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Motto(s): " Praga
Praga
Caput Rei publicae" (Latin)[1] "Prague, Head of the Republic"

other historical mottos  

" Praga
Praga
mater urbium" (Latin) "Praha matka měst" (Czech)[1] "Prague, Mother of Cities" " Praga
Praga
Caput Regni" (Latin)[2] "Prague, Head of the Kingdom"

Coordinates: 50°05′N 14°25′E / 50.083°N 14.417°E / 50.083; 14.417Coordinates: 50°05′N 14°25′E / 50.083°N 14.417°E / 50.083; 14.417

Country  Czech Republic

Founded 7th century

Government

 • Mayor Adriana Krnáčová
Adriana Krnáčová
(ANO)

Area[3]

 • Urban 496 km2 (192 sq mi)

Highest elevation 399 m (1,309 ft)

Lowest elevation 177 m (581 ft)

Population (2017)[5]

 • Capital city 1,280,508

 • Metro 2,594,325[4]

Demonym(s) Praguer

Time zone CET (UTC+1)

 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

Postal code 100 00 – 199 00

Vehicle registration A

GDP(nominal)[6] 2016

 – Total €44 billion($85 billion, PPP)

 – Per capita €34,700($67,000, PPP)

Website praha.eu

Prague
Prague
(/prɑːɡ/; Czech: Praha [ˈpraɦa] ( listen), German: Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union[7] and also the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava
Vltava
river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its larger urban zone is estimated to have a population of 2.6 million.[8] The city has a temperate climate, with warm summers and chilly winters. Prague
Prague
has been a political, cultural and economic centre of central Europe
Europe
complete with a rich history. Founded during the Romanesque and flourishing by the Gothic, Renaissance
Renaissance
and Baroque
Baroque
eras, Prague
Prague
was the capital of the kingdom of Bohemia
Bohemia
and the main residence of several Holy Roman Emperors, most notably of Charles IV (r. 1346–1378).[9] It was an important city to the Habsburg Monarchy and its Austro-Hungarian Empire. The city played major roles in the Bohemian and Protestant Reformation, the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
and in 20th-century history as the capital of Czechoslovakia, during both World Wars and the post-war Communist era.[10] Prague
Prague
is home to a number of famous cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence and destruction of 20th-century Europe. Main attractions include the Prague
Prague
Castle, the Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague
Prague
astronomical clock, the Jewish Quarter, Petřín
Petřín
hill and Vyšehrad. Since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague
Prague
has been included in the UNESCO
UNESCO
list of World Heritage Sites. The city has more than ten major museums, along with numerous theatres, galleries, cinemas and other historical exhibits. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city. Also, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University
Charles University
in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe.[11] Prague
Prague
is classified as a "Beta+" global city according to GaWC studies[12] and ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor
Tripadvisor
world list of best destinations in 2016.[13] Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination and as of 2014, the city receives more than 6.4 million international visitors annually. Prague
Prague
is the fifth most visited European city after London, Paris, Istanbul
Istanbul
and Rome.[14]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 The era of Charles IV 1.3 Habsburg era 1.4 20th century

1.4.1 First Czechoslovak
Czechoslovak
Republic 1.4.2 Second World War 1.4.3 Cold War

1.5 After Velvet Revolution

2 Name 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Population 5 Culture

5.1 Cuisine

6 Economy 7 Tourism

7.1 Hradčany
Hradčany
and Lesser Town
Lesser Town
(Malá Strana) 7.2 Old Town (Staré Město) and Josefov 7.3 New Town (Nové Město) 7.4 Vinohrady
Vinohrady
and Žižkov 7.5 Other places

8 Education

8.1 Public universities 8.2 Public arts academies 8.3 Some private colleges 8.4 International institutions

9 Science, research and hi-tech centres 10 Transport

10.1 Public transportation

10.1.1 Prague
Prague
Metro

10.2 Roads 10.3 Rail 10.4 Air

11 Sport 12 International relations

12.1 Twin towns 12.2 Namesakes

13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading

15.1 Culture and society

16 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Prague
History of Prague
and Timeline of Prague

The mythological princess Libuše
Libuše
prophesies the glory of Prague.

During the thousand years of its existence, the city grew from a settlement stretching from Prague Castle
Prague Castle
in the north to the fort of Vyšehrad
Vyšehrad
in the south, becoming the capital of a modern European country, the Czech Republic, a member state of the European Union. Early history[edit]

The Prague astronomical clock
Prague astronomical clock
was first installed in 1410, making it the third-oldest astronomical clock in the world and the oldest one still working.

The region was settled as early as the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
age.[15] Around the fifth and fourth century BC, the Celts
Celts
appeared in the area, later establishing settlements including an oppidum in Závist, a present-day suburb of Prague, and giving name to the region of Bohemia, "home of the Boii".[15][16] In the last century BC, the Celts were slowly driven away by Germanic tribes (Marcomanni, Quadi, Lombards
Lombards
and possibly the Suebi), leading some to place the seat of the Marcomanni
Marcomanni
king Maroboduus on the southern Prague's site Závist.[17][18] Around the area where present-day Prague
Prague
stands, the 2nd century map of Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis.[19] In the late 5th century AD, during the great Migration Period following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Germanic tribes living in Bohemia
Bohemia
moved westwards and, probably in the 6th century, the Slavic tribes (Venedi) settled Central Bohemian Region. In the following two centuries, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in the Šárka valley, Butovice and later in Levý Hradec.[15] The construction of what came to be known as the Prague Castle
Prague Castle
began near the end of the 9th century, with a fortified settlement already existing on the site in the year 800.[20] The first masonry under Prague Castle
Prague Castle
dates from the year 885 at the latest.[21] The other prominent Prague
Prague
fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, some 70 years later than Prague
Prague
Castle.[22] Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which was founded in 1344, but completed in the 20th century.

A view of one of the bridge towers of the Charles Bridge

The legendary origins of Prague
Prague
attribute its foundation to the 8th century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše
Libuše
and her husband, Přemysl, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. Legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava
Vltava
and prophesied: "I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars." She ordered a castle and a town called Praha to be built on the site.[15] A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c. 1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya.[18] The region became the seat of the dukes, and later kings of Bohemia. Under Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973. Until Prague
Prague
was elevated to archbishopric in 1344, it was under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric
Archbishopric
of Mainz. Prague
Prague
was an important seat for trading where merchants from all of Europe
Europe
settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the Hispano-Jewish merchant and traveller Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub. The Old New Synagogue of 1270 still stands. Prague
Prague
contained an important slave market.[23] At the site of the ford in the Vltava
Vltava
river, King Vladislaus I had the first bridge built in 1170, the Judith Bridge (Juditin most), named in honour of his wife Judith of Thuringia. This bridge was destroyed by a flood in 1342. Some of the original foundation stones of that bridge remain. In 1257, under King Ottokar II, Malá Strana
Malá Strana
("Lesser Quarter") was founded in Prague
Prague
on the site of an older village in what would become the Hradčany
Hradčany
( Prague
Prague
Castle) area. This was the district of the German people, who had the right to administer the law autonomously, pursuant to Magdeburg rights. The new district was on the bank opposite of the Staré Město ("Old Town"), which had borough status and was bordered by a line of walls and fortifications. The era of Charles IV[edit]

The Bohemian Crown Jewels
Bohemian Crown Jewels
are the fourth oldest in Europe

Prague
Prague
flourished during the 14th-century reign (1346–1378) of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
and the king of Bohemia
Bohemia
of the new Luxembourg
Luxembourg
dynasty. As King of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Holy Roman Emperor, he transformed Prague
Prague
into an imperial capital and it was at that time the third-largest city in Europe
Europe
(after Rome
Rome
and Constantinople). He ordered the building of the New Town (Nové Město) adjacent to the Old Town and laid out the design himself. The Charles Bridge, replacing the Judith Bridge destroyed in the flood just prior to his reign, was erected to connect the east bank districts to the Malá Strana and castle area. On 9 July 1357 at 5:31 am, Charles IV personally laid the first foundation stone for the Charles Bridge. The exact time of laying the first foundation stone is known because the palindromic number 135797531 was carved into the Old Town bridge tower having been chosen by the royal astrologists and numerologists as the best time for starting the bridge construction.[24] In 1347, he founded Charles University, which remains the oldest university in Central Europe.

