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Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
occupying the western percent of the land area of
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
excluding external territories. It is bounded by the
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water on Earth's surface. It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west and Australia (continent), Australia to the east. To the s ...

Indian Ocean
to the north and west, and the
Southern Ocean The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica. As such, it is regarded as the second-smallest of t ...

Southern Ocean
to the south, the
Northern Territory The Northern Territory (NT; formally the Northern Territory of Australia) is an states and territories of Australia, Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. The Northern Territory shares its borders with W ...
to the north-east, and
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a in the southern central part of . It covers some of the most parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, and fifth-largest ...

South Australia
to the south-east. Western Australia is Australia's largest state, with a total land area of . It is the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly becau ...

Russia
's
Sakha Republic Sakha, also known as Yakutia or Yakutiya,; sah, Саха Сирэ, r= Saqa Sire, p= saˈxa sɪrjə), and officially known as the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) ( rus, Республика Саха (Якутия), r= Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), p= ...

Sakha Republic
. the state has about 2.67 million inhabitants  around 10.4 percent of the national total. The vast majority (92 percent) live in the south-west corner; 79 percent of the population lives in the
Perth Perth () is the and largest city of the n state of (WA). It is Australia's , with a population of 2.1 million living in in 2020. Perth is part of the of Western Australia, with most of the metropolitan area on the between the and the . ...

Perth
area, leaving the remainder of the state sparsely populated. The first Europeans to visit Western Australia belonged to the Dutch
Dirk Hartog Dirk Hartog (; baptised 30 October 1580 – buried 11 October 1621) was a 17th-century Netherlands, Dutch sailor and explorer. Dirk Hartog's expedition was the second European group to land in Australia and the first to leave behind an artefact to ...
expedition, who visited the Western Australian coast in 1616. The first permanent European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major
Edmund Lockyer Edmund Lockyer, (21 January 1784 – 10 June 1860) was a British soldier and explorer of Australia. Born in Plymouth, Devon, Lockyer was the son of Thomas Lockyer, a sailmaker, and his wife Ann, ''née Grose''. Lockyer began his army career a ...
on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders three other states, Queensland to the north, Victoria (Australia), Victoria to the sou ...
colonial government. Lockyer established a convict-supported military garrison at King George III Sound, at present-day , and on 21 January 1827. He formally took possession for the British Crown of the western part of the continent that was not already claimed by the British Crown. This was followed by the establishment of the
Swan River Colony The Swan River Colony, also known as the Swan River Settlement, or just Swan River, was a British colony established in 1829 on the Swan River, in Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Austra ...
in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital,
Perth Perth () is the and largest city of the n state of (WA). It is Australia's , with a population of 2.1 million living in in 2020. Perth is part of the of Western Australia, with most of the metropolitan area on the between the and the . ...

Perth
.
York York is a cathedral city with Roman origins at the confluence of the rivers River Ouse, Yorkshire, Ouse and River Foss, Foss in North Yorkshire, England. It is the historic county town of Yorkshire. The city has long-standing buildings and str ...

York
was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831. Western Australia achieved
responsible government Responsible government is a conception of a system of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normall ...
in 1890 and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today, Western Australia's
economy An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ( ...
mainly relies on mining, oil and gas, services and construction. The state produces 46 percent of Australia's exports. Western Australia is the largest
iron ore Iron ores are rocks A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in which it is formed. Rock ...
producer in the world. Its motto is "Cygnis Insignis" ("Bearing the Sign of the Swan"). Its nickname is "The Wildflower State".


History

The first modern human inhabitants of Australia arrived from the north about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Over thousands of years they eventually spread across the whole landmass. These
Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent) ...
were long established throughout Western Australia by the time European explorers began to arrive in the early 17th century. The first Europeans to visit Western Australia were those of the Dutch
Dirk Hartog Dirk Hartog (; baptised 30 October 1580 – buried 11 October 1621) was a 17th-century Netherlands, Dutch sailor and explorer. Dirk Hartog's expedition was the second European group to land in Australia and the first to leave behind an artefact to ...
expedition, who on 25 October 1616 landed at what is now known as Cape Inscription,
Dirk Hartog Island Dirk Hartog Island is an island off the Gascoyne coast of Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Australia, state occupying the western percent of the land area of Australia excluding exter ...
. For the rest of the 17th century, other Dutch and British navigators encountered the coast of what
Abel Tasman Abel Janszoon Tasman (; 160310 October 1659) was a Dutch sea explorer, seafarer, exploration, explorer, and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). He was the first known Europe ...

Abel Tasman
named New Holland in 1644, usually unintentionally as demonstrated by the many shipwrecks along the coast of ships that deviated from the
Brouwer Route The Brouwer Route was a 17th-century route used by ships sailing from the Cape of Good Hope A cape is a sleeveless outer garment, which drapes the wearer's back, arms, and chest, and connects at the neck. History Capes were common in medieva ...
(because of poor navigation and storms). By the late 18th century, British and French sailors had begun to explore the Western Australian coast. The Baudin expedition of 1800–03 included the coast of Western Australia, and resulted in the
Freycinet Map of 1811The Freycinet Map of 1811 is the first map of Australia to be published which shows the full outline of Australia. It was drawn by Louis de Freycinet and was an outcome of the Baudin expedition to Australia. It preceded the publication of Matthew Fli ...
, the first published map featuring the full outline of Australia. The name New Holland remained in popular and semi-official use until at least the mid-1850s; that is, it was in use for about years in comparison to the name Australia which to date has been in use for about years. The origins of the present state began with the establishment by Lockyer of a convict-supported settlement from
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders three other states, Queensland to the north, Victoria (Australia), Victoria to the sou ...
at King George III Sound. The settlement was formally annexed on 21 January 1827 by Lockyer when he commanded the
Union Jack The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the de facto national flag of the United Kingdom. Though no law has been passed officially making the Union Jack the national flag of the United Kingdom, it has effectively become the national flag through prec ...

