HistoryThe first modern human inhabitants of Australia arrived from the north about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Over thousands of years they eventually spread across the whole landmass. These were long established throughout Western Australia by the time European explorers began to arrive in the early 17th century. The first Europeans to visit Western Australia were those of the Dutch expedition, who on 25 October 1616 landed at what is now known as Cape Inscription, . For the rest of the 17th century, other Dutch and British navigators encountered the coast of what named New Holland in 1644, usually unintentionally as demonstrated by the many shipwrecks along the coast of ships that deviated from the (because of poor navigation and storms). By the late 18th century, British and French sailors had begun to explore the Western Australian coast. The Baudin expedition of 1800–03 included the coast of Western Australia, and resulted in the , the first published map featuring the full outline of Australia. The name New Holland remained in popular and semi-official use until at least the mid-1850s; that is, it was in use for about years in comparison to the name Australia which to date has been in use for about years. The origins of the present state began with the establishment by Lockyer of a convict-supported settlement from at King George III Sound. The settlement was formally annexed on 21 January 1827 by Lockyer when he commanded the be raised and a fired by the troops. The settlement was founded in response to British concerns about the possibility of a French colony being established on the coast of Western Australia. On 7 March 1831 it was transferred to the control of the Swan River Colony, and named James Stirling. By 1832, the British settler population of the colony had reached around 1,500, and the official name of the colony was changed to Western Australia on 6 February that year. The two separate townsites of the colony developed slowly into the port city of and the state's capital, Perth. was the first inland settlement in Western Australia, situated east of Perth and settled on 16 September 1831. York was the staging point for early explorers who discovered the rich gold reserves of Kalgoorlie. Population growth was very slow until significant discoveries of gold were made in the 1890s around . In 1887, a new constitution was drafted, providing for the right of self-governance of European Australians and in 1890, the act granting to the colony was passed by the . became the first . In 1896, the Western Australian Parliament authorised the raising of a loan to construct a to transport of water per day to the Goldfields of Western Australia. The pipeline, known as the , was completed in 1903. O'Connor, Western Australia's first engineer-in-chief, designed and oversaw the construction of the pipeline. It carries water from Perth to , and is attributed by historians as an important factor driving the state's population and economic growth. Following a campaign led by Forrest, residents of the colony of Western Australia (still informally called the Swan River Colony) voted in favour of , resulting in Western Australia officially becoming a state on 1 January 1901.
GeographyWestern Australia is bounded to the east by longitude 129°E, the meridian 129 degrees east of Greenwich, which defines the border with South Australia and the , and bounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and north. The (IHO) designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean; in Australia it is officially gazetted as the . The total length of the state's eastern border is . There are of coastline, including of island coastline. The total land area occupied by the state is .
GeologyThe bulk of Western Australia consists of the extremely old Yilgarn craton and which merged with the Deccan Plateau of India, and the Kaapvaal and cratons of Southern Africa, in the Eon to form Ur, one of the oldest s on Earth (3 – 3.2 billion years ago). In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old and other related mineral deposits (often found around s and s) uncovered in the Pilbara craton. Because the only mountain-building since then has been of the with the rifting from , the land is extremely eroded and ancient, with no part of the state above 1,245 metres (4,085 ft) AHD (at in the of the region). Most of the state is a low plateau with an average elevation of about 400 metres (1,200 ft), very low relief, and no . This descends relatively sharply to the coastal plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment (as with the Darling Range/ near Perth). The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile and frequently laterised. Even soils derived from contain an order of magnitude less available and only half as much as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or are even less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in , copper, and sometimes and . The infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of fertilisers. These have resulted in damage to and bacterial populations. The grazing and use of hoofed mammals and, later, heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native flora and fauna. As a result, the South West region of the state has a higher concentration of rare, threatened or endangered flora and fauna than many areas of Australia, making it one of the world's biodiversity "hot spots". Large areas of the state's wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water.