St. Vitus Cathedral
St. Vitus Cathedral
at Prague
Prague
Castle

He began construction of the Gothic Saint Vitus Cathedral, within the largest of the Prague Castle
Prague Castle
courtyards, on the site of the Romanesque rotunda there. Prague
Prague
was elevated to an archbishopric in 1344, the year the cathedral was begun. The city had a mint and was a centre of trade for German and Italian bankers and merchants. The social order, however, became more turbulent due to the rising power of the craftsmen's guilds (themselves often torn by internal fights), and the increasing number of poor people. The Hunger Wall, a substantial fortification wall south of Malá Strana and the Castle area, was built during a famine in the 1360s. The work is reputed to have been ordered by Charles IV as a means of providing employment and food to the workers and their families. Charles IV died in 1378. During the reign of his son, King Wenceslaus IV (1378–1419), a period of intense turmoil ensued. During Easter 1389, members of the Prague
Prague
clergy announced that Jews had desecrated the host (Eucharistic wafer) and the clergy encouraged mobs to pillage, ransack and burn the Jewish quarter. Nearly the entire Jewish population of Prague
Prague
(3,000 people) perished.[25][26]

Depiction of the " Prague
Prague
Banner" (municipal flag dated to the 16th century)[27]

The coat of arms of Prague
Prague
(1649).[1]

Jan Hus, a theologian and rector at the Charles University, preached in Prague. In 1402, he began giving sermons in the Bethlehem Chapel. Inspired by John Wycliffe, these sermons focused on what were seen as radical reforms of a corrupt Church. Having become too dangerous for the political and religious establishment, Hus was summoned to the Council of Constance, put on trial for heresy, and burned at the stake in Constanz
Constanz
in 1415. Four years later Prague
Prague
experienced its first defenestration, when the people rebelled under the command of the Prague
Prague
priest Jan Želivský. Hus' death, coupled with Czech proto-nationalism and proto-Protestantism, had spurred the Hussite Wars. Peasant rebels, led by the general Jan Žižka, along with Hussite troops from Prague, defeated Emperor Sigismund, in the Battle of Vítkov Hill
Battle of Vítkov Hill
in 1420. During the Hussite Wars
Hussite Wars
when the City of Prague
Prague
was attacked by "Crusader" and mercenary forces, the city militia fought bravely under the Prague
Prague
Banner. This swallow-tailed banner is approximately 4 by 6 feet (1.2 by 1.8 metres), with a red field sprinkled with small white fleurs-de-lis, and a silver old Town Coat-of-Arms in the centre. The words "PÁN BŮH POMOC NAŠE" (The Lord is our Relief) appeared above the coat-of-arms, with a Hussite chalice centred on the top. Near the swallow-tails is a crescent shaped golden sun with rays protruding. One of these banners was captured by Swedish troops in Battle of Prague
Prague
(1648), when they captured the western bank of the Vltava
Vltava
river and were repulsed from the eastern bank, they placed it in the Royal Military Museum in Stockholm; although this flag still exists, it is in very poor condition. They also took the Codex Gigas
Codex Gigas
and the Codex Argenteus. The earliest evidence indicates that a gonfalon with a municipal charge painted on it was used for Old Town as early as 1419. Since this city militia flag was in use before 1477 and during the Hussite Wars, it is the oldest still preserved municipal flag of Bohemia. In the following two centuries, Prague
Prague
strengthened its role as a merchant city. Many noteworthy Gothic buildings[28][29] were erected and Vladislav Hall of the Prague Castle
Prague Castle
was added. Habsburg era[edit]

Prague
Prague
panorama in 1650

In 1526, the Bohemian estates elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg. The fervent Catholicism of its members was to bring them into conflict in Bohemia, and then in Prague, where Protestant ideas were gaining popularity.[30] These problems were not pre-eminent under Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Rudolf II, elected King of Bohemia
Bohemia
in 1576, who chose Prague
Prague
as his home. He lived in the Prague
Prague
Castle, where his court welcomed not only astrologers and magicians but also scientists, musicians, and artists. Rudolf was an art lover too, and Prague
Prague
became the capital of European culture. This was a prosperous period for the city: famous people living there in that age include the astronomers Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
and Johannes Kepler, the painter Arcimboldo, the alchemists Edward Kelley
Edward Kelley
and John Dee, the poet Elizabeth Jane Weston, and others. In 1618, the famous second defenestration of Prague
Prague
provoked the Thirty Years' War, a particularly harsh period for Prague
Prague
and Bohemia. Ferdinand II of Habsburg was deposed, and his place as King of Bohemia taken by Frederick V, Elector Palatine; however his army was crushed in the Battle of White Mountain
Battle of White Mountain
(1620) not far from the city. Following this in 1621 was an execution of 27 Czech leaders (involved in the uprising) in Old Town Square
Old Town Square
and the exiling of many others. The city suffered subsequently during the war under Saxon (1631) and Battle of Prague
Prague
(1648).[31] Prague
Prague
began a steady decline which reduced the population from the 60,000 it had had in the years before the war to 20,000. In the second half of the 17th century Prague's population began to grow again. Jews had been in Prague
Prague
since the end of the 10th century and, by 1708, they accounted for about a quarter of Prague's population.[32]

Monument to František Palacký, a significant member of the Czech National Revival

In 1689, a great fire devastated Prague, but this spurred a renovation and a rebuilding of the city. In 1713–14, a major outbreak of plague hit Prague
Prague
one last time, killing 12,000 to 13,000 people.[33] In 1744 Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great
of Prussia
Prussia
invaded Bohemia. He took Prague after a severe and prolonged siege in the course of which a large part of the town was destroyed.[34] In 1757 the Prussian Prussian bombardment[34] destroyed more than one quarter of the city and heavily damaged St. Vitus Cathedral. However a month later Frederick the Great was defeated and to retreat from Bohemia. The economy of the city continued to improve during the 18th century. The population increased to 80,000 inhabitants by 1771. Many rich merchants and nobles enhanced the city with a host of palaces, churches and gardens full of art and music, creating a Baroque
Baroque
city renowned throughout the world to this day. In 1784, under Joseph II, the four municipalities of Malá Strana, Nové Město, Staré Město, and Hradčany
Hradčany
were merged into a single entity. The Jewish district, called Josefov, was included only in 1850. The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
had a strong effect in Prague, as factories could take advantage of the coal mines and ironworks of the nearby region. A first suburb, Karlín, was created in 1817, and twenty years later the population exceeded 100,000. The revolutions in Europe
Europe
in 1848 also touched Prague, but they were fiercely suppressed. In the following years the Czech National Revival began its rise, until it gained the majority in the town council in 1861. Prague
Prague
had a German-speaking majority in 1848, but by 1880 the number of German speakers had decreased to 14% (42,000), and by 1910 to 6.7% (37,000), due to a massive increase of the city's overall population caused by the influx of Czechs
Czechs
from the rest of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia
Moravia
and also due to return of social status importance of the Czech language. 20th century[edit]

Statue of Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
near Prague
Prague
Castle

First Czechoslovak
Czechoslovak
Republic[edit] Main article: First Czechoslovak
Czechoslovak
Republic World War I ended with the defeat of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
and the creation of Czechoslovakia. Prague
Prague
was chosen as its capital and Prague Castle
Prague Castle
as the seat of president Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. At this time Prague
Prague
was a true European capital with highly developed industry. By 1930, the population had risen to 850,000. Second World War[edit]

Prague
Prague
liberated by Red Army
Red Army
in May 1945

Further information: German occupation of Czechoslovakia Hitler
Hitler
ordered the German Army to enter Prague
Prague
on 15 March 1939, and from Prague Castle
Prague Castle
proclaimed Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia
Moravia
a German protectorate. For most of its history, Prague
Prague
had been a multi-ethnic city with important Czech, German and (mostly native German-speaking) Jewish populations.[citation needed] From 1939, when the country was occupied by Nazi Germany, and during the Second World War, most Jews were deported and killed by the Germans. In 1942, Prague
Prague
was witness to the assassination of one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany – Reinhard Heydrich – during Operation Anthropoid, accomplished by Czechoslovak
Czechoslovak
national heroes Jozef Gabčík and Jan Kubiš. Hitler
Hitler
ordered bloody reprisals. At the end of the war, Prague
Prague
suffered several bombing raids by the US Army Air Forces. 701 people were killed, more than 1,000 people were injured and some of buildings, factories and historical landmarks (Emmaus Monastery, Faust House, Vinohrady
Vinohrady
Synagogue) were destroyed.[35] Many historic structures in Prague, however, escaped the destruction of the war and the damage was small compared to the total destruction of many other cities in that time. According to American pilots, it was the result of a navigational mistake. On 5 May 1945, two days before Germany
Germany
capitulated, an uprising against Germany
Germany
occurred. Four days later, the 3rd Shock Army
3rd Shock Army
of the Red Army
Red Army
took the city, with fierce fighting until 11 May 1945. The majority (about 50,000 people) of the German population of Prague either fled or were expelled by the Beneš decrees
Beneš decrees
in the aftermath of the war. Cold War[edit] Main article: History of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1948–89)

Velvet Revolution
Velvet Revolution
in November 1989

Prague
Prague
was a city in the territory of military and political control of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(see Iron Curtain). The biggest Stalin Monument was unveiled on Letná
Letná
hill in 1955 and destroyed in 1962. The 4th Czechoslovakian Writers' Congress held in the city in June 1967 took a strong position against the regime.[36] On 31 October 1967 students demonstrated at Strahov. This spurred the new secretary of the Communist Party, Alexander Dubček, to proclaim a new deal in his city's and country's life, starting the short-lived season of the "socialism with a human face". It was the Prague
Prague
Spring, which aimed at the renovation of institutions in a democratic way. The other Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
member countries, except Romania
Romania
and Albania, reacted with the invasion of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and the capital on 21 August 1968 by tanks, suppressing any attempt at reform. Jan Palach
Jan Palach
and Jan Zajíc committed suicide by self-immolation in January and February 1969 to protest against the "normalization" of the country. After Velvet Revolution[edit]

Prague
Prague
high-rise buildings

In 1989, after the riot police beat back a peaceful student demonstration, the Velvet Revolution
Velvet Revolution
crowded the streets of Prague, and the Czechoslovak
Czechoslovak
capital benefited greatly from the new mood. In 1993, after the split of Czechoslovakia, Prague
Prague
became the capital city of the new Czech Republic. From 1995 high-rise buildings began to be built in Prague
Prague
in large quantities. In the late 1990s, Prague again became an important cultural centre of Europe
Europe
and was notably influenced by globalisation[clarification needed]. In 2000, IMF
IMF
and World Bank
World Bank
summits took place in Prague. In 2002, Prague
Prague
suffered from widespread floods that damaged buildings and its underground transport system. Prague
Prague
launched a bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics,[37] but failed to make the candidate city shortlist. In June 2009, as the result of financial pressures from the global recession, Prague's officials also chose to cancel the city's planned bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics.[38] Name[edit] See also: Names in different languages