Union Jack
be raised and a
feu de joie A feu de joie (French: "fire of joy") is a form of formal celebratory gunfire consisting of a celebratory rifle salute, described as a "running fire of guns." As soldiers fire into the air sequentially in rapid succession, the cascade of blank r ...
fired by the troops. The settlement was founded in response to British concerns about the possibility of a French colony being established on the coast of Western Australia. On 7 March 1831 it was transferred to the control of the Swan River Colony, and named in 1832. In 1829 the
Swan River Colony The Swan River Colony, also known as the Swan River Settlement, or just Swan River, was a British colony established in 1829 on the Swan River, in Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Austra ...
was established on the Swan River by Captain James Stirling. By 1832, the British settler population of the colony had reached around 1,500, and the official name of the colony was changed to Western Australia on 6 February that year. The two separate townsites of the colony developed slowly into the port city of
Fremantle Fremantle () is a city in , located at the mouth of the in the metropolitan area of , the state capital. serves as the port of Perth. In 2016, Fremantle had a population of approximately 29,000. The diminutive for Fremantle is Freo. Prio ...
and the state's capital, Perth.
York York is a cathedral city with Roman origins at the confluence of the rivers River Ouse, Yorkshire, Ouse and River Foss, Foss in North Yorkshire, England. It is the historic county town of Yorkshire. The city has long-standing buildings and str ...

York
was the first inland settlement in Western Australia, situated east of Perth and settled on 16 September 1831. York was the staging point for early explorers who discovered the rich gold reserves of Kalgoorlie. Population growth was very slow until significant discoveries of gold were made in the 1890s around
Kalgoorlie Kalgoorlie is a city in the Goldfields-Esperance region of Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Australia, state occupying the western percent of the land area of Australia excluding externa ...

Kalgoorlie
. In 1887, a new constitution was drafted, providing for the right of self-governance of European Australians and in 1890, the act granting
self-government __NOTOC__ Self-governance, self-government, or self-rule is the ability of a person or group to exercise all necessary functions of regulation Regulation is the management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends. In systems ...
to the colony was passed by the
British Parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind ...
.
John Forrest Sir John Forrest (22 August 18472 SeptemberSome sources give the date as 3 September 1918 1918) was an Australian explorer, the first Premier of Western Australia and a cabinet minister in Australia's first federal parliament. As a young man, ...

John Forrest
became the first
Premier of Western Australia The Premier of Western Australia is the head of the executive branch of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associa ...
. In 1896, the Western Australian Parliament authorised the raising of a loan to construct a
pipeline Pipeline may refer to: Electronics, computers and computing * Pipeline (computing), a chain of data-processing stages or a CPU optimization found on ** Instruction pipelining, a technique for implementing instruction-level parallelism within a si ...
to transport of water per day to the Goldfields of Western Australia. The pipeline, known as the
Goldfields Water Supply Scheme The Goldfields Water Supply Scheme is a pipeline and dam project that delivers drinking water, potable water from Mundaring Weir in Perth to communities in Western Australia's Eastern Goldfields, particularly Coolgardie, Western Australia, Coolg ...
, was completed in 1903. O'Connor, Western Australia's first engineer-in-chief, designed and oversaw the construction of the pipeline. It carries water from Perth to
Kalgoorlie Kalgoorlie is a city in the Goldfields-Esperance region of Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Australia, state occupying the western percent of the land area of Australia excluding externa ...

Kalgoorlie
, and is attributed by historians as an important factor driving the state's population and economic growth. Following a campaign led by Forrest, residents of the colony of Western Australia (still informally called the Swan River Colony) voted in favour of
federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized ...
, resulting in Western Australia officially becoming a state on 1 January 1901.


Geography

Western Australia is bounded to the east by longitude 129°E, the meridian 129 degrees east of Greenwich, which defines the border with South Australia and the
Northern Territory The Northern Territory (NT; formally the Northern Territory of Australia) is an states and territories of Australia, Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. The Northern Territory shares its borders with W ...
, and bounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and north. The
International Hydrographic Organization The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organiza ...
(IHO) designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean; in Australia it is officially gazetted as the
Southern Ocean The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica. As such, it is regarded as the second-smallest of t ...

Southern Ocean
. The total length of the state's eastern border is . There are of coastline, including of island coastline. The total land area occupied by the state is .


Geology

The bulk of Western Australia consists of the extremely old Yilgarn craton and
Pilbara craton upright=1.3, Map of Australia with the Pilbara Region highlighted in red. The Pilbara Craton is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere located in Pilbara, Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and ...
which merged with the Deccan Plateau of India,
Madagascar Madagascar (; mg, Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar ( mg, Repoblikan'i Madagasikara, links=no, ; french: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic The Malagasy Republic ( mg, Repoblika Mala ...

Madagascar
and the Kaapvaal and
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individ ...

Zimbabwe
cratons of Southern Africa, in the
Archean The Archean Eon ( , also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient ...

