Praga Caput Rei publicae" (Latin)
"Prague, Head of the Republic"
other historical mottos
Praga mater urbium" (Latin)
"Praha matka měst" (Czech)
"Prague, Mother of Cities"
Praga Caput Regni" (Latin)
"Prague, Head of the Kingdom"
Coordinates: 50°05′N 14°25′E / 50.083°N 14.417°E /
50.083; 14.417Coordinates: 50°05′N 14°25′E / 50.083°N
14.417°E / 50.083; 14.417
Adriana Krnáčová (ANO)
496 km2 (192 sq mi)
399 m (1,309 ft)
177 m (581 ft)
• Capital city
• Summer (DST)
100 00 – 199 00
€44 billion($85 billion, PPP)
– Per capita
Prague (/prɑːɡ/; Czech: Praha [ˈpraɦa] ( listen),
German: Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic,
the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical
capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the
Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while
its larger urban zone is estimated to have a population of
2.6 million. The city has a temperate climate, with warm
summers and chilly winters.
Prague has been a political, cultural and economic centre of central
Europe complete with a rich history. Founded during the Romanesque and
flourishing by the Gothic,
the capital of the kingdom of
Bohemia and the main residence of
several Holy Roman Emperors, most notably of Charles IV
(r. 1346–1378). It was an important city to the Habsburg
Monarchy and its Austro-Hungarian Empire. The city played major roles
in the Bohemian and Protestant Reformation, the
Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War and
in 20th-century history as the capital of Czechoslovakia, during both
World Wars and the post-war Communist era.
Prague is home to a number of famous cultural attractions, many of
which survived the violence and destruction of 20th-century Europe.
Main attractions include the
Prague Castle, the Charles Bridge, Old
Town Square with the
Prague astronomical clock, the Jewish Quarter,
Petřín hill and Vyšehrad. Since 1992, the extensive historic centre
Prague has been included in the
UNESCO list of World Heritage
The city has more than ten major museums, along with numerous
theatres, galleries, cinemas and other historical exhibits. An
extensive modern public transportation system connects the city. Also,
it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including
Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central
Prague is classified as a "Beta+" global city according to GaWC
studies and ranked sixth in the
Tripadvisor world list of best
destinations in 2016. Its rich history makes it a popular tourist
destination and as of 2014, the city receives more than
6.4 million international visitors annually.
Prague is the fifth
most visited European city after London, Paris,
Istanbul and Rome.
1.1 Early history
1.2 The era of Charles IV
1.3 Habsburg era
1.4 20th century
1.4.2 Second World War
1.4.3 Cold War
1.5 After Velvet Revolution
Lesser Town (Malá Strana)
7.2 Old Town (Staré Město) and Josefov
7.3 New Town (Nové Město)
Vinohrady and Žižkov
7.5 Other places
8.1 Public universities
8.2 Public arts academies
8.3 Some private colleges
8.4 International institutions
9 Science, research and hi-tech centres
10.1 Public transportation
12 International relations
12.1 Twin towns
13 See also
15 Further reading
15.1 Culture and society
16 External links
History of Prague
History of Prague and Timeline of Prague
The mythological princess
Libuše prophesies the glory of Prague.
During the thousand years of its existence, the city grew from a
settlement stretching from
Prague Castle in the north to the fort of
Vyšehrad in the south, becoming the capital of a modern European
country, the Czech Republic, a member state of the European Union.
Prague astronomical clock
Prague astronomical clock was first installed in 1410, making it
the third-oldest astronomical clock in the world and the oldest one
The region was settled as early as the
Paleolithic age. Around the
fifth and fourth century BC, the
Celts appeared in the area, later
establishing settlements including an oppidum in Závist, a
present-day suburb of Prague, and giving name to the region of
Bohemia, "home of the Boii". In the last century BC, the Celts
were slowly driven away by Germanic tribes (Marcomanni, Quadi,
Lombards and possibly the Suebi), leading some to place the seat of
Maroboduus on the southern Prague's site
Závist. Around the area where present-day
Prague stands, the
2nd century map of Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called
In the late 5th century AD, during the great Migration Period
following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Germanic
tribes living in
Bohemia moved westwards and, probably in the 6th
century, the Slavic tribes (Venedi) settled Central Bohemian Region.
In the following two centuries, the Czech tribes built several
fortified settlements in the area, most notably in the Šárka valley,
Butovice and later in Levý Hradec.
The construction of what came to be known as the
Prague Castle began
near the end of the 9th century, with a fortified settlement already
existing on the site in the year 800. The first masonry under
Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. The other
Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in
the 10th century, some 70 years later than
Prague Castle. Prague
Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which was founded in 1344, but
completed in the 20th century.
A view of one of the bridge towers of the Charles Bridge
The legendary origins of
Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th
century Czech duchess and prophetess
Libuše and her husband,
Přemysl, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. Legend says that Libuše
came out on a rocky cliff high above the
Vltava and prophesied: "I see
a great city whose glory will touch the stars." She ordered a castle
and a town called Praha to be built on the site.
A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus
Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c. 1306
BC by an ancient king, Boyya.
The region became the seat of the dukes, and later kings of Bohemia.
Under Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973. Until
Prague was elevated to archbishopric in 1344, it was under the
jurisdiction of the
Archbishopric of Mainz.
Prague was an important seat for trading where merchants from all of
Europe settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the
Hispano-Jewish merchant and traveller Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub. The Old New
Synagogue of 1270 still stands.
Prague contained an important slave
At the site of the ford in the
Vltava river, King Vladislaus I had the
first bridge built in 1170, the Judith Bridge (Juditin most), named in
honour of his wife Judith of Thuringia. This bridge was destroyed by a
flood in 1342. Some of the original foundation stones of that bridge
In 1257, under King Ottokar II,
Malá Strana ("Lesser Quarter") was
Prague on the site of an older village in what would become
Prague Castle) area. This was the district of the
German people, who had the right to administer the law autonomously,
pursuant to Magdeburg rights. The new district was on the bank
opposite of the Staré Město ("Old Town"), which had borough status
and was bordered by a line of walls and fortifications.
The era of Charles IV
Bohemian Crown Jewels
Bohemian Crown Jewels are the fourth oldest in Europe
Prague flourished during the 14th-century reign (1346–1378) of
Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor and the king of
Bohemia of the new
Luxembourg dynasty. As King of
Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, he
Prague into an imperial capital and it was at that time
the third-largest city in
Rome and Constantinople).
