature

The literature from the area of today's Czech Republic was mostly written in Czech, but also in Latin and German or even Old Church Slavonic. Franz Kafka, while bilingual in Czech and German, wrote his works (''The Trial'', ''The Castle (novel), The Castle'') in German. In the second half of the 13th century, the royal court in Prague became one of the centers of German Minnesang and courtly literature. The Czech German-language literature can be seen in the first half of the 20th century. Bible translations into Czech, Bible translations played a role in the development of Czech literature. The oldest Czech translation of the Psalms originated in the late 13th century and the first complete Czech translation of the Bible was finished around 1360. The first complete printed Czech Bible was published in 1488. The first complete Czech Bible translation from the original languages was published between 1579 and 1593. The Codex Gigas from the 12th century is the largest extant medieval manuscript in the world. Czech-language literature can be divided into several periods: the Middle Ages; the Hussite period; the Renaissance humanism; the Baroque period; the Enlightenment and Czech reawakening in the first half of the 19th century, modern literature in the second half of the 19th century; the avant-garde of the interwar period; the years under Communism; and the Czech Republic. The antiwar comedy novel ''The Good Soldier Švejk'' is the most translated Czech book in history. The international literary award the Franz Kafka Prize is awarded in the Czech Republic. The Czech Republic has the densest network of libraries in Europe. Czech literature and culture played a role on at least two occasions when Czechs lived under oppression and political activity was suppressed. On both of these occasions, in the early 19th century and then again in the 1960s, the Czechs used their cultural and literary effort to strive for political freedom, establishing a confident, politically aware nation.


Music

The musical tradition of the Czech lands arose from the first church hymns, whose first evidence is suggested at the break of the 10th and 11th centuries. Some pieces of Czech music include two chorales, which in their time performed the function of anthems: "Hospodine pomiluj ny, Lord, Have Mercy on Us" and the hymn "Saint Wenceslas" or "Saint Wenceslas Chorale". The authorship of the anthem "Lord, Have Mercy on Us" is ascribed by some historians to Saint Adalbert of Prague (sv.Vojtěch), bishop of Prague, living between 956 and 997. The wealth of musical culture lies in the classical music tradition during all historical periods, especially in the Baroque music, Baroque, Classical period (music), Classicism, Romantic, Modernism (music), modern classical music and in the traditional music, traditional folk music of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. Since the early era of artificial music, Czech musicians and composers have been influenced the folk music of the region and dance. Czech music can be considered to have been "beneficial" in both the European and worldwide context, several times co-determined or even determined a newly arriving era in musical art, above all of Classical period (music), Classical era, as well as by original attitudes in Baroque (music), Baroque, Romantic (music), Romantic and modern classical music. Some Czech musical works are ''The Bartered Bride'', ''New World Symphony,'' ''Sinfonietta (Janáček), Sinfonietta'' and ''Jenůfa''. A music festival in the country is Prague Spring International Music Festival of classical music, a permanent showcase for performing artists, symphony orchestras and chamber music ensembles of the world.


Theatre

The roots of Czech theatre can be found in the Middle Ages, especially in the cultural life of gothic period. In the 19th century, the theatre played a role in the national awakening movement and later, in the 20th century, it became a part of modern European theatre art. The original Czech cultural phenomenon came into being at the end of the 1950s. This project called Laterna magika, resulting in productions that combined theater, dance, and film in a poetic manner, considered the first multimedia art project in an international context. A drama is Karel Čapek's play ''R.U.R.'', which introduced the word "robot". The country has a tradition of Puppetry, puppet theater. In 2016, Puppetry#Czech Republic and Slovakia, Czech and Slovak Puppetry was included on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists.


Film

The tradition of Czech cinematography started in the second half of the 1890s. Peaks of the production in the era of silent movies include the historical drama ''The Builder of the Temple'' and the social and erotic drama ''Erotikon'' directed by Gustav Machatý. The early Czech sound film era was productive, above all in mainstream genres, with the comedies of Martin Frič or Karel Lamač. There were dramatic movies sought internationally. Hermína Týrlová (11 December 1900 in Březové Hory – 3 May 1993 in Zlín) was a prominent Czech animator, screenwriter, and film director. She was often called the mother of Czech animation. [1] Over the course of her career, she produced over 60 animated children's short films using puppets and the technique of stop motion animation. [2] Before the German occupation, in 1933, filmmaker and animator Irena Dodalová established the first Czech animation studio "IRE Film" with her husband Karel Dodal. After the period of Nazi occupation and early communist official dramaturgy of socialist realism in movies at the turn of the 1940s and 1950s with a fewer exceptions such as ''Krakatit'' or ''Men without wings'' (awarded by Palme d'Or in 1946), an era of the Czech film began with animated films, performed in anglophone countries under the name "The Fabulous World of Jules Verne" from 1958, which combined acted drama with animation, and Jiří Trnka, the founder of the modern puppet film. This began a tradition of animated films (''Mole (Zdeněk Miler character), Mole'' etc.). In the 1960s, the hallmark of Czechoslovak New Wave's films were improvised dialogues, Black comedy, black and absurdity, absurd humor and the occupation of non-actors. Directors are trying to preserve natural atmosphere without refinement and artificial arrangement of scenes. A personality of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s with original manuscript and psychological impact is František Vláčil. Another international author is Jan Švankmajer, a filmmaker and artist whose work spans several media. He is a self-labeled surrealism, surrealist known for animations and features. The Barrandov Studios in Prague are the largest film studios with film locations in the country. Filmmakers have come to Prague to shoot scenery no longer found in Berlin, Paris and Vienna. The city of Karlovy Vary was used as a location for the 2006 James Bond film Casino Royale. The Czech Lion is the highest Czech award for film achievement. Karlovy Vary International Film Festival is one of the film festivals that have been given competitive status by the FIAPF. Other film festivals held in the country include Febiofest, Jihlava International Documentary Film Festival, One World Film Festival, Zlín Film Festival and Fresh Film Festival.


