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Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one
script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of handwriting) * Script (Unicode), historical and modern scripts as organise ...
to another that involves swapping
letters Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet), a written element of an alphabet * Letterform, a typographic term for alphabetical letter shapes * Rehearsal letter in an orchestral score Communication * Le ...
(thus ''
trans- Trans- is a Latin prefix meaning "across", "beyond", or "on the other side of". Used alone, trans may refer to: Media * ''Trans'' (film), US film * Trans (Festival), a former festival in Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom * Trans Corp, a ...
'' + ''
liter-
liter-
'') in predictable ways, such as Greek → , Cyrillic → , Greek → the digraph , Armenian → or Latin → . For instance, for the
Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the dialects of the Greek language spoken in the modern era, including the official standardized form of the l ...
term "", which is usually
translated Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. The English language draws a terminological distinction (which does not exist in every language) between ''transla ...

translated
as "
Hellenic Republic Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one ...

Hellenic Republic
", the usual transliteration to
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (Writing system#General properties, script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet. This is derived from a form of the Cumae alphabet, Cumaean Greek version of the ...

Latin script
is , and the name for
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russia
in
Cyrillic script , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs , fam2 = Proto-Sinaitic , fam3=Phoenician , fam4= Greek script augmented by Glagolitic , ...
, "", is usually transliterated as . Transliteration is not primarily concerned with representing the
sounds In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. In human physiology and psychology, sound is the ''reception'' of such waves and their ''perception'' by the br ...

sounds
of the original but rather with representing the characters, ideally accurately and unambiguously. Thus, in the Greek above example, is transliterated though it is pronounced , is transliterated though pronounced , and is transliterated , though it is pronounced (exactly like ) and is not
long Long may refer to: Places * Long, Somme, a commune in northern France * Long, Washington, a community in the United States * Long District, Laos * Long District, Phrae, Thailand * The River Long, or Longjiang (disambiguation), Longjiang (literally ...
. Conversely, transcription notes the sounds rather than the orthography of a text. So "" could be transcribed as , which does not specify which of the sounds are written with the Greek letter and which with .
Angle brackets A bracket is either of two tall fore- or back-facing punctuation marks commonly used to isolate a segment of text or data from its surroundings. Typically deployed in symmetric pairs, an individual bracket may be identified as a ''left'' or ...
may be used to set off transliteration, as opposed to slashes for phonemic transcription and square brackets for phonetic transcription. Angle brackets may also be used to set off characters in the original script. Conventions and author preferences vary.


Definitions

Systematic transliteration is a
mapping Mapping may refer to: * Mapping (cartography), the process of making a map * Mapping (mathematics), a synonym for a mathematical function and its generalizations ** Mapping (logic), a synonym for functional predicate Types of mapping * Animated ...
from one system of writing into another, typically
grapheme In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...

grapheme
to grapheme. Most transliteration systems are
one-to-one One-to-one or one to one may refer to: Mathematics and communication *One-to-one function, also called an injective function *One-to-one correspondence, also called a bijective function *One-to-one (communication), the act of an individual commun ...
, so a reader who knows the system can reconstruct the original spelling. Transliteration is opposed to transcription, which maps the ''
sounds In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. In human physiology and psychology, sound is the ''reception'' of such waves and their ''perception'' by the br ...
'' of one
language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed of glyphs to inscribe the original soun ...

language
into a writing system. Still, most systems of transliteration map the letters of the source script to letters pronounced similarly in the target script, for some specific pair of source and target language. If the relations between letters and sounds are similar in both languages, a transliteration may be very close to a transcription. In practice, there are some mixed transliteration/transcription systems that transliterate a part of the original script and transcribe the rest. For many script pairs, there is one or more standard transliteration systems. However, unsystematic transliteration is common.


Difference from transcription

In Modern
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is ...
, the letters ⟨η⟩ ⟨ι⟩ ⟨υ⟩ and the letter combinations ⟨ει⟩ ⟨oι⟩ ⟨υι⟩ are pronounced (except when pronounced as
semivowel In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical p ...
s), and a modern transcription renders them all as ⟨i⟩; but a transliteration distinguishes them, for example by transliterating to ⟨ē⟩ ⟨i⟩ ⟨y⟩ and ⟨ei⟩ ⟨oi⟩ ⟨yi⟩. (As the ancient pronunciation of ⟨η⟩ was , it is often transliterated as an ⟨e⟩ with a macron, even for modern texts.) On the other hand, ⟨ευ⟩ is sometimes pronounced and sometimes , depending on the following sound. A transcription distinguishes them, but this is no requirement for a transliteration. The initial letter 'h' reflecting the historical
rough breathing In the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the foll ...
in words such as Ellēnikē should logically be omitted in transcription from
Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, Greek spoken and written d ...
on, and from transliteration from 1982 on, but it is nonetheless frequently encountered.