ClimateThe southwest coastal area has a . It was originally heavily forested, including large stands of , one of the in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, with a higher proportion of than most other equivalent regions. Thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly s in the world. Average annual rainfall varies from 300 millimetres (12 in) at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 millimetres (55 in) in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but from November to March, evaporation exceeds rainfall, and it is generally very dry. Plants are adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils. The central two-thirds of the state is and sparsely inhabited. The only significant economic activity is mining. Annual rainfall averages less than 300 millimetres (8–10 in), most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer. An exception to this is the northern tropical regions. The has an extremely hot monsoonal climate with average annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 1,500 millimetres (20–60 in), but there is a very long almost rainless season from April to November. Eighty-five percent of the state's occurs in the Kimberley, but because it occurs in violent floods and because of the insurmountable poverty of the generally shallow soils, the only development has taken place along the . Snow is rare in the state and typically occurs only in the near , as it is the only mountain range far enough south and sufficiently elevated. More rarely, snow can fall on the nearby . Snow outside these areas is a major event; it usually occurs in hilly areas of southwestern Australia. The most widespread low-level snow occurred on 26 June 1956 when snow was reported in the , as far north as Wongan Hills and as far east as Salmon Gums. However, even in the Stirling Range, snowfalls rarely exceed and rarely settle for more than one day. The highest observed maximum temperature of 50.5 °C (122.9 °F) was recorded at Mardie Station on 19 February 1998. The lowest minimum temperature recorded was −7.2 °C (19.0 °F) at Eyre Bird Observatory on 17 August 2008.
Flora and faunaWestern Australia is home to around List of Western Australian birds, 630 species of birds (depending on the taxonomy used). Of these around 15 are endemic species, endemic to the state. The best areas for birds are the southwestern corner of the state and the area around Broome and the Kimberley. The Flora of Western Australia comprises 10,162 published native vascular plant species, along with a further 1,196 species currently recognised but unpublished. They occur within 1,543 genus, genera from 211 Family (biology), families; there are also 1,276 naturalised alien or invasive plant species, more commonly known as weeds. In the southwest region are some of the largest numbers of plant species for its area in the world. Western Australia's ecoregions include the sandstone gorges of Kimberley tropical savanna, The Kimberley on the northern coast, and below that the drier Victoria Plains tropical savanna inland, and the semi-desert Pilbara shrublands, Carnarvon xeric shrublands, and Western Australian mulga shrublands to the southwest. Southwards along the coast are the Southwest Australia savanna and the Swan Coastal Plain around Perth, with the Warren (biogeographic region), jarrah-karri forest and shrublands on the southwest corner of the coast around the Margaret River wine-growing area. Going east along the Southern Ocean coast is the Goldfields-Esperance region, including the Esperance mallee and the Coolgardie (biogeographic region), Coolgardie woodlands inland around town of Coolgardie. Deserts occupy the interior, including the Great Sandy-Tanami desert, Gibson Desert, Great Victoria Desert, and Nullarbor Plain. In 1831 Scottish botanist Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773), Robert Brown produced a scientific paper, ''General view of the botany of the vicinity of Swan River''. It discusses the vegetation of the .
DemographicsEuropeans began to settle permanently in 1826 when was claimed by Britain to forestall French claims to the western third of the continent. Perth was founded as the in 1829 by British and Irish settlers, though the outpost languished. Its officials eventually requested Convictism in Australia, convict labour to augment its population. In the 1890s, interstate immigration, resulting from a mining boom in the Goldfields-Esperance, Goldfields region, resulted in a sharp population increase. Western Australia did not receive significant flows of Immigration to Australia, immigrants from Britain, Ireland or elsewhere in the British Empire until the early 20th century. At that time, its local projects—such as the Group Settlement Scheme of the 1920s, which encouraged farmers to settle the southwest—increased awareness of Australia's western third as a destination for colonists. Led by immigrants from the British Isles, Western Australia's population developed at a faster rate during the twentieth century than it had previously. After World War II, both the eastern states and Western Australia received large numbers of Italian Australian, Italians, Croatian Australian, Croatians and Macedonian Australians, Macedonians. Despite this, Britain has contributed the greatest number of immigrants to this day. Western Australia—particularly Perth—has the highest proportion of British-born of any state: 10.3% in 2011, compared to a national average of 5.1%. This group is heavily concentrated in certain parts, where they account for a quarter of the population. Perth's metropolitan area (including Mandurah) had an estimated population of 2,043,138 Estimated resident population, 30 June 2017. in June 2017 (79% of the state). Other significant population centres include Bunbury, Western Australia, Bunbury (73,989), Estimated resident population, 30 June 2017. Geraldton (37,961), Kalgoorlie-Boulder (30,420), Karratha (16,446), Broome, Western Australia, Broome (14,501) and Port Hedland, Western Australia, Port Hedland (14,285).