Media

Journalists and media enjoy a degree of Freedom of the press, freedom. There are restrictions against writing in support of Nazism, racism or violating Czech law. The Czech press was ranked as the 40th most free press in the World Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders in 2021. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty has its headquarters in Prague. The national public television service is Czech Television that operates the 24-hour news channel ČT24 and the news website ct24.cz. As of 2020, Czech Television is the most watched television, followed by private televisions TV Nova (Czech Republic), TV Nova and Prima televize, Prima TV. However, TV Nova has the most watched main news program and prime time program. Other public services include the Czech Radio and the Czech News Agency. The best-selling daily national newspapers in 2020/21 are Blesk (average 703,000 daily readers), Mladá fronta DNES (average 461,000 daily readers), Právo (average 182,000 daily readers), Lidové noviny (average 163,000 daily readers) and Hospodářské noviny (average 162,000 daily readers).


Cuisine

Czech cuisine is marked by an emphasis on meat dishes with pork, beef, and chicken. Goose, duck, rabbit, and venison are served. Fish is less common, with the occasional exception of fresh trout and carp, which is served at Christmas. Beer in the Czech Republic, Czech beer with the first brewery is known to have existed in 993 and the Czech Republic has the highest List of countries by beer consumption per capita, beer consumption per capita in the world. The "pilsner style beer" (pils) originated in Plzeň, where the world's first-ever blond lager Pilsner Urquell is still being produced, making it the inspiration for more than two-thirds of the beer produced in the world today. Further south the town of České Budějovice, lent its name to its beer, known as Budweiser Budvar. Tourism around the Southern Moravian region has been producing Czech wine, wine since the Middle Ages; about 94% of vineyards in the Czech Republic are Moravian. Aside from slivovitz, Czech beer and wine, the Czechs also produce two liquors, Fernet Stock and Becherovka. Kofola is a non-alcoholic domestic cola soft drink which competes with Coca-Cola and Pepsi. There is also a variety of local sausages, wurst, pâtés, and smoked and cured meats. Czech desserts include a variety of whipped cream, chocolate, and fruit pastries and tarts, crêpes, creme desserts and cheese, poppy-seed-filled and other types of traditional cakes such as ''Buchteln, buchty'', ''Kolach, koláče'' and Apple strudel, ''štrúdl''.


Sport

The most watched events in the Czech Republic are Ice hockey at the Olympic Games, Olympic Ice hockey tournaments and Ice Hockey World Championships, Ice Hockey Championships. The two leading sports are Association football, football and ice hockey. Other most popular sports according to the size of the membership base of sports clubs include tennis, volleyball, floorball, golf, ball hockey, Sport of athletics, athletics, basketball and skiing. The country has won 15 gold medals in Summer Olympic Games, summer and 9 gold medals in Winter Olympic Games, winter All-time Olympic Games medal table, Olympic history. Czech Republic men's national ice hockey team, The Czech ice hockey team won the gold medal at the 1998 Winter Olympics and has won twelve gold medals at the IHWC, World Championships, including three straight from 1999 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships, 1999 to 2001 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships, 2001. The Škoda Motorsport is engaged in Motorsport, competition racing since 1901 and has gained a number of titles with various vehicles around the world. MTX (automobile), MTX automobile company was formerly engaged in the manufacture of Auto racing, racing and Formula racing, formula cars since 1969. A common sport is hiking. The word for 'tourist' in Czech, ''turista'', also means 'trekker' or 'hiker'. For hikers, thanks to the more than 120-year-old tradition, there is a Czech Hiking Markers System of trail blazing, that has been adopted by countries worldwide. There is a network of around 40,000 km of marked short- and long-distance trails crossing the whole country and all the Czech mountains.


See also

* List of Czech Republic-related topics * Outline of the Czech Republic *


Notes


References


Citations


General sources

* * *


Further reading

* Hochman, Jiří (1998)
''Historical dictionary of the Czech State''
Scarecrow Press. * Bryant, Chad. ''Prague: Belonging and the Modern City''. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 2021


External links


Governmental website

Presidential website

Senate

Portal of the Public Administration

Czech Tourism
official tourism site of the Czech Republic
Czechia
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency. * * {{Authority control Czech Republic, Central Europe Central European countries Countries in Europe Landlocked countries Member states of NATO Member states of the Council of Europe Member states of the European Union Member states of the United Nations Member states of the Three Seas Initiative Republics States and territories established in 1993