Challenges

A simple example of difficulties in transliteration is the
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...
letter
qāf Qoph (Phoenician Qōp ) is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads Semitic most commonly refers to the Semitic languages, a name used since the 1770s to refer to the language family currently present in West Asia, North and East Africa, an ...
. It is pronounced, in literary Arabic, approximately like English except that the tongue makes contact not on the
soft palate The soft palate (also known as the velum, palatal velum, or muscular palate) is, in mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characteriz ...
but on the
uvula The palatine uvula, usually referred to as simply the uvula, is a conic projection from the back edge of the middle of the soft palate The soft palate (also known as the velum, palatal velum, or muscular palate) is, in mammal Mammals (from ...

uvula
, but the pronunciation varies between different
dialects of Arabic The varieties (or dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of Linguistics, linguistic phenomena: * ...
. The letter is sometimes transliterated into "g", sometimes into "q" and rarely even into "k" in English.Language log
/ref> Another example is the Russian letter "Х" (kha). It is pronounced as the
voiceless velar fricative In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...

voiceless velar fricative
, like the Scottish pronunciation of in "loch". This sound is not present in most forms of English and is often transliterated as "kh" as in
Nikita Khrushchev Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev ( rus, Никита Сергeевич Хрущёв;– 11 September 1971) led the Soviet Union as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 and as chairman The chairperson ...
. Many languages have phonemic sounds, such as
click consonant Click consonants, or clicks, are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa and in three languages of East Africa. Examples familiar to English-speakers are the ''Tut-tut'' (British spelling) or ''Tsk! Tsk!'' (Ame ...
s, which are quite unlike any phoneme in the language into which they are being transliterated. Some languages and
scripts Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developi ...
present particular difficulties to transcribers. These are discussed on separate pages. *
Ancient Near East The ancient Near East was the home of early civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government, and symbol A symbol is a mark ...
** Transliterating cuneiform languages **
Transliteration of Ancient EgyptianIn the field of Egyptology, transliteration of Ancient Egyptian is the process of converting (or mapping) texts written in the Egyptian language to alphabetic symbols representing uniliteral Egyptian hieroglyphs, hieroglyphs or their hieratic and Dem ...
(''see also''
Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt, used for writing the Egyptian language. Hieroglyphs combined logographic, syllabary, syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters.The ...
) ** Hieroglyphic
Luwian The Luwians were a group of Anatolian peoples who lived in central, western, and southern Anatolia, in present-day Turkey, in the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. They spoke the Luwian language, an Indo-European language of the Anatolian languages, ...
*
Armenian language Armenian (Classical Armenian orthography, classical: , Armenian orthography reform, reformed: , , ) is an Indo-European languages, Indo-European language belonging to an independent branch of which it is the only member. It is the official language ...
*
Avestan Avestan , also known historically as Zend, comprises two languages: Old Avestan (spoken in the 2nd millennium BCE) and Younger Avestan (spoken in the 1st millennium BCE). The languages are known only from their use as the language of Zoroastrian ...
*
Brahmic family The Brahmic scripts, also known as Indic scripts, are a family of abugida . ''May Śiva protect those who take delight in the language of the gods.'' ( Kalidasa) An abugida (, from Ge'ez language, Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ), sometimes known ...
**
Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (''Nāgarī'', ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida . ''May Śiva protect those who take ...
: see
Devanagari transliteration Devanāgarī Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (''Nāgarī'', ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida (alphasyllabary), bas ...
**
Pali Pali () is a Middle Indo-Aryan liturgical language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is widely studied because it is the language of the '' Pāli Canon'' or '' Tipiṭaka'' and is the sacred language of '' Theravāda'' Buddhism ...
** **
Malayalam Malayalam (; , ) is a Dravidian languages, Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry (union territory), Puducherry (Mahé district) by the Malayali people. It is one of 22 L ...

Malayalam
: see Romanization of Malayalam *
Chinese language Chinese ( or also , especially for the written language) is a group of language varieties that form the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages, spoken by the ethnic Han Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in Greater C ...
**
Transcription into Chinese characters Transcription into Chinese characters is the use of traditional or simplified Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''Hanzi'' (), are logograms developed for the writing of Chinese. They have been adapted to write oth ...
**
Romanization of Chinese Romanization of Chinese () is the use of the Latin alphabet to transliterate Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of ...
**
Cyrillization of Chinese The Cyrillization of Chinese (''Hanyu Cyril Pinyin'') is the transcription of Chinese character Chinese characters, also called ''Hanzi'' (), are logograms developed for the writing of Chinese. They have been adapted to write other Ea ...
*
Click languages Click consonants, or clicks, are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa and in three languages of East Africa. Examples familiar to English-speakers are the ''Tut-tut'' (British spelling) or ''Tsk! Tsk!'' (Ame ...
of Africa **
Khoisan languages The Khoisan languages (; also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of Languages of Africa, African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg. Khoisan languages share click languages, click consonants and do not belong to other Afri ...