He ordered the building of the New Town (Nové Město) adjacent to the
Old Town and laid out the design himself. The Charles Bridge,
replacing the Judith Bridge destroyed in the flood just prior to his
reign, was erected to connect the east bank districts to the Malá
Strana and castle area. On 9 July 1357 at 5:31 am, Charles IV
personally laid the first foundation stone for the Charles Bridge. The
exact time of laying the first foundation stone is known because the
palindromic number 135797531 was carved into the Old Town bridge tower
having been chosen by the royal astrologists and numerologists as the
best time for starting the bridge construction. In 1347, he
founded Charles University, which remains the oldest university in
St. Vitus Cathedral
St. Vitus Cathedral at
He began construction of the Gothic Saint Vitus Cathedral, within the
largest of the
Prague Castle courtyards, on the site of the Romanesque
Prague was elevated to an archbishopric in 1344, the
year the cathedral was begun.
The city had a mint and was a centre of trade for German and Italian
bankers and merchants. The social order, however, became more
turbulent due to the rising power of the craftsmen's guilds
(themselves often torn by internal fights), and the increasing number
of poor people.
The Hunger Wall, a substantial fortification wall south of Malá
Strana and the Castle area, was built during a famine in the 1360s.
The work is reputed to have been ordered by Charles IV as a means of
providing employment and food to the workers and their families.
Charles IV died in 1378. During the reign of his son, King Wenceslaus
IV (1378–1419), a period of intense turmoil ensued. During Easter
1389, members of the
Prague clergy announced that Jews had desecrated
the host (Eucharistic wafer) and the clergy encouraged mobs to
pillage, ransack and burn the Jewish quarter. Nearly the entire Jewish
Prague (3,000 people) perished.
Depiction of the "
Prague Banner" (municipal flag dated to the 16th
The coat of arms of
Jan Hus, a theologian and rector at the Charles University, preached
in Prague. In 1402, he began giving sermons in the Bethlehem Chapel.
Inspired by John Wycliffe, these sermons focused on what were seen as
radical reforms of a corrupt Church. Having become too dangerous for
the political and religious establishment, Hus was summoned to the
Council of Constance, put on trial for heresy, and burned at the stake
Constanz in 1415.
Four years later
Prague experienced its first defenestration, when the
people rebelled under the command of the
Prague priest Jan Želivský.
Hus' death, coupled with Czech proto-nationalism and
proto-Protestantism, had spurred the Hussite Wars. Peasant rebels, led
by the general Jan Žižka, along with Hussite troops from Prague,
defeated Emperor Sigismund, in the
Battle of Vítkov Hill
Battle of Vítkov Hill in 1420.
Hussite Wars when the City of
Prague was attacked by
"Crusader" and mercenary forces, the city militia fought bravely under
Prague Banner. This swallow-tailed banner is approximately 4 by 6
feet (1.2 by 1.8 metres), with a red field sprinkled with small white
fleurs-de-lis, and a silver old Town Coat-of-Arms in the centre. The
words "PÁN BŮH POMOC NAŠE" (The Lord is our Relief) appeared above
the coat-of-arms, with a Hussite chalice centred on the top. Near the
swallow-tails is a crescent shaped golden sun with rays protruding.
One of these banners was captured by Swedish troops in Battle of
Prague (1648), when they captured the western bank of the
and were repulsed from the eastern bank, they placed it in the Royal
Military Museum in Stockholm; although this flag still exists, it is
in very poor condition. They also took the
Codex Gigas and the Codex
Argenteus. The earliest evidence indicates that a gonfalon with a
municipal charge painted on it was used for Old Town as early as 1419.
Since this city militia flag was in use before 1477 and during the
Hussite Wars, it is the oldest still preserved municipal flag of
In the following two centuries,
Prague strengthened its role as a
merchant city. Many noteworthy Gothic buildings were erected
and Vladislav Hall of the
Prague Castle was added.
Prague panorama in 1650
In 1526, the Bohemian estates elected Ferdinand I of the House of
Habsburg. The fervent Catholicism of its members was to bring them
into conflict in Bohemia, and then in Prague, where Protestant ideas
were gaining popularity. These problems were not pre-eminent under
Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, elected King of
Bohemia in 1576, who
Prague as his home. He lived in the
Prague Castle, where his
court welcomed not only astrologers and magicians but also scientists,
musicians, and artists. Rudolf was an art lover too, and
the capital of European culture. This was a prosperous period for the
city: famous people living there in that age include the astronomers
Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, the painter Arcimboldo, the
Edward Kelley and John Dee, the poet Elizabeth Jane Weston,
In 1618, the famous second defenestration of
Prague provoked the
Thirty Years' War, a particularly harsh period for
Prague and Bohemia.
Ferdinand II of Habsburg was deposed, and his place as King of Bohemia
taken by Frederick V, Elector Palatine; however his army was crushed
Battle of White Mountain
Battle of White Mountain (1620) not far from the city.
Following this in 1621 was an execution of 27 Czech leaders (involved
in the uprising) in
Old Town Square
Old Town Square and the exiling of many others.
The city suffered subsequently during the war under Saxon (1631) and
Prague began a steady decline which
reduced the population from the 60,000 it had had in the years before
the war to 20,000. In the second half of the 17th century Prague's
population began to grow again. Jews had been in
Prague since the end
of the 10th century and, by 1708, they accounted for about a quarter
of Prague's population.
Monument to František Palacký, a significant member of the Czech
In 1689, a great fire devastated Prague, but this spurred a renovation
and a rebuilding of the city. In 1713–14, a major outbreak of plague
Prague one last time, killing 12,000 to 13,000 people.
Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great of
Prussia invaded Bohemia. He took Prague
after a severe and prolonged siege in the course of which a large part
of the town was destroyed. In 1757 the Prussian Prussian
bombardment destroyed more than one quarter of the city and
heavily damaged St. Vitus Cathedral. However a month later Frederick
the Great was defeated and to retreat from Bohemia.
The economy of the city continued to improve during the 18th century.
The population increased to 80,000 inhabitants by 1771. Many rich
merchants and nobles enhanced the city with a host of palaces,
churches and gardens full of art and music, creating a
renowned throughout the world to this day.
