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An institute of technology (also referred to as: technological university, technical university, university of technology, technological educational institute, technical college, polytechnic university or just polytechnic) is an institution of
tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, ...
(such as a
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...

university
or
college A college (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in rel ...

college
) that specializes in
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
,
technology Technology ("science of craft", from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. I ...

technology
,
applied science Applied science is the use of the scientific method The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves caref ...
, and
natural sciences Natural science is a Branches of science, branch of science concerned with the description, understanding and prediction of Phenomenon, natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer ...
.


Institutes of technology versus polytechnics

The institutes of technology and polytechnics have been in existence since at least the 18th century, but became popular after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
with the expansion of engineering and applied science education, associated with the new needs created by
industrialization Industrialisation ( alternatively spelled industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is b ...
. The world's first institution of technology, the Berg-Schola (today its legal successor is the
University of Miskolc The University of Miskolc (before 1990: ''Technical University of Heavy Industry'') is the largest university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary educati ...
), was founded by the Court Chamber of Vienna in Selmecbánya,
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, an ...

Kingdom of Hungary
(now
Banská Štiavnica Banská Štiavnica (; german: Schemnitz; hu, Selmecbánya (Selmec), ) is a town in central Slovakia, in the middle of an immense caldera created by the collapse of an ancient volcano. For its size, the caldera is known as the Štiavnica Mountains ...

Banská Štiavnica
,
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
), in 1735 in order to train specialists of precious metal and copper mining according to the requirements of the industrial revolution in Hungary. The oldest German Institute of Technology is the
Braunschweig University of Technology The Technische Universität Braunschweig (unofficially University of Braunschweig – Institute of Technology), commonly referred to as TU Braunschweig, is the oldest ' (comparable to an institute of technology in the American system) in Germany ...
, founded in 1745 as "Collegium Carolinum". Another exception is the ''
École Polytechnique File:Statue X DSC08329.JPG, upA statue in the courtyard of the school commemorates the cadets of ''Polytechnique'' rushing to the Battle of Paris (1814), defence of Paris in 1814. A copy was installed in West Point. The École Polytechnique (Fr ...
'', which has educated
French
French
''élites'' since its foundation in 1794. In some cases, polytechnics or institutes of technology are engineering schools or technical colleges. In several countries, like Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Turkey and Taiwan, institutes of technology are institutions of
higher education Higher education is tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge ...
and have been accredited to award academic degrees and doctorates. Famous examples are the
Istanbul Technical University Istanbul Technical University ( tr, İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, commonly referred to as ITU or The Technical University) is an international technical university An institute of technology (also referred to as: technological university, tech ...
,
ETH Zurich (colloquially) , former_name = eidgenössische polytechnische Schule , image = ETH Zürich am Abend.jpg , image_size = , established = , type = Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and dis ...
,
Delft University of Technology Delft University of Technology ( nl, Technische Universiteit Delft), also known as TU Delft, is the oldest and largest Dutch public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from ...
,
RWTH Aachen RWTH Aachen University () or ''Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen'RWTH'' is the abbreviation of ''Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule'', which translates into "Rheinish-Westphalian Technical University". The insti ...
and
National Taiwan University of Science and Technology The National Taiwan University of Science and Technology () abbreviated as NTUST or Taiwan Tech (), is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general publ ...
all considered universities. In countries like Iran, Finland, Malaysia, Portugal, Singapore or the United Kingdom, there is often a significant and confused distinction between polytechnics and universities. In the UK, a binary system of higher education emerged consisting of universities (research orientation) and polytechnics (engineering and applied science and professional practice orientation). Polytechnics offered university equivalent degrees mainly in
STEM Stem or STEM may refer to: Biology * Plant stem, the aboveground structures that have vascular tissue and that support leaves and flowers ** Stipe (botany), a stalk that supports some other structure ** Stipe (mycology), the stem supporting the c ...
subjects from
bachelor's A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area a ...
,
master's A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of Profession, professio ...
and
PhD A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
that were validated and governed at the national level by the independent UK
Council for National Academic Awards The Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) was the national degree-awarding authority in the United Kingdom from 1965 until its dissolution on 20 April 1993. The establishment followed the recommendation of the UK government Committee on High ...
. In 1992, UK polytechnics were designated as universities which meant they could award their own degrees. The CNAA was disbanded. The UK's first polytechnic, the Royal Polytechnic Institution (now the
University of Westminster The University of Westminster is a public university, public research university based in London, United Kingdom. Founded in 1838 as the Royal Polytechnic Institution, it was the first Polytechnic (United Kingdom), polytechnic to open in London. T ...