Archean
Eon to form Ur, one of the oldest
supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and the proces ...
s on Earth (3 – 3.2  billion years ago). In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old
geyserite Geyserite from Iceland Geyserite is a form of opal Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of Silicon dioxide, silica (SiO2·''n''H2O); its water content may range from 3 to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6 and 10%. Because of its amorph ...

geyserite
and other related mineral deposits (often found around
hot spring A hot spring, hydrothermal spring, or geothermal spring is a spring Spring(s) may refer to: Common uses * Spring (season), a season of the year * Spring (device), a mechanical device that stores energy * Spring (hydrology), a natural source of w ...
s and
geyser A geyser (, ) is a spring Spring(s) may refer to: Common uses * Spring (season), a season of the year * Spring (device), a mechanical device that stores energy * Spring (hydrology), a natural source of water * Spring (mathematics), a geometric ...

geyser
s) uncovered in the Pilbara craton. Because the only mountain-building since then has been of the
Stirling Range The Stirling Range or Koikyennuruff is a range of mountains and hills in the Great Southern region of Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Australia, state occupying the western percent o ...
with the rifting from
Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is 's southernmost . It contains the geographic and is situated in the region of the , almost entirely south of the , and is surrounded by the . At , it is the fifth-largest continent and nearly twice the size of . At 0.00 ...

Antarctica
, the land is extremely eroded and ancient, with no part of the state above 1,245 metres (4,085 ft) AHD (at
Mount Meharry Mount Meharry is the highest mountain in Western Australia. It is located in the Hamersley Range within the southeastern part of Karijini National Park in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, Pilbara region, approximately south-southeast of ...
in the
Hamersley Range The Hamersley Range is a mountainous region of the Pilbara region of Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Australia, state occupying the western percent of the land area of Australia excludi ...
of the
Pilbara The Pilbara () is a large, dry, thinly populated regions of Western Australia, region in the north of Western Australia. It is known for its Indigenous Australians, Aboriginal peoples; its ancient landscapes; the red earth; and its vast miner ...
region). Most of the state is a low plateau with an average elevation of about 400 metres (1,200 ft), very low relief, and no
surface runoff Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydros ...
. This descends relatively sharply to the coastal plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment (as with the Darling Range/
Darling Scarp The Darling Scarp, also referred to as the Darling Range or Darling Ranges, is a low escarpment running north–south to the east of the Swan Coastal Plain and Perth, Western Australia. The escarpment extends generally north of Bindoon, Western ...
near Perth). The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile and frequently laterised. Even soils derived from
granitic A granitoid is a generic term for a diverse category of coarse-grained igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languag ...

granitic
bedrock Bedrock in geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and ...

bedrock
contain an order of magnitude less available
phosphorus Phosphorus is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol P and atomic number 15. Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms, white phosphorus and red phosphorus, but because it is highly Reactivity (chemistry), reactive, phosphor ...

phosphorus
and only half as much
nitrogen Nitrogen is the chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science ...

nitrogen
as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or
ironstone 300px, Ironstone (sandstone with iron oxides) from the Mississippian age, Mississippian Breathitt Formation, Mile Marker 166, Interstate 64 in Kentucky, I-64, Kentucky Ironstone is a sedimentary rock, either deposited directly as a ferruginous sed ...
are even less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in
zinc Zinc is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbe ...

zinc
, copper,
molybdenum Molybdenum is a with the Mo and 42. The name is from ''molybdaenum'', which is based on ', meaning , since its ores were confused with lead ores. Molybdenum minerals have been known throughout history, but the element was discovered (in the ...

molybdenum
and sometimes
potassium Potassium is a chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science ...

potassium
and
calcium Calcium is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elem ...

calcium
. The infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of fertilisers. These have resulted in damage to
invertebrate Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a ''backbone'' or ''spine''), derived from the notochord. This includes all animals apart from the chordata, chordate subphylum vertebrate, Vertebra ...
and bacterial populations. The grazing and use of hoofed mammals and, later, heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native flora and fauna. As a result, the South West region of the state has a higher concentration of rare, threatened or endangered flora and fauna than many areas of Australia, making it one of the world's biodiversity "hot spots". Large areas of the state's wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water.


Climate

The southwest coastal area has a
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degre ...
. It was originally heavily forested, including large stands of
karri ''Eucalyptus diversicolor'', commonly known as karri, is a species of flowering plant in the family Myrtaceae and is Endemism, endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a tall tree with smooth light grey to cream-coloured, often mot ...
, one of the
tallest trees This is a list of the tallest known tree species, as reflected by measurements of the tallest reliably-measured individual specimen. Although giant trees grow in both tropical and temperate regions, they are very restricted geographically and phyl ...
in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, with a higher proportion of
endemic species Endemism is the state of a species being native to a single defined geographic location, such as an island, state, nation, country or other defined zone; organisms that are Indigenous (ecology), indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if th ...

endemic species
than most other equivalent regions. Thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly
coral reef A coral reef is an underwater ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient c ...

coral reef
s in the world. Average annual rainfall varies from 300 millimetres (12 in) at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 millimetres (55 in) in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but from November to March, evaporation exceeds rainfall, and it is generally very dry. Plants are adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils. The central two-thirds of the state is
arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development or developing may refer to: Arts *Development hell, when a project is stuck in d ...

arid
and sparsely inhabited. The only significant economic activity is mining. Annual rainfall averages less than 300 millimetres (8–10 in), most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer. An exception to this is the northern tropical regions. The
Kimberley Kimberly or Kimberley may refer to: Places and historical events Australia * Kimberley (Western Australia) ** Roman Catholic Diocese of Kimberley * Kimberley Warm Springs, Tasmania * Kimberley, Tasmania a small town * County of Kimberley, a ca ...
has an extremely hot monsoonal climate with average annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 1,500 millimetres (20–60 in), but there is a very long almost rainless season from April to November. Eighty-five percent of the state's
runoff Runoff, run-off or RUNOFF may refer to: * RUNOFF Runoff, run-off or RUNOFF may refer to: * RUNOFF, the first computer text-formatting program * Runoff or run-off, another name for bleed (printing), bleed, printing that lies beyond the edges to wh ...
occurs in the Kimberley, but because it occurs in violent floods and because of the insurmountable poverty of the generally shallow soils, the only development has taken place along the
Ord River The Ord River is a river in the Kimberley region of Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Australia, state occupying the western percent of the land area of Australia excluding external ter ...

Ord River
. Snow is rare in the state and typically occurs only in the
Stirling Range The Stirling Range or Koikyennuruff is a range of mountains and hills in the Great Southern region of Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Australia, state occupying the western percent o ...
near , as it is the only mountain range far enough south and sufficiently elevated. More rarely, snow can fall on the nearby
Porongurup Range Porongurup National Park is a national park in the Great Southern (Western Australia), Great Southern region of Western Australia, southeast of Perth and from Albany, Western Australia, Albany. It protects the Porongurup Range, an extremely ...
. Snow outside these areas is a major event; it usually occurs in hilly areas of southwestern Australia. The most widespread low-level snow occurred on 26 June 1956 when snow was reported in the
Perth Hills Perth Hills is a term used primarily for marketing purposes to identify the part of the Darling Scarp The Darling Scarp, also referred to as the Darling Range or Darling Ranges, is a low escarpment running north–south to the east of the Swan C ...
, as far north as Wongan Hills and as far east as Salmon Gums. However, even in the Stirling Range, snowfalls rarely exceed and rarely settle for more than one day. The highest observed maximum temperature of 50.5 °C (122.9 °F) was recorded at Mardie Station on 19 February 1998. The lowest minimum temperature recorded was −7.2 °C (19.0 °F) at Eyre Bird Observatory on 17 August 2008.


Flora and fauna

Western Australia is home to around List of Western Australian birds, 630 species of birds (depending on the taxonomy used). Of these around 15 are endemic species, endemic to the state. The best areas for birds are the southwestern corner of the state and the area around Broome and the Kimberley. The Flora of Western Australia comprises 10,162 published native vascular plant species, along with a further 1,196 species currently recognised but unpublished. They occur within 1,543 genus, genera from 211 Family (biology), families; there are also 1,276 naturalised alien or invasive plant species, more commonly known as weeds. In the southwest region are some of the largest numbers of plant species for its area in the world. Western Australia's ecoregions include the sandstone gorges of Kimberley tropical savanna, The Kimberley on the northern coast, and below that the drier Victoria Plains tropical savanna inland, and the semi-desert Pilbara shrublands, Carnarvon xeric shrublands, and Western Australian mulga shrublands to the southwest. Southwards along the coast are the Southwest Australia savanna and the Swan Coastal Plain around Perth, with the Warren (biogeographic region), jarrah-karri forest and shrublands on the southwest corner of the coast around the Margaret River wine-growing area. Going east along the Southern Ocean coast is the Goldfields-Esperance region, including the Esperance mallee and the Coolgardie (biogeographic region), Coolgardie woodlands inland around town of Coolgardie. Deserts occupy the interior, including the Great Sandy-Tanami desert, Gibson Desert, Great Victoria Desert, and Nullarbor Plain. In 1831 Scottish botanist Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773), Robert Brown produced a scientific paper, ''General view of the botany of the vicinity of Swan River''. It discusses the vegetation of the
Swan River Colony The Swan River Colony, also known as the Swan River Settlement, or just Swan River, was a British colony established in 1829 on the Swan River, in Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Austra ...
.


Demographics

Europeans began to settle permanently in 1826 when was claimed by Britain to forestall French claims to the western third of the continent. Perth was founded as the
Swan River Colony The Swan River Colony, also known as the Swan River Settlement, or just Swan River, was a British colony established in 1829 on the Swan River, in Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Austra ...
in 1829 by British and Irish settlers, though the outpost languished. Its officials eventually requested Convictism in Australia, convict labour to augment its population. In the 1890s, interstate immigration, resulting from a mining boom in the Goldfields-Esperance, Goldfields region, resulted in a sharp population increase. Western Australia did not receive significant flows of Immigration to Australia, immigrants from Britain, Ireland or elsewhere in the British Empire until the early 20th century. At that time, its local projects—such as the Group Settlement Scheme of the 1920s, which encouraged farmers to settle the southwest—increased awareness of Australia's western third as a destination for colonists. Led by immigrants from the British Isles, Western Australia's population developed at a faster rate during the twentieth century than it had previously. After World War II, both the eastern states and Western Australia received large numbers of Italian Australian, Italians, Croatian Australian, Croatians and Macedonian Australians, Macedonians. Despite this, Britain has contributed the greatest number of immigrants to this day. Western Australia—particularly Perth—has the highest proportion of British-born of any state: 10.3% in 2011, compared to a national average of 5.1%. This group is heavily concentrated in certain parts, where they account for a quarter of the population. Perth's metropolitan area (including Mandurah) had an estimated population of 2,043,138 Estimated resident population, 30 June 2017. in June 2017 (79% of the state). Other significant population centres include Bunbury, Western Australia, Bunbury (73,989), Estimated resident population, 30 June 2017. Geraldton (37,961), Kalgoorlie-Boulder (30,420), (33,998), Karratha (16,446), Broome, Western Australia, Broome (14,501) and Port Hedland, Western Australia, Port Hedland (14,285).