In 1784, under Joseph II, the four municipalities of Malá Strana,
Nové Město, Staré Město, and
Hradčany were merged into a single
entity. The Jewish district, called Josefov, was included only in
Industrial Revolution had a strong effect in Prague, as
factories could take advantage of the coal mines and ironworks of the
nearby region. A first suburb, Karlín, was created in 1817, and
twenty years later the population exceeded 100,000.
The revolutions in
Europe in 1848 also touched Prague, but they were
fiercely suppressed. In the following years the Czech National Revival
began its rise, until it gained the majority in the town council in
Prague had a German-speaking majority in 1848, but by 1880 the
number of German speakers had decreased to 14% (42,000), and by 1910
to 6.7% (37,000), due to a massive increase of the city's overall
population caused by the influx of
Czechs from the rest of
Moravia and also due to return of social status importance of the
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk near
Main article: First
World War I ended with the defeat of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire and
the creation of Czechoslovakia.
Prague was chosen as its capital and
Prague Castle as the seat of president Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. At
Prague was a true European capital with highly developed
industry. By 1930, the population had risen to 850,000.
Second World War
Prague liberated by
Red Army in May 1945
Further information: German occupation of Czechoslovakia
Hitler ordered the German Army to enter
Prague on 15 March 1939, and
Prague Castle proclaimed
Moravia a German
protectorate. For most of its history,
Prague had been a multi-ethnic
city with important Czech, German and (mostly native German-speaking)
Jewish populations. From 1939, when the country was
occupied by Nazi Germany, and during the Second World War, most Jews
were deported and killed by the Germans. In 1942,
Prague was witness
to the assassination of one of the most powerful men in Nazi
Germany – Reinhard Heydrich – during Operation
Anthropoid, accomplished by
Czechoslovak national heroes Jozef
Gabčík and Jan Kubiš.
Hitler ordered bloody reprisals.
At the end of the war,
Prague suffered several bombing raids by the US
Army Air Forces. 701 people were killed, more than 1,000 people were
injured and some of buildings, factories and historical landmarks
(Emmaus Monastery, Faust House,
Vinohrady Synagogue) were
destroyed. Many historic structures in Prague, however, escaped
the destruction of the war and the damage was small compared to the
total destruction of many other cities in that time. According to
American pilots, it was the result of a navigational mistake.
On 5 May 1945, two days before
Germany capitulated, an uprising
Germany occurred. Four days later, the
3rd Shock Army
3rd Shock Army of the
Red Army took the city, with fierce fighting until 11 May 1945. The
majority (about 50,000 people) of the German population of Prague
either fled or were expelled by the
Beneš decrees in the aftermath of
Main article: History of
Velvet Revolution in November 1989
Prague was a city in the territory of military and political control
Soviet Union (see Iron Curtain). The biggest Stalin Monument
was unveiled on
Letná hill in 1955 and destroyed in 1962. The 4th
Czechoslovakian Writers' Congress held in the city in June 1967 took a
strong position against the regime. On 31 October 1967 students
demonstrated at Strahov. This spurred the new secretary of the
Communist Party, Alexander Dubček, to proclaim a new deal in his
city's and country's life, starting the short-lived season of the
"socialism with a human face". It was the
Prague Spring, which aimed
at the renovation of institutions in a democratic way. The other
Warsaw Pact member countries, except
Romania and Albania, reacted with
the invasion of
Czechoslovakia and the capital on 21 August 1968 by
tanks, suppressing any attempt at reform.
Jan Palach and Jan Zajíc
committed suicide by self-immolation in January and February 1969 to
protest against the "normalization" of the country.
After Velvet Revolution
Prague high-rise buildings
In 1989, after the riot police beat back a peaceful student
Velvet Revolution crowded the streets of Prague,
Czechoslovak capital benefited greatly from the new mood. In
1993, after the split of Czechoslovakia,
Prague became the capital
city of the new Czech Republic. From 1995 high-rise buildings began to
be built in
Prague in large quantities. In the late 1990s, Prague
again became an important cultural centre of
Europe and was notably
influenced by globalisation[clarification needed]. In 2000,
World Bank summits took place in Prague. In 2002,
Prague suffered from
widespread floods that damaged buildings and its underground transport
Prague launched a bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics, but failed to
make the candidate city shortlist. In June 2009, as the result of
financial pressures from the global recession, Prague's officials also
chose to cancel the city's planned bid for the 2020 Summer
See also: Names in different languages
Bridges over the River Vltava, as seen from Letná
The Czech name Praha is derived from an old Slavic word, práh, which
means "ford" or "rapid", referring to the city's origin at a crossing
point of the
Vltava river. The same etymology is associated with
Praga district of Warsaw.
Another view to the origin of name is also related to the Czech word
práh (in the mean of a threshold) and a legendary etymology connects
the name of the city with princess Libuše, prophetess and a wife of
mythical founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. She is said to have
ordered the city "to be built where a man hews a threshold of his
house". The Czech práh might thus be understood to refer to rapids or
fords in the river, the edge of which could have acted as a means of
fording the river – thus providing a "threshold" to the castle.
Another derivation of the name Praha is suggested from na prazě, the
original term for the shale hillside rock upon which the original
castle was built. At that time, the castle was surrounded by forests,
covering the nine hills of the future city – the Old Town on
the opposite side of the river, as well as the
Lesser Town beneath the
existing castle, appeared only later.
The English spelling of the city's name is borrowed from French.
Prague is also called the "City of a Hundred Spires", based on a count
by 19th century mathematician Bernard Bolzano, today's count is
Prague Information Service at 500. Nicknames for
Prague have also included: the Golden City, the Mother of Cities and
the Heart of Europe.
Prague is situated on the
Vltava river, at 50°05"N and 14°27"E.
in the centre of the Bohemian Basin.