University of Westminster
), was founded in 1838 in Regent Street, London. In
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
the term "institute of technology" is the more favored synonym of a "
regional technical college An Institute of Technology or IT is a type of higher education college found in the Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga, Éire ), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 Counties of Ir ...
" though the latter is the legally correct term; however,
Dublin Institute of Technology Dublin Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as DIT) ( ga, Institiúid Teicneolaíochta Bhaile Átha Cliath) was a major third-level institution in Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ire ...
is a university in all but name as it can confer degrees in accordance with law,
Cork Institute of Technology Cork Institute of Technology (CIT) ( ga, Institiúid Teicneolaíochta Chorcaí) was a third level educational institution in Ireland, located in Cork. Upon its dissolution, the institute had 17,000 students (both part-time and full-time) in art ...
and other Institutes of Technology have delegated authority from HETAC to make awards to and including master's degree level — Level 9 of the Republic of Ireland's National Framework for Qualifications (NFQ) — for all areas of study and Doctorate level in a number of others. In a number of countries, although being today generally considered similar institutions of higher learning across many countries, polytechnics and institutes of technology used to have a quite different statute among each other, its teaching competences and organizational history. In many cases, "polytechnic" were elite technological universities concentrating on applied science and engineering and may also be a former designation for a vocational institution, before it has been granted the exclusive right to award academic degrees and can be truly called an "institute of technology". A number of polytechnics providing higher education is simply a result of a formal upgrading from their original and historical role as intermediate technical education schools. In some situations, former polytechnics or other non-university institutions have emerged solely through an administrative change of statutes, which often included a name change with the introduction of new designations like "institute of technology", "polytechnic university", "
university of applied sciences A vocational university is an institution of higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education, is an opt ...
" or "university of technology" for marketing purposes. Such emergence of so many upgraded polytechnics, former vocational education and technical schools converted into more university-like institutions has caused concern where the lack of specialized intermediate technical professionals lead to industrial skill shortages in some fields, being also associated to an increase of the
graduate unemployment Graduate unemployment, or educated unemployment, is unemployment Unemployment, according to the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), is persons above a specified age (usually 15) not being in paid employment or self-emp ...
rate. This is mostly the case in those countries, where the education system is not controlled by the state and any institution can grant degrees. Evidence have also shown a decline in the general quality of teaching and graduate's preparation for the workplace, due to the fast-paced conversion of that technical institutions to more advanced higher level institutions. Mentz, Kotze and Van der Merwe argue that all the tools are in place to promote the debate on the place of technology in higher education in general and in universities of technology specifically and they posit several questions for the debate.


Institutes by country


Argentina

In the so-called '' Latin American docta'' the main higher institution advocates to the study of technology is the
National Technological University The National Technological University ( es, Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, UTN) is a country-wide List of universities in Argentina, national university in Argentina, and considered to be among the top engineering schools in the country. Host ...
which has brand ramifications through all the country geographic space in the way of ''Regional Faculties''. The Buenos Aires Institute of Technology (ITBA) is other important recognized institute of technology with renowned and prestige in the country.


Australia

;1970s–1990s During the 1970s to early 1990s, the term was used to describe state owned and funded technical schools that offered both
vocational A vocation () is an job, occupation to which a person is especially drawn or for which they are suited, trained, or qualified. People can be given information about a new occupation through student orientation. Though now often used in non-religi ...
and higher education. They were part of the
College of Advanced Education The College of Advanced Education (CAE) was a class of Australian tertiary education institution that existed from 1967 until the early 1990s. They ranked below universities, but above Colleges of Technical and Further Education (TAFE) which offer t ...
system. In the 1990s most of these merged with existing universities or formed new ones of their own. These new universities often took the title University of Technology, for marketing rather than legal purposes. AVCC report The most prominent such university in each state founded the
Australian Technology Network The Australian Technology Network (ATN) is a network of five Australian universities, with a strong history of innovation, enterprise and working closely with industry. ATN traces its origins back to 1975 as the Directors of Central Institutes o ...
a few years later. ;1990s–today Since the mid-1990s, the term has been applied to some technically minded
technical and further education In Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of ...
(TAFE) institutes. A recent example is the
Melbourne Polytechnic Melbourne Polytechnic, formerly NMIT, is a vocational education (TAFE) and higher education institute located in Melbourne, Australia predominantly in the northern suburbs but also in the south with a campus at Prahran. It has seven campuses loca ...
rebranding and repositioning in 2014 from Northern Melbourne Institute of TAFE. These primarily offer
vocational education Vocational education is education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teach ...
, although some like Melbourne Polytechnic are expanding into higher education offering vocationally oriented applied bachelor's degrees. This usage of the term is most prevalent historically in NSW and the ACT. The new terminology is apt given that this category of institution are becoming very much like the institutes of the 1970s–1990s period. In 2009, the old college system in Tasmania and TAFE Tasmania have started a 3-year restructure to become the Tasmanian Polytechnic www.polytechnic.tas.edu.au, Tasmanian Skills Institute www.skillsinstitute.tas.edu.au and Tasmanian Academy www.academy.tas.edu.au In the higher education sector, there are seven designated universities of technology in Australia (though, note, not all use the phrase "university of technology", such as the Universities of Canberra and South Australia, which used to be Colleges of Advanced Education before transitioning into fully-fledged universities with the ability – most important of all – to confer doctorates): *
Curtin University Curtin University (formerly known as Curtin University of Technology and Western Australian Institute of Technology) is an Australian public research university A public university or public college is a university A university ( la, unive ...

Curtin University
,
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Western Australia
*
Queensland University of Technology Queensland University of Technology (QUT) is a public university, public research university located in the Urban area, urban coastal city of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. QUT is located on two campuses in the Brisbane area viz. Gardens Poi ...

Queensland University of Technology
,
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the ...

Queensland
*
Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology RMIT University, officially the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT),, section 4(b) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) ...
,
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
*
Swinburne University of Technology Swinburne University of Technology (often simply called Swinburne) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such group ...
,
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
*
University of Canberra The University of Canberra (UC) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English i ...
,
Australian Capital Territory The Australian Capital Territory (ACT), known as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) until 1938, is a federal territory A federal territory is an area under the direct and usually exclusive jurisdiction of a federation's central or national ...
*
University of South Australia The University of South Australia (UniSA) is a public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertia ...
,
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Austral ...

South Australia
*
University of Technology, Sydney A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which govern the behavior Behavio ...
,
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...