Ancestry and immigration

At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: 3.1% of the population, or 75,978 people, identified as
Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent) ...
(Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders) in 2016.


Language

At the 2016 census, 75.2% of inhabitants spoke only English at home, with the next most common languages being Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin (1.9%), Italian language, Italian (1.2%), Vietnamese language, Vietnamese (0.8%), Cantonese (0.8%) and Tagalog language, Tagalog (0.6%).


Religion

At the , 55.5% of respondents identified as Christianity, Christian and 32.5% as having irreligion, no religion. 10.3% chose not to state a religion. The most commonly nominated responses were Roman Catholic, Catholicism (21.4%) and Anglican Church of Australia, Anglicanism (14.3%).


Economy

Western Australia's economy is largely driven by extraction and processing of a diverse range of mineral and petroleum commodities. The structure of the economy is closely linked to these natural resources, providing a comparative advantage in resource extraction and processing. As a consequence: * Western Australia contributes an estimated 58% of Australia's Mineral and Energy Exports, potentially earning up to 4.64% of Australia's total GDP. * Gross state product per person ($97,940 in 2017–18) is higher than any other state and well above the national average ($73,267). * Diversification (i.e. a greater ''range'' of commodities) over the past 15 years has provided a more balanced production base and less reliance on just a few major export markets, insulating the economy from fluctuations in world prices to some extent. * Finance, insurance and property services and construction have grown steadily and have increased their share of economic output. * Recent growth in global demand for minerals and petroleum, especially in China (iron-ore) and Japan (for LNG), has ensured economic growth above the national average. In 2019 Western Australia's overseas exports accounted for 46% of the nation's total. The state's major export commodities included iron-ore, petroleum, gold, alumina, nickel, wheat, copper, lithium, chemicals and mineral sands. Western Australia is the world's largest iron-ore producer (32% of the world's total), and extracts 67% (6% of world production) of Australia's 324 tonnes of gold. It is a major world producer of bauxite, which is processed into alumina at four refineries providing 11% of total world production. Diamonds are extracted at the world's largest Argyle diamond mine, diamond mine in the far north Kimberley region. Coal mined at Collie, Western Australia, Collie is the main fuel for baseload electricity generation in the state's south-west. Agricultural production in WA is a major contributor to the state and national economy. Although tending to be highly seasonal, in the period 2010–2019 wheat production in WA has averaged nearly 10 million tonnes ($2.816 billion in 2019), accounting for half the nation's total and providing $2–3 billion in export income. Other significant farm output includes wool, beef, lamb, barley, canola, lupins, oats and pulses. There is a high level of overseas demand for live animals from WA, driven mainly by southeast Asia's feedlots and Middle Eastern countries, where Islamic dietary laws and a lack of storage and refrigeration facilities favour live animals over imports of processed meat. About half of Australia's live cattle exports come from Western Australia. Resource sector growth in recent years has resulted in significant labour and skills shortages, leading to recent efforts by the state government to encourage interstate and overseas immigration. According to the 2006 census, the median individual income was A$500 per week in Western Australia (compared to A$466 in Australia as a whole). The median family income was A$1246 per week (compared to A$1171 for Australia). Recent growth has also contributed to significant rises in average property values in 2006, although values plateaued in 2007. Located south of Perth, the heavy industrial area of City of Kwinana, Kwinana had the Kwinana Oil Refinery, nation's largest oil refinery with a capacity of 146,000 barrels of oil per day, producing most of the state's petrol and diesel. Kwinana also hosts alumina and nickel processing plants, port facilities for grain and other bulk exports, and support industries for mining and petroleum such as heavy and light engineering, and metal fabrication. Shipbuilding (e.g. Austal) and associated support industries are found at nearby Henderson, Western Australia, Henderson, just north of Kwinana. Significant secondary industries include cement and building product manufacturing, flour milling, food processing, animal feed production, automotive body building and printing. Western Australia has a significant fishing industry. Products for local consumption and export include western rock lobsters, prawns, crabs, shark and tuna, as well as pearl fishing in the
Kimberley Kimberly or Kimberley may refer to: Places and historical events Australia * Kimberley (Western Australia) ** Roman Catholic Diocese of Kimberley * Kimberley Warm Springs, Tasmania * Kimberley, Tasmania a small town * County of Kimberley, a ca ...
region of the state. Processing is conducted along the west coast. Whaling was a key marine industry but ceased at Albany in 1978. Western Australia has the world's biggest plantations of both Indian sandalwood (northern WA) and Australian sandalwood (semi-arid regions), which are used to produce sandalwood oil and incense. The WA sandalwood industry provides about 40 per cent of the international sandalwood oil market.


Tourism

In recent years, tourism has grown in importance, with significant numbers of visitors to the state coming from the UK and Ireland (28%), other European countries (14%) Singapore (16%), Japan (10%) and Malaysia (8%). Revenue from tourism is a strong economic driver in many of the smaller population centres outside of Perth, especially in coastal locations. Tourism forms a major part of the Western Australian economy with 833,100 international visitors making up 12.8% of the total international tourism to Australia in the year ending March 2015. The top three source markets include the United Kingdom (17%), Singapore (10%) and New Zealand (10%) with the majority of purpose for visitation being holiday/vacation reasons. The tourism industry contributes $9.3 billion to the Western Australian economy and supports 94,000 jobs within the state. Both directly and indirectly, the industry makes up 3.2% of the state's economy whilst comparatively, WA's largest revenue source, the mining sector, brings in 31%. Tourism WA is the government agency responsible for promoting Western Australia as a holiday destination.