Prague is approximately at the
same latitude as Frankfurt, Germany; Paris, France; and
Prague seen from satellite
Prague has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb). The winters are
relatively cold with average temperatures at about freezing point, and
with very little sunshine. Snow cover can be common between
mid-November and late March although snow accumulations of more than
20 cm (8 in) are infrequent. There are also a few periods of
mild temperatures in winter. Summers usually bring plenty of sunshine
and the average high temperature of 24 °C (75 °F). Nights
can be quite cool even in summer, though.
most of the Bohemian lowland) is rather low (just over
500 mm [20 in] per year) since it is located in the
rain shadow of the
Sudetes and other mountain ranges. The driest
season is usually winter while late spring and summer can bring quite
heavy rain, especially in form of thundershowers. Temperature
inversions are relatively common between mid-October and mid-March
bringing foggy, cold days and sometimes moderate air pollution. Prague
is also a windy city with common sustained western winds and an
average wind speed of 16 km/h (9.9 mph) that often help
break temperature inversions and clear the air in cold months.
Climate data for
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average snowfall cm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net
Source #2: NOAA
According to the 2011 census, about 14% of the city inhabitants were
foreigners, the highest proportion in the country.
Development of the
Prague population since 1378:
Foreign residents in the city (2016)
Historic Centre of Prague
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Historic Centre of Prague
Historic Centre of Prague and
Cultural: ii, iv, vi
1992 (16th Session)
Prague underground (culture)
Veletržní palác houses the largest collection of National Gallery
National Theatre in Prague
Rudolfinum, a concert and exhibition hall
Prague Congress Centre
Prague Congress Centre has hosted the IMF-WBG meeting and
The city is traditionally one of the cultural centres of Europe,
hosting many cultural events. Some of the significant cultural
institutions include the National Theatre (Národní Divadlo) and the
Estates Theatre (Stavovské or Tylovo or Nosticovo divadlo), where the
premières of Mozart's
Don Giovanni and
La clemenza di Tito
La clemenza di Tito were held.
Other major cultural institutions are the
Rudolfinum which is home to
Czech Philharmonic Orchestra and the
Municipal House which is home
Prague Symphony Orchestra. The
Prague State Opera (Státní
opera) performs at the Smetana Theatre.
The city has many world-class museums, including the National Museum
(Národní muzeum), the Museum of the Capital City of Prague, the
Jewish Museum in Prague, the
Alfons Mucha Museum, the African-Prague
Museum, the Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague, the Náprstek Museum
(Náprstkovo Muzeum), the
Josef Sudek Gallery
Josef Sudek Gallery and The Josef Sudek
Studio, the National Library and the National Gallery, which manages
the largest collection of art in the Czech Republic.
There are hundreds of concert halls, galleries, cinemas and music
clubs in the city. It hosts music festivals including the Prague
Spring International Music Festival, the
Prague Autumn International
Music Festival, the
Prague International Organ Festival
Prague International Organ Festival and the Prague
International Jazz Festival. Film festivals include the Febiofest, the
One World Film Festival
One World Film Festival and Echoes of the
Karlovy Vary International
Film Festival. The city also hosts the
Prague Writers' Festival, the
Prague Folklore Days,
Prague Advent Choral Meeting the Summer
Shakespeare Festival, the
Prague Fringe Festival, the World Roma
Festival, as well as the hundreds of Vernissages and fashion shows.
Many films have been made at
Barrandov Studios and at
Hollywood films set in
Mission Impossible, xXx, Blade
II, Alien vs. Predator, Doom, Chronicles of Narnia, Hellboy, Red
Tails, Children of Dune and Van Helsing. Other Czech films shot in
Prague include Empties, EuroTrip, Amadeus and The Fifth Horseman is
Fear. Also, the romantic music video "Never Tear Us Apart" by INXS,
"Diamonds from Sierra Leone" by
Kanye West was shot in the city, and
features shots of the
Charles Bridge and the Astronomical Clock, among
other famous landmarks. Rihanna's "Don't Stop the Music" video was
filmed at Prague's Radost FX Club. The city was also the setting for
the film Dungeons and Dragons in 2000. The music video "Silver and
Cold" by AFI, an American rock band, was also filmed in Prague. Many
Indian films have also been filmed in the city including Yuvraaj,
Drona and Rockstar. Early 2000's europop hit "Something" by "Lasgo"
was filmed at the central train station in Prague.
Video games set in
Prague include Tomb Raider: The Angel of Darkness,
Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb, Vampire: The Masquerade –
Redemption, Soldier of Fortune II: Double Helix, Broken Sword: The
Sleeping Dragon, Still Life, Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3 and Deus
Ex: Mankind Divided.
With the growth of low-cost airlines in Europe,
Prague has become a
popular weekend city destination allowing tourists to visit its many
museums and cultural sites as well as try its famous Czech beers and
The city has many buildings by renowned architects, including Adolf
Loos (Villa Müller),
Frank O. Gehry
Frank O. Gehry (Dancing House) and Jean Nouvel
Recent major events held in Prague:
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund and
World Bank Summit 2000
NATO Summit 2002
International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee Session 2004
IAU General Assembly 2006 (Definition of planet)
EU & USA Summit 2009
Czech Presidency of the Council of the
European Union 2009
Russia Summit 2010 (signing of the
New START treaty)
In 2008 the Allegro restaurant received the first Michelin star in the
whole of the post-Communist part of Central Europe. It retained its
star until 2011. As of 2016[update] there are three Michelin-starred
restaurants in Prague: Alcron, La Degustation, Bohême Bourgeoise, and
In Malá Strana, Staré Město,
Nusle there are hundreds
of restaurants, bars and pubs, especially with Czech beer.
Czech Beer Festival
Czech Beer Festival (Český pivní festival), which is the
largest beer festival in the Czech Republic, held for 17 days every
year in May. At the festival, more than 70 brands of
Czech beer can be
Prague is home to many breweries including:
Pivovary Staropramen (Praha 5)
První novoměstský restaurační pivovar (Praha 1)
U Fleků (Praha 1)
Klášterní pivovar Strahov (Praha 1)
Pivovar Pražský most u Valšů (Praha 1)
Pivovarský Hotel U Medvídků (Praha 1)
Pivovarský dům (Praha 2)
Jihoměstský pivovar (Praha 4)
Sousedský pivovar U Bansethů (Praha 4)
Vyukový a výzkumný pivovar – Suchdolský Jeník (Praha 6)
Pivovar U Bulovky (Praha 8)
Žižkov Television Tower with crawling "babies"
Prague's economy accounts for 25% of the Czech GDP making it the
highest performing regional economy of the country. According to the
Eurostat, as of 2007[update], its GDP per capita in purchasing power
standard is €42,800.