Austria

;Universities of technology These institutions are entitled to confer
habilitation Habilitation is the procedure to achieve the highest university degree in many European countries in which the candidate fulfills certain criteria set by the university which require excellence in research, teaching, and further education. Its qua ...
and
doctoral A doctorate (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ...
degrees and focus on research. *
Graz University of Technology Graz University of Technology (german: link=no, Technische Universität Graz, short ''TU Graz'') is one of five universities in Styria, Austria. It was founded in 1811 by Archduke John of Austria and currently comprises seven Faculty (division), fa ...
(13,454 students, founded 1811, Hochschule since 1865, doctoral degrees since 1901, university since 1975) *
TU Wien TU Wien (TUW; german: Technische Universität Wien; still known in English as the Vienna University of Technology from 1975–2014) is one of the major universities in Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austr ...
(27,923 students, founded 1815, Hochschule since 1872, doctoral degrees since 1901, university since 1975) *
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna The University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, or simply BOKU (derived from its German name, Universität für Bodenkultur Wien, ), founded in 1872, is an education and research centre for renewable resources in Vienna en, Vi ...
focused on agriculture (12,500 students, founded as Hochschule in 1872, doctoral degrees since 1906, university since 1975) *
University of Leoben The University of Leoben (German: ''Montanuniversität Leoben'') in Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine c ...
specialized in mining, metallurgy and materials (4,030 students, founded 1840, Hochschule since 1904, doctoral degrees since 1906, university since 1975) ;Research institutions These institutions focus only on research. *
Austrian Institute of TechnologyAIT Austrian Institute of Technology is Austria's largest Research and Technology Organization (RTO), employing about 1,300 people mostly based at the main facilities Vienna Tech Gate, Vienna TECHbase, Seibersdorf, Wiener Neustadt, Ranshofen and Graz ...
(founded 1956) *
Institute of Science and Technology Austria The Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) is an international research institute in natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all ...
(founded 2007) ;Technical faculties at universities Several universities have faculties of technology that are entitled to confer habilitation and doctoral degrees and which focus on research. *
Johannes Kepler University Linz TNF Tower with HF building in the front The Johannes Kepler University Linz (German: ''Johannes Kepler Universität Linz'', short: ''JKU'') is a public institution of higher education in Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), off ...
(Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences founded 1965, university since 1975) *
University of Innsbruck The University of Innsbruck (german: Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck; la, Universitas Leopoldino Franciscea) is a public university in Innsbruck, the capital of the Austrian federal state of Tyrol (state), Tyrol, founded in 1669. It is cu ...
(Faculty of Civil Engineering founded 1969) * Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt (Faculty of Technical Sciences founded 2007) ;Fachhochschulen
Fachhochschule A ''Fachhochschule'' (; plural ''Fachhochschulen''), abbreviated FH, or University of Applied Sciences (UAS) is a German tertiary education institution that specializes in a particular applied science or applied art, such as engineering, technol ...

Fachhochschule
is a German type of tertiary education institution and adopted later in Austria and Switzerland. They do not focus exclusively on technology, but may also offer courses in social science, medicine, business and design. They grant bachelor's degrees and master's degrees and focus more on teaching than research and more on specific professions than on science. In 2010, there were 20 Fachhochschulen in Austria


Bangladesh

There are some public engineering universities in
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
: *
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) is a public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives sig ...

Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology
(BUET) * Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET). Formerly known as Bangladesh Institute of Technology, Chittagong. * Khulna University of Engineering and Technology (KUET). Formerly known as Bangladesh Institute of Technology,
Khulna Khulna ( bn, খুলনা ) is the third largest city in Bangladesh after Dhaka and Chattogram, Chittagong. It is the administrative territory of Khulna District and Khulna Division. The economy of Khulna is the third largest in the Bangla ...

Khulna
* Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology (RUET). Formerly known as Bangladesh Institute of Technology,
Rajshahi Rajshahi ( bn, রাজশাহী, ; historically ''Rampur Boalia''; nicknamed ''Silk City'' or ''City of Education'') is a metropolis, metropolitan city, and a major urban, commercial and educational centre of Bangladesh. It is also the adm ...

Rajshahi
. * Dhaka University of Engineering and Technology (DUET). Formerly known as Bangladesh Institute of Technology,
Dhaka Dhaka ( or ; bn, ঢাকা, Ḍhākā, ), List of renamed places in Bangladesh, formerly known as Dacca, is the Capital city, capital and the largest city of Bangladesh, as well as the largest city in the Bengal region. It is the eight ...

Dhaka
. There are some general, technological and specialized universities in Bangladesh offer engineering programs: *
University of Chittagong University of Chittagong ( bn, চট্টগ্রাম বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়) is a public research university with multidisciplinary faculties situated across a 2110-acre hilly landmass in Fatehpur Union of Hathazari U ...

University of Chittagong
. Engineering programs offer under the Faculty of Engineering and Technology. *
University of Dhaka A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...
. Engineering programs offer under the Faculty of Engineering and Technology. * University of Khulna. Engineering programs offer under the Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology. *
University of Rajshahi The University of Rajshahi, also known as Rajshahi University or RU ( bn, রাজশাহী বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়), is a Public university, public Mixed-sex education, co-educational research university in Bangladesh s ...