Bridges over the River Vltava, as seen from Letná

The Czech name Praha is derived from an old Slavic word, práh, which means "ford" or "rapid", referring to the city's origin at a crossing point of the Vltava
Vltava
river.[39] The same etymology is associated with the Praga
Praga
district of Warsaw.[40] Another view to the origin of name is also related to the Czech word práh (in the mean of a threshold) and a legendary etymology connects the name of the city with princess Libuše, prophetess and a wife of mythical founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. She is said to have ordered the city "to be built where a man hews a threshold of his house". The Czech práh might thus be understood to refer to rapids or fords in the river, the edge of which could have acted as a means of fording the river – thus providing a "threshold" to the castle. Another derivation of the name Praha is suggested from na prazě, the original term for the shale hillside rock upon which the original castle was built. At that time, the castle was surrounded by forests, covering the nine hills of the future city – the Old Town on the opposite side of the river, as well as the Lesser Town
Lesser Town
beneath the existing castle, appeared only later.[41] The English spelling of the city's name is borrowed from French. Prague
Prague
is also called the "City of a Hundred Spires", based on a count by 19th century mathematician Bernard Bolzano, today's count is estimated by Prague
Prague
Information Service at 500.[42] Nicknames for Prague
Prague
have also included: the Golden City, the Mother of Cities and the Heart of Europe.[43] Geography[edit] Prague
Prague
is situated on the Vltava
Vltava
river, at 50°05"N and 14°27"E.[44] in the centre of the Bohemian Basin. Prague
Prague
is approximately at the same latitude as Frankfurt, Germany;[45] Paris, France;[46] and Vancouver, Canada.[47]

Climate[edit]

Prague
Prague
seen from satellite

Prague
Prague
has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb). The winters are relatively cold with average temperatures at about freezing point, and with very little sunshine. Snow cover can be common between mid-November and late March although snow accumulations of more than 20 cm (8 in) are infrequent. There are also a few periods of mild temperatures in winter. Summers usually bring plenty of sunshine and the average high temperature of 24 °C (75 °F). Nights can be quite cool even in summer, though. Precipitation
Precipitation
in Prague
Prague
(and most of the Bohemian lowland) is rather low (just over 500 mm [20 in] per year) since it is located in the rain shadow of the Sudetes
Sudetes
and other mountain ranges. The driest season is usually winter while late spring and summer can bring quite heavy rain, especially in form of thundershowers. Temperature inversions are relatively common between mid-October and mid-March bringing foggy, cold days and sometimes moderate air pollution. Prague is also a windy city with common sustained western winds and an average wind speed of 16 km/h (9.9 mph) that often help break temperature inversions and clear the air in cold months.

Climate data for Prague
Prague
(1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 17.4 (63.3) 19.2 (66.6) 22.5 (72.5) 28.8 (83.8) 32.5 (90.5) 37.2 (99) 37.8 (100) 37.4 (99.3) 33.1 (91.6) 27.0 (80.6) 19.5 (67.1) 17.4 (63.3) 37.8 (100)

Average high °C (°F) 1.3 (34.3) 3.0 (37.4) 8.1 (46.6) 14.3 (57.7) 19.2 (66.6) 21.8 (71.2) 24.4 (75.9) 23.8 (74.8) 18.9 (66) 13.1 (55.6) 6.0 (42.8) 2.0 (35.6) 13.0 (55.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) −1.4 (29.5) −0.4 (31.3) 3.6 (38.5) 8.4 (47.1) 13.4 (56.1) 16.1 (61) 18.2 (64.8) 17.8 (64) 13.5 (56.3) 8.5 (47.3) 3.1 (37.6) −0.3 (31.5) 8.4 (47.1)

Average low °C (°F) −4 (25) −3.6 (25.5) 0.0 (32) 2.9 (37.2) 8.2 (46.8) 10.8 (51.4) 12.7 (54.9) 12.6 (54.7) 8.8 (47.8) 4.7 (40.5) 0.6 (33.1) −2.7 (27.1) 4.3 (39.7)

Record low °C (°F) −27.5 (−17.5) −27.1 (−16.8) −27.6 (−17.7) −8 (18) −2.3 (27.9) 1.9 (35.4) 6.7 (44.1) 6.4 (43.5) 0.7 (33.3) −7.5 (18.5) −16.9 (1.6) −24.8 (−12.6) −27.6 (−17.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 23.5 (0.925) 22.6 (0.89) 28.1 (1.106) 38.2 (1.504) 77.2 (3.039) 72.7 (2.862) 66.2 (2.606) 69.6 (2.74) 40.0 (1.575) 30.5 (1.201) 31.9 (1.256) 25.3 (0.996) 525.8 (20.701)

Average snowfall cm (inches) 17.9 (7.05) 15.9 (6.26) 10.3 (4.06) 2.9 (1.14) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.1 (0.04) 8.4 (3.31) 15.9 (6.26) 71.4 (28.11)

Average precipitation days 6.8 5.6 6.2 7.3 9.8 10.3 9.1 8.8 7.0 5.5 7.0 6.8 90.2

Average relative humidity (%) 86 83 77 69 70 71 70 71 76 81 87 88 77

Mean monthly sunshine hours 50.0 72.4 124.7 167.6 214.0 218.3 226.2 212.3 161.0 120.8 53.9 46.7 1,667.9

Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[48]

Source #2: NOAA[49]

Population[edit] According to the 2011 census, about 14% of the city inhabitants were foreigners, the highest proportion in the country.[50] Development of the Prague
Prague
population since 1378:[51][52][53]

Year 1378 1500 1610 1798 1880 1930 1961 1980 1995 2005 2015

Population 40,000 30,000 60,000 79,000 350,000 950,000 1,130,000 1,190,000 1,210,000 1,180,000 1,267,449

Foreign residents in the city (2016)[54]

Nationality Population

 Ukraine 47,332

 Slovakia 28,973

 Russia 22,156

 Vietnam 12,179

 USA 5,517

Other countries/territories

 Bulgaria 4,308

 China 4,265

 Germany 3,715

 United Kingdom 3,628

 Kazakhstan 3,520

 Poland 3,118

 Romania 3,087

 France 2,544

 Italy 2,512

 Belarus 2,308

Culture[edit]

Historic Centre of Prague

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Includes Historic Centre of Prague
Historic Centre of Prague
and Průhonice
Průhonice
Park

Criteria Cultural: ii, iv, vi

Reference 616

Inscription 1992 (16th Session)

Area 1,106.36 ha

Buffer zone 9,887.09 ha

See also: Prague
Prague
underground (culture)

Veletržní palác houses the largest collection of National Gallery art

National Theatre in Prague

Rudolfinum, a concert and exhibition hall

Prague Congress Centre
Prague Congress Centre
has hosted the IMF-WBG meeting and NATO
NATO
summit

The city is traditionally one of the cultural centres of Europe, hosting many cultural events. Some of the significant cultural institutions include the National Theatre (Národní Divadlo) and the Estates Theatre
Estates Theatre
(Stavovské or Tylovo or Nosticovo divadlo), where the premières of Mozart's Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
and La clemenza di Tito
La clemenza di Tito
were held. Other major cultural institutions are the Rudolfinum
Rudolfinum
which is home to the Czech Philharmonic
Czech Philharmonic
Orchestra and the Municipal House
Municipal House
which is home to the Prague
Prague
Symphony Orchestra. The Prague
Prague
State Opera (Státní opera) performs at the Smetana Theatre. The city has many world-class museums, including the National Museum (Národní muzeum), the Museum of the Capital City of Prague, the Jewish Museum in Prague, the Alfons Mucha
Alfons Mucha
Museum, the African-Prague Museum, the Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague, the Náprstek Museum (Náprstkovo Muzeum), the Josef Sudek Gallery
Josef Sudek Gallery
and The Josef Sudek Studio, the National Library and the National Gallery, which manages the largest collection of art in the Czech Republic. There are hundreds of concert halls, galleries, cinemas and music clubs in the city. It hosts music festivals including the Prague Spring International Music Festival, the Prague
Prague
Autumn International Music Festival, the Prague International Organ Festival
Prague International Organ Festival
and the Prague International Jazz Festival. Film festivals include the Febiofest, the One World Film Festival
One World Film Festival
and Echoes of the Karlovy Vary
Karlovy Vary
International Film Festival. The city also hosts the Prague
Prague
Writers' Festival, the Prague
Prague
Folklore Days, Prague
Prague
Advent Choral Meeting the Summer Shakespeare Festival,[55] the Prague
Prague
Fringe Festival, the World Roma Festival, as well as the hundreds of Vernissages and fashion shows. Many films have been made at Barrandov Studios
Barrandov Studios
and at Prague
Prague
Studios. Hollywood films set in Prague
Prague
include Mission
Mission
Impossible, xXx, Blade II, Alien vs. Predator, Doom, Chronicles of Narnia, Hellboy, Red Tails, Children of Dune and Van Helsing.[56] Other Czech films shot in Prague
Prague
include Empties, EuroTrip, Amadeus and The Fifth Horseman is Fear. Also, the romantic music video "Never Tear Us Apart" by INXS, "Diamonds from Sierra Leone" by Kanye West
Kanye West
was shot in the city, and features shots of the Charles Bridge
Charles Bridge
and the Astronomical Clock, among other famous landmarks. Rihanna's "Don't Stop the Music" video was filmed at Prague's Radost FX Club. The city was also the setting for the film Dungeons and Dragons in 2000. The music video "Silver and Cold" by AFI, an American rock band, was also filmed in Prague. Many Indian films have also been filmed in the city including Yuvraaj, Drona
Drona
and Rockstar. Early 2000's europop hit "Something" by "Lasgo" was filmed at the central train station in Prague. Video games set in Prague
Prague
include Tomb Raider: The Angel of Darkness, Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb, Vampire: The Masquerade – Redemption, Soldier of Fortune II: Double Helix, Broken Sword: The Sleeping Dragon, Still Life, Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3 and Deus Ex: Mankind Divided. With the growth of low-cost airlines in Europe, Prague
Prague
has become a popular weekend city destination allowing tourists to visit its many museums and cultural sites as well as try its famous Czech beers and hearty cuisine. The city has many buildings by renowned architects, including Adolf Loos (Villa Müller), Frank O. Gehry
Frank O. Gehry
(Dancing House) and Jean Nouvel (Golden Angel). Recent major events held in Prague:

International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
and World Bank
World Bank
Summit 2000 NATO
NATO
Summit 2002 International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
Session 2004 IAU General Assembly 2006 (Definition of planet) EU & USA Summit 2009 Czech Presidency of the Council of the European Union
European Union
2009 USA & Russia
Russia
Summit 2010 (signing of the New START
New START
treaty)

Cuisine[edit] In 2008 the Allegro restaurant received the first Michelin star in the whole of the post-Communist part of Central Europe. It retained its star until 2011. As of 2016[update] there are three Michelin-starred restaurants in Prague: Alcron, La Degustation, Bohême Bourgeoise, and Field. In Malá Strana, Staré Město, Žižkov
Žižkov
and Nusle
Nusle
there are hundreds of restaurants, bars and pubs, especially with Czech beer. Prague
Prague
also hosts the Czech Beer Festival
Czech Beer Festival
(Český pivní festival), which is the largest beer festival in the Czech Republic, held for 17 days every year in May. At the festival, more than 70 brands of Czech beer
Czech beer
can be tasted. Prague
Prague
is home to many breweries including:

Pivovary Staropramen (Praha 5) První novoměstský restaurační pivovar (Praha 1) Pivovar U Fleků
U Fleků
(Praha 1) Klášterní pivovar Strahov (Praha 1) Pivovar Pražský most u Valšů (Praha 1) Pivovarský Hotel U Medvídků (Praha 1) Pivovarský dům (Praha 2) Jihoměstský pivovar (Praha 4) Sousedský pivovar U Bansethů (Praha 4) Vyukový a výzkumný pivovar – Suchdolský Jeník (Praha 6) Pivovar U Bulovky (Praha 8)

Economy[edit]

Žižkov
Žižkov
Television Tower with crawling "babies"

Prague's economy accounts for 25% of the Czech GDP[57] making it the highest performing regional economy of the country. According to the Eurostat, as of 2007[update], its GDP per capita in purchasing power standard is €42,800. Prague
Prague
ranked the 6th best-performing European NUTS two-level region at 182,4 percent of the EU-28 average in 2016.[58] The city is the site of the European headquarters of many international companies.[citation needed] Prague
Prague
employs almost a fifth of the entire Czech workforce, and its wages are significantly above average (~+25%). In December 2015, average salaries available in Prague
Prague
reached 35,853 CZK, an annual increase of 3.4%, which was nevertheless lower than national increase of 3.9% both in nominal and real terms. (Inflation in Prague
Prague
was 0.5% in December, compared with 0.1% nationally.)[58][59] Since 1990, the city's economic structure has shifted from industrial to service-oriented. Industry is present in sectors such as pharmaceuticals, printing, food processing, manufacture of transport equipment, computer technology and electrical engineering. In the service sector, financial and commercial services, trade, restaurants, hospitality and public administration are the most significant. Services account for around 80 percent of employment. There are 800,000 employees in Prague, including 120,000 commuters.[57] The number of (legally registered) foreign residents in Prague
Prague
has been increasing in spite of the country's economic downturn. As of March 2010, 148,035 foreign workers were reported to be living in the city making up about 18 percent of the workforce, up from 131,132 in 2008.[60] Approximately one-fifth of all investment in the Czech Republic takes place in the city. Almost one-half of the national income from tourism is spent in Prague. The city offers approximately 73,000 beds in accommodation facilities, most of which were built after 1990, including almost 51,000 beds in hotels and boarding houses.

Charles Bridge
Charles Bridge
(Karlův most), Vltava
Vltava
River, Prague, 2015

From the late 1990s to late 2000s, the city was a popular filming location for international productions such as Hollywood and Bollywood motion pictures. A combination of architecture, low costs and the existing motion picture infrastructure have proven attractive to international film production companies. The modern economy of Prague
Prague
is largely service and export-based and, in a 2010 survey, the city was named the best city in Central and Eastern Europe
Europe
(CEE) for business.[61] In 2005, Prague
Prague
was deemed among the three best cities in Central and Eastern Europe
Europe
according to The Economist's livability rankings.[62] The city was named as a top-tier nexus city for innovation across multiple sectors of the global innovation economy, placing 29th globally out of 289 cities, ahead of Brussels
Brussels
and Helsinki
Helsinki
for innovation in 2010 in 2thinknow annual analysts Innovation Cities Index.[63] Na příkopě
Na příkopě
in New Town is the most expensive street in the whole of Central Europe.[64] In the Eurostat
Eurostat
research, Prague
Prague
ranked fifth among Europe's 271 regions in terms of gross domestic product per inhabitant, achieving 172 percent of the EU average. It ranked just above Paris
Paris
and well above the country as a whole, which achieved 80 percent of the EU average.[65][66] Companies with highest turnover in the region in 2014:[67]

Name Turnover, mld. Kč

ČEZ 200.8

Agrofert 166.8

RWE Supply & Trading CZ 146.1

Prague
Prague
is also the site of some of the most important offices and institutions of the Czech Republic.

President of the Czech Republic The Government and both houses of Parliament Ministries and other national offices (Industrial Property Office, Czech Statistical Office, National Security Authority etc.) Czech National Bank Czech Television and other major broadcasters Radio Free Europe – Radio Liberty Galileo global navigation project Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic

Tourism[edit]

Wenceslas Square

The Gothic Powder Tower

Milunić's and Gehry's Dancing House

The Municipal House, built in Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
style

Library of the Strahov Monastery

Franz Kafka
Franz Kafka
monument, next to the Spanish synagogue

Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, Prague
Prague
has become one of the world's most popular tourist destinations. Prague
Prague
suffered considerably less damage during World War II
World War II
than some other major cities in the region, allowing most of its historic architecture to stay true to form. It contains one of the world's most pristine and varied collections of architecture, from Romanesque, to Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neo-Renaissance, Neo-Gothic, Art Nouveau, Cubist, Neo-Classical and ultra-modern. Prague
Prague
is classified as an "Beta+" global city according to GaWC studies, comparable to Vienna, Seoul
Seoul
and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Prague ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor
Tripadvisor
world list of best destinations in 2016.[13] Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination, and the city receives more than 6.4 million international visitors annually, as of 2014[update]. Prague
Prague
is the fifth most visited European city after London, Paris, Istanbul
Istanbul
and Rome.[14] Prague's low cost of living makes it a popular destination for expats relocating to Europe.[68]

Top 10 tourism source countries in 2016[69]

Country Number

 Germany 877,352

 United States 453,105

 United Kingdom 410,527

 Italy 302,278

 Russia 280,641

 Slovakia 280,479

 South Korea 236,449

 France 228,833

 China 226,105

 Poland 225,890

Hradčany
Hradčany
and Lesser Town
Lesser Town
(Malá Strana)[edit]

Prague Castle
Prague Castle
with the St. Vitus Cathedral
St. Vitus Cathedral
which stores the Czech Crown Jewels The picturesque Charles Bridge
Charles Bridge
(Karlův most) The Baroque
Baroque
Saint Nicholas Church Church of Our Lady Victorious
Church of Our Lady Victorious
and Infant Jesus of Prague Písek Gate, one of the last preserved city gate of Baroque fortification Petřín
Petřín
Hill with Petřín
Petřín
Lookout Tower, Mirror Maze and Petřín funicular Lennon Wall The Franz Kafka
Franz Kafka
Museum Kampa Island, an island with a view of the Charles Bridge[70] The Baroque
Baroque
Wallenstein Palace
Wallenstein Palace
with its garden

Old Town (Staré Město) and Josefov[edit]

The Astronomical Clock (Orloj) on Old Town City Hall The Gothic Church of Our Lady before Týn
Church of Our Lady before Týn
(Kostel Matky Boží před Týnem) from the 14th century with 80 m high towers The vaulted Gothic Old New Synagogue
Old New Synagogue
(Staronová Synagoga) of 1270 Old Jewish Cemetery Powder Tower
Powder Tower
(Prašná brána), a Gothic tower of the old city gates Spanish Synagogue with its beautiful interior Old Town Square
Old Town Square
(Staroměstské náměstí) with gothic and baroque architectural styles The art nouveau Municipal House, a major civic landmark and concert hall known for its Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
architectural style and political history in the Czech Republic. Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague, with an extensive collections including glass, furniture, textile, toys, Art Nouveau, Cubism
Cubism
and Art Deco Clam-Gallas Palace, a baroque palace from 1713

New Town (Nové Město)[edit]