Khoisan languages
**
Bantu languages The Bantu languages (English: , Proto-Bantu: *bantʊ̀) are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The total number of Bantu languages ranges in the hundreds, depending on the definition of Dialec ...
*
English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading language of international discourse in the 21st centu ...

English language
**
Hebraization of English The Hebraization of English (or Hebraicization) is the use of the Hebrew alphabet The Hebrew alphabet ( he, wikt:אלפבית, אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי, ), known variously by scholars as the Ktav Ashuri, Jewish script, square scr ...
*
Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, other parts of the Eastern Medite ...
**
Romanization of Greek Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas ...
**
Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the first alphabetic script in history to have distinct letters for vowels ...

Greek alphabet
**
Linear B Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek. The script predates the Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or ...
** Greeklish *
Japanese language is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...

Japanese language
**
Romanization of Japanese The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (Writing system#General properties, script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet. This is derived from ...
** Cyrillization of Japanese *
Khmer language Khmer (, ; , , or more formally , ) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language An official language, also called state language, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, incl ...

Khmer language
**
Romanization of Khmer The romanization of Khmer refers to the romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Latin script, Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so. Methods of romani ...
*
Korean language Korean ( , ''hangugeo''; , ''chosŏnmal'') is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people, mainly Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, an ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * ...
**
Romanization of Korean Romanization of Korean refers to systems for representing the Korean language Korean ( /, ''hangugeo''; /, ''chosŏnmal'') is an Languages of East Asia, East Asian language spoken by about 77 million people. It is the official language, offi ...
*
Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category ...
**
Persian alphabet The Persian alphabet ( fa, الفبای فارسی, Alefbā-ye Fārsi) or Perso-Arabic script, is a writing system used for the Persian language spoken in Iran (Western Persian) and Afghanistan (Dari, Dari Persian). The Persian language spoken in ...

Persian alphabet
***
Cyrillic alphabet , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs , fam2 = Proto-Sinaitic , fam3=Phoenician , fam4= Greek script augmented by Glagolitic , ...
***
Romanization of Persian Romanization of Persian or Latinization of Persian ( fa, لاتین‌نویسی فارسی, Lātinnevisiye fārsi, ) is the representation of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym Farsi (, ', ), is a Western Iranian l ...
*** Persian chat alphabet *
Semitic languages The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian or Hamito-Semitic or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family A language is a structured system of communication us ...

Semitic languages
**
Ugaritic alphabet The Ugaritic writing system is a cuneiform abjad (consonantal alphabet) used from around either the fifteenth century BCE or 1300 BCE for Ugaritic, an extinct Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language, and discovered in Ugarit ...

Ugaritic alphabet
**
Hebrew alphabet The Hebrew alphabet ( he, wikt:אלפבית, אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי, ), known variously by scholars as the Ktav Ashuri, Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language ...

Hebrew alphabet
***
Romanization of Hebrew The Hebrew language Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and thei ...
**
Arabic alphabet The Arabic alphabet ( ar, الْأَبْجَدِيَّة الْعَرَبِيَّة, ' or , ', ), or Arabic abjad An abjad () is a type of writing system in which (in contrast to true alphabets) each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant ...
***
Romanization of Arabic The romanization of Arabic refers to the standard norms for rendering written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Sub ...
***
Arabic chat alphabetThe Arabic chat alphabet, ''Arabizi'' (, ), Franco-Arabic (, , or ), Arabish, Araby ( ar, عربي, ), and Mu'arrab (), refer to the Romanized alphabets for informal Arabic dialects in which Arabic script is transcribed or encoded into a combina ...
*
Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with t ...

Slavic languages
written in the
Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs , fam2 = Proto-Sinaitic , fam3 = Phoenician alphabet, Phoenician , ...
or
Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic script (, ''glagolitsa''; Bulgarian language, Bulgarian and Macedonian language, Macedonian: глаголица, romanized as ''glagolitsa'' and ''glagolica'' respectively; Croatian language, Croatian: ; Czech language, Czech: ; ...