University of Rajshahi
. Engineering programs offer under the Faculty of Engineering and Technology. *
Islamic University, Bangladesh , native_name_lang = Bengali , image = Iub_mainGate.jpg , image_upright = 1.0 , image_size = 300px , image_alt = Main Gate , caption = Main Gate , motto = Enhance quality of higher education and research , established = , type = Public ...
(IU). Engineering programs offer under the Faculty of Applied Science and Technology. *
Shahjalal University of Science and Technology Shahjalal University of Science and Technology (SUST) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is ...
. Engineering programs offer under the Faculty of Applied Science and Technology. *
Bangladesh University of Textiles Bangladesh University of Textiles, commonly referred to as BUTEX (), is an engineering based specialized public university in Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, :bn:বাংলাদেশ, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's ...
(BUTEX). Specialized institution that offers various engineering programs with its interdisciplinary curricula. There are some private engineering universities in Bangladesh: *
Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology ( bn, আহ্ছানউল্লা বিজ্ঞান ও প্রযুক্তি বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়) or commonly known as AUST a private university to be establ ...
(AUST) *
Military Institute of Science and Technology Military Institute of Science and Technology (MIST) ( bn, মিলিটারি ইনস্টিটিউট অফ সায়েন্স অ্যান্ড টেকনোলজি) is a government engineering institute in Bangladesh ...
(MIST) There is only one international engineering university in Bangladesh: *
Islamic University of Technology Islamic University of Technology ( bn, ইসলামিক ইউনিভার্সিটি অব টেকনোলজি), commonly known as IUT, is an international university located in the outskirts of Dhaka Dhaka ( or , ) ( ...
(IUT) There are numerous private and other universities as well as science and technology universities providing engineering education. Most prominent are: *
American International University-Bangladesh American International University-Bangladesh ( bn, আমেরিকান ইন্টারন্যাশনাল ইউনিভার্সিটি-বাংলাদেশ), commonly known by its acronym AIUB, is an accredited private ...
*
North South University North South University ( bn, নর্থ সাউথ বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় , also known as NSU) is a privately funded research university in Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, :bn:বাংলাদেশ, বাংল ...
*
International Islamic University Chittagong The International Islamic University Chittagong (IIUC) ( bn, আন্তর্জাতিক ইসলামী বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় চট্টগ্রাম) is a private university Private universities (and privat ...
*
East West University East West University ( bn, ইস্ট ওয়েস্ট বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়, also known as EWU), is a private university Private universities and private colleges are usually not operated by governments, altho ...
*
BRAC University Brac University ( bn, ব্র্যাক বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় , also known as BracU) is a private student-centered and research university in Dhaka. In 2018 and 2019, QS Asia Rankings ranked BracU best private universit ...
* Independent University, Bangladesh * European University of Bangladesh There are numerous government-funded as well as private polytechnic institutes, engineering colleges and science and technology institutes providing engineering education. Most prominent are: * Bangladesh Institute of Glass and Ceramics * Dhaka Polytechnic Institute * Chittagong Polytechnic Institute * Bangladesh Survey Institute * Govt. Arts Graphics Institute * Bangladesh Institute of Marine Technology * Mymensingh Engineering College * Narayangonj Technical School and College


Belarus

*
Belarusian National Technical University Belarusian National Technical University (BNTU) is the major technical university in Belarus. History * 1920 — establishment of ''Belarusian State Polytechnic Institute'' on the basis of a ''Minsk Polytechnic school''. * 1922 — reorganised ...
(BNTU) (Minsk, Belarus) * Belarusian State Technological University (Minsk, Belarus) * Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics (Minsk, Belarus) * Brest State Technical University (Brest, Belarus) * Pavel Sukhoi State Technical University of Gomel (Gomel, Belarus) * Vitebsk State Technological University (Vitebsk, Belarus)


Belgium and the Netherlands

In the Netherlands, there are four technical universities, jointly known as 4TU: *
Delft University of Technology Delft University of Technology ( nl, Technische Universiteit Delft), also known as TU Delft, is the oldest and largest Dutch public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from ...
(TU Delft) * Eindhoven University of Technology (TU Eindhoven) * Universiteit Twente (U Twente) * Wageningen University (Wageningen U) In Belgium and in the Netherlands, ''Hogescholen'' or ''Hautes écoles'' (also translated into ''colleges'', ''university colleges'' or ''universities of applied science'') are applied institutes of higher education that do not award doctorates and do not focus on research but some research does happen. They are generally limited to Bachelor-level education, with degrees called professional bachelors, and only minor Master's programmes. The hogeschool thus has many similarities to the ''Fachhochschule'' in the German language areas and to the ''ammattikorkeakoulu'' in Finland. A list of all ''hogescholen'' in the Netherlands, including some which might be called polytechnics, can be found at the end of this List of universities in the Netherlands#Universities of applied sciences, list.


Brazil

''Federal:'' * Federal Centers for Technological Education (CEFET) **Federal Center for Technological Education of Minas Gerais, CEFET of Minas Gerais **Federal Center for Technological Education of Rio de Janeiro, CEFET of Rio de Janeiro * Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology (IFET) ** Federal Institute of Bahia ** Federal Institute of São Paulo * Federal Technological University of Paraná ''Service academy:'' * Instituto Militar de Engenharia * Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica ''Private:'' * Inatel, Instituto Nacional de Telecomunicações – Inatel ''State:'' * Sao Paulo State Technological College


Bulgaria

* Technical University of Gabrovo * Technical University of Sofia * Technical University of Varna * University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy


Cambodia

In Cambodia, there are institutes of technology/polytechnic institutes and Universities that offer instruction in a variety of programs that can lead to: certificates, diplomas and degrees. Institutes of technology/polytechnic institutes and universities tend to be independent institutions. ;Institutes of technology/polytechnic institutes *Institute of Technology of Cambodia (ITC) or Institute of Technology of Cambodia or :fr:Institut de technologie du Cambodge, Institut de Technologie du Cambodge (polytechnic institute in Phnom Penh, Cambodia) *Phnom Penh Institute of Technology (PPIT) or Phnom Penh Institute of Technology (polytechnic institute in Phnom Penh, Cambodia) ;Universities * RUPP or Royal Université de Phnom Penh (polytechnic university in Phnom Penh, Cambodia)


Canada

In Canada, there are affiliate schools, colleges, institutes of technology / polytechnic institutes and universities that offer instruction in a variety of programs that can lead to engineering and applied science degrees, apprenticeship and trade programs, certificates and diplomas. Affiliate schools are polytechnic divisions belonging to a national university and offer select technical and engineering programs. Colleges, institutes of technology / polytechnic institutes and universities tend to be independent institutions. Credentials are typically conferred at the undergraduate level; however, university-affiliated schools like the École de technologie supérieure and the École Polytechnique de Montréal (both of which are located in Quebec), also offer graduate and postgraduate programs, in accordance with provincial higher education guidelines. Canadian higher education institutions, at all levels, undertake directed and applied research with financing allocated through public funding, private equity or industry sources. Some of Canada's most esteemed colleges and polytechnic institutions also partake in collaborative institute-industry projects, leading to technology commercialization, made possible through the scope of Polytechnics Canada, a national alliance of eleven leading research-intensive colleges and institutes of technology. ;Affiliate schools *École de technologie supérieure (ETS) or École de technologie supérieure (technical school part of the Université du Québec system in Montreal, Quebec) *École Polytechnique de Montréal (polytechnic school affiliated with the Université de Montréal in Montreal, Quebec) ;Colleges *Algonquin College (Ottawa, Ontario) *Conestoga College (Kitchener, Ontario) *George Brown College (Toronto, Ontario) *Humber College (Toronto) *Red River College (college in Winnipeg, Manitoba offering degrees) *Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology (Toronto) *St. Clair College (Windsor) ;Institutes of technology / polytechnic institutes *British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT; polytechnic institute in Burnaby, British Columbia) *Kwantlen Polytechnic University (polytechnic university in Surrey, British Columbia) *Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT; polytechnic institute in Edmonton, Alberta) *Ryerson University (university in Toronto, Ontario) – While Ryerson doesn't use the name "polytechnic" anymore, Ryerson was one of the originators of applied education in Ontario and Canada. It dropped the term "polytechnic" in 1993 when it was able to grant master's and doctoral degrees, using the term "university" instead and changed the name of some degree designations to bring it in line with other traditional research universities. *Saskatchewan Polytechnic, formerly SIAST (polytechnic institute; multiple campuses with headquarters in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) *Sheridan College (polytechnic institute in Oakville, Ontario) *Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT; polytechnic institute in Calgary, Alberta) *University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT; university in Oshawa, Ontario)


China

China's modern higher education began in 1895 with the Imperial Tientsin University which was a polytechnic plus a law department. Liberal arts were not offered until three years later at Capital University. To this day, about half of China's elite universities remain essentially polytechnical. Harbin Institute of Technology is among the best engineering school in China and the world.


Chile

* Federico Santa María Technical University (UTFSM), currently the only active technical university of Chile, founded initially in 1931 as School of Crafts and Arts and School of Engineering José Miguel Carrera, 18,000 students


Costa Rica

* The National Technical University (Costa Rica), National Technical University (UTN) founded in 2008 by merging several trade and craftsmanship schools, it is a polytechnic. * The Costa Rica Institute of Technology (TEC) was founded in 1971, has its main campus located in the Cartago province, it is an institute of technology.


Croatia

In Croatia there are many List of universities and colleges in Croatia, polytechnic institutes and colleges that offer a polytechnic education. The law about polytechnic education in Croatia was passed in 1997.


Czech Republic

;Technical universities * Brno University of Technology (VUT), founded in 1899, 24.000 students * Collegium Nobilium (Olomouc), Collegium Nobilium in Olomouc, 1725–1847 * Czech Technical University in Prague (ČVUT), college founded in 1707, university since 1806, 23.000 students, belongs to the oldest technical universities in the world * Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (ČZU), founded in 1904, focused on agriculture, 18.000 students * Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague (VŠCHT), founded in 1952, 3,000 student * Mendel University Brno (MENDELU), founded in 1919, focused on agriculture, 9.000 students * Technical University of Liberec (TUL), founded in 1953, 8.000 students * Technical University of Ostrava (VŠB TUO), founded in 1849, 22.000 students * Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Tomáš Baťa University in Zlín (UTB), founded in 2000, 10,000 students ;Research institutions * Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (AV ČR), dates back to 1784, 14,000 research staff altogether ;Technical faculties at universities * Jan Evangelista Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem (Faculty of Production Technology and Management, University founded in 1991) * University of Pardubice (Faculty of Chemical Technology since 1950, Jan Perner Faculty of Transportation since 1991, Institute of Electrical Engineering and Informatics since 2002) * University of West Bohemia (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering; University founded in 1991)


Denmark

*Technical University of Denmark, founded in 1829 by Hans Christian Ørsted


Dominican Republic

* Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo * Universidad Tecnológica de Santiago


Ecuador

* National Polytechnic School (EPN), National Polytechnic School, Quito, Ecuador EPN is known for research and education in the applied science, astronomy, atmospheric physics, engineering and physical sciences. The Geophysics Institute monitors the country's Earthquake, seismic, Tectonics, tectonic and Volcano, volcanic activity in the continental territory and in the Galápagos Islands. One of the oldest observatories in South America is the Quito Astronomical Observatory. It was founded in 1873 and located 12 minutes south of the Equator in Quito, Ecuador. The Quito Astronomical Observatory is the National Observatory of Ecuador and is located in the Historic Center of Quito and is managed by the National Polytechnic School. The Nuclear Science Department at EPN is the only one in Ecuador and has the large infrastructure, related to irradiation facilities like cobalt-60 source and electron beam processing.


