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Soft Palate
The soft palate (also known as the velum, palatal velum, or muscular palate) is, in mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republ ...s, the soft tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubitata'', a species of geometer mot ... constituting the back of the roof of the mouth In animal anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is .... The soft palate is part of the palate The palate () is the roof of the mou ...
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Lesser Palatine Arteries
The lesser palatine arteries are arteries An artery (plural arteries) () is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to one or more parts of the body (tissues, lungs, brain etc.). Most arteries carry oxygenated blood; the two exceptions are the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary ... of the head Head Sport GmbH is an American-Austrian headquartered in . It owns the American tennis racket brand Head. Head GmbH is a group that includes several previously independent companies, including the original "Head Ski Company" (founded in the in .... It is a branch of the descending palatine artery The descending palatine artery is a branch of the third part of the maxillary artery The maxillary artery supplies deep structures of the face. It branches from the external carotid artery The external carotid artery is a major artery of the head .... They supply the Palatine tonsil, palatine tonsils and the soft palate. Structure The lesser palatine arteries are branches of t ...
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Breathing
Breathing (or ventilation) is the process of moving air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosphere (0.04402961% at April 2019 concentration ). Number ... out and in the lung The lungs are the primary organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly categorized as parenchyma ...s to facilitate gas exchange Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by Diffusion#Diffusion vs. bulk flow, diffusion across a surface. For example, this surface might be the air/water interface of a water body, the surface of a gas bubble in a liquid ... with the internal environment, mostly to flush out carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical form ...
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Tongue
The tongue is a muscular organ (anatomy), organ in the mouth of a typical tetrapod. It manipulates food for mastication and swallowing as part of the digestive system, digestive process, and is the primary organ of taste. The tongue's upper surface (dorsum) is covered by taste buds housed in numerous lingual papillae. It is sensitive and kept moist by saliva and is richly supplied with nerves and blood vessels. The tongue also serves as a natural means of oral hygiene, cleaning the teeth. A major function of the tongue is the enabling of speech in humans and animal communication, vocalization in other animals. The human tongue is divided into two parts, an oral cavity, oral part at the front and a pharynx, pharyngeal part at the back. The left and right sides are also separated along most of its length by a vertical section of connective tissue, fibrous tissue (the lingual septum) that results in a groove, the median sulcus, on the tongue's surface. There are two groups of muscle ...
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Pharyngeal Reflex
The pharyngeal reflex or gag reflex is a reflex In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, ... muscular contraction of the back of the throat, evoked by touching the roof of the mouth In animal anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is ..., the back of the tongue The tongue is a muscular MUSCULAR (DS-200B), located in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Brita ..., the area around the tonsils The tonsils are a set of lymphoid organs faci ...
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Human
Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ... of primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal constituting the Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic order (biology), order Primates (). Primates arose 85–55 million years ago first from small Terrestrial animal, ..., characterized by bipedalism Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion – an erect-stanced unguligrade quadruped – with a galloping gait. A 2006 animation of 1887 photos by Eadweard Muybridge Terrestrial locomotion has evolution, evolved as animal A ... and large, complex brains. This has enabled the development of advanced tools A tool is an object that can extend ...
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Nasal Cavity
The nasal cavity is a large, air-filled space above and behind the nose A nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which receive and expel air for Respiration (physiology), respiration alongside the mouth. Behind the nose are the olfactory mucosa and the Paranasal sinus, sinuses. Be ... in the middle of the face. The nasal septum The nasal septum () separates the left and right airways of the nasal cavity, dividing the two nostrils. It is depressed by the depressor septi nasi muscle. Structure The fleshy external end of the nasal septum is called the columella ... divides the cavity into two cavities, also known as fossae. Each cavity is the continuation of one of the two nostril A nostril (or naris , plural ''nares'' ) is either of the two orifices of the nose A nose is a protuberance in vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic ...s. ...