Busy and historic Wenceslas Square The neo-renaissance National Museum with large scientific and historical collections The National Theatre, a neo- Renaissance
Renaissance
building with golden roof, alongside the banks of the Vltava
Vltava
river The deconstructivist Dancing House
Dancing House
(Fred and Ginger Building) Charles Square, the largest medieval square in Europe
Europe
(now turned into a park) The Emmaus monastery
Emmaus monastery
and WW Memorial " Prague
Prague
to Its Victorious Sons" at Palacky Square (Palackého náměstí) The museum of the Heydrich assassination in the crypt of the Church of Saints Cyril and Methodius Stiassny's Jubilee Synagogue
Jubilee Synagogue
is the largest in Prague The Mucha Museum, showcasing the Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
works of Alphonse Mucha Church of St. Apollinaire, Prague Church of Saint Michael the Archangel in Prague

Vinohrady
Vinohrady
and Žižkov[edit]

National Monument in Vitkov
National Monument in Vitkov
with a large bronze equestrian statue of Jan Žižka
Jan Žižka
in Vítkov Park, Žižkov – Prague
Prague
3 The neo-Gothic Church of St. Ludmila
Church of St. Ludmila
at Náměstí Míru
Náměstí Míru
(Peace Square) in Vinohrady Žižkov
Žižkov
Television Tower with sculptures of crawling babies New Jewish Cemetery in Olšany, location of Franz Kafka's grave – Prague
Prague
3 The Roman Catholic Sacred Heart Church at George of Poděbrady Square (Jiřího z Poděbrad) The Vinohrady
Vinohrady
grand Neo-Renaissance, Art Nouveau, Pseudo Baroque, and Neo-Gothic buildings in the area between Náměstí Míru
Náměstí Míru
(Peace Square), Jiřího z Poděbrad
Jiřího z Poděbrad
square and Havlíčkovy sady park[71]

Other places[edit]

Vyšehrad
Vyšehrad
Castle with Basilica of St Peter and St Paul, Vyšehrad cemetery and Prague
Prague
oldest Rotunda of St. Martin The Prague Metronome
Prague Metronome
at Letná
Letná
Park, a giant, functional metronome that looms over the city Prague Zoo
Prague Zoo
in Troja, selected as the 7th best zoo in the world by Forbes
Forbes
magazine in 2007[72] and the 4th best by TripAdvisor
TripAdvisor
in 2015[73] Industrial Palace (Průmyslový palác), Křižík's Light fountain, funfair Lunapark and Sea World Aquarium in Výstaviště
Výstaviště
compound in Holešovice Letohrádek Hvězda
Letohrádek Hvězda
(Star Villa) in Liboc, a renaissance villa in the shape of a six-pointed star surrounded by a game reserve National Gallery in Prague
National Gallery in Prague
with large collection of Czech and international paintings and sculptures by artists such as Mucha, Kupka, Picasso, Monet
Monet
or Van Gogh Anděl, a busy part of the city with modern architecture and a shopping mall The large Nusle
Nusle
Bridge, spans the Nusle
Nusle
Valley, linking New Town to Pankrác, with the Metro running underneath the road Strahov Monastery, an old Czech premonstratensian abbey founded in 1149 and monastic library

The Charles Bridge
Charles Bridge
is a historic bridge from the 14th century

Prague Castle
Prague Castle
is the biggest ancient castle in the world

Old Town Square
Old Town Square
featuring Church of Our Lady before Týn
Church of Our Lady before Týn
and Old Town City Hall with Prague
Prague
Orloj

St. Nicholas Church in Malá Strana
Malá Strana
is the best example of the Baroque style in Prague

Vyšehrad
Vyšehrad
fortress contains Basilica of St Peter and St Paul, the Vyšehrad
Vyšehrad
Cemetery and the oldest Rotunda of St. Martin

View of Pařížská st. from Letná
Letná
Park

Náměstí Míru
Náměstí Míru
(Peace Square) with Vinohrady
Vinohrady
Theatre and Church of St. Ludmila

National Theatre offers opera, drama, ballet and other performances

Výstaviště
Výstaviště
compound contains Průmyslový palác, Křižík's Light Fountain and host funfair Lunapark

Old New Synagogue
Old New Synagogue
is Europe's oldest active synagogue. Legend has Golem
Golem
lying in the loft

National Monument on Vítkov
National Monument on Vítkov
Hill, the statue of Jan Žižka
Jan Žižka
is the third largest bronze equestrian statue in the world

Prague
Prague
Zoo, selected in 2015 as the fourth best zoo in the world by TripAdvisor

Education[edit] See also: Category:Education in Prague. Nine public universities and thirty six private universities are located in the city, including:[74] Public universities[edit]

Charles University
Charles University
in Prague, founded in 1348, was the first university in Central Europe

University of Economics, Prague

Charles University
Charles University
(UK) founded in 1348, the oldest university in Central Europe Czech Technical University (ČVUT) founded in 1707 University of Chemistry and Technology (VŠCHT) founded in 1920 University of Economics (VŠE) founded in 1953 Czech University of Life Sciences Prague
Czech University of Life Sciences Prague
(ČZU) founded in 1906/1952 Czech Police Academy (PA ČR) founded in 1993

Public arts academies[edit]

Academy of Fine Arts (AVU) founded in 1800 Academy of Arts, Architecture and Design (VŠUP) founded in 1885 Academy of Performing Arts (AMU) founded in 1945

Some private colleges[edit]

International School of Prague
International School of Prague
(ISP) founded in 1948 Anglo-American University (AAVŠ) founded in 1990 University of New York in Prague
University of New York in Prague
(UNYP) founded in 1998 University of Northern Virginia in Prague
University of Northern Virginia in Prague
(UNVA) founded in 1998 The University of Finance and Administration
The University of Finance and Administration
(VSFS) founded in 1999 College of Banking (AMBIS) founded in 1999 University of Business in Prague (VŠO) founded in 2000 Metropolitan University Prague (MUP) founded in 2001 University of International and Public Relations (VŠMVV) founded in 2001 Prague College
Prague College
(PC) founded in 2004 CEVRO Institute
CEVRO Institute
(CEVRO) founded in 2005 Unicorn College
Unicorn College
(UC) founded in 2006 Architectural Institute in Prague
Architectural Institute in Prague
(ARCHIP) founded in 2010

International institutions[edit]

New York University Instituto Camões Goethe-Institut Instituto Cervantes British Council Alliance Française Istituto Italiano di Cultura

Science, research and hi-tech centres[edit] See also: Category:Science and technology in the Czech Republic.

Headquarters of the Galileo system in Prague's Holešovice

The region city of Prague
Prague
is an important centre of research. It is the seat of 39 out of 54 institutes of the Czech Academy of Sciences, including the largest ones, the Institute of Physics, the Institute of Microbiology and the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry. It is also a seat of 10 public research institutes, four business incubators and large hospitals performing research and development activities such as the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine in Prague
Prague
or the Motol University Hospital. Universities seated in Prague
Prague
(see section Colleges and Universities) also represent important centres of science and research activities. As of 2008[update], there were 13,000 researchers (out of 30,000 in the Czech Republic, counted in full-time equivalent), representing 3% share of Prague's economically active population. Gross expenditure on research and development accounted for €901.3 million (41.5% of country's total).[75] Some well-known multinational companies have established research and development facilities in Prague, among them Siemens, Honeywell
Honeywell
and Sun Microsystems. Prague
Prague
was selected to host administration of the EU satellite navigation system Galileo. It started to provide its first services in December 2016 and full completion is expected by 2020. Transport[edit] Public transportation[edit]

Škoda 15 T, tram of the Prague
Prague
tram system

The public transport infrastructure (PID, Pražská integrovaná doprava) consists of a heavily used integrated transport system of Prague Metro
Prague Metro
(lines A, B, and C – its length is 65 km (40 mi) with 61 stations in total), Prague
Prague
tram system, Prague buses, commuter S-trains, funiculars, and six ferries. Prague
Prague
has one of the highest rates of public transport usage in the world,[76] with 1.2 billion passenger journeys per year. Prague
Prague
has about 130 bus lines (numbers 100–299) and 22 tram lines (numbers 1–26). There are also three funiculars, one on Petřín
Petřín
Hill, one on Mrázovka Hill and a third at the Zoo in Troja.