Egypt

* Alexandria Higher Institute of Engineering and Technology (AIET) * Higher Technological Institute * Institute of Aviation Engineering and Technology


Estonia

* Tallinn University of Technology (TalTech), a public research university * Tallinn University of Applied Sciences, a public vocational university * Estonian Entrepreneurship University of Applied Sciences, a private institution in Tallinn


Finland

;Universities of technology Universities of technology are categorised as universities, are allowed to grant B.Sc. (Tech.), Diplomi-insinööri M.Sc. (Tech.), Lic.Sc. (Tech.), Ph.D. and D.Sc. (Tech.) degrees and roughly correspond to Instituts de technologie of French-speaking areas and Technische Universität of Germany in prestige. In addition to universities of technology, some universities, e.g. University of Oulu and Åbo Akademi University, are allowed to grant the B.Sc. (tech.), M.Sc. (tech.) and D.Sc. (Tech.) degrees. Universities of technology are academically similar to other (non-polytechnic) universities. Prior to Bologna process, M.Sc. (Tech.) required 180 credits, whereas M.Sc. from a normal university required 160 credits. The credits between universities of technology and normal universities are comparable. Some Finnish universities of technology are: *Aalto University, formed from Helsinki University of Technology and other universities *Lappeenranta University of Technology *Tampere University of Technology ;Polytechnics Polytechnic schools are distinct from academic universities in Finland. ''Ammattikorkeakoulu'' is the common term in Finland, as is the Swedish alternative "''yrkeshögskola''" – their focus is on studies leading to a degree (for instance ''insinööri'', engineer; in international use, Bachelor of Engineering) in kind different from but in level comparable to an academic bachelor's degree awarded by a university. Since 2006 the polytechnics have offered studies leading to master's degrees (Master of Engineering). After January 1, 2006, some Finnish ammattikorkeakoulus switched the English term "polytechnic" to the term "university of applied sciences" in the English translations of their legal names. The ammattikorkeakoulu has many similarities to the ''hogeschool'' in Belgium and in the Netherlands and to the ''Fachhochschule'' in the German language areas. Some recognized Finnish polytechnics are: *Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences *Lapland University of Applied Sciences *Tampere University of Applied Sciences *Turku University of Applied Sciences A complete list may be found in List of polytechnics in Finland.


France and Francophone regions

;Instituts de technologie (grandes écoles) Collegiate universities grouping several engineering schools or multi-site clusters of French grandes écoles provide sciences and technology curricula as autonomous higher education engineering institutes. They include: * Arts et Métiers ParisTech * Centrale Graduate School * Grenoble Institute of Technology * Institut national des sciences appliquées * Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace * Paris Institute of Technology * ESTIA Institute of Technology They provide science and technology master's degrees and doctoral degrees. ;''Universités technologiques / instituts universitaires de technologie'' / polytechs The universities of technology (French: ''universités de technologie'') are public institutions awarding degrees and diplomas that are accredited by the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research. Although called "universities", the universities of technology are in fact non-university institutes (''écoles extérieures aux universités''), as defined by Chapter I, Section II (Articles 34 through 36) of French law 84-52 of 26 January 1984 regarding higher education (the ''loi Savary''). They possess the advantage of combining all the assets of the engineering Grande école, Grandes Écoles and those of universities as they develop simultaneously and coherently three missions: Education, Research, Transfer of technology. They maintain close links with the industrial world both on national and international levels and they are reputed for their ability to innovate, adapt and provide an education that matches the ever-changing demands of industry. This network includes three institutions: * Université de technologie de Belfort-Montbéliard, The University of Technology of Belfort-Montbéliard (''Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbéliard'' or UTBM) * University of Technology of Compiègne, The University of Technology of Compiègne (''Université de Technologie de Compiègne'' or UTC) * University of Technology of Troyes, The University of Technology of Troyes (''Université de Technologie de Troyes'' or UTT) In addition, France's education system includes many institutes of technology, embedded within most French universities. They are referred-to as ''institut universitaire de technologie'' (IUT). Instituts universitaires de technologie provide undergraduate technology curricula. 'Polytech institutes', embedded as a part of eleven French universities provide both undergraduate and graduate engineering curricula. In the French-speaking part of Switzerland exists also the term ''haute école specialisée'' for a type of institution called ''Fachhochschule'' in the German-speaking part of the country. (see below). ;Écoles polytechniques Higher education systems, that are influenced by the French education system set at the end of the 18th century, use a terminology derived by reference to the French ''École polytechnique''. Such terms include ''Écoles Polytechniques'' (Algeria, Belgium, Canada, France, Switzerland, Tunisia), Escola Politécnica (Brasil, Spain), Polytechnicum (Eastern Europe). In French language, higher education refers to ''écoles polytechniques'', providing science and engineering curricula: * École polytechnique or X (near Paris) * École polytechnique de Bruxelles * École polytechnique de Montréal * École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne *National Polytechnic Institute of Lorraine *National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse


Germany

;Fachhochschule ''Fachhochschulen'' were first founded in the early 1970s. They do not focus exclusively on technology, but may also offer courses in social science, medicine, business and design. They grant bachelor's degrees and master's degrees and focus more on teaching than research and more on specific professions than on science. In 2009/10, there existed about 200 ''Fachhochschulen'' in Germany. See the :de:Liste der Fachhochschulen in Deutschland, German Wikipedia for a list. ;Technische Universität ''Technische Universität'' (abbreviation: ''TU'') is the common term for universities of technology or technical university. These institutions can grant habilitation and doctoral degrees and focus on research. The nine largest and most renowned ''Technische Universitäten'' in Germany have formed TU9, TU9 German Institutes of Technology as community of interests. Technische Universitäten normally have faculties or departements of natural sciences and often of economics but can also have units of cultural and social sciences and arts. RWTH Aachen, TU Dresden and TU München also have a faculty of medicine associated with Teaching hospital, university hospitals (Klinikum Aachen, University Hospital Dresden, Rechts der Isar Hospital). There are 17 universities of technology in Germany with about 290,000 students enrolled. The four states of Bremen (state), Bremen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt and Schleswig-Holstein are not operating a ''Technische Universität''. Saxony and Lower Saxony have the highest counts of ''TUs'', while in Saxony three out of four universities are universities of technology.


Greece

Greece has Polytechnic (Greece), Technical Universities (also known as Polytechnic Universities) with 5 years of study legally equivalent to Bachelor's and master's degree 300 ECTS, ISCED 7 and has the full professional rights of the Engineer. and had List of universities in Greece#Technological educational institutes, Technological Educational Institutes (TEIs) (1982–2019) also known as Higher Educational Institute of Technology, Technological Institute, Institute of Technology (provides at least 4-year undergraduate degree qualification πτυχίο, Latinised version: Ptychion, in line with the Bologna Process legally equivalent to Bachelor's honours degree 240 ECTS, ISCED 6. Previoulsy it was three and a half years studies from 1983 to 1995, 210 ECTS). All the Technical Universities and Technological Educational Institutes are List of universities in Greece, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) with university title (UT) and degree awarding powers (DAPs). TEIs existed from 1983 to 2019; they were reformed between 2013 and 2019 and their departments incorporated into existing higher education institutions (HEIs). The two Polytechnic Universities (Technical Universities) in Greece (Greek: Πολυτεχνείο) are the National Technical University of Athens and the Technical University of Crete. However, many other universities have a faculty of engineering that provides an equivalent diploma of engineerings with an integrated master and the full professional rights as well. Many TEIs that got dismantled created engineering faculty with 5 years of study and 300 ECTS, ISCED 6. But those faculty are not under the general term of Polytechnics nor they have an integrated master's degree yet waiting evaluation to be characterised as equivalent. These have been named School of Engineers for the time being and not Technical Universities or Polytechnic. In Greece, all Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are public university owned and government-funded, with free education undergraduate programmes that can be attended without any payment of tuition fee. About 1 out of 4 (one-fourth of) HEIs postgraduate programmes are offered free without any payment of tuition fee, especially about a 30% percentage of students can be entitled without tuition fee to attend all the HEIs statutory tuition fee postgraduate programmes after they be assessed on an individual basis of determined criteria as set out in the Ministry of Education.


Hong Kong

The first polytechnic in Hong Kong is The Hong Kong Polytechnic, established in 1972 through upgrading the Hong Kong Technical College (Government Trade School before 1947). The second polytechnic, the City Polytechnic of Hong Kong, was founded in 1984. These polytechnics awards diplomas, higher diplomas, as well as academic degrees. Like the United Kingdom, the two polytechnics were granted university status in 1994 and renamed Hong Kong Polytechnic University, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the City University of Hong Kong respectively. Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, a university with a focus in applied science, engineering and business, was founded in 1991.


Hungary

The world's first Institute of Technology the Berg-Schola (Bergschule) established in Selmecbánya,
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, an ...

Kingdom of Hungary
by the Court Chamber of Vienna in 1735 providing Further education to train specialists of precious metal and copper mining. In 1762 the institute ranked up to be Academia providing Higher Education courses. After the Treaty of Trianon the institute had to be moved to Sopron. *
University of Miskolc The University of Miskolc (before 1990: ''Technical University of Heavy Industry'') is the largest university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary educati ...
re-established in 1949 as Technical University of Heavy Industry in Miskolc and in 1990 as
University of Miskolc The University of Miskolc (before 1990: ''Technical University of Heavy Industry'') is the largest university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary educati ...
. The university is the successor of the University of Mining and Metallurgy of Selmecbánya (est. as Bergshule 1735). * Budapest University of Technology and Economics, one of the oldest institute of technology of the world is located in Budapest (est. 1782). The BME was the first University in Europe to award engineering degrees. * University of Debrecen – Faculty of Engineering * University of Dunaújváros * Pallasz Athéné University – GAMF * University of Nyíregyháza – Institute of Technical and Agricultural Sciences * University of Sopron * University of Szeged – Faculty of Engineering * Szent István University * Széchenyi István University * University of Pannonia * University of Pécs – Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology * Óbuda University


India

There are Indian Institutes of Technology and National Institutes of Technology in India which are autonomous public institutions. These institutions are Institutes of National Importance, and hence each of the institutions are autonomous. Both Indian Institutes of Technology and National Institutes of Technology have their own councils which are headed by President of India. The activities of these institutions are generally governed by the institutes alone, but sometimes they are bound to follow the directives of Ministry of Education (India) and are answerable to Ministry of Education (India) and President of India. Some departments of some of these institutions are bound to follow certain guidelines of National Board of Accreditation (NBA) if they receive the accreditation from NBA. However, unlike other institutions, it is not mandatory for these institutes to follow guidelines of All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and National Board of Accreditation (NBA) completely. The authority controlling technical education, other than the Institutes of National Importance, in India is All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and National Board of Accreditation (NBA).