Government

Western Australia was granted self-government in 1890 with a bicameral Parliament of Western Australia, Parliament located in Perth, consisting of the Western Australian Legislative Assembly, Legislative Assembly (or ''lower house''), which has 59 members; and the Western Australian Legislative Council, Legislative Council (or ''upper house''), which has 36 members. Suffrage is universal and compulsory for citizens over 18 years of age. With the federation of the Australian colonies in 1901, Western Australia became a state within Australia's Federation, federal structure; this involved ceding certain powers to the Commonwealth (or Federal) government in accordance with the Constitution; all powers not specifically granted to the Commonwealth remained solely with the State. However over time the Commonwealth has effectively expanded its powers through broad interpretation of its enumerated powers and increasing control of taxation and financial distribution (see Federalism in Australia). Whilst the sovereign of Western Australia is the Queen of Australia (Elizabeth II) and executive power is nominally vested in her state representative, the Governor of Western Australia, Governor (currently Kim Beazley), executive power rests with the premier and ministers drawn from the party or coalition of parties holding a majority of seats in the Legislative Assembly. Mark McGowan (politician), Mark McGowan is the premier, having defeated Colin Barnett at the 2017 Western Australian state election, state election on 11 March 2017 and retained power at the 2021 Western Australian state election, 2021 election.


Secession

Secessionism has been a recurring feature of Western Australia's political landscape since shortly after European settlement in 1826. Western Australia was the most reluctant participant in the Federation of Australia, Commonwealth of Australia. Western Australia did not participate in the earliest federation conference. Longer-term residents of Western Australia were generally opposed to federation; however, the discovery of gold brought many immigrants from other parts of Australia. It was these residents, primarily in Kalgoorlie but also in Albany who voted to join the Commonwealth, and the proposal of these areas being admitted separately under the name Auralia was considered. In a 1933 Western Australian secession referendum, referendum in April 1933, 68% of voters voted for the state to leave the Commonwealth of Australia with the aim of returning to the British Empire as an autonomous territory. The State Government sent a delegation to Parliament of the United Kingdom, Westminster, but the British Government ruled the referendum invalid and therefore no action was taken.


Local government

Western Australia is divided into 139 Local Government Areas of Western Australia, Local Government Areas, including Shire of Christmas Island, Christmas Island and the Shire of Cocos, Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Their mandate and operations are governed by the Local Government Act 1995.


Education

Education in Western Australia consists of one year of pre-school at age 4 or 5, followed by six years of primary education for all students as of 2015. At age 12 or 13, students begin six years of secondary education. Students are required to attend school up until they are 16 years old. Sixteen and 17 year olds are required to be enrolled in school or a training organisation, be employed or be in a combination of school/training/employment. Students have the option to study at a Technical and further education, TAFE college after Year 10, or continue through to Year 12 with vocational courses or a university entrance courses. There are five universities in Western Australia. They consist of four
Perth Perth () is the and largest city of the n state of (WA). It is Australia's , with a population of 2.1 million living in in 2020. Perth is part of the of Western Australia, with most of the metropolitan area on the between the and the . ...

Perth
-based public university, public universities, being the University of Western Australia, Curtin University, Edith Cowan University and Murdoch University; and one
Fremantle Fremantle () is a city in , located at the mouth of the in the metropolitan area of , the state capital. serves as the port of Perth. In 2016, Fremantle had a population of approximately 29,000. The diminutive for Fremantle is Freo. Prio ...
-based private university, private Roman Catholic university, the University of Notre Dame Australia. The University of Notre Dame Australia, University of Notre Dame is also one of only two private university, private universities in Australia, along with Bond University, a not-for-profit private education provider based in Gold Coast, Queensland.


Media


Print

Western Australia has two daily newspapers: the Seven West Media-owned tabloid ''The West Australian'' and ''The Kalgoorlie Miner''. Also published is one weekend paper, ''The Weekend West'', and one Sunday tabloid newspaper, which is also owned by Seven West Media after purchase from News Corporation (1980–2013), News Corporation's ''The Sunday Times (Western Australia), The Sunday Times''. There are also 17 weekly ''Community paper, Community Newspapers'' with distribution from Yanchep in the north to Mandurah in the south. There are two major weekly rural papers in the state, ''Countryman'' and the Rural Press-owned ''Farm Weekly''. The interstate broadsheet publication ''The Australian'' is also available, although with sales per capita lagging far behind those in other states. ''WAtoday'' is an online newspaper owned by Fairfax Digital, focusing its coverage on Perth and Western Australia.