SOR NB 18
SOR NB 18
of the Prague
Prague
bus service

The Prague
Prague
tram system now operates various types of trams: still popular classic Tatra T3, newer Tatra KT8D5, T6A5, Škoda 14 T (designed by Porsche), newest modern Škoda 15 T
Škoda 15 T
and nostalgic tram lines 23 and 41. Although Melbourne, Australia has the longest total tram system length in the world, Prague's tram network is one of the largest in the world by other measures. The Prague
Prague
tram rolling stock consists of over 900 individual cars, of those around 400 are the modernized T3 class, which are typically operated coupled together in pairs. The system carries more than 356 million passengers annually, the highest tram patronage in the world after Budapest. On a per capita basis, Prague
Prague
has the second highest tram patronage after Zürich. All services have a common ticketing system, and are run by the Prague Public Transport Company (Dopravní podnik hl. m. Prahy, a. s.) and several other companies. Recently, the Regional Organiser of Prague Integrated Transport (ROPID) has franchised operation of ferries on the Vltava
Vltava
river, which are also a part of the public transport system with common fares. Taxi services make pick-ups on the streets or operate from regulated taxi stands. Prague
Prague
Metro[edit] Main article: Prague
Prague
Metro

Metro M1 in Prague

Prague Metro
Prague Metro
station Malostranská

The Metro has three major lines extending throughout the city: A (green), B (yellow) and C (red). A fourth Metro line is planned, which would connect the city centre to southern parts of the city.[77] The Prague Metro
Prague Metro
system served 589.2 million passengers in 2012,[78] making it the fifth busiest metro system in Europe
Europe
and the most-patronised in the world on a per capita basis. The first section of the Prague metro
Prague metro
was put into operation in 1974. It was the stretch between stations Kačerov
Kačerov
and Florenc on the current line C. The first part of Line A was opened in 1978 ( Dejvická
Dejvická
– Náměstí Míru), the first part of line B in 1985 (Anděl – Florenc). In April 2015, construction finished to extend the green line A further into the northwest corner of Prague
Prague
closer to the airport.[79] A new interchange station for the bus in the direction of the airport is now the station Nádraží Veleslavín. The final station of the green line is Nemocnice Motol
Nemocnice Motol
(Motol Hospital), giving people direct public transportation access to the largest medical facility in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and one of the largest in Europe. A railway connection to the airport is planned. In operation there are currently two kinds of units: "81-71M" which is modernized variant of the Soviet Metrovagonmash 81-71 (completely modernized between 1995 and 2003) and new "Metro M1" trains (since 2000), manufactured by consortium consisting of Siemens, ČKD Praha and ADtranz. The minimum interval between two trains is 90 seconds. The original Soviet vehicles "Ečs" were excluded in 1997, but one vehicle is placed in public transport museum in depot Střešovice.[80] The Náměstí Míru
Náměstí Míru
metro station is the deepest station and is equipped with the longest escalator in European Union. The Prague metro
Prague metro
is generally considered very safe. Roads[edit]

Barrandov bridge, part of the City (inner) Ring Road

The main flow of traffic leads through the centre of the city and through inner and outer ring roads (partially in operation). Inner Ring Road (The City Ring "MO"): Once completed it will surround the wider central part of the city. The longest city tunnel in Europe with a length of 5.5 kilometres (3.4 miles) and five interchanges has been completed to relieve congestion in the north-western part of Prague. Called Blanka tunnel complex
Blanka tunnel complex
and part of the City Ring Road, it was estimated to eventually cost – after several increases – 43 billion CZK. Construction started in 2007 and, after repeated delays, the tunnel was officially opened in September 2015. This tunnel complex completes a major part of the inner ring road. It is expected that the whole city ring will not be completed before 2020.[81] Outer Ring Road (The Prague
Prague
Ring "D0"): This ring road will connect all major motorways and speedways that meet each other in Prague region and provide faster transit without a necessity to drive through the city. So far 39 km (24 mi), out of a total planned 83 km (52 mi), is in operation. The year of full completion is unknown due to incompetent, constantly changing, leadership of Czech Road and Motorway Directorate, lack of administrative preparations, and insufficient funding of road constructions.[citation needed] Most recently, the southern part of this road (with a length of more than 20 km (12 mi)) was opened on 22 September 2010.[82] Rail[edit]

Prague
Prague
main railway station

The city forms the hub of the Czech railway system, with services to all parts of the country and abroad. The railway system links Prague with major European cities (which can be reached without transfers), including Berlin, Munich, Hamburg, Nurenberg and Dresden
Dresden
(Germany); Vienna, Graz
Graz
and Linz
Linz
(Austria); Warsaw
Warsaw
and Cracow
Cracow
(Poland); Bratislava
Bratislava
and Košice
Košice
(Slovakia); Budapest
Budapest
(Hungary); Zürich (Switzerland); Split (Croatia, seasonal); Belgrade
Belgrade
(Serbia, seasonal) and Moscow
Moscow
(Russia). Travel times range between 4.5 hours to Berlin and 27 hours to Moscow.[83] Prague's main international railway station is Hlavní nádraží,[84] rail services are also available from other main stations: Masarykovo nádraží, Holešovice
Holešovice
and Smíchov, in addition to suburban stations. Commuter rail services operate under the name Esko Praha, which is part of PID ( Prague
Prague
Integrated Transport).

Air[edit]

Václav Havel Airport
Václav Havel Airport
Prague

Prague
Prague
is served by Václav Havel
Václav Havel
Airport, the largest airport in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and one of the largest airports in central and eastern Europe. The airport is the hub of the flag carrier, Czech Airlines,[85] as well as of the low-cost airlines SmartWings
SmartWings
and Wizz Air operating throughout Europe. Other airports in Prague
Prague
include the city's original airport in the north-eastern district of Kbely, which is serviced by the Czech Air Force, also internationally. The runway (9–27) at Kbely
Kbely
is 2 km (1 mi) long. The airport also houses the Prague
Prague
Aviation Museum. The nearby Letňany airport is mainly used for private aviation and aeroclub aviation. Another airport in the proximity is Aero Vodochody
Aero Vodochody
aircraft factory to the north, used for testing purposes, as well as for aeroclub aviation. There are a few aeroclubs around Prague, such as the Točná
Točná
airfield. Sport[edit] See also: Football in Prague

The O2 Arena was built to host the 2004 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships

Prague
Prague
is the site of many sports events, national stadiums and teams.

Sparta Prague
Prague
(Czech First League) – football club Slavia Prague
Prague
(Czech First League) – football club Dukla Prague
Prague
(Czech First League) – football club Bohemians 1905
Bohemians 1905
(Czech First League) – football club Viktoria Žižkov
Žižkov
(Czech 2. Liga) – football club HC Sparta Praha
HC Sparta Praha
(Czech Extraliga) – ice hockey club HC Slavia Praha (1st Czech Republic
Czech Republic
Hockey League) – ice hockey club USK Praha
USK Praha
(National Basketball League) – basketball club O2 Arena – the second largest ice hockey arena in Europe. It hosted 2004 and 2015 Ice Hockey World Championship, NHL 2008 and 2010 Opening Game and Euroleague
Euroleague
Final Four Strahov Stadium – the largest stadium in the world Prague
Prague
International Marathon Prague
Prague
Open – Tennis Tournament held by the I. Czech Lawn Tennis Club Sparta Prague
Prague
Open – Tennis Tournament held in Prague
Prague
7 Josef Odložil Memorial – Athletics meeting Mystic SK8 Cup – World Cup of Skateboarding venue takes place at the Štvanice
Štvanice
skatepark Gutovka – sport area with a large concrete skatepark, the highest outside climbing wall in Central Europe, four beach volleyball courts and children’s playground[86] World Ultimate Club Championships 2010[87]

International relations[edit]

Petřín
Petřín
Lookout Tower, an observation tower built at Petřín
Petřín
hill.

The city of Prague
Prague
maintains its own EU delegation in Brussels
Brussels
called Prague
Prague
House.[88] Prague
Prague
was the location of U.S. President Barack Obama's speech on 5 April 2009, which led to the New START
New START
treaty with Russia, signed in Prague
Prague
on 8 April 2010.[89] The annual conference Forum 2000, which was founded by former Czech President Václav Havel, Japanese philanthropist Yōhei Sasakawa, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Elie Wiesel
Elie Wiesel
in 1996, is held in Prague. Its main objective is "to identify the key issues facing civilization and to explore ways to prevent the escalation of conflicts that have religion, culture or ethnicity as their primary components", and also intends to promote democracy in non-democratic countries and to support civil society. Conferences have attracted a number of prominent thinkers, Nobel laureates, former and acting politicians, business leaders and other individuals like: Frederik Willem de Klerk, Bill Clinton, Nicholas Winton, Oscar Arias Sánchez, Dalai Lama, Hans Küng, Shimon Peres
Shimon Peres
and Madeleine Albright. Twin towns[edit]

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See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in the Czech Republic

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Brussels, Belgium Budapest, Hungary Chicago, United States Frankfurt am Main, Germany Guangzhou, China Hamburg, Germany Jerusalem, Israel Kyoto, Japan Luxembourg, Luxembourg Miami-Dade, United States Moscow, Russia Nuremberg, Germany Phoenix, United States Riga, Latvia Saint Petersburg, Russia Seoul, South Korea Shanghai, China Taipei, Taiwan

Namesakes[edit] A number of other settlements are derived or similar to the name of Prague. In many of these cases, Czech emigration has left a number of namesake cities scattered over the globe, with a notable concentration in the New World.