Ancestry and immigrationAt the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: 3.1% of the population, or 75,978 people, identified as (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders) in 2016.
LanguageAt the 2016 census, 75.2% of inhabitants spoke only English at home, with the next most common languages being Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin (1.9%), Italian language, Italian (1.2%), Vietnamese language, Vietnamese (0.8%), Cantonese (0.8%) and Tagalog language, Tagalog (0.6%).
ReligionAt the , 55.5% of respondents identified as Christianity, Christian and 32.5% as having irreligion, no religion. 10.3% chose not to state a religion. The most commonly nominated responses were Roman Catholic, Catholicism (21.4%) and Anglican Church of Australia, Anglicanism (14.3%).
EconomyWestern Australia's economy is largely driven by extraction and processing of a diverse range of mineral and petroleum commodities. The structure of the economy is closely linked to these natural resources, providing a comparative advantage in resource extraction and processing. As a consequence: * Western Australia contributes an estimated 58% of Australia's Mineral and Energy Exports, potentially earning up to 4.64% of Australia's total GDP. * Gross state product per person ($97,940 in 2017–18) is higher than any other state and well above the national average ($73,267). * Diversification (i.e. a greater ''range'' of commodities) over the past 15 years has provided a more balanced production base and less reliance on just a few major export markets, insulating the economy from fluctuations in world prices to some extent. * Finance, insurance and property services and construction have grown steadily and have increased their share of economic output. * Recent growth in global demand for minerals and petroleum, especially in China (iron-ore) and Japan (for LNG), has ensured economic growth above the national average. In 2019 Western Australia's overseas exports accounted for 46% of the nation's total. The state's major export commodities included iron-ore, petroleum, gold, alumina, nickel, wheat, copper, lithium, chemicals and mineral sands. Western Australia is the world's largest iron-ore producer (32% of the world's total), and extracts 67% (6% of world production) of Australia's 324 tonnes of gold. It is a major world producer of bauxite, which is processed into alumina at four refineries providing 11% of total world production. Diamonds are extracted at the world's largest Argyle diamond mine, diamond mine in the far north Kimberley region. Coal mined at Collie, Western Australia, Collie is the main fuel for baseload electricity generation in the state's south-west. Agricultural production in WA is a major contributor to the state and national economy. Although tending to be highly seasonal, in the period 2010–2019 wheat production in WA has averaged nearly 10 million tonnes ($2.816 billion in 2019), accounting for half the nation's total and providing $2–3 billion in export income. Other significant farm output includes wool, beef, lamb, barley, canola, lupins, oats and pulses. There is a high level of overseas demand for live animals from WA, driven mainly by southeast Asia's feedlots and Middle Eastern countries, where Islamic dietary laws and a lack of storage and refrigeration facilities favour live animals over imports of processed meat. About half of Australia's live cattle exports come from Western Australia. Resource sector growth in recent years has resulted in significant labour and skills shortages, leading to recent efforts by the state government to encourage interstate and overseas immigration. According to the 2006 census, the median individual income was A$500 per week in Western Australia (compared to A$466 in Australia as a whole). The median family income was A$1246 per week (compared to A$1171 for Australia). Recent growth has also contributed to significant rises in average property values in 2006, although values plateaued in 2007. Located south of Perth, the heavy industrial area of City of Kwinana, Kwinana had the Kwinana Oil Refinery, nation's largest oil refinery with a capacity of 146,000 barrels of oil per day, producing most of the state's petrol and diesel. Kwinana also hosts alumina and nickel processing plants, port facilities for grain and other bulk exports, and support industries for mining and petroleum such as heavy and light engineering, and metal fabrication. Shipbuilding (e.g. Austal) and associated support industries are found at nearby Henderson, Western Australia, Henderson, just north of Kwinana. Significant