Prague ranked the 6th best-performing European
NUTS two-level region at 182,4 percent of the EU-28 average in
The city is the site of the European headquarters of many
international companies.
Prague employs almost a fifth of the entire Czech workforce, and its
wages are significantly above average (~+25%). In December 2015,
average salaries available in
Prague reached 35,853 CZK, an annual
increase of 3.4%, which was nevertheless lower than national increase
of 3.9% both in nominal and real terms. (Inflation in
Prague was 0.5%
in December, compared with 0.1% nationally.) Since 1990, the
city's economic structure has shifted from industrial to
service-oriented. Industry is present in sectors such as
pharmaceuticals, printing, food processing, manufacture of transport
equipment, computer technology and electrical engineering. In the
service sector, financial and commercial services, trade, restaurants,
hospitality and public administration are the most significant.
Services account for around 80 percent of employment. There are
800,000 employees in Prague, including 120,000 commuters. The
number of (legally registered) foreign residents in
Prague has been
increasing in spite of the country's economic downturn. As of March
2010, 148,035 foreign workers were reported to be living in the city
making up about 18 percent of the workforce, up from 131,132 in
2008. Approximately one-fifth of all investment in the Czech
Republic takes place in the city.
Almost one-half of the national income from tourism is spent in
Prague. The city offers approximately 73,000 beds in accommodation
facilities, most of which were built after 1990, including almost
51,000 beds in hotels and boarding houses.
Charles Bridge (Karlův most),
Vltava River, Prague, 2015
From the late 1990s to late 2000s, the city was a popular filming
location for international productions such as Hollywood and Bollywood
motion pictures. A combination of architecture, low costs and the
existing motion picture infrastructure have proven attractive to
international film production companies.
The modern economy of
Prague is largely service and export-based and,
in a 2010 survey, the city was named the best city in Central and
Europe (CEE) for business.
Prague was deemed among the three best cities in Central and
Europe according to The Economist's livability rankings.
The city was named as a top-tier nexus city for innovation across
multiple sectors of the global innovation economy, placing 29th
globally out of 289 cities, ahead of
innovation in 2010 in 2thinknow annual analysts Innovation Cities
Na příkopě in New Town is the most expensive street in
the whole of Central Europe.
Prague ranked fifth among Europe's 271
regions in terms of gross domestic product per inhabitant, achieving
172 percent of the EU average. It ranked just above
Paris and well
above the country as a whole, which achieved 80 percent of the EU
Companies with highest turnover in the region in 2014:
Turnover, mld. Kč
RWE Supply & Trading CZ
Prague is also the site of some of the most important offices and
institutions of the Czech Republic.
President of the Czech Republic
The Government and both houses of Parliament
Ministries and other national offices (Industrial Property Office,
Czech Statistical Office, National Security Authority etc.)
Czech National Bank
Czech Television and other major broadcasters
Radio Free Europe – Radio Liberty
Galileo global navigation project
Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
The Gothic Powder Tower
Milunić's and Gehry's Dancing House
The Municipal House, built in
Art Nouveau style
Library of the Strahov Monastery
Franz Kafka monument, next to the Spanish synagogue
Since the fall of the Iron Curtain,
Prague has become one of the
world's most popular tourist destinations.
considerably less damage during
World War II
World War II than some other major
cities in the region, allowing most of its historic architecture to
stay true to form. It contains one of the world's most pristine and
varied collections of architecture, from Romanesque, to Gothic,
Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neo-Renaissance, Neo-Gothic, Art
Nouveau, Cubist, Neo-Classical and ultra-modern.
Prague is classified as an "Beta+" global city according to GaWC
studies, comparable to Vienna,
Washington, D.C. Prague
ranked sixth in the
Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in
2016. Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination, and
the city receives more than 6.4 million international visitors
annually, as of 2014[update].
Prague is the fifth most visited
European city after London, Paris,
Istanbul and Rome. Prague's low
cost of living makes it a popular destination for expats relocating to
Top 10 tourism source countries in 2016
Lesser Town (Malá Strana)
Prague Castle with the
St. Vitus Cathedral
St. Vitus Cathedral which stores the Czech
Charles Bridge (Karlův most)
Baroque Saint Nicholas Church
Church of Our Lady Victorious
Church of Our Lady Victorious and Infant Jesus of Prague
Písek Gate, one of the last preserved city gate of Baroque
Petřín Hill with
Petřín Lookout Tower, Mirror Maze and Petřín
Franz Kafka Museum
Kampa Island, an island with a view of the Charles Bridge
Wallenstein Palace with its garden
Old Town (Staré Město) and Josefov
The Astronomical Clock (Orloj) on Old Town City Hall
Church of Our Lady before Týn
Church of Our Lady before Týn (Kostel Matky Boží před
Týnem) from the 14th century with 80 m high towers
The vaulted Gothic
Old New Synagogue
Old New Synagogue (Staronová Synagoga) of 1270
Old Jewish Cemetery
Powder Tower (Prašná brána), a Gothic tower of the old city gates
Spanish Synagogue with its beautiful interior
Old Town Square
Old Town Square (Staroměstské náměstí) with gothic and baroque
The art nouveau Municipal House, a major civic landmark and concert
hall known for its
Art Nouveau architectural style and political
history in the Czech Republic.
Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague, with an extensive collections
including glass, furniture, textile, toys, Art Nouveau,
Cubism and Art
Clam-Gallas Palace, a baroque palace from 1713
New Town (Nové Město)
Busy and historic Wenceslas Square
The neo-renaissance National Museum with large scientific and
The National Theatre, a neo-
Renaissance building with golden roof,
alongside the banks of the
Dancing House (Fred and Ginger Building)
Charles Square, the largest medieval square in
Europe (now turned into
Emmaus monastery and WW Memorial "
Prague to Its Victorious Sons"
at Palacky Square (Palackého náměstí)
The museum of the Heydrich assassination in the crypt of the Church of
Saints Cyril and Methodius
Jubilee Synagogue is the largest in Prague
The Mucha Museum, showcasing the
Art Nouveau works of Alphonse Mucha
Church of St. Apollinaire, Prague
Church of Saint Michael the Archangel in Prague
Vinohrady and Žižkov
National Monument in Vitkov
National Monument in Vitkov with a large bronze equestrian statue of
Jan Žižka in Vítkov Park, Žižkov –
Church of St. Ludmila
Church of St. Ludmila at
Náměstí Míru (Peace
Square) in Vinohrady
Žižkov Television Tower with sculptures of crawling babies
New Jewish Cemetery in Olšany, location of Franz Kafka's
The Roman Catholic Sacred Heart Church at George of Poděbrady Square
(Jiřího z Poděbrad)
Vinohrady grand Neo-Renaissance, Art Nouveau, Pseudo Baroque, and
Neo-Gothic buildings in the area between
Náměstí Míru (Peace
Jiřího z Poděbrad
Jiřího z Poděbrad square and Havlíčkovy sady park
Vyšehrad Castle with Basilica of St Peter and St Paul, Vyšehrad
Prague oldest Rotunda of St. Martin
Prague Metronome at
Letná Park, a giant, functional metronome
that looms over the city
Prague Zoo in Troja, selected as the 7th best zoo in the world by
Forbes magazine in 2007 and the 4th best by
Industrial Palace (Průmyslový palác), Křižík's Light fountain,
funfair Lunapark and Sea World Aquarium in
Výstaviště compound in
Letohrádek Hvězda (Star Villa) in Liboc, a renaissance villa in the
shape of a six-pointed star surrounded by a game reserve
National Gallery in Prague
National Gallery in Prague with large collection of Czech and
international paintings and sculptures by artists such as Mucha,
Monet or Van Gogh
Anděl, a busy part of the city with modern architecture and a
Nusle Bridge, spans the
Nusle Valley, linking New Town to
Pankrác, with the Metro running underneath the road
Strahov Monastery, an old Czech premonstratensian abbey founded in
1149 and monastic library
Charles Bridge is a historic bridge from the 14th century
Prague Castle is the biggest ancient castle in the world
Old Town Square
Old Town Square featuring
Church of Our Lady before Týn
Church of Our Lady before Týn and Old Town
City Hall with
St. Nicholas Church in
Malá Strana is the best example of the Baroque
style in Prague
Vyšehrad fortress contains Basilica of St Peter and St Paul, the
Vyšehrad Cemetery and the oldest Rotunda of St. Martin
View of Pařížská st. from
Náměstí Míru (Peace Square) with
Vinohrady Theatre and Church of
National Theatre offers opera, drama, ballet and other performances
Výstaviště compound contains Průmyslový palác, Křižík's Light
Fountain and host funfair Lunapark
Old New Synagogue
Old New Synagogue is Europe's oldest active synagogue. Legend has
Golem lying in the loft
National Monument on Vítkov
National Monument on Vítkov Hill, the statue of
Jan Žižka is the
third largest bronze equestrian statue in the world
Prague Zoo, selected in 2015 as the fourth best zoo in the world by
See also: Category:Education in Prague.
Nine public universities and thirty six private universities are
located in the city, including:
Charles University in Prague, founded in 1348, was the first
university in Central Europe
University of Economics, Prague
Charles University (UK) founded in 1348, the oldest university in
Czech Technical University (ČVUT) founded in 1707
University of Chemistry and Technology (VŠCHT) founded in 1920
University of Economics (VŠE) founded in 1953
Czech University of Life Sciences Prague
Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (ČZU) founded in 1906/1952
Czech Police Academy (PA ČR) founded in 1993
Public arts academies
Academy of Fine Arts (AVU) founded in 1800
Academy of Arts, Architecture and Design (VŠUP) founded in 1885
Academy of Performing Arts (AMU) founded in 1945
Some private colleges
International School of Prague
International School of Prague (ISP) founded in 1948
Anglo-American University (AAVŠ) founded in 1990
University of New York in Prague
University of New York in Prague (UNYP) founded in 1998
University of Northern Virginia in Prague
University of Northern Virginia in Prague (UNVA) founded in 1998
The University of Finance and Administration
The University of Finance and Administration (VSFS) founded in 1999
College of Banking (AMBIS) founded in 1999
University of Business in Prague (VŠO) founded in 2000
Metropolitan University Prague (MUP) founded in 2001
University of International and Public Relations (VŠMVV) founded in
Prague College (PC) founded in 2004
CEVRO Institute (CEVRO) founded in 2005
Unicorn College (UC) founded in 2006
Architectural Institute in Prague
Architectural Institute in Prague (ARCHIP) founded in 2010
New York University
Istituto Italiano di Cultura
Science, research and hi-tech centres
See also: Category:Science and technology in the Czech Republic.
Headquarters of the Galileo system in Prague's Holešovice
The region city of
Prague is an important centre of research. It is
the seat of 39 out of 54 institutes of the Czech Academy of Sciences,
including the largest ones, the Institute of Physics, the Institute of
Microbiology and the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry.
It is also a seat of 10 public research institutes, four business
incubators and large hospitals performing research and development
activities such as the Institute for Clinical and Experimental
Prague or the Motol University Hospital. Universities
Prague (see section Colleges and Universities) also
represent important centres of science and research activities.
As of 2008[update], there were 13,000 researchers (out of 30,000 in
the Czech Republic, counted in full-time equivalent), representing 3%
share of Prague's economically active population. Gross expenditure on
research and development accounted for €901.3 million (41.5% of
Some well-known multinational companies have established research and
development facilities in Prague, among them Siemens,
Prague was selected to host administration of the EU satellite
navigation system Galileo. It started to provide its first services in
December 2016 and full completion is expected by 2020.
Škoda 15 T, tram of the
Prague tram system
The public transport infrastructure (PID, Pražská integrovaná
doprava) consists of a heavily used integrated transport system of
Prague Metro (lines A, B, and C – its length is 65 km
(40 mi) with 61 stations in total),
Prague tram system, Prague
buses, commuter S-trains, funiculars, and six ferries.
Prague has one
of the highest rates of public transport usage in the world, with
1.2 billion passenger journeys per year.
Prague has about 130 bus
lines (numbers 100–299) and 22 tram lines (numbers 1–26). There
are also three funiculars, one on
Petřín Hill, one on Mrázovka Hill
and a third at the Zoo in Troja.
SOR NB 18
SOR NB 18 of the
Prague bus service
Prague tram system now operates various types of trams: still
popular classic Tatra T3, newer Tatra KT8D5, T6A5, Škoda 14 T
(designed by Porsche), newest modern
Škoda 15 T
Škoda 15 T and nostalgic tram
lines 23 and 41. Although Melbourne, Australia has the longest total
tram system length in the world, Prague's tram network is one of the
largest in the world by other measures.
Prague tram rolling stock consists of over 900 individual cars, of
those around 400 are the modernized T3 class, which are typically
operated coupled together in pairs. The system carries more than 356
million passengers annually, the highest tram patronage in the world
after Budapest. On a per capita basis,
Prague has the second highest
tram patronage after Zürich.
All services have a common ticketing system, and are run by the Prague
Public Transport Company (Dopravní podnik hl. m. Prahy, a. s.) and
several other companies. Recently, the Regional Organiser of Prague
Integrated Transport (ROPID) has franchised operation of ferries on
Vltava river, which are also a part of the public transport system
with common fares. Taxi services make pick-ups on the streets or
operate from regulated taxi stands.
Metro M1 in Prague
Prague Metro station Malostranská
The Metro has three major lines extending throughout the city: A
(green), B (yellow) and C (red). A fourth Metro line is planned, which
would connect the city centre to southern parts of the city. The
Prague Metro system served 589.2 million passengers in 2012,
making it the fifth busiest metro system in
Europe and the
most-patronised in the world on a per capita basis. The first section
Prague metro was put into operation in 1974. It was the stretch
Kačerov and Florenc on the current line C. The first
part of Line A was opened in 1978 (
Dejvická – Náměstí Míru),
the first part of line B in 1985 (Anděl – Florenc).
In April 2015, construction finished to extend the green line A
further into the northwest corner of
Prague closer to the airport.
A new interchange station for the bus in the direction of the airport
is now the station Nádraží Veleslavín. The final station of the
green line is
Nemocnice Motol (Motol Hospital), giving people direct
public transportation access to the largest medical facility in the
Czech Republic and one of the largest in Europe. A railway connection
to the airport is planned.
In operation there are currently two kinds of units: "81-71M" which is
modernized variant of the Soviet Metrovagonmash 81-71 (completely
modernized between 1995 and 2003) and new "Metro M1" trains (since
2000), manufactured by consortium consisting of Siemens, ČKD Praha
and ADtranz. The minimum interval between two trains is 90 seconds.
The original Soviet vehicles "Ečs" were excluded in 1997, but one
vehicle is placed in public transport museum in depot
Náměstí Míru metro station is the deepest
station and is equipped with the longest escalator in European Union.
Prague metro is generally considered very safe.
Barrandov bridge, part of the City (inner) Ring Road
The main flow of traffic leads through the centre of the city and
through inner and outer ring roads (partially in operation).
Inner Ring Road (The City Ring "MO"): Once completed it will surround
the wider central part of the city. The longest city tunnel in Europe
with a length of 5.5 kilometres (3.4 miles) and five interchanges has
been completed to relieve congestion in the north-western part of
Blanka tunnel complex
Blanka tunnel complex and part of the City Ring Road,
it was estimated to eventually cost – after several
increases – 43 billion CZK. Construction started in 2007
and, after repeated delays, the tunnel was officially opened in
September 2015. This tunnel complex completes a major part of the
inner ring road. It is expected that the whole city ring will not be
completed before 2020.
Outer Ring Road (The
Prague Ring "D0"): This ring road will connect
all major motorways and speedways that meet each other in Prague
region and provide faster transit without a necessity to drive through
the city. So far 39 km (24 mi), out of a total planned
83 km (52 mi), is in operation. The year of full completion
is unknown due to incompetent, constantly changing, leadership of
Czech Road and Motorway Directorate, lack of administrative
preparations, and insufficient funding of road constructions.[citation
needed] Most recently, the southern part of this road (with a length
of more than 20 km (12 mi)) was opened on 22 September
Prague main railway station
The city forms the hub of the Czech railway system, with services to
all parts of the country and abroad. The railway system links Prague
with major European cities (which can be reached without transfers),
including Berlin, Munich, Hamburg, Nurenberg and
Budapest (Hungary); Zürich
(Switzerland); Split (Croatia, seasonal);
Belgrade (Serbia, seasonal)
Moscow (Russia). Travel times range between 4.5 hours to Berlin
and 27 hours to Moscow.
Prague's main international railway station is Hlavní nádraží,
rail services are also available from other main stations: Masarykovo
Holešovice and Smíchov, in addition to suburban
stations. Commuter rail services operate under the name Esko Praha,
which is part of PID (
Prague Integrated Transport).
Václav Havel Airport
Václav Havel Airport Prague
Prague is served by
Václav Havel Airport, the largest airport in the
Czech Republic and one of the largest airports in central and eastern
Europe. The airport is the hub of the flag carrier, Czech
Airlines, as well as of the low-cost airlines
SmartWings and Wizz
Air operating throughout Europe. Other airports in
Prague include the
city's original airport in the north-eastern district of Kbely, which
is serviced by the Czech Air Force, also internationally. The runway
Kbely is 2 km (1 mi) long. The airport also
Prague Aviation Museum. The nearby
Letňany airport is
mainly used for private aviation and aeroclub aviation. Another
airport in the proximity is
Aero Vodochody aircraft factory to the
north, used for testing purposes, as well as for aeroclub aviation.
There are a few aeroclubs around Prague, such as the
See also: Football in Prague
The O2 Arena was built to host the 2004 Men's World Ice Hockey
Prague is the site of many sports events, national stadiums and teams.
Prague (Czech First League) – football club
Prague (Czech First League) – football club
Prague (Czech First League) – football club
Bohemians 1905 (Czech First League) – football club
Žižkov (Czech 2. Liga) – football club
HC Sparta Praha
HC Sparta Praha (Czech Extraliga) – ice hockey club
HC Slavia Praha (1st
Czech Republic Hockey League) – ice hockey
USK Praha (National Basketball League) – basketball club
O2 Arena – the second largest ice hockey arena in Europe. It
hosted 2004 and 2015 Ice Hockey World Championship, NHL 2008 and 2010
Opening Game and
Euroleague Final Four
Strahov Stadium – the largest stadium in the world
Prague International Marathon
Prague Open – Tennis Tournament held by the I. Czech Lawn
Prague Open – Tennis Tournament held in
Josef Odložil Memorial – Athletics meeting
Mystic SK8 Cup –
World Cup of Skateboarding venue takes place
Gutovka – sport area with a large concrete skatepark, the
highest outside climbing wall in Central Europe, four beach volleyball
courts and children’s playground
World Ultimate Club Championships 2010
Petřín Lookout Tower, an observation tower built at
The city of
Prague maintains its own EU delegation in
Prague was the location of U.S. President Barack Obama's speech on 5
April 2009, which led to the
New START treaty with Russia, signed in
Prague on 8 April 2010.
The annual conference Forum 2000, which was founded by former Czech
President Václav Havel, Japanese philanthropist Yōhei Sasakawa, and
Nobel Peace Prize laureate
Elie Wiesel in 1996, is held in Prague. Its
main objective is "to identify the key issues facing civilization and
to explore ways to prevent the escalation of conflicts that have
religion, culture or ethnicity as their primary components", and also
intends to promote democracy in non-democratic countries and to
support civil society. Conferences have attracted a number of
prominent thinkers, Nobel laureates, former and acting politicians,
business leaders and other individuals like: Frederik Willem de Klerk,
Bill Clinton, Nicholas Winton, Oscar Arias Sánchez, Dalai Lama, Hans
Shimon Peres and Madeleine Albright.
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See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in the Czech Republic
Chicago, United States
Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Miami-Dade, United States
Phoenix, United States
Saint Petersburg, Russia
Seoul, South Korea
A number of other settlements are derived or similar to the name of
Prague. In many of these cases, Czech emigration has left a number of
namesake cities scattered over the globe, with a notable concentration
in the New World.
Praha, Texas, United States
Prague, Oklahoma, United States
Prague, Nebraska, United States
New Prague, Minnesota, United States
Praga, a historical borough of Warsaw, the capital of Poland
Kłodzko is traditionally referred to as "Little Prague"
(German: Klein-Prag). Although now in Poland, the city was the capital
of the Bohemian kraj of the County of Kladsko.
Czech Republic portal
Churches in Prague
List of people from Prague
Outline of the Czech Republic
Outline of Prague
^ a b c Václav Vojtíšek, Znak Hlavního Města Prahy / Les Armoires
de la Ville de
Prague (1928), cited after nakedtourguideprague.com
Milan Ducháček, Václav Chaloupecký: Hledání československých
dějin (2014), cited after abicko.avcr.cz.
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^ Kenety, Brian. "Unearthing Bohemia's Celtic heritage ahead of
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^ This swallow-tailed banner is approximately 4 by 6 feet (1.2 by 1.8
metres), with a red field sprinkled with small white fleurs-de-lis,
and a silver old Town Coat-of-Arms in the centre. The words PÁN BŮH
POMOC NAŠE (The Lord God is our Help) appeared above the
coat-of-arms, with a Hussite "host with chalice" centred on the top.
Near the swallow-tails is a crescent shaped golden sun with rays
protruding. One of these banners was captured by Swedish troops in
Prague (1648), when they captured the western bank of the
Vltava river and were repulsed from the eastern bank, they placed it
in the Royal Military Museum in Stockholm; although this flag still
exists, it is in very poor condition. They also took the Codex Gigas
and the Codex Argenteus. The earliest evidence indicates that a
gonfalon with a municipal charge painted on it was used for Old Town
as early as 1419. Since this city militia flag was in use before 1477
and during the Hussite Wars, it is the oldest still preserved
municipal flag of Bohemia.
^ "Architecture of the Gothic". Old.hrad.cz. 13 October 2005.
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^ "Old Royal Palace with Vladislav Hall –
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^ "Religious conflicts". Prague.st. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
^ "The Kingdom of
Bohemia during the Thirty Years' War".
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^ "Looking Back at the Bombing of Prague". The
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^ Pehe, Jiří. "Post-Communist Refections of the
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^ "It's Official –
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2009. Archived from the original on 10 September 2010. Retrieved 14
^ "What's in a name?
Prague History lesson". praguesummer.com.
Retrieved 14 March 2016.
^ Lucy S. Dawidowicz – The Golden Tradition: Jewish Life and
Thought in Eastern
Europe 1996 p. 351 "Then you surely knew also Reb
Shmuel on the other side of the Vistula, in Praga! Praga, the
threshold of Warsaw—the aroma of the country, with its broad fields,
so many times desolated by wars and fires and rebuilt, ..."
^ "drexler blog". Drexler, novinky.cz. 11 July 2008. Archived from the
original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
^ "Kolik věží má "stověžatá" Praha? Nadšenci jich napočítali
přes pět set". idnes.cz (in Czech). Mladá fronta DNES. 5 August
2010. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 8 January
^ "Visit Prague, the City of a Hundred spires". prague.fm. Retrieved
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^ "Latitude and Longitude of World Cities". Retrieved 27 May
^ "Latitude and Longitude of Vancouver, Canada". Retrieved 27 May
^ "The Climate of
Prague 1981–2010 (Temperatures, Humidity)" (in
Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат).
Retrieved 9 May 2016.
^ "Praha Climate Normals 1961–1990 (Precipitation, Precipitation
days, Snow, Sunhours)". National Oceanic and Atmospheric
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Look up prague in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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Capital cities of the member states of the European Union
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Andorra la Vella, Andorra
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Prague, Czech Republic
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San Marino, San Marino
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Vatican City, Vatican City
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1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of
European Union and
Brussels and the European Union
3 Transcontinental country
4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political
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5 Partially recognised country
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2022 The Hague
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Former names shown in italics
20 (Horní Počernice)
21 (Újezd nad Lesy)
Újezd (u Průhonic)
Josefov (Jewish Quarter)
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Nové Město ("New Town")
Staré Město ("Old Town")
Újezd nad Lesy
Újezd (u Průhonic)
Regions of the Czech Republic
Ústí nad Labem
Administrative seats of Czech regions
Ústí nad Labem
World Heritage Sites in the Czech Republic
Gardens and Castle at Kroměříž
Holašovice Historical Village Reservation
Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc
Jewish Quarter and St. Procopius Basilica in Třebíč
Lednice–Valtice Cultural Landscape
Pilgrimage Church of Saint John of Nepomuk
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