Praha, Slovakia Praha, Texas, United States[90] Prague, Oklahoma, United States[91] Prague, Nebraska, United States[92] New Prague, Minnesota, United States[93] Praga, a historical borough of Warsaw, the capital of Poland

Additionally, Kłodzko
Kłodzko
is traditionally referred to as "Little Prague" (German: Klein-Prag). Although now in Poland, the city was the capital of the Bohemian kraj of the County of Kladsko.[94] See also[edit]

Prague
Prague
portal Czech Republic
Czech Republic
portal

Churches in Prague List of people from Prague Outline of the Czech Republic Outline of Prague

References[edit]

^ a b c Václav Vojtíšek, Znak Hlavního Města Prahy / Les Armoires de la Ville de Prague
Prague
(1928), cited after nakedtourguideprague.com (2015). ^ Milan
Milan
Ducháček, Václav Chaloupecký: Hledání československých dějin (2014), cited after abicko.avcr.cz. ^ "Demographia World Urban Areas" (PDF). Demographia.com. Retrieved 18 November 2013.  ^ " Eurostat
Eurostat
metropolitan regions database".  ^ "Population of Municipalities - 1 January 2017". Regional Office of the Czech Statistical Office in the Capital City of Prague. 28 April 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2017.  ^ http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/2995521/8700651/1-28022018-BP-EN/15f5fd90-ce8b-4927-9a3b-07dc255dc42a ^ " Czech Republic
Czech Republic
Facts". World InfoZone. Retrieved 14 April 2011. [unreliable source?] ^ Eurostat. "Urban Audit 2004". Archived from the original on 6 April 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2008.  ^ "Czech Republic". Worldatlas.com. Retrieved 4 December 2011. [unreliable source?] ^ "Short History of Bohemia, Moravia
Moravia
and then Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and Czech Republic". hedgie.eu. 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ " Charles University
Charles University
Official Website".  ^ "The World According to GaWC
GaWC
2016". GaWC.  ^ a b "Best Destinations in the World – Travelers' Choice Awards – TripAdvisor". tripadvisor.com. 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ a b Bremner, Caroline (2016). "Top 100 City Destinations Ranking". Euromonitor International. Retrieved 2 March 2016.  ^ a b c d Demetz, Peter (1997). "Chapter One: Libussa, or Versions of Origin". Prague
Prague
in Black and Gold: Scenes from the Life of a European City. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 0-8090-7843-0. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ Kenety, Brian. "Unearthing Bohemia's Celtic heritage ahead of Samhain, the 'New Year'". Czech Radio.  ^ Kenety, Brian. "Atlantis české archeologie" (in Czech). Czech Radio.  ^ a b Dovid Solomon Ganz, Tzemach Dovid (3rd edition), part 2, Warsaw 1878, p. 71, 85 (available online ) ^ "Praha byla Casurgis" [ Prague
Prague
was Casurgis] (in Czech). cs-magazin.com. February 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ "Slované na Hradě žili už sto let před Bořivojem –". Novinky.cz. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ "Archaeological Research – Prague
Prague
Castle". Hrad.cz. 8 July 2005. Archived from the original on 1 April 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2011.  ^ "TOP MONUMENTS – VYŠEHRAD". praguewelcome.cz. Archived from the original on 12 March 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2013.  ^ "The Cambridge Economic History of Europe: Trade and industry in the Middle Ages". Michael Moïssey Postan, Edward Miller, Cynthia Postan (1987). Cambridge University Press. p. 417. ISBN 0-521-08709-0. ^ Stone, Andrew. A Hedonist's Guide to New York. ^ "The Prague
Prague
Pogrom of 1389". Everything2. April 1389. Retrieved 16 June 2009.  ^ "The former Jewish Quarter in Prague". prague.cz. April 1389. Retrieved 16 June 2009.  ^ This swallow-tailed banner is approximately 4 by 6 feet (1.2 by 1.8 metres), with a red field sprinkled with small white fleurs-de-lis, and a silver old Town Coat-of-Arms in the centre. The words PÁN BŮH POMOC NAŠE (The Lord God is our Help) appeared above the coat-of-arms, with a Hussite "host with chalice" centred on the top. Near the swallow-tails is a crescent shaped golden sun with rays protruding. One of these banners was captured by Swedish troops in Battle of Prague
Prague
(1648), when they captured the western bank of the Vltava
Vltava
river and were repulsed from the eastern bank, they placed it in the Royal Military Museum in Stockholm; although this flag still exists, it is in very poor condition. They also took the Codex Gigas and the Codex Argenteus. The earliest evidence indicates that a gonfalon with a municipal charge painted on it was used for Old Town as early as 1419. Since this city militia flag was in use before 1477 and during the Hussite Wars, it is the oldest still preserved municipal flag of Bohemia.[citation needed] ^ "Architecture of the Gothic". Old.hrad.cz. 13 October 2005. Retrieved 18 November 2013.  ^ "Old Royal Palace with Vladislav Hall – Prague
Prague
Castle". Hrad.cz. 16 December 2011. Archived from the original on 1 April 2009. Retrieved 18 November 2013.  ^ "Religious conflicts". Prague.st. Retrieved 18 November 2013.  ^ "The Kingdom of Bohemia
Bohemia
during the Thirty Years' War". Family-lines.cz. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ "Prague". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 18 November 2013.  ^ M. Signoli, D. Chevé, A. Pascal (2007)."Plague epidemics in Czech countries". p.51. ^ a b  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Prague". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 248–250.  ^ "Looking Back at the Bombing of Prague". The Prague
Prague
Post. 14 February 1945. Archived from the original on 2012-01-14. Retrieved 4 December 2011.  ^ Pehe, Jiří. "Post-Communist Refections of the Prague
Prague
Spring". Jiří Pehe.  ^ " Prague
Prague
Assembly Confirms 2016 Olympic Bid". Gamesbids.com. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ "It's Official – Prague
Prague
Out of 2020 Bid". GamesBids. 16 June 2009. Archived from the original on 10 September 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ "What's in a name? Prague
Prague
History lesson". praguesummer.com. Retrieved 14 March 2016.  ^ Lucy S. Dawidowicz – The Golden Tradition: Jewish Life and Thought in Eastern Europe
Europe
1996 p. 351 "Then you surely knew also Reb Shmuel on the other side of the Vistula, in Praga! Praga, the threshold of Warsaw—the aroma of the country, with its broad fields, so many times desolated by wars and fires and rebuilt, ..." ^ "drexler blog". Drexler, novinky.cz. 11 July 2008. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 14 June 2009.  ^ "Kolik věží má "stověžatá" Praha? Nadšenci jich napočítali přes pět set". idnes.cz (in Czech). Mladá fronta DNES. 5 August 2010. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2013.  ^ "Visit Prague, the City of a Hundred spires". prague.fm. Retrieved 19 August 2015.  ^ "Basic Prague
Prague
and Czech Republic
Czech Republic
Info". prague.cz. Retrieved 27 May 2011.  ^ "Latitude and Longitude of World Cities: Frankfurt". Retrieved 27 May 2011.  ^ "Latitude and Longitude of World Cities". Retrieved 27 May 2011.  ^ "Latitude and Longitude of Vancouver, Canada". Retrieved 27 May 2011.  ^ "The Climate of Prague
Prague
1981–2010 (Temperatures, Humidity)" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ "Praha Climate Normals 1961–1990 (Precipitation, Precipitation days, Snow, Sunhours)". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 28 February 2013.  ^ "Census shows population rise in Prague". Prague
Prague
Daily Monitor. Czech News Agency (ČTK). 24 January 2012. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.  ^ Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2005 ^ "Pohyb obyvatelstva v Českých zemích" (in Czech). Czso.cz. 23 November 2010. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2013.  ^ "Počet obyvatel v obcích České republiky k 1.1.2013" (in Czech). 1 January 2013. Archived from the original (XLS) on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2013.  ^ "Cizinci 3. zemí se zaevidovaným povoleným pobytem na území České republiky a cizinci zemí EU + Islandu, Norska, Švýcarska a Lichtenštejnska se zaevidovaným pobytem na území České republiky k 30. 11. 2016". Ministry of the Interior. 30 November 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.  ^ Lubor Mrazek. "O SLAVNOSTECH, Letní shakespearovské slavnosti 2013, Agentura SCHOK, Praha". Shakespeare.cz. Retrieved 18 November 2013.  ^ " Prague
Prague
Studios Credits: Movies shot at Prague
Prague
Studios". Prague Studios. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ a b " Prague
Prague
Strategic Plan, 2008 Update" (PDF). Official site. City Development Authority Prague. 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2010.  ^ a b "Prague-is-sixth-most-developed-EU-region(GDP in 2016)" (PDF). Official site. Eurostat. 18 February 2010. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2010.  ^ " Prague
Prague
has highest average monthly salary at CZK 35,853".  ^ Hold, Gabriella (21 April 2010). "Foreign Resident Numbers Stable". The Prague
Prague
Post. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2010.  ^ Contiguglia, Cat (13 October 2010). " Prague
Prague
Is Best CEE City for Business – Survey". The Prague
Prague
Post. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ "EIU Media Directory". Eiuresources.com. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ "2thinknow Innovation Cities Top 100 Index". 2thinknow Innovation Cities Program. Retrieved 22 October 2010.  ^ "Nejdražší ulice ve střední Evropě? Bezkonkurenčně vedou Příkopy". Mladá fronta DNES. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2012.  ^ Pop, Valentina (18 February 2010). "EUobserver / Prague
Prague
Outranks Paris
Paris
and Stockholm
Stockholm
Among EU's Richest Regions". EUobserver. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ "ESTAT-2002-05354-00-00-EN-TRA-00 (FR)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ Filipová, Hana (11 October 2015). "Které firmy vládnou krajům? Týdeník Ekonom zmapoval podnikání v regionech" [Which firms dominate the regions? 'The Weekly Ekonom' mapped out entrepreneurship in the regions] (in Czech). Economics news. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ "Pros and Cons of Moving to Czech Republic". ExpatArrivals.  ^ http://www.praguecitytourism.cz/file/edee/statistiky-a-analyzy-en/top-10/od-2012-po-revizi/rok-2016-top-10-aj-revidovana-data.docx ^ "Kampa Island". YourCzechRepublic.cz. Archived from the original on 10 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ " Vinohrady
Vinohrady
sights". myCzechRepublic.  ^ " Forbes
Forbes
Magazine: Prague Zoo
Prague Zoo
the 7th Best in the World". Abcprague.com. Archived from the original on 16 March 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2013.  ^ " Prague Zoo
Prague Zoo
is the fourth best zoo in the world". Prague
Prague
Zoo. 15 July 2017.  ^ "Seznam vysokých škol a univerzit". Vejska.cz.  ^ J. Pechlát (2010)." Prague
Prague
as a knowledge city-region" In: Teorie vědy, XXXI/3-4 2009, The Institute of Philosophy of the AS CR, p. 247-267. ^ "Endurance". Mgr. Jaroslav Mach. Retrieved 1 January 2014.  ^ " Prague
Prague
Metro, Czech Republic". railwaytechnology.com. Retrieved 30 May 2011.  ^ "Annual Report 2012" (PDF). Public Transport Company of the Capital City of Prague. 2012. p. 66. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ Hold, Gabriella (30 June 2010). "Metro Extension on the Right Track". The Prague
Prague
Post. Czech Republic. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2011.  ^ "Historická souprava Ečs". Metroweb.cz. Retrieved 14 September 2013.  ^ "Dostavba zbývající části Pražského okruhu má začít do roku 2020". e15.cz. Retrieved 7 September 2016.  ^ "Opening of Prague's Outer Ring (Czech only)". Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 18 Dec 2014.  ^ "České dráhy". Retrieved 28 May 2017.  ^ "Czech Transport". Retrieved 30 May 2011.  ^ "Czech Airlines: Company Info". Czech Airlines. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ "Gutovka". Praha.eu. Retrieved 3 August 2015.  ^ "Prague, Czech Republic
Czech Republic
to host the WFDF World Ultimate Club Championships 2010". WFDF. Retrieved 10 September 2008.  ^ " Prague
Prague
House: Mission
Mission
and representational activities". prague-house.eu. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ Ratification of the START treaty is a step towards Obama's goal of a nuclear weapons-free world. (Official White House Photo) by Pete Souza Dec. 2010. ^ " Texas State Historical Association (TSHA)". Tshaonline.org. 10 November 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013.  ^ "The History of Prague". cityofpragueok.org. 23 April 2008. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2013.  ^ "CASDE Prague
Prague
– Saunders County". Casde.unl.edu. Retrieved 18 November 2013.  ^ "Visitor Information". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 15 May 2008. Retrieved 18 November 2013.  ^ "Klodzko: Dolnośląskie – Poland". International Jewish Cemetery Project. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