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Mucous Membrane
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a biological membrane, membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs. It consists of one or more layers of Epithelium, epithelial cells overlying a layer of loose connective tissue. It is mostly of endodermal origin and is continuous with the skin at body orifice, body openings such as the eyes, ears, Mucous membrane of nose, inside the nose, Oral mucosa, inside the mouth, lip, vagina, the urethral opening and the anus. Some mucous membranes secrete mucus, a thick protective fluid. The function of the membrane is to stop pathogens and dirt from entering the body and to prevent bodily tissues from becoming dehydrated. Structure The mucosa of organs are composed of one or more layers of epithelial cells that secrete mucus, and an underlying lamina propria of loose connective tissue. The type of cells and type of mucus secreted vary from organ to organ and each can differ along a given tract. Mucous membrane ...
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Muscle
Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly categorized as parenchyma Parenchyma () is the bulk of functional ... of the vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic ma ... muscular system The muscular system is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles. It permits movement of the body, maintains posture and circulates blood throughout the body. The muscular systems in vertebrate Vertebrates () compri ... that are mostly attached by tendon A tendon or sinew is a tough, high-tensile-strength band of dense fibrous connective tissue that c ...
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Mandibular Division Of The Trigeminal Nerve
The mandibular nerve (V3) is the largest of the three divisions of the trigeminal nerve The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, or simply CN V) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing; it is the most complex of the cranial nerves Cranial nerves are the nerve A ner ..., the fifth cranial nerve (CN V). Structure The large sensory root emerges from the lateral part of the trigeminal ganglion The trigeminal ganglion (or Gasserian ganglion, or semilunar ganglion, or Gasser's ganglion) is a sensory ganglion of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) that occupies a cavity (Meckel's cave) in the dura mater, covering the trigeminal impression near the a ... and exits the cranial cavity The cranial cavity, also known as intracranial space, is the space within the skull The skull is a bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a s ...
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Tensor Veli Palatini
The tensor veli palatini muscle (tensor palati or tensor muscle of the velum palatinum) is a broad, thin, ribbon-like muscle in the head that tenses the soft palate. Structure The tensor veli palatini is found anterior-lateral to the levator veli palatini muscle. It arises by a flat lamella from the scaphoid fossa at the base of the medial pterygoid plate, from the spina angularis of the Sphenoid bone, sphenoid and from the lateral wall of the cartilage of the auditory tube. Descending vertically between the medial pterygoid plate and the medial pterygoid muscle, it ends in a tendon which winds around the pterygoid hamulus, being retained in this situation by some of the fibers of origin of the medial pterygoid muscle. Between the tendon and the hamulus is a small Bursa (anatomy), bursa. The tendon then passes medially and is inserted into the palatine aponeurosis and into the surface behind the transverse ridge on the horizontal part of the palatine bone. Nerve supply The ...
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Vagus Nerve
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve Cranial nerves are the nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers called axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see American and British English spelling differences#-re, ... or CN X, and interfaces with the parasympathetic The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the three divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the others being the sympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is responsible for regulating t ... control of the heart The heart is a cardiac muscle, muscular Organ (biology), organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. The pumped blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the body, while carrying metabolic waste ..., lungs, and digestive tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, di ...
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Pharyngeal Plexus Of Vagus Nerve
The pharyngeal plexus is a network of nerve fibers innervating most of the palate and pharynx. (Larynx, which is innervated by superior and recurrent laryngeal nerve from vagus nerve (CN X), is not included) It is located on the surface of the middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle. Sources Although the ''Terminologia Anatomica'' name of the plexus has "vagus nerve" in the title, other nerves make contributions to the plexus. It has the following sources: * CN IX – pharyngeal branches of glossopharyngeal nerve – sensory * CN X – pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve – motor * superior cervical ganglion sympathetic fibers – vasomotor Because the cranial part of accessory nerve (CN XI) leaves the jugular foramen as a part of the CN X, it is sometimes considered part of the plexus as well. Innervation Sensory The pharyngeal plexus provides sensory innervation of the oropharynx and laryngopharynx from CN IX and CN X. (The nasopharynx above the pharyngotympanic tube and the torus ...
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