Indonesia

There are four public institutes of technology in Indonesia that are owned by the government of Indonesia. Other than that, there are hundreds of other institutes that are owned by private or other institutions. Four public institutes are: * Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung * Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya * Kalimantan Institute of Technology, Balikpapan * Sumatera Institute of Technology, Bandar Lampung Public state-owned polytechnics also available and provides vocational education offers either three-year Diploma degrees, which is similar to an associate degree or four-year bachelor's degree in applied sciences (Indonesian: ''Sarjana Terapan''). The more advanced vocational Master's are also available and doctoral degrees are still in progress. Some notable polytechnics in Indonesia includes Jakarta State Polytechnic, State Polytechnic of Jakarta, State Polytechnic of Bandung, State Polytechnic of Malang, Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institute of Surabaya, State Electronics Polytechnic of Surabaya, and State Naval and Shipbuilding Polytechnic of Surabaya. These polytechnics are known to be departed from Indonesian prestigious universities and institute of technologies, e.g. the State Polytechnic of Jakarta was departed from the University of Indonesia while both Surabaya Polytechnics were departed from Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology.


Iran

There are 18 technological universities in Iran. *Amirkabir University of Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran *Sharif University of Technology, Tehran *Technical and Vocational University, 172 branches in Iran *Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran *K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran *Petroleum University of Technology, Tehran and Ahwaz *Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan *Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz *Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz *Arak University of Technology, Arak, Iran, Arak *Urmia University of Technology, Urmia *Babol University of Technology, Babol *Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood *Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan *Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah *Qom University of Technology, Qom *Birjand University of Technology, Birjand *Jondi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful *Sirjan University of Technology, Sirjan


Iraq

* University of Technology, Iraq


Ireland

An "Institute of Technology" was formerly referred to as Regional Technical College (RTCs) system. The abbreviation IT is now widely used to refer to an Institute of Technology. These institutions offer sub-degree, degree and masters level studies. Unlike the Irish university system an Institute of Technology also offers sub-degree programmes such as 2-year Higher Certificate programme in various academic fields of study. Some institutions have "delegated authority" that allows them to make doctoral awards in their own name, after authorisation by the Quality and Qualifications Ireland.
Dublin Institute of Technology Dublin Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as DIT) ( ga, Institiúid Teicneolaíochta Bhaile Átha Cliath) was a major third-level institution in Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ire ...
developed separately from the Regional Technical College system and after several decades of association with the University of Dublin it acquired the authority to confer its own degrees before becoming a member of the T.U. Dublin. The Technological Higher Education Association is the representative body for the various Institutes of Technology in Ireland. The approval of Ireland's first Technological Universities in Ireland, Technological University, TU Dublin was announced in July 2018. It is the result of a merger of three of the ITs in the County Dublin area. Munster TU and Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest have since been approved. Planning is underway for the formation similar merged institutions across the country.


Israel

* Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, ranked 38 in the world in 2010.


Italy

In Italy, the term "technical institute" generally refers to a secondary education in Italy, secondary school which offers a five-year course granting the access to the university system. In higher education in Italy, higher education, ''Politecnico'' refers to a technical university awarding bachelor, master and PhD degrees in engineering. Historically there were two ''Politecnici'', one in each of the two largest industrial cities of the north: * Politecnico di Torino, established 1859; * Politecnico di Milano, established 1863. A third ''Politecnico'' was added in the south in 1990: * Politecnico di Bari, established 1990. However, many other universities have a faculty of engineering. In 2003, the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (Italy) and the Ministry of Economy and Finance (Italy) jointly established the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (Italian Institute of Technology), headquartered in Genoa with 10 laboratories around Italy, which however focuses on research, not entirely in the fields of engineering and does not offer undergraduate degrees.


Jamaica

*University of Technology, Jamaica, in Kingston, Jamaica


Japan

In Japan, an is a type of university that specializes in the sciences. See also the Imperial College of Engineering, which was the forerunner of the University of Tokyo's engineering faculty. *Tokyo Institute of Technology, 1929 *Chiba Institute of Technology, 1942 *Kyoto Institute of Technology, 1949 *Muroran Institute of Technology, 1949 *Nagoya Institute of Technology, 1949 *Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1949 *University of Electro-Communications, 1949 *Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 1949 *Osaka Institute of Technology, 1949 *Shibaura Institute of Technology, 1949 *Kobe Institute of Computing, 1958 *Aichi Institute of Technology, 1959 *Hiroshima Institute of Technology, 1963 *Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 1963 *Shonan Institute of Technology, 1963 *Tohoku Institute of Technology, 1964 *Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 1965 *Fukui University of Technology, 1965 *Kitami Institute of Technology, 1966 *Nippon Institute of Technology, 1967 *Hokkaido Institute of Technology, 1967 *Ashikaga Institute of Technology, 1967 *Hachinohe Technical University, 1972 *Kanagawa Institute of Technology, 1975 *Nagaoka University of Technology, 1976 *Toyohashi University of Technology, 1976 *Saitama Institute of Technology, 1976 *Japan Advanced Institute of Science And Technology, 1986 *Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology, 1986 *Tokyo University of Technology, