HOME
The Info List - Moravia


--- Advertisement ---



Moravia
Moravia
(/mɔːˈreɪviə, -ˈrɑː-, moʊ-/ maw-RAY-vee-ə, -RAH-, moh-;[7] Czech: Morava; German:  Mähren (help·info); Polish: Morawy; Latin: Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia
Bohemia
and Czech Silesia. The medieval and early modern Margraviate of Moravia
Margraviate of Moravia
was a crown land of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (from 1348 to 1918), an imperial state of the Holy Roman Empire (1004 to 1806), later a crown land of the Austrian Empire (1804 to 1867) and briefly also one of 17 former crown lands of the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
from 1867 to 1918. During the early 20th century, Moravia
Moravia
was one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
from 1918 to 1928; it was then merged with Czech Silesia, and eventually dissolved by abolition of the land system in 1949. Moravia
Moravia
has an area of over 22,000 km2[8] and about 3 million inhabitants, which is roughly 2/7 or 30% of the whole Czech Republic. The statistics from 1921 states, that the whole area of Moravia including the enclaves in Silesia
Silesia
covers 22,623.41 km2.[9][10] The people are historically named Moravians, a subgroup of Czechs
Czechs
(as understood by Czechs). The land takes its name from the Morava river, which rises in the northern tip of the region and flows southward to the opposite end, being its major stream. Moravia's largest city and historical capital is Brno. Before being sacked by the Swedish army during the Thirty Years' War, Olomouc
Olomouc
was another capital.[6] Though officially abolished by an administrative reform in 1949, Moravia
Moravia
is still commonly acknowledged as a specific land in the Czech Republic. Moravian people are considerably aware of their Moravian identity and there is some rivalry between them and the Czechs
Czechs
from Bohemia.[11][12]

Moravian Banner of Arms[13][14]

Contents

1 Geography 2 Pre-history 3 History

3.1 Roman era 3.2 Ancient Moravia 3.3 Union with Bohemia 3.4 Habsburg
Habsburg
rule (1526–1918) 3.5 20th century 3.6 Gallery

4 Economy

4.1 Arms industry 4.2 Aircraft industry 4.3 Machinery industry 4.4 Electrical industry

5 Cities

5.1 Statutory cities 5.2 Other cities

6 People

6.1 Moravians 6.2 Ethnographic regions

7 Places of interest

7.1 World Heritage Sites 7.2 Other

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Geography[edit]

Rolling hills of Králický Sněžník
Králický Sněžník
from Horní Morava, left Bohemian border

Šance, part of the Moravian-Silesian Beskids

Mohelno
Mohelno
steppe in autumn

Moravia
Moravia
occupies most of the eastern part of the Czech Republic. Moravian territory is naturally strongly determined, in fact, as the Morava river basin, with strong effect of mountains in the west (de facto main European continental divide) and partly in the east, where all the rivers rise. Moravia
Moravia
occupies an exceptional position in Central Europe. All the highlands in the west and east of this part of Europe
Europe
run west-east, and therefore form a kind of filter, making north-south or south north movement more difficult. Only Moravia
Moravia
with the depression of the westernmost Subcarpathia, 14–40 kilometers (8.7–24.9 mi) wide, between the Bohemian Massif
Bohemian Massif
and the Outer Western Carpathians (gripping the meridian at a constant angle of 30°), provides a comfortable connection between the Danubian and Polish regions, and this area is thus of great importance in terms of the possible migration routes of large mammals[15] – both as regards periodically recurring seasonal migrations triggered by climatic oscillations in the prehistory, when permanent settlement started. Moravia
Moravia
borders Bohemia
Bohemia
in the west, Lower Austria
Lower Austria
in the south(west), Slovakia
Slovakia
in the southeast, Poland
Poland
very shortly in the north, and Czech Silesia
Silesia
in the northeast. Its natural boundary is formed by the Sudetes
Sudetes
mountains in the north, the Carpathians in the east and the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands
Bohemian-Moravian Highlands
in the west (the border runs from Králický Sněžník
Králický Sněžník
in the north, over Suchý vrch, across Upper Svratka Highlands and Javořice
Javořice
Highlands to tripoint nearby Slavonice in the south). The Thaya
Thaya
river meanders along the border with Austria and the tripoint of Moravia, Austria
Austria
and Slovakia
Slovakia
is at the confluence of the Thaya
Thaya
and Morava rivers. The northeast border with Silesia
Silesia
runs partly along the Moravice, Oder
Oder
and Ostravice
Ostravice
rivers. Between 1782–1850, Moravia
Moravia
(also thus known as Moravia-Silesia) also included a small portion of the former province of Silesia
Silesia
– the Austrian Silesia
Silesia
(when Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great
annexed most of ancient Silesia
Silesia
(the land of upper and middle Oder
Oder
river) to Prussia, Silesia's southernmost part remained with the Habsburgs). Today Moravia
Moravia
including the South Moravian Region,[16] the Zlín Region, vast majority of the Olomouc
Olomouc
Region, southeastern half of the Vysočina Region
Vysočina Region
and parts of the Moravian-Silesian, Pardubice and South Bohemian regions. Geologically, Moravia
Moravia
covers a transitive area[clarification needed] between the Bohemian Massif
Bohemian Massif
and the Carpathians (from (north)west to southeast), and between the Danube
Danube
basin and the North European Plain (from south to northeast). Its core geomorphological features are three wide valleys, namely the Dyje-Svratka Valley
Dyje-Svratka Valley
(Dyjsko-svratecký úval), the Upper Morava Valley (Hornomoravský úval) and the Lower Morava Valley (Dolnomoravský úval). The first two form the westernmost part of the Subcarpathia, the last is the northernmost part of the Vienna Basin. The valleys surround the low range of Central Moravian Carpathians. The highest mountains of Moravia
Moravia
are situated on its northern border in Hrubý Jeseník, the highest peak is Praděd
Praděd
(1491 m). Second highest is the massive of Králický Sněžník (1424  m) the third are the Moravian-Silesian Beskids at the very east, with Smrk (1278 m), and then south from here Javorníky
Javorníky
(1072). The White Carpathians
White Carpathians
along the southeastern border rise up to 970 m at Velká Javořina. The spacious, but moderate Bohemian-Moravian Highlands
Bohemian-Moravian Highlands
on the west reach 837 m at Javořice. The fluvial system of Moravia
Moravia
is very cohesive, as the region border is similar to the watershed of the Morava river, and thus almost the entire area is drained exclusively by a single stream. Morava's far biggest tributaries are Thaya
Thaya
(Dyje) from the right (or west) and Bečva
Bečva
(east). Morava and Thaya
Thaya
meet at the southernmost and lowest (148 m) point of Moravia. Small peripheral parts of Moravia belong to the catchment area of Elbe, Váh
Váh
and especially Oder
Oder
(the northeast). The watershed line running along Moravia's border from west to north and east is part of the European Watershed. For centuries, there has been plans to build a waterway across Moravia
Moravia
to join the Danube
Danube
and Oder
Oder
river systems, using the natural route through the Moravian Gate.[17][18] Pre-history[edit]

Venus of Vestonice, the oldest surviving ceramic figurine in the world.

Evidence of the presence of Homo
Homo
dates back more than 600,000 years in the paleontological area of Stránská Skála.[15]

Pálava mountains with Věstonice Reservoir, area of palaeolithic settlement

Attracted by suitable living conditions, early modern humans settled in the region by the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
period. The Předmostí archeological (Cro-magnon) site in Moravia
Moravia
is dated to between 24,000 and 27,000 years old.[19][20] Caves in Moravský kras
Moravský kras
were used by mammoth hunters. Venus of Dolní Věstonice, the oldest ceramic figure in the world,[21][22] was found in the excavation of Dolní Věstonice by Karel Absolon.[23] History[edit] Roman era[edit] Around 60 BC, the Celtic Volcae
Volcae
people withdrew from the region and were succeeded by the Germanic Quadi. Some of the events of the Marcomannic Wars
Marcomannic Wars
took place in Moravia
Moravia
in AD 169–180. After the war exposed the weakness of Rome's northern frontier, half of the Roman legions (16 out of 33) were stationed along the Danube. In response to increasing numbers of Germanic settlers in frontier regions like Pannonia, Dacia, Rome established two new frontier provinces on the left shore of the Danube, Marcomannia
Marcomannia
and Sarmatia, including today's Moravia
Moravia
and western Slovakia. In the 2nd century AD, a Roman fortress[24][25] stood on the vineyards hill known as German: Burgstall and Czech: Hradisko ("hillfort"), situated above the former village Mušov
Mušov
and above today's beach resort at Pasohlávky. During the reign of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, the 10th Legion was assigned to control the Germanic tribes who had been defeated in the Marcomannic Wars.[26] In 1927, the archeologist Gnirs, with the support of president Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, began research on the site, located 80 km from Vindobona and 22 km to the south of Brno. The researchers found remnants of two masonry buildings, a praetorium[27] and a balneum ("bath"), including a hypocaustum. The discovery of bricks with the stamp of the Legio X Gemina
Legio X Gemina
and coins from the period of the emperors Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Commodus
Commodus
facilitated dating of the locality. Ancient Moravia[edit] See also: Great Moravia

Territory of Great Moravia
Great Moravia
in the 9th century: area ruled by Rastislav (846–870) map marks the greatest territorial extent during the reign of Svatopluk I
Svatopluk I
(871–894), violet core is origin of Moravia

A variety of Germanic and major Slavic tribes crossed through Moravia during the Migration Period
Migration Period
before Slavs established themselves in the 6th century AD. At the end of the 8th century, the Moravian Principality came into being in present-day south-eastern Moravia, Záhorie
Záhorie
in south-western Slovakia
Slovakia
and parts of Lower Austria. In 833 AD, this became the state of Great Moravia[28] with the conquest of the Principality of Nitra
Principality of Nitra
(present-day Slovakia). Their first king was Mojmír I
Mojmír I
(ruled 830–846). Louis the German
Louis the German
invaded Moravia
Moravia
and replaced Mojmír I
Mojmír I
with his nephew Rastiz who became St. Rastislav.[29] St. Rastislav (846–870) tried to emancipate his land from the Carolingian influence, so he sent envoys to Rome to get missionaries to come. When Rome refused he turned to Constantinople
Constantinople
to the Byzantine emperor Michael. The result was the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius who translated liturgical books into Slavonic, which had lately been elevated by the Pope to the same level as Latin and Greek. Methodius became the first Moravian archbishop, but after his death the German influence again prevailed and the disciples of Methodius were forced to flee. Great Moravia
Great Moravia
reached its greatest territorial extent in the 890s under Svatopluk I. At this time, the empire encompassed the territory of the present-day Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Slovakia, the western part of present Hungary
Hungary
(Pannonia), as well as Lusatia
Lusatia
in present-day Germany and Silesia
Silesia
and the upper Vistula
Vistula
basin in southern Poland. After Svatopluk's death in 895, the Bohemian princes defected to become vassals of the East Frankish ruler Arnulf of Carinthia, and the Moravian state ceased to exist after being overrun by invading Magyars in 907.[30][31] Union with Bohemia[edit] Main articles: Margraviate
Margraviate
of Moravia, Duchy of Bohemia, and Kingdom of Bohemia

Třebíč, Romanesque St. Procopius Basilica 12th century

Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia
Moravia
in the 12th century

Church of St. Thomas Brno, mausoleum of Moravian branch House of Luxembourg, ruler's of Moravia
Moravia
and old governor's palace – former Augustinian abbey

Following the defeat of the Magyars by Emperor Otto I at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, Otto's ally Boleslaus I, the Přemyslid
Přemyslid
ruler of Bohemia, took control over Moravia. Bolesław I Chrobry
Bolesław I Chrobry
of Poland annexed Moravia
Moravia
in 999, and ruled it until 1019,[32] when the Přemyslid
Přemyslid
prince Bretislaus recaptured it. Upon his father's death in 1034, Bretislaus became the ruler of Bohemia. In 1055, he decreed that Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia
Moravia
would be inherited together by primogeniture, although he also provided that his younger sons should govern parts (quarters) of Moravia
Moravia
as vassals to his oldest son. Throughout the Přemyslid
Přemyslid
era, junior princes often ruled all or part of Moravia
Moravia
from Olomouc, Brno
Brno
or Znojmo, with varying degrees of autonomy from the ruler of Bohemia. Dukes of Olomouc
Olomouc
often acted as the "right hand" of Prague dukes and kings, while Dukes of Brno
Brno
and especially those of Znojmo
Znojmo
were much more insubordinate. Moravia reached its height of autonomy in 1182, when Emperor Frederick I elevated Conrad II Otto of Znojmo
Znojmo
to the status of a margrave,[33] immediately subject to the emperor, independent of Bohemia. This status was short-lived: in 1186, Conrad Otto was forced to obey the supreme rule of Bohemian duke Frederick. Three years later, Conrad Otto succeeded to Frederick as Duke of Bohemia
Bohemia
and subsequently canceled his margrave title. Nevertheless, the margrave title was restored in 1197 when Vladislaus III of Bohemia
Bohemia
resolved the succession dispute between him and his brother Ottokar by abdicating from the Bohemian throne and accepting Moravia
Moravia
as a vassal land of Bohemian (i.e., Prague) rulers. Vladislaus gradually established this land as Margraviate, slightly administratively different from Bohemia. After the Battle of Legnica, the Mongols carried their raids into Moravia. The main line of the Přemyslid
Přemyslid
dynasty became extinct in 1306, and in 1310 John of Luxembourg
John of Luxembourg
became Margrave
Margrave
of Moravia
Moravia
and King of Bohemia. In 1333, he made his son Charles the next Margrave
Margrave
of Moravia (later in 1346, Charles also became the King of Bohemia). In 1349, Charles gave Moravia
Moravia
to his younger brother John Henry who ruled in the margraviate until his death in 1375, after him Moravia
Moravia
was ruled by his oldest son Jobst of Moravia
Jobst of Moravia
who was in 1410 elected the Holy Roman King but died in 1411 (he is buried with his father in the Church of St. Thomas in Brno
Brno
– the Moravian capital from which they both ruled). Moravia
Moravia
and Bohemia
Bohemia
remained within the Luxembourg dynasty of Holy Roman kings and emperors (except during the Hussite wars), until inherited by Albert II of Habsburg
Habsburg
in 1437. After his death followed the interregnum until 1453; land (as the rest of lands of the Bohemian Crown) was administered by the landfriedens (landfrýdy). The rule of young Ladislaus the Posthumous
Ladislaus the Posthumous
subsisted only less than five years and subsequently (1458) the Hussite George of Poděbrady was elected as the king. He again reunited all Czech lands (then Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Upper & Lower Lusatia) into one-man ruled state. In 1466, Pope Paul II
Pope Paul II
excommunicated George and forbade all Catholics (i.e. about 15% of population) from continuing to serve him. The Hungarian crusade followed and in 1469 Matthias Corvinus conquered Moravia
Moravia
and proclaimed himself (with assistance of rebelling Bohemian nobility) as the king of Bohemia. The subsequent 21-year period of a divided kingdom was decisive for the rising awareness of a specific Moravian identity, distinct from that of Bohemia. Although Moravia
Moravia
was reunited with Bohemia
Bohemia
in 1490 when Vladislaus Jagiellon, king of Bohemia, also became king of Hungary, some attachment to Moravian "freedoms" and resistance to government by Prague continued until the end of independence in 1620. In 1526, Vladislaus' son Louis died in battle and the Habsburg Ferdinand I was elected as his successor.

Habsburg
Habsburg
rule (1526–1918)[edit]

Habsburg
Habsburg
Empire Crown lands: growth of the Habsburg
Habsburg
territories and Moravia's status

Administrative division of Moravia
Moravia
as crown land of Austria
Austria
in 1893

After the death of King Louis II of Hungary
Hungary
and Bohemia
Bohemia
in 1526, Ferdinand I of Austria
Austria
was elected King of Bohemia
Bohemia
and thus ruler of the Crown of Bohemia
Bohemia
(including Moravia). The epoch 1526–1620 was marked by increasing animosity between Catholic Habsburg
Habsburg
kings (emperors) and the Protestant Moravian nobility (and other Crowns') estates. Moravia,[34] like Bohemia, was a Habsburg
Habsburg
possession until the end of World War I. In 1573 the Jesuit University of Olomouc
Olomouc
was established; this was the first university in Moravia. The establishment of a special papal seminary, Collegium Nordicum, made the University a centre of the Catholic Reformation and effort to revive Catholicism in Central and Northern Europe. The second largest group of students were from Scandinavia. Brno
Brno
and Olomouc
Olomouc
served as Moravia's capitals until 1641. As the only city to successfully resist the Swedish invasion, Brno
Brno
become the sole capital following the capture of Olomouc. The Margraviate
Margraviate
of Moravia had, from 1348 in Olomouc
Olomouc
and Brno, its own Diet, or parliament, zemský sněm (Landtag in German), whose deputies from 1905 onward were elected separately from the ethnically separate German and Czech constituencies. The oldest surviving theatre building in Central Europe, the Reduta Theatre, was established in 17th-century Moravia. Ottoman Turks and Tatars invaded the region in 1663, taking 12,000 captives.[35] In 1740, Moravia
Moravia
was invaded by Prussian forces under Frederick the Great, and Olomouc
Olomouc
was forced to surrender on 27 December 1741. A few months later the Prussians were repelled, mainly because of their unsuccessful siege of Brno
Brno
in 1742. In 1758, Olomouc
Olomouc
was besieged by Prussians again, but this time its defenders forced the Prussians to withdraw following the Battle of Domstadtl. In 1777, a new Moravian bishopric was established in Brno, and the Olomouc
Olomouc
bishopric was elevated to an archbishopric.[36] In 1782, the Margaviate of Moravia was merged with Austrian Silesia
Silesia
into Moravia-Silesia, with Brno
Brno
as its capital. This lasted until 1850.[37] 20th century[edit]

Jan Černý, president of Moravia
Moravia
(governor) 1922–1926. Later also PM of Czechoslovakia

Following the break-up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
in 1918, Moravia became part of Czechoslovakia. As one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia, it had restricted autonomy. In 1928 Moravia
Moravia
ceased to exist as a territorial unity and was merged with Czech Silesia
Czech Silesia
into the Moravian-Silesian Land (yet with the natural dominance of Moravia). By the Munich Agreement
Munich Agreement
(1938) were southwestern and northern peripheries of Moravia
Moravia
annexed by Nazi Germany, and during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1939–1945), the remnant of Moravia
Moravia
was an administrative unit within the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. During the WW II
WW II
Moravia
Moravia
lost 46,306 Jews
Jews
according to religion.[38] In 1945 after the end of World War II and Allied defeat of Germany, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
expelled the ethnic German minority of Moravia
Moravia
to Germany and Austria. The Moravian-Silesian Land was restored with Moravia
Moravia
as part of it. In 1949 the territorial division of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was radically changed, as the Moravian-Silesian Land was abolished and Lands were replaced by "kraje" (regions), whose borders substantially differ from the historical Bohemian-Moravian border, so Moravia
Moravia
politically ceased to exist after more than 1100 years (833–1949) of its history. Although another administrative reform in 1960 implemented (among others) the North Moravian and the South Moravian regions (Severomoravský and Jihomoravský kraj), with capitals in Ostrava
Ostrava
and Brno
Brno
respectively, their joint area was only roughly alike the historical state and, chiefly, there was no land or federal autonomy, unlike Slovakia. After the fall of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the whole Eastern Block, the Czechoslovak Federal Assembly condemned the cancellation of Moravian-Silesian land and expressed "firm conviction that this injustice will be corrected" in 1990. However, after the breakup of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
into Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Slovakia
Slovakia
in 1993, Moravian area remained integral to the Czech territory, and the latest administrative division of Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(introduced in 2000) is similar to the administrative division of 1949. Nevertheless, the federalist or separatist movement in Moravia
Moravia
is completely marginal. The centuries-lasting historical Bohemian-Moravian border has been preserved up to now only by the Czech Roman Catholic Administration, as the Ecclesiastical Province of Moravia
Moravia
corresponds with the former Moravian-Silesian Land. The popular perception of the Bohemian-Moravian border's location is distorted by the memory of the 1960 regions (whose boundaries are still partly in use). Gallery[edit]

General map of Moravia
Moravia
1929

Moravia
Moravia
within Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
between 1918–1928

Moravia
Moravia
as part of the Moravia- Silesia
Silesia
within Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
between 1928–1938

Moravia- Silesia
Silesia
within Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
between 1928–1938

Moravia
Moravia
within the Czech Republic

Moravian nationality, as declared by people in the 1991 census

Řeznovice Romanesque temple S. Peter and Paul

Saint Wenceslas Cathedral, Olomouc. Metropolitical Church of Moravia. Seat of Archbishop of Olomouc

Sovinec
Sovinec
castle

Economy[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (February 2012)

An area in South Moravia, around Hodonín
Hodonín
and Břeclav, is part of the Viennese Basin. Petroleum and lignite are found there in abundance. The main economic centres of Moravia
Moravia
are Brno, Olomouc
Olomouc
and Zlín, plus Ostrava
Ostrava
lying directly on the Moravian-Silesian border. As well as agriculture in general, Moravia
Moravia
is noted for its viticulture; it contains 94% of the Czech Republic's vineyards and is at the centre of the country's wine industry.

Oldest Iron Blast furnace near Brno, 1745

Thonet chair
Thonet chair
No. 14

Wikow 35, first aerodynamics car in Czechoslovakia

Tatra 77

Zetor
Zetor
tractor

Flexaret
Flexaret
camera

Moravian grapes

Arms industry[edit] Moravia
Moravia
is also the centre of the Czech firearm industry, as the vast majority of Czech firearms manufacturers (e.g. CZUB, Zbrojovka Brno, Czech Small Arms, Czech Weapons, ZVI, Great Gun) are settled in Moravia. Almost all well-known Czech sporting, self-defence, military and hunting firearms come from Moravia. Also, Meopta
Meopta
rifle scopes are of Moravian origin.

Original Bren gun

Famous original Bren gun
Bren gun
in field

Moravian assault rifle CZ-805 BREN

Moravian assault rifle Sa vz. 58

Moravian handgun CZ 75

Moravian handgun ZVI Kevin, a.k.a. Micro Desert Eagle

Aircraft industry[edit] The Zlín Region
Zlín Region
hosts several aircraft manufacturers, namely Let Kunovice (also known as Aircraft Industries, a.s.), ZLIN AIRCRAFT a.s. Otrokovice (former well-known name Moravan
Moravan
Otrokovice), Evektor-Aerotechnik
Evektor-Aerotechnik
and Czech Sport Aircraft. Sport aircraft are also manufactured in Jihlava
Jihlava
by Jihlavan Airplanes/Skyleader. Aircraft production in the region started in 1930s and there are signs of recovery in recent years and the production is expected to grow from 2013 onwards.[39]

Moravian aircraft Zlín
Zlín
Z-50

Tatra aircraft (licensed)

Moravian aircraft Zlín
Zlín
Z-50

Moravian aircraft Let L-200 Morava

Moravian aircraft Let L-410

Moravian aircraft Evektor EV-55 Outback

Moravian aircraft Jihlavan KP-2U Skyleader

Machinery industry[edit] Machinery has been the most important industrial sector in the region, especially in South Moravia, for many decades. The main centres of machinery production are Brno
Brno
(Zbrojovka Brno, Zetor, První brněnská strojírna, Siemens), Blansko
Blansko
(ČKD Blansko, Metra), Adamov (ADAST), Kuřim
Kuřim
(TOS Kuřim), Boskovice
Boskovice
(Minerva, Novibra) and Břeclav
Břeclav
(Otis Elevator Company), together with a large number of other variously sized machinery or machining factories, companies or workshops spread all over Moravia. Electrical industry[edit] The beginnings of the electrical industry in Moravia
Moravia
date back to 1918. The biggest centres of electrical production are Brno
Brno
(VUES, ZPA Brno, EM Brno), Drásov, Frenštát pod Radhoštěm
Frenštát pod Radhoštěm
and Mohelnice (currently Siemens). Cities[edit] Statutory cities[edit]

Brno, ca 380,000 inhabitants, former land capital and nowadays capital of South Moravian Region; industrial, judicial, educational and research centre; railway and motorway junction Ostrava, ca 300,000 inh. (central part, Moravská Ostrava, lies historically in Moravia, most of the outskirts are in Czech Silesia), capital of Moravian-Silesian Region, centre of heavy industry Olomouc, ca 100,000 inh., capital of Olomouc
Olomouc
Region, medieval land capital, seat of Roman Catholic archbishop, cultural centre of Hanakia and Central Moravia Zlín, ca 75,000 inh., capital of Zlín
Zlín
Region, modern city developed after First World War
First World War
by the Bata Shoes
Bata Shoes
company Frýdek-Místek, nearly 60,000 inh., twin-town lying directly on the old Moravian-Silesian border (the western part, Místek, is Moravian), in the industrial area around Ostrava Jihlava, ca 50,000 inh. (mostly in Moravia, northwestern periphery lies in Bohemia), capital of Vysočina Region, centre of the Moravian Highlands Přerov, ca 45,000 inh., important railway hub and archeological site (Předmostí)

Other cities[edit]

Prostějov
Prostějov
(44,000 inh.), centre of clothing and fashion industry Třebíč
Třebíč
(37,000), another centre in the Highlands, with exceptionally preserved Jewish quarter Znojmo
Znojmo
(34,000), historical and cultural centre of southwestern Moravia Kroměříž
Kroměříž
(29,000), historical city in southern Hanakia Valašské Meziříčí
Valašské Meziříčí
(28,000), largest city of the Moravian Wallachia Nový Jičín
Nový Jičín
(28,000), historical city with hatting industry Šumperk
Šumperk
(27,000), centre of the north of Moravia, at the foot of Hrubý Jeseník Vsetín
Vsetín
(27,000), centre of the Moravian Wallachia Uherské Hradiště
Uherské Hradiště
(25,000), cultural centre of the Moravian Slovakia Hodonín
Hodonín
(25,000), another city in the Moravian Slovakia, the birthplace of Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk Břeclav
Břeclav
(25,000), important railway hub in the very south of Moravia Kopřivnice
Kopřivnice
(24,000), centre of automotive industry (Tatra), south from Ostrava Žďár nad Sázavou
Žďár nad Sázavou
(21,000), industrial town in the Highlands, near the border with Bohemia Vyškov
Vyškov
(21,000), local centre at a motorway junction halfway between Brno
Brno
and Olomouc Blansko
Blansko
(21,000), industrial city north from Brno, at the foot of the Moravian Karst

People[edit]

Male and female Moravian Slovak costumes worn during the Jízda králů ("Kings Ride") Festival held annually in the village of Vlčnov (southeastern Moravia)

The Moravians
Moravians
are generally a Slavic ethnic group who speak various (generally more archaic) dialects of Czech. Before the expulsion of Germans
Germans
from Moravia
Moravia
the Moravian German minority also referred to themselves as "Moravians" (Mährer). Those expelled and their descendants continue to identify as Moravian. [40] Some Moravians assert that Moravian is a language distinct from Czech; however, their position is not widely supported by academics and the public.[41][42][43][44] Some Moravians
Moravians
identify as an ethnically distinct group; the majority consider themselves to be ethnically Czech. In the census of 1991 (the first census in history in which respondents were allowed to claim Moravian nationality), 1,362,000 (13.2%) of the Czech population identified as being of Moravian nationality (or ethnicity). In the census of 2001, this number had decreased to 380,000 (3.7% of the population).[45] In the census of 2011, this number rose to 522,474 (4.9% of the Czech population).[46][47]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

9th c. 500,000 —    

13th c. 580,000 +16.0%

15th c. 650,000 +12.1%

1775 1,134,674 +74.6%

1800 1,656,397 +46.0%

1810 1,346,802 −18.7%

1820 1,443,804 +7.2%

1830 1,643,637 +13.8%

1840 1,703,995 +3.7%

1850 1,793,674 +5.3%

1878 2,103,847 +17.3%

1880 2,160,471 +2.7%

1890 2,285,321 +5.8%

1900 2,447,121 +7.1%

1910 2,693,027 +10.0%

1921 2,662,884 −1.1%

1930 2,827,648 +6.2%

1950 2,610,650 −7.7%

2014 3,125,000 +19.7%

Source: Růžková, J., Josef Škrabal, J.; et al. (2006). Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2005 [Historical lexicon of municipalities in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
1869–2005] (PDF) (in Czech). Díl I. Český statistický úřad. pp. 51–54. ISBN 80-250-1311-1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

Moravia
Moravia
historically had a large minority of ethnic Germans, some of whom had arrived as early as the 13th century at the behest of the Přemyslid
Přemyslid
dynasty. Germans
Germans
continued to come to Moravia
Moravia
in waves, culminating in the 18th century. They lived in the main city centres and in the countryside along the border with Austria
Austria
(stretching up to Brno) and along the border with Silesia
Silesia
at Jeseníky, and also in two language islands, around Jihlava
Jihlava
and around Moravská Třebová. After the Second World War, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
almost fully expelled them in retaliation for Nazi German
Nazi German
efforts to create a Greater Germanic Reich in Central Europe. Moravians[edit]

Comenius

Gregor Mendel

František Palacký

Jaromír Mundy

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk

Leoš Janáček

Sigmund Freud

Edmund Husserl

Alphonse Mucha

Adolf Loos

Tomáš Baťa

Kurt Gödel

Emil Zátopek

Milan Kundera

Ivan Lendl

Notable people from Moravia
Moravia
include (in order of birth): See also: List of people from Moravia

Anton Pilgram
Anton Pilgram
(1450–1516), architect, sculptor and woodcarver Jan Ámos Komenský
Jan Ámos Komenský
(Comenius) (1592–1670), educator and theologian, last bishop of Unity of the Brethren David Zeisberger
David Zeisberger
(1717–1807) Moravian missionary to the Leni Lenape, "Apostle to the Indians" Georgius Prochaska (1749–1820), ophthalmologist and physiologist František Palacký
František Palacký
(1798–1876), historian and politician, "The Father of the Czech nation" Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendel
(1822–1884), father of genetics Ernst Mach
Ernst Mach
(1838–1916), physicist and philosopher Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
(1850–1937), philosopher and politician, first president of Czechoslovakia Leoš Janáček
Leoš Janáček
(1854–1928), composer Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
(1856–1939), father of psychoanalysis Edmund Husserl
Edmund Husserl
(1859–1938), philosopher Alfons Mucha
Alfons Mucha
(1860–1939), painter Adolf Loos
Adolf Loos
(1870–1933), architect, pioneer of functionalism Karl Renner
Karl Renner
(1870–1950), Austrian statesman, co-founder of Friends of Nature movement Tomáš Baťa
Tomáš Baťa
(1876–1932), entrepreneur, founder of Bata Shoes company

Old ethnic division of Moravians
Moravians
according to an encyclopaedia of 1878

Joseph Schumpeter
Joseph Schumpeter
(1883–1950), economist and political scientist Marie Jeritza (1887-1982), soprano singer Hans Krebs (1888–1947), Nazi SS Brigadeführer executed for war crimes Ludvík Svoboda
Ludvík Svoboda
(1895–1979), general of I Czechoslovak Army Corps, seventh president of Czechoslovakia Klement Gottwald
Klement Gottwald
(1896–1953), first Czechoslovak communist president Erich Wolfgang Korngold
Erich Wolfgang Korngold
(1897–1957), composer George Placzek
George Placzek
(1905–1955), physicist, participant in Manhattan Project Kurt Gödel
Kurt Gödel
(1906–1978), theoretical mathematician Oskar Schindler
Oskar Schindler
(1908–1974), entrepreneur, saviour of almost 1,200 Jews
Jews
during the WWII Jan Kubiš
Jan Kubiš
(1913–1942), paratrooper who assassinated Nazi despot R. Heydrich Bohumil Hrabal
Bohumil Hrabal
(1914–1997), writer Thomas J. Bata
Thomas J. Bata
(1914–2008), entrepreneur, son of Tomáš Baťa
Tomáš Baťa
and former head of the Bata shoe company Emil Zátopek
Emil Zátopek
(1922–2000), long-distance runner, multiple Olympic gold medalist Karel Reisz
Karel Reisz
(1926–2002), filmmaker, pioneer of British Free Cinema movement Milan Kundera
Milan Kundera
(1929–), writer Karel Kryl
Karel Kryl
(1944–1994), poet and protest singer-songwriter Ivana Trump
Ivana Trump
(1949–), socialite and business magnate, former wife of Donald Trump Ivan Lendl
Ivan Lendl
(1959–), tennis player Jana Novotná
Jana Novotná
(1968–2017), tennis player Jiří Šlégr
Jiří Šlégr
(1971–), ice hockey player, member of the Triple Gold Club Bohuslav Sobotka
Bohuslav Sobotka
(1971–), social-democratic politician, Czech Prime Minister since 2014 Magdalena Kožená
Magdalena Kožená
(1973–), mezzo-soprano Markéta Irglová
Markéta Irglová
(1988–), celebrated singer and Academy Awarded songwriter Adam Ondra
Adam Ondra
(1993–), rock climber

Ethnographic regions[edit] Moravia
Moravia
can be divided on dialectal and lore basis into several ethnographic regions of comparable significance. In this sense, it is more heterogenous than Bohemia. Significant parts of Moravia, usually those formerly inhabited by the German speakers, are dialectally indifferent, as they have been resettled by people from various Czech (and Slovak) regions. The principal cultural regions of Moravia
Moravia
are:

Hanakia (Haná) in the central and northern part Lachia (Lašsko) in the northeastern tip Moravian Highlands
Moravian Highlands
(Horácko) in the west Moravian Slovakia
Slovakia
(Slovácko) in the southeast Moravian Wallachia
Moravian Wallachia
(Valašsko) in the east

Places of interest[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2016)

Lednice Castle

Punkevní Cave in the Moravian Karst

World Heritage Sites[edit]

Gardens and Castle at Kroměříž Historic Centre of Telč Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc Jewish Quarter and St Procopius' Basilica in Třebíč Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape Pilgrimage Church of St John of Nepomuk at Zelená Hora Tugendhat Villa in Brno

Other[edit]

Hranice Abyss, one of the deepest underwater caves in the world

See also[edit]

German South Moravia Moravian Church Moravian traditional music Flag of Moravia

References[edit]

^ Czech Lion (14 May 2016). "Anthem of Moravia
Moravia
- "Moravo, Moravo"" – via YouTube.  ^ ARTEGA. "Kraje v ČR - počet obyvatel, hrubá mzda a nezaměstnanost".  ^ Royal Frankish Annals (year 822), pp. 111-112. ^ Morava, Iniciativa Naša. "Fakta o Moravě – Naša Morava".  ^ Bowlus, Charles R. (2009). "Nitra: when did it become a part of the Moravian realm? Evidence in the Frankish sources". Early Medieval Europe. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 17 (3): 311–328. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0254.2009.00279.x. Retrieved 2013-08-27.  ^ a b http://encyklopedie.brna.cz/home-mmb/?acc=profil_udalosti&load=550 ^ "Moravia". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ "Změny v rozloze obcí a okresů.". Statistický lexikon obcí v republice Československé - II. Země Moravskoslezská (in Czech). Praha. 1935. pp. 149 and 151.  ^ "Dodatek I. Přehled Moravy a Slezska podle žup". Statistický lexikon obcí v republice Československé. Morava a Slezsko (in Czech). Praha: Státní úřad statistický. 1924. p. 133.  ^ "Dodatek IV. Moravské enklávy ve Slezsku". Statistický lexikon obcí v republice Československé. Morava a Slezsko (in Czech). Praha: Státní úřad statistický. 1924. p. 138.  ^ a.s., Economia, (18 February 2000). "Jsem Moravan?".  ^ "Říkáte celé ČR Čechy? Pro Moraváky jste ignorant". 8 February 2010.  ^ Svoboda, Zbyšek; Fojtík, Pavel; Exner, Petr; Martykán, Jaroslav (2013). "Odborné vexilologické stanovisko k moravské vlajce" (PDF). Vexilologie. Zpravodaj České vexilologické společnosti, o.s. č. 169. Brno: Česká vexilologická společnost. pp. 3319, 3320.  ^ Pícha, František (2013). "Znaky a prapory v kronice Ottokara Štýrského" (PDF). Vexilologie. Zpravodaj České vexilologické společnosti, o.s. č. 169. Brno: Česká vexilologická společnost. pp. 3320–3324.  ^ a b Antón, Mauricio; Galobart, Angel; Turner, Alan (May 2005). "Co-existence of scimitar-toothed cats, lions and hominins in the European Pleistocene. Implications of the post-cranial anatomy of Homotherium latidens (Owen) for comparative palaeoecology". Quaternary Science Reviews. Elsevier. 24 (10-11): 1287–1301. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.09.008. Retrieved 23 June 2016.  ^ Not only here for the beer: Moravia, the Czech Republic's wine region. The Guardian 2011 ^ Administrator. "About the multipurpose water corridor Danube-Oder-Elbe".  ^ Klimo, Emil; Hager, Herbert (2000). The Floodplain Forests in Europe: Current Situation and Perspectives (European Forest Institute research reports). Leiden: Brill. p. 48. ISBN 9789004119581.  ^ Velemínskáa, J., Brůžekb, J., Velemínskýd, P., Bigonia, L., Šefčákováe, A., Katinaf, F. (2008). "Variability of the Upper Palaeolithic skulls from Předmostí near Přerov
Přerov
(Czech Republic): Craniometric comparison with recent human standards". Homo. 59 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1016/j.jchb.2007.12.003. PMID 18242606. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Viegas, Jennifer (7 October 2011). "Prehistoric dog found with mammoth bone in mouth". Discovery News. Retrieved 11 October 2011.  ^ Jonathan Jones: Carl Andre on notoriety and a 26,000-year-old portrait – the week in art. The Guardian 25 January 2013 ^ "Dolni Vestonice and Pavlov sites".  ^ Oldest homes were made of mammoth bone. The Times 29.8.2005 ^ "Detašované pracoviště Dolní Dunajovice - Hradisko u Mušova".  ^ "Opevnění - Detašované pracoviště Dolní Dunajovice, AÚ AV ČR Brno, v. v. i."  ^ Hanel, Norbert; Cerdán, Ángel Morillo; Hernández, Esperanza Martín (1 January 2009). "Limes XX: Estudios sobre la frontera romana (Roman frontier studies)". Editorial CSIC - CSIC Press – via Google Books.  ^ "Lázeňská a obytná budova - Detašované pracoviště Dolní Dunajovice, AÚ AV ČR Brno, v. v. i."  ^ Florin Kurta. The history and archaeology of Great Moravia: an introduction. in: "Early Medieval Europe", 2009 volume 17 (3) ^ Reuter, Timothy. (1991). Germany in the Early Middle Ages, London: Longman, page 82 ^ Štefan, Ivo (2011). "Great Moravia, Statehood and Archaeology: The "Decline and Fall" of One Early Medieval Polity". In Macháček, Jiří; Ungerman, Šimon. Frühgeschichtliche Zentralorte in Mitteleuropa. Bonn: Verlag Dr. Rudolf Habelt. pp. 333–354. ISBN 978-3-7749-3730-7. Retrieved 2013-08-27.  ^ Spiesz, Anton; Caplovic, Dusan (2006). Illustrated Slovak History: A Struggle for Sovereignty in Central Europe. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. ISBN 978-0-86516-426-0.  ^ The exact dating of the conquest of Moravia
Moravia
by Bohemian dukes is uncertain. Czech and some Slovak historiographers suggest the year 1019, while Polish, German and other Slovak historians suggest 1029, during the rule of Boleslaus' son, Mieszko II Lambert. ^ There are no primary testimonies about creating a margraviate (march) as distinct political unit ^ Evan Rail (23 September 2011).The Castles of Moravia. NYT 23.9.2011 ^ Lánové rejstříky (1656–1711) Archived 12 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (in Czech) ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Moravia".  ^ "MORAVIA - JewishEncyclopedia.com".  ^ Hope for the future in Brno's Jewish cemetery BBC 3.7. 2014 ^ "Leteckou výrobu v Česku čeká v roce 2013 růst. Pomůže modernizace L-410 (Czech aircraft production expected to grow in 2013)". Hospodářské noviny IHNED. 2012. ISSN 1213-7693.  ^ Bill Lehane: ČSÚ (Czech statistical office) plays down census disputes – Campaign want to include Moravian language
Moravian language
in count (Moravian identity). The Prague Post 9.3.2011 20 ^ Kolínková, Eliška (26 December 2008). "Číšník tvoří spisovnou moravštinu". Mladá fronta DNES
Mladá fronta DNES
(in Czech). iDnes. Retrieved 7 December 2011.  ^ Zemanová, Barbora (12 November 2008). "Moravané tvoří spisovnou moravštinu" (in Czech). denik.cz. Retrieved 7 December 2011.  ^ O spisovné moravštině a jiných „malých“ jazycích (Naše řeč 5, ročník 83/2000) (in Czech) ^ Kolínková, Eliška (30 December 2008). "Amatérský jazykovědec prosazuje moravštinu jako nový jazyk". Mladá fronta DNES
Mladá fronta DNES
(in Czech). iDnes. Retrieved 7 December 2011.  ^ Robert B. Kaplan; Richard B. Baldauf (1 January 2005). Language Planning and Policy in Europe. Multilingual Matters. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-1-85359-813-5.  ^ Lynn Tesser (14 May 2013). Ethnic Cleansing and the European Union: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Security, Memory and Ethnography. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 213–. ISBN 978-1-137-30877-1.  ^ Ibp, Inc (10 September 2013). Czech Republic
Czech Republic
Mining Laws and Regulations Handbook - Strategic Information and Basic Laws. Int'l Business Publications. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-1-4330-7727-2. 

Further reading[edit]

The Penny Cyclopaedia
The Penny Cyclopaedia
of the Society (1877) for the Diffusion of Useful ..., volume 15. London, Charles Knight. Moravia. pg. 397–398 The New Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(2003). Chicago, New Delhi, Paris, Seoul, Sydney, Taipei, Tokyo. Volume 8. pg. 309. Moravia. ISBN 0-85229 961-3 Filip, Jan (1964) The Great Moravia
Great Moravia
exhibition. ČSAV (Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) Galuška, Luděk, Mitáček Jiří, Novotná, Lea /eds./ (2010) Treausures of Moravia
Moravia
– story of historical land. Brno, Moravian Museum. ISBN 978-80-7028-371-4. National Geographic Society. Wonders of the Ancient World; National Geographic Atlas of Archaeology, Norman Hammond, Consultant, Nat'l Geogr. Soc., (Multiple Staff authors), (Nat'l Geogr., R.H.Donnelley & Sons, Willard, OH), 1994, 1999, Reg or Deluxe Ed., 304 pgs. Deluxe ed. photo (pg 248): "Venus, Dolni Věstonice, 24,000 B.C." In section titled: The Potter's Art, pp 246–253. Dekan, Jan (1981). Moravia
Moravia
Magna: The Great Moravian Empire, Its Art and Time, Minneapolis: Control Data Arts. ISBN 0-89893-084-7 Hugh, Agnew (2004). The Czechs
Czechs
and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown.Hoower Press, Stanford. ISBN 0-8179-4491-5 Róna-Tas, András (1999) Hungarians & Europe
Europe
in the Early Middle Ages: An Introduction to Early Hungarian History translated by Nicholas Bodoczky, Central European University Press, Budapest, ISBN 963-9116-48-3 ; Wihoda, Martin (2015), Vladislaus Henry: The Formation of Moravian Identity. Brill Publishers
Brill Publishers
ISBN 9789004250499 Kirschbaum, Stanislav J. (1996) A History of Slovakia: The Struggle for Survival St. Martin's Press, New York, ISBN 0-312-16125-5 ; Constantine Porphyrogenitus
Constantine Porphyrogenitus
De Administrando Imperio
De Administrando Imperio
edited by Gy. Moravcsik, translated by R.J.H. Jenkins, Dumbarton Oaks Edition, Washington D.C. (1993) Hlobil, Ivo, Daniel, Ladislav (2000), The last flowers of the middle ages : from the gothic to the renaissance in Moravia
Moravia
and Silesia. Olomouc/Brno, Moravian Galery, Muzeum umění Olomouc ISBN 9788085227406 David, Jiří (2009). "Moravian estatism and provincial councils in the second half of the 17th century". Folia historica Bohemica. 1 24: 111–165. ISSN 0231-7494. Svoboda, Jiří A. (1999), Hunters between East and West : the paleolithic of Moravia. New York, Plenum Press
Plenum Press
ISSN 0231-7494. Absolon, Karel (1949), The diluvial anthropomorphic statuettes and drawings, especially the so - called Venus statuettes, discovered in Moravia
Moravia
New York, Salmony 1949. ISSN 0231-7494. Musil, Rudolf (1971), G. Mendel's Discovery and the Development of Agricultural and Natural Sciences in Moravia. Brno, Moravian Museum Šimsa, Martin (2009), Open-Air Museum of Rural Architecture in South-East Moravia. Strážnice, National Institute of Folk Culture. ISBN 9788087261194. Miller, Michael R. (2010), The Jews
Jews
of Moravia
Moravia
in the Age of Emancipation, Cover of Rabbis and Revolution edition. Stanford university press. ISBN 9780804770569 Bata, Thomas J. (1990), Bata: Shoemaker to the World. Stoddart Publishers Canada. ISBN 9780773724167

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Moravia.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Moravia.

Moravian museum official website (in Czech) (in English) (in German) Moravian gallery official website (in Czech) (in English) Moravian library official website (in Czech) (in English) (in German) Moravian land archive official website (in Czech) Province of Moravia
Moravia
– Czech Catholic Church – official website Welcome to the 2nd largest city of the CR (in Czech) (in English) (in German) Welcome to Olomouc, city of good cheer... (in Czech) (in English) (in German) (in French) (in Spanish) (in Italian) (in Polish) (in Russian) (in Japanese) (in Chinese) Znojmo
Znojmo
– City of Virtue (in Czech) (in English) (in German)

v t e

 The Czech Lands

Bohemia

Moravia

Czech Silesia

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 131280017 LCCN: n81033

.