secondary industries include cement and building product manufacturing, flour milling, food processing, animal feed production, automotive body building and printing. Western Australia has a significant fishing industry. Products for local consumption and export include western rock lobsters, prawns, crabs, shark and tuna, as well as pearl fishing in the region of the state. Processing is conducted along the west coast. Whaling was a key marine industry but ceased at Albany in 1978. Western Australia has the world's biggest plantations of both Indian sandalwood (northern WA) and Australian sandalwood (semi-arid regions), which are used to produce sandalwood oil and incense. The WA sandalwood industry provides about 40 per cent of the international sandalwood oil market.
TourismIn recent years, tourism has grown in importance, with significant numbers of visitors to the state coming from the UK and Ireland (28%), other European countries (14%) Singapore (16%), Japan (10%) and Malaysia (8%). Revenue from tourism is a strong economic driver in many of the smaller population centres outside of Perth, especially in coastal locations. Tourism forms a major part of the Western Australian economy with 833,100 international visitors making up 12.8% of the total international tourism to Australia in the year ending March 2015. The top three source markets include the United Kingdom (17%), Singapore (10%) and New Zealand (10%) with the majority of purpose for visitation being holiday/vacation reasons. The tourism industry contributes $9.3 billion to the Western Australian economy and supports 94,000 jobs within the state. Both directly and indirectly, the industry makes up 3.2% of the state's economy whilst comparatively, WA's largest revenue source, the mining sector, brings in 31%. Tourism WA is the government agency responsible for promoting Western Australia as a holiday destination.
GovernmentWestern Australia was granted self-government in 1890 with a bicameral Parliament of Western Australia, Parliament located in Perth, consisting of the Western Australian Legislative Assembly, Legislative Assembly (or ''lower house''), which has 59 members; and the Western Australian Legislative Council, Legislative Council (or ''upper house''), which has 36 members. Suffrage is universal and compulsory for citizens over 18 years of age. With the federation of the Australian colonies in 1901, Western Australia became a state within Australia's Federation, federal structure; this involved ceding certain powers to the Commonwealth (or Federal) government in accordance with the Constitution; all powers not specifically granted to the Commonwealth remained solely with the State. However over time the Commonwealth has effectively expanded its powers through broad interpretation of its enumerated powers and increasing control of taxation and financial distribution (see Federalism in Australia). Whilst the sovereign of Western Australia is the Queen of Australia (Elizabeth II) and executive power is nominally vested in her state representative, the Governor of Western Australia, Governor (currently Kim Beazley), executive power rests with the premier and ministers drawn from the party or coalition of parties holding a majority of seats in the Legislative Assembly. Mark McGowan (politician), Mark McGowan is the premier, having defeated Colin Barnett at the 2017 Western Australian state election, state election on 11 March 2017 and retained power at the 2021 Western Australian state election, 2021 election.
SecessionSecessionism has been a recurring feature of Western Australia's political landscape since shortly after European settlement in 1826. Western Australia was the most reluctant participant in the Federation of Australia, Commonwealth of Australia. Western Australia did not participate in the earliest federation conference. Longer-term residents of Western Australia were generally opposed to federation; however, the discovery of gold brought many immigrants from other parts of Australia. It was these residents, primarily in Kalgoorlie but also in Albany who voted to join the Commonwealth, and the proposal of these areas being admitted separately under the name Auralia was considered. In a 1933 Western Australian secession referendum, referendum in April 1933, 68% of voters voted for the state to leave the Commonwealth of Australia with the aim of returning to the British Empire as an autonomous territory. The State Government sent a delegation to Parliament of the United Kingdom, Westminster, but the British Government ruled the referendum invalid and therefore no action was taken.
Local governmentWestern Australia is divided into 139 Local Government Areas of Western Australia, Local Government Areas, including Shire of Christmas Island, Christmas Island and the Shire of Cocos, Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Their mandate and operations are governed by the Local Government Act 1995.
EducationEducation in Western Australia consists of one year of pre-school at age 4 or 5, followed by six years of primary education for all students as of 2015. At age 12 or 13, students begin six years of secondary education. Students are required to attend school up until they are 16 years old. Sixteen and 17 year olds are required to be enrolled in school or a training organisation, be employed or be in a combination of school/training/employment. Students have the option to study at a Technical and further education, TAFE college after Year 10, or continue through to Year 12 with vocational courses or a university entrance courses. There are five universities in Western Australia. They consist of four -based public university, public universities, being the University of Western Australia, Curtin University, Edith Cowan University and Murdoch University; and one -based private university, private Roman Catholic university, the University of Notre Dame Australia. The University of Notre Dame Australia, University of Notre Dame is also one of only two private university, private universities in Australia, along with Bond University, a not-for-profit private education provider based in Gold Coast, Queensland.
TelevisionMetropolitan Perth has six broadcast television stations; * Australian Broadcasting Corporation, ABC TV WA. (Callsign: ABW (TV station), ABW – Channel 12 Digital) * Special Broadcasting Service, SBS WA (Callsign: SBS-28, SBS – Channel 29 Digital) * Seven Network Perth. (Callsign: TVW – Channel 6 Digital) * Nine Network Perth. (Callsign: STW – Channel 8 Digital) * Network Ten Perth. (Callsign: NEW (TV station), NEW – Channel 11 Digital) * West TV. A free-to-air community television channel that began broadcasting in April 2010. It replaced Access 31, which ceased broadcasting in August 2008. Regional WA has a similar availability of stations, with the exception of West TV. Geographically, it is one of the largest television markets in the world, including almost one-third of the continent. * Golden West Network, Golden West Network (GWN7). Affiliated with Seven. (Callsigns: SSW South West, VEW Goldfields/Esperance, GTW Central West, WAW remote areas) * WIN Television WA. Affiliated with Ten (Callsign: WOW) * West Digital Television. Affiliated with Nine. (Callsigns: SDW South West, VDW Goldfields/Esperance, GDW Central West, WDW remote areas) * Westlink (Australian TV channel), Westlink. An open-narrowcast community-based television channel. (Satellite only) In addition, broadcasters operate digital multichannels: * ABC HD (Australian TV channel), ABC HD (Carried by ABW (TV station), ABW) * ABC2 (Carried by ABW (TV station), ABW) * ABC Me (Carried by ABW (TV station), ABW) * ABC News (TV channel), ABC News (Carried by ABW (TV station), ABW) * SBS HD (Carried by SBS-28, SBS) * SBS Viceland (Carried by SBS-28, SBS) * Food Network (Australia), Food Network (Carried by SBS-28, SBS) * National Indigenous Television, NITV (Carried by SBS-28, SBS) * 7HD (Carried by TVW) * 7TWO (Carried by TVW and affiliates) * 7mate (Carried by TVW and affiliates) * 7flix (Carried by TVW) * Racing.com (Carried by TVW and affiliates) * 9HD (Carried by STW) * 9Gem (Australian TV channel), 9Gem (Carried by STW and affiliates) * 9Go! (Australian TV channel), 9Go! (Carried by STW and affiliates) * 9Life (Carried by STW) * Extra (Australian TV channel) (Carried by STW) * One (Australian TV channel), One (Carried by NEW (TV station), NEW and affiliate) * 10 Peach (Carried by NEW (TV station), NEW and affiliate) * Ten HD (Carried by NEW (TV station), NEW and affiliate) * TVSN (Carried by NEW (TV station), NEW and affiliate) * Spree TV (Carried by NEW (TV station), NEW) Pay TV services are provided by Foxtel, which acquired many of the assets and all the remaining subscribers of the insolvent Galaxy (Australian television), Galaxy Television satellite service in 1998. Some metropolitan suburbs are serviced by Pay TV via cable; however, most of the metropolitan and rural areas can only access Pay TV via satellite.
RadioPerth has many radio stations on both AM and FM frequencies. ABC stations include ABC NewsRadio (6PB 585 am), 720 ABC Perth (6WF 720 am), ABC Radio National (6RN 810 am), ABC Classic FM (6ABC 97.7FM) and Triple J (6JJJ 99.3FM). The six commercial stations are: FM 92.9 (6PPM), Nova 93.7 (6PER), Mix 94.5 (6MIX), 96fm (6NOW), and AM 882 (6PR), AM 1080 (6IX) and AM 1116 (6MM) The leading community radio stations are Curtin FM 100.1, RTRFM, 6RTR FM 92.1, Sonshine FM 98.5 (6SON) and 91.3 SportFM (6WSM).
Arts and entertainmentWestern Australia is home to one of the country's leading performance training institutions, the acclaimed Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts (WAAPA), as well as a burgeoning theatrical and musical scene. Notable musicians and bands to have been born in or lived in Western Australia include Adam Brand (musician), Adam Brand, Ammonia (band), Ammonia, Karnivool, Birds of Tokyo, Bon Scott, Eskimo Joe, Johnny Young, Gyroscope (band), Gyroscope, the John Butler Trio, Tame Impala, Kevin Mitchell (musician), Kevin Mitchell, Tim Minchin, Troye Sivan, The Kill Devil Hills, Pendulum (drum and bass band), Pendulum, The Pigram Brothers, Rolf Harris, Stella Donnelly and The Triffids. The West Australian Music Industry Awards (WAMis) have been awarded every year to the leading musicians and performers in WA since 2001. Notable actors and television personalities from Western Australia include Heath Ledger, Sam Worthington, Ernie Dingo, Jessica Marais, Megan Gale, Rove McManus, Isla Fisher, and Melissa George. Films and television series filmed or partly filmed in Western Australia include ''Rabbit-Proof Fence'', ''The Heights (Australian TV series), The Heights'', ''Mystery Road (TV series), Mystery Road'', ''These Final Hours'', ''Cloudstreet'', ''Jasper Jones (film), Jasper Jones'', ''Australia (movie), Australia'', ''Bran Nue Dae (film), Bran Nu Dae'', ''Red Dog (film), Red Dog'', ''ABBA: the Movie'' and ''Last Train to Freo''. Noted Western Australian Indigenous painters and artisans include Jack Dale Mengenen, Paddy Bedford, Queenie McKenzie, and siblings Nyuju Stumpy Brown and Rover Thomas. The West Australian Symphony Orchestra (WASO) is based at the Perth Concert Hall, Western Australia, Perth Concert Hall. Other concert, performance and indoor sporting venues in Western Australia include His Majesty's Theatre, Western Australia, His Majesty's Theatre, the State Theatre Centre of Western Australia, the Crown Perth, Crown Theatre and Perth Arena, which opened in 2012. Western Australia has served as the setting for a number of works of Australian literature. Prominent authors include Katharine Susannah Prichard, Randolph Stow, Tim Winton, Kim Scott, Sally Morgan (artist), Sally Morgan, Joan London (Australian author), Joan London, Mary Durack and Craig Silvey.
SportA number of national or international sporting teams and events are based in the state, including: * Australian rules football: The West Coast Eagles and the Fremantle Dockers compete in the Australian Football League (AFL). They also have women's teams playing in the AFL Women's league. The West Australian Football League (WAFL) is the main local football competition, but other Australian rules football in Western Australia, local and amateur football leagues exist across the state. * Baseball: The Perth Heat compete in the Australian Baseball League. * Basketball: The Perth Wildcats (men) and Perth Lynx (women) compete in the National Basketball League (Australasia), National Basketball League and Women's National Basketball League, respectively. * Cricket: Western Australia cricket team, Western Australia represent the state in first-class cricket, first-class and List A cricket, List A domestic cricket, with the Perth Scorchers competing in the Twenty20 Big Bash League. * Field hockey: The WA Thundersticks, Thundersticks (men) and Diamonds (women) compete in the Australian Hockey League. * Netball: The West Coast Fever compete in the ANZ Championship. * Rugby league: The West Coast Pirates compete in the S. G. Ball Cup. * Rugby union: The Western Force competes in the National Rugby Championship. * Soccer: Perth Glory field Perth Glory FC, men's and Perth Glory FC W-League, women's teams in the A-League and W-League (Australia), W-League, respectively. * Tennis: The International Tennis Federation, ITF Hopman Cup, an annual international team indoor hardcourt tennis tournament. * Water Polo: The UWA Torpedoes water polo club competes in the Australian National Water Polo League, National Water Polo League (NWPL). International sporting events hosted in the past in Western Australia include the Tom Hoad Cup (water polo), the Perth International (golf), the 2006 Gravity Games (extreme sports), the 2002 Women's Hockey World Cup, the 1991 FINA World Aquatics Championships, the World Rally Championships and the 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games. Western Australia's largest sports stadium is Perth Stadium, also known by naming rights sponsorship as Optus Stadium. It has a capacity of over 60,000 people and is primarily used for Australian rules football and cricket.
WineWinemaking regions are concentrated in the cooler climate of the West Australian wine#South Western Australia, south-western portion of the state. Western Australia produces less than 5% of the country's wine output, but in quality terms is considered to be very much near the top.T. Stevenson ''"The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia"'' pg 589 Dorling Kindersley 2005 winepros.com.au, ''The Oxford Companion to Wine'' pg 76
Sister statesWestern Australia has five sister states: * East Java, Indonesia * Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan * Andhra Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh State, India *Tuscany, Tuscany Region, Italy * Zhejiang, Zhejiang Province, China In 1981, a sister city, sister state agreement was drawn up between Western Australia and Hyōgo Prefecture in Japan that was aimed at improving cultural ties between the two states. To commemorate the 10th anniversary of this agreement, the Hyōgo Prefectural Government Cultural Centre was established in Perth in 1992. Prior to that, the Western Australian government opened an office in Kobe, the largest city in Hyōgo, to facilitate maintenance of the relationship in 1989. Following the Great Hanshin earthquake that devastated southern Hyōgo in January 1995, Western Australian groups and businesses raised funds and provided materials, whilst individuals travelled to Hyōgo to help with emergency relief and the subsequent reconstruction process. The two governments signed a memorandum of understanding on the 20th anniversary in 2001 that aimed to improve the economic relationship between the two states. Further to the sister state relationship, the City of Rockingham in Western Australia and the Akō, Hyōgo, City of Akō in Hyōgo signed a sister city agreement in 1997. It is one of nine sister city relationships between Western Australian and Japanese cities.
See also* Outline of Australia * Index of Australia-related articles * * Government of Western Australia * Mining in Western Australia * Petroleum in Western Australia * Western Australian shark cull
Lists* List of Western Australian towns * List of statues in Western Australia * Local Government Areas of Western Australia
Notes"West Australia" and its related demonym "West Australian" are occasionally used, including in the names of the main daily newspaper, ''The West Australian'', and the state-based West Australian Football League, but are rarely used in an official sense. The terms "Westralia (disambiguation), Westralia" and "Westralian" were regularly used in the 19th and 20th century. The terms are still found in the names of certain companies and buildings, e.g. Westralia House in Perth and Westralia Airports Corporation, which operates Perth Airport, as well as in the names of several ships.