Jekova, Alena. 77 Prague
Prague
Legends. Prague: Prah, 2006. ISBN 80-7252-139-X Prague
Prague
(Eyewitness Travel Guide by DK Publishing) (2009) excerpt and text search 2006 edition Prague
Prague
(City Guide) by Neil Wilson (2009) excerpt and text search Praha – Prague
Prague
and environs (by Čedok) (1926) city guide from 1920s Rick Steves' Prague
Prague
and The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
by Rick Steves and Honza Vihan (2009) excerpt and text search Wilson, Neil. Lonely Planet Prague
Prague
(2007) excerpt and text search Wilson, Paul. Prague: A Traveler's Literary Companion (1995)

Culture and society[edit]

Becker, Edwin et al., ed. Prague
Prague
1900: Poetry and Ecstasy. (2000). 224 pp. Boehm, Barbara Drake; et al. (2005). Prague : the Crown of Bohemia, 1347-1437. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 1588391612. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) Burton, Richard D. E. Prague: A Cultural and Literary History. (2003). 268 pp. excerpt and text search Cohen, Gary B. The Politics of Ethnic Survival: Germans in Prague, 1861–1914. (1981). 344 pp. Fucíková, Eliska, ed. Rudolf II and Prague: The Court and the City. (1997). 792 pp. Holz, Keith. Modern German Art for Thirties Paris, Prague, and London: Resistance and Acquiescence in a Democratic Public Sphere. (2004). 359 pp. Iggers, Wilma Abeles. Women of Prague: Ethnic Diversity and Social Change from the Eighteenth Century to the Present. (1995). 381 pp. online edition Porizka, Lubomir; Hojda, Zdenek; and Pesek, Jirí. The Palaces of Prague. (1995). 216 pp. Sayer, Derek. Prague, Capital of the Twentieth Century: A Surrealist History (Princeton University Press; 2013) 595 pages; a study of the city as a crossroads for modernity. Sayer, Derek. "The Language of Nationality and the Nationality of Language: Prague
Prague
1780–1920." Past & Present 1996 (153): 164–210. in Jstor Spector, Scott. Prague
Prague
Territories: National Conflict and Cultural Innovation in Kafka's Fin de Siècle. (2000). 331 pp. online edition Svácha, Rostislav. The Architecture of New Prague, 1895–1945. (1995). 573 pp. Wittlich, Peter. Prague: Fin de Siècle. (1992). 280 pp.

External links[edit]

Look up prague in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Prague.

Official website of Prague Official Tourist Website for Prague Media related to Praha at Wikimedia Commons Prague
Prague
travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Atlas of Europe
Europe
at Wikimedia Commons

Articles related to Prague

Prague
Prague
in the European Union

v t e

Capital cities of the member states of the European Union

Netherlands: Amsterdam

Greece: Athens

Germany: Berlin

Slovakia: Bratislava

Belgium: Brussels

Romania: Bucharest

Hungary: Budapest

Denmark: Copenhagen

Ireland: Dublin

Finland: Helsinki

Portugal: Lisbon

Slovenia: Ljubljana

United Kingdom: London

Luxembourg: Luxembourg

Spain: Madrid

Cyprus: Nicosia

France: Paris

Czech Republic: Prague

Latvia: Riga

Italy: Rome

Bulgaria: Sofia

Sweden: Stockholm

Estonia: Tallinn

Malta: Valletta

Austria: Vienna

Lithuania: Vilnius

Poland: Warsaw

Croatia: Zagreb

v t e

Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

v t e

European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

v t e

European Capitals of Sport

2001 Madrid 2002 Stockholm 2003 Glasgow 2004 Alicante 2005 Rotterdam 2006 Copenhagen 2007 Stuttgart 2008 Warsaw 2009 Milan 2010 Dublin 2011 Valencia 2012 Istanbul 2013 Antwerp 2014 Cardiff 2015 Turin 2016 Prague 2017 Marseille 2018 Sofia 2019 Budapest 2020 Málaga 2021 Lisboa 2022 The Hague

v t e

Districts and cadastral areas of Prague
Prague

Former names shown in italics

Big municipal districts

Prague
Prague
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 (Radotín) 17 (Řepy) 18 (Letňany) 19 (Kbely) 20 (Horní Počernice) 21 (Újezd nad Lesy) 22 (Uhříněves)

Small municipal districts

Běchovice Benice Březiněves Čakovice Ďáblice Dolní Chabry Dolní Měcholupy Dolní Počernice Dubeč Klánovice Koloděje Kolovraty Královice Křeslice Kunratice Libuš Lipence Lochkov Lysolaje Nebušice Nedvězí Petrovice Přední Kopanina Řeporyje Satalice Slivenec Suchdol Šeberov Štěrboholy Troja Újezd (u Průhonic) Velká Chuchle Vinoř Zbraslav Zličín

Cadastral areas

Běchovice Benice Bohnice Braník Břevnov Březiněves Bubeneč Čakovice Černý Most Chodov Cholupice Čimice Ďáblice Dejvice Dolní Chabry Dolní Měcholupy Dolní Počernice Dubeč Háje Hájek Hloubětín Hlubočepy Hodkovičky Holešovice Holyně Horní Měcholupy Horní Počernice Hostavice Hostivař Hradčany Hrdlořezy Jinonice Josefov
Josefov
(Jewish Quarter) Kamýk Karlín Klánovice Kobylisy Koloděje Kolovraty Komořany Košíře Královice Krč Křeslice Kunratice Kyje Lahovice Letňany Lhotka Libeň Liboc Libuš Lipany Lipence Lochkov Lysolaje Malá Chuchle Malá Strana
Malá Strana
("Lesser Town") Malešice Michle Miškovice Modřany Motol Nebušice Nedvězí Nové Město ("New Town") Nusle Petrovice Písnice Pitkovice Podolí Přední Kopanina Prosek Radlice Radotín Řeporyje Řepy Ruzyně Satalice Sedlec Slivenec Smíchov Sobín Staré Město ("Old Town") Štěrboholy Stodůlky Strašnice Střešovice Střížkov Suchdol Točná Třebonice Třeboradice Troja Uhříněves Újezd nad Lesy Újezd (u Průhonic) Veleslavín Velká Chuchle Vinohrady Vinoř Vokovice Vršovice Vyšehrad Vysočany Záběhlice Zadní Kopanina Zbraslav Žižkov Zličín

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Regions of the Czech Republic

Central Bohemia Hradec Králové Karlovy Vary Liberec Moravia-Silesia Olomouc Pardubice Plzeň Prague South Bohemia South Moravia Ústí nad Labem Vysočina Zlín

v t e

Administrative seats of Czech regions

Brno České Budějovice Hradec Králové Jihlava Karlovy Vary Liberec Ostrava Olomouc Pardubice Plzeň Prague Ústí nad Labem Zlín

v t e

World Heritage Sites in the Czech Republic

Český Krumlov Gardens and Castle at Kroměříž Holašovice
Holašovice
Historical Village Reservation Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc Jewish Quarter and St. Procopius Basilica in Třebíč Kutná Hora Lednice–Valtice Cultural Landscape Litomyšl Castle Pilgrimage Church of Saint John of Nepomuk Prague Průhonice Telč Tugendhat Villa

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 153543031 LCCN: n79055764 ISNI: 0000 0004 0610 2462 GND: 4076310-9 SUDOC: 026398702 BNF: cb15239961p (data) NLA: 36750052 NDL: 00629158 N

.