Glagolitic alphabet
s **
Romanization of Belarusian Romanization or Latinization of Belarusian is any system for transliterating written Belarusian from Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = ...
**
Romanization of Bulgarian Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration of text in Bulgarian language, Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic script, Cyrillic orthography into the Latin alphabet. Romanization can be used for various purposes, such as rende ...
**
Romanization of Russian Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic writing system based on the letters of the classical Lati ...
**
Romanization of MacedonianThe Romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#Latin, li ...
**
Romanization of Serbian The romanization of Serbo-Croatian or latinization of Serbo-Croatian is the representation of the Serbo-Croatian language using Latin letters. In Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro (where a slightly modified Montenegrin alphabet is used) Serbo-Croati ...
**
Romanization of Ukrainian The romanization of Ukrainian (or sometimes Latinization) is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin alphabet, Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script. Roma ...
**
Volapuk encodingInformal or ''ad hoc'' romanizations of Cyrillic have been in use since the early days of electronic communications, starting from early e-mail upThe at sign, a part of every SMTP email address">email_address.html" ;"title="at sign, a part ...
*
Thai language Thai,In Thai: ''Phasa Thai'' or Central Thai (historically Siamese;Although "Thai" and "Central Thai" has become more common, the older term "Siamese" is still used by linguists, especially to distinguish it from other Tai languages Tai or TAI ...

Thai language
**
Romanization of ThaiThere are many systems for the romanization of the Thai language, i.e. representing the language in Latin script. These include systems of transliteration, and transcription (linguistics), transcription. The most seen system in public space is Royal ...
*
Urdu Language Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC ( American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal c ...
**
Romanization of Urdu Roman Urdu ( ur, ) is the name used for the Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and cultu ...


Adopted

*
Buckwalter transliteration The Buckwalter Arabic transliteration Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey K ...
*
Devanagari transliteration Devanāgarī Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (''Nāgarī'', ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida (alphasyllabary), bas ...
*
Hans Wehr transliteration The Hans Wehr transliteration system is a system for transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt ...
*
International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nomina ...
*
Scientific transliteration of Cyrillic Scientific transliteration, variously called ''academic'', ''linguistic'', ''international'', or ''scholarly transliteration'', is an international system for transliteration of text from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script (romanization). This ...
*
Transliteration of Ancient EgyptianIn the field of Egyptology, transliteration of Ancient Egyptian is the process of converting (or mapping) texts written in the Egyptian language to alphabetic symbols representing uniliteral Egyptian hieroglyphs, hieroglyphs or their hieratic and Dem ...
*
Transliterations of Manchu Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus '' trans-'' + '' liter-'') in predictable ways, such as Greek → , Cyrillic → , Greek → the digraph , Armenian → or ...
*
Wylie transliteration Wylie transliteration is a method for transliterating Tibetan script The Tibetan script is a segmental writing system (''abugida'') of Brahmic scripts, Indic origin used to write certain Tibetic languages, including Standard Tibetan, Tibetan ...

Wylie transliteration


See also

*
Cyrillization Cyrillization or Cyrillisation is the process of rendering words of a language that normally uses a writing system other than Cyrillic script , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, ...
*
International Components for Unicode International Components for Unicode (ICU) is an open-source software, open-source project of mature C (programming language), C/C++ and Java (programming language), Java libraries for Unicode support, software Internationalization and localizatio ...
*
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (Writing system#General properties, script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet. This is derived from a form of the Cumae alphabet, Cumaean Greek version of the ...

Latin script
*
List of ISO transliterations List of ISO standard The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in food ...
*
Orthographic transcriptionOrthographic transcription is a transcription method that employs the standard spelling system of each target language.Hayes, Bruce (2011)Introductory Phonology John Wiley & Sons; , 9781444360134. "The term orthographic transcription simply means t ...
*
Phonemic orthography A phonemic orthography is an orthography An orthography is a set of conventions for writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writing systems are not themselve ...
*
Phonetic transcription Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones) by means of symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be ...
*
Romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas ...
* Spread of the Latin script *
Substitution cipher In cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logy, -logia'', "study", respectively), is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in ...
*
Transcription (linguistics) Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of spoken language in written form. The source can either be utterances (''speech'' or ''sign language Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that u ...


References


External links


International Components for Unicode transliteration services


– history of the transliteration of Slavic languages into Latin alphabets.
Transliteration of Non-Latin scripts
– Collection of transliteration tables for many non-Latin scripts maintained by Thomas T. Pedersen.


United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN)
working group A working group, or working party, is a group of experts working together to achieve specified goals. The groups are domain-specific and focus on discussion or activity around a specific subject area. The term can sometimes refer to an interdisc ...

working group
on Romanization Systems.
Library of Congress: Romanization Tables

Localtyping.com
implements google transliteration library and also allows to create To-Do Lists in English and Transliterated Languages.
onlinemarathityping.com
Use Google transliteration for easy typing.
Usage of Transliterations
– condensed description of the definition of transliteration and its usage. * G. Gerych
Transliteration of Cyrillic Alphabets.
Ottawa University, April 1965. 126 pp. – historical overview of the concept of transliteration and its evolution and application {{Authority control