Television

Metropolitan Perth has six broadcast television stations; * Australian Broadcasting Corporation, ABC TV WA. (Callsign: ABW (TV station), ABW – Channel 12 Digital) * Special Broadcasting Service, SBS WA (Callsign: SBS-28, SBS – Channel 29 Digital) * Seven Network Perth. (Callsign: TVW – Channel 6 Digital) * Nine Network Perth. (Callsign: STW – Channel 8 Digital) * Network Ten Perth. (Callsign: NEW (TV station), NEW – Channel 11 Digital) * West TV. A free-to-air community television channel that began broadcasting in April 2010. It replaced Access 31, which ceased broadcasting in August 2008. Regional WA has a similar availability of stations, with the exception of West TV. Geographically, it is one of the largest television markets in the world, including almost one-third of the continent. * Golden West Network, Golden West Network (GWN7). Affiliated with Seven. (Callsigns: SSW South West, VEW Goldfields/Esperance, GTW Central West, WAW remote areas) * WIN Television WA. Affiliated with Ten (Callsign: WOW) * West Digital Television. Affiliated with Nine. (Callsigns: SDW South West, VDW Goldfields/Esperance, GDW Central West, WDW remote areas) * Westlink (Australian TV channel), Westlink. An open-narrowcast community-based television channel. (Satellite only) In addition, broadcasters operate digital multichannels: * ABC HD (Australian TV channel), ABC HD (Carried by ABW (TV station), ABW) * ABC2 (Carried by ABW (TV station), ABW) * ABC Me (Carried by ABW (TV station), ABW) * ABC News (TV channel), ABC News (Carried by ABW (TV station), ABW) * SBS HD (Carried by SBS-28, SBS) * SBS Viceland (Carried by SBS-28, SBS) * Food Network (Australia), Food Network (Carried by SBS-28, SBS) * National Indigenous Television, NITV (Carried by SBS-28, SBS) * 7HD (Carried by TVW) * 7TWO (Carried by TVW and affiliates) * 7mate (Carried by TVW and affiliates) * 7flix (Carried by TVW) * Racing.com (Carried by TVW and affiliates) * 9HD (Carried by STW) * 9Gem (Australian TV channel), 9Gem (Carried by STW and affiliates) * 9Go! (Australian TV channel), 9Go! (Carried by STW and affiliates) * 9Life (Carried by STW) * Extra (Australian TV channel) (Carried by STW) * One (Australian TV channel), One (Carried by NEW (TV station), NEW and affiliate) * 10 Peach (Carried by NEW (TV station), NEW and affiliate) * Ten HD (Carried by NEW (TV station), NEW and affiliate) * TVSN (Carried by NEW (TV station), NEW and affiliate) * Spree TV (Carried by NEW (TV station), NEW) Pay TV services are provided by Foxtel, which acquired many of the assets and all the remaining subscribers of the insolvent Galaxy (Australian television), Galaxy Television satellite service in 1998. Some metropolitan suburbs are serviced by Pay TV via cable; however, most of the metropolitan and rural areas can only access Pay TV via satellite.


Radio

Perth has many radio stations on both AM and FM frequencies. ABC stations include ABC NewsRadio (6PB 585 am), 720 ABC Perth (6WF 720 am), ABC Radio National (6RN 810 am), ABC Classic FM (6ABC 97.7FM) and Triple J (6JJJ 99.3FM). The six commercial stations are: FM 92.9 (6PPM), Nova 93.7 (6PER), Mix 94.5 (6MIX), 96fm (6NOW), and AM 882 (6PR), AM 1080 (6IX) and AM 1116 (6MM) The leading community radio stations are Curtin FM 100.1, RTRFM, 6RTR FM 92.1, Sonshine FM 98.5 (6SON) and 91.3 SportFM (6WSM).


Culture


Arts and entertainment

Western Australia is home to one of the country's leading performance training institutions, the acclaimed Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts (WAAPA), as well as a burgeoning theatrical and musical scene. Notable musicians and bands to have been born in or lived in Western Australia include Adam Brand (musician), Adam Brand, Ammonia (band), Ammonia, Karnivool, Birds of Tokyo, Bon Scott, Eskimo Joe, Johnny Young, Gyroscope (band), Gyroscope, the John Butler Trio, Tame Impala, Kevin Mitchell (musician), Kevin Mitchell, Tim Minchin, Troye Sivan, The Kill Devil Hills, Pendulum (drum and bass band), Pendulum, The Pigram Brothers, Rolf Harris, Stella Donnelly and The Triffids. The West Australian Music Industry Awards (WAMis) have been awarded every year to the leading musicians and performers in WA since 2001. Notable actors and television personalities from Western Australia include Heath Ledger, Sam Worthington, Ernie Dingo, Jessica Marais, Megan Gale, Rove McManus, Isla Fisher, and Melissa George. Films and television series filmed or partly filmed in Western Australia include ''Rabbit-Proof Fence'', ''The Heights (Australian TV series), The Heights'', ''Mystery Road (TV series), Mystery Road'', ''These Final Hours'', ''Cloudstreet'', ''Jasper Jones (film), Jasper Jones'', ''Australia (movie), Australia'', ''Bran Nue Dae (film), Bran Nu Dae'', ''Red Dog (film), Red Dog'', ''ABBA: the Movie'' and ''Last Train to Freo''. Noted Western Australian Indigenous painters and artisans include Jack Dale Mengenen, Paddy Bedford, Queenie McKenzie, and siblings Nyuju Stumpy Brown and Rover Thomas. The West Australian Symphony Orchestra (WASO) is based at the Perth Concert Hall, Western Australia, Perth Concert Hall. Other concert, performance and indoor sporting venues in Western Australia include His Majesty's Theatre, Western Australia, His Majesty's Theatre, the State Theatre Centre of Western Australia, the Crown Perth, Crown Theatre and Perth Arena, which opened in 2012. Western Australia has served as the setting for a number of works of Australian literature. Prominent authors include Katharine Susannah Prichard, Randolph Stow, Tim Winton, Kim Scott, Sally Morgan (artist), Sally Morgan, Joan London (Australian author), Joan London, Mary Durack and Craig Silvey.


Sport

A number of national or international sporting teams and events are based in the state, including: * Australian rules football: The West Coast Eagles and the Fremantle Dockers compete in the Australian Football League (AFL). They also have women's teams playing in the AFL Women's league. The West Australian Football League (WAFL) is the main local football competition, but other Australian rules football in Western Australia, local and amateur football leagues exist across the state. * Baseball: The Perth Heat compete in the Australian Baseball League. * Basketball: The Perth Wildcats (men) and Perth Lynx (women) compete in the National Basketball League (Australasia), National Basketball League and Women's National Basketball League, respectively. * Cricket: Western Australia cricket team, Western Australia represent the state in first-class cricket, first-class and List A cricket, List A domestic cricket, with the Perth Scorchers competing in the Twenty20 Big Bash League. * Field hockey: The WA Thundersticks, Thundersticks (men) and Diamonds (women) compete in the Australian Hockey League. * Netball: The West Coast Fever compete in the ANZ Championship. * Rugby league: The West Coast Pirates compete in the S. G. Ball Cup. * Rugby union: The Western Force competes in the National Rugby Championship. * Soccer: Perth Glory field Perth Glory FC, men's and Perth Glory FC W-League, women's teams in the A-League and W-League (Australia), W-League, respectively. * Tennis: The International Tennis Federation, ITF Hopman Cup, an annual international team indoor hardcourt tennis tournament. * Water Polo: The UWA Torpedoes water polo club competes in the Australian National Water Polo League, National Water Polo League (NWPL). International sporting events hosted in the past in Western Australia include the Tom Hoad Cup (water polo), the Perth International (golf), the 2006 Gravity Games (extreme sports), the 2002 Women's Hockey World Cup, the 1991 FINA World Aquatics Championships, the World Rally Championships and the 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games. Western Australia's largest sports stadium is Perth Stadium, also known by naming rights sponsorship as Optus Stadium. It has a capacity of over 60,000 people and is primarily used for Australian rules football and cricket.


Wine

Winemaking regions are concentrated in the cooler climate of the West Australian wine#South Western Australia, south-western portion of the state. Western Australia produces less than 5% of the country's wine output, but in quality terms is considered to be very much near the top.T. Stevenson ''"The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia"'' pg 589 Dorling Kindersley 2005 winepros.com.au, ''The Oxford Companion to Wine'' pg 76
Western Australia
/ref> Major wine producing regions include: Margaret River (wine region), Margaret River, Great Southern Wine Region, The Great Southern, Swan Valley (Western Australia), Swan Valley as well as smaller districts including Blackwood Valley, Manjimup, Western Australia, Manjimup, Pemberton, Western Australia, Pemberton, Peel (Western Australia), Peel, Chittering Valley,
Perth Hills Perth Hills is a term used primarily for marketing purposes to identify the part of the Darling Scarp The Darling Scarp, also referred to as the Darling Range or Darling Ranges, is a low escarpment running north–south to the east of the Swan C ...
, and Geographe Bay, Geographe.


Sister states

Western Australia has five sister states: * East Java, Indonesia * Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan * Andhra Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh State, India *Tuscany, Tuscany Region, Italy * Zhejiang, Zhejiang Province, China In 1981, a sister city, sister state agreement was drawn up between Western Australia and Hyōgo Prefecture in Japan that was aimed at improving cultural ties between the two states. To commemorate the 10th anniversary of this agreement, the Hyōgo Prefectural Government Cultural Centre was established in Perth in 1992. Prior to that, the Western Australian government opened an office in Kobe, the largest city in Hyōgo, to facilitate maintenance of the relationship in 1989. Following the Great Hanshin earthquake that devastated southern Hyōgo in January 1995, Western Australian groups and businesses raised funds and provided materials, whilst individuals travelled to Hyōgo to help with emergency relief and the subsequent reconstruction process. The two governments signed a memorandum of understanding on the 20th anniversary in 2001 that aimed to improve the economic relationship between the two states. Further to the sister state relationship, the City of Rockingham in Western Australia and the Akō, Hyōgo, City of Akō in Hyōgo signed a sister city agreement in 1997. It is one of nine sister city relationships between Western Australian and Japanese cities.


See also

* Outline of Australia * Index of Australia-related articles * * Government of Western Australia * Mining in Western Australia * Petroleum in Western Australia * Western Australian shark cull


Lists

* List of Western Australian towns * List of statues in Western Australia * Local Government Areas of Western Australia


Notes

"West Australia" and its related demonym "West Australian" are occasionally used, including in the names of the main daily newspaper, ''The West Australian'', and the state-based West Australian Football League, but are rarely used in an official sense. The terms "Westralia (disambiguation), Westralia" and "Westralian" were regularly used in the 19th and 20th century. The terms are still found in the names of certain companies and buildings, e.g. Westralia House in Perth and Westralia Airports Corporation, which operates Perth Airport, as well as in the names of several ships.
In Australia, the Southern Ocean, body of water south of the continent is officially gazetted as the
Southern Ocean The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica. As such, it is regarded as the second-smallest of t ...

Southern Ocean
, whereas the
International Hydrographic Organization The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organiza ...
(IHO) designates it as part of the Indian Ocean.


References


Further reading

*


External links

*
Welcome to Western Australia
a tourist website run by Tourism Western Australia, the statutory authority responsible for promoting Western Australia as a tourist destination
Western Australia government's website

Watch historical footage of Western Australia
from the National Film and Sound Archive of Australia's collection.
Watch audiovisual material relating to Western Australia
on the National Film and Sound Archive'
''australianscreen online''
{{Authority control Western Australia, Former British colonies and protectorates in Oceania States and territories established in 1829 1829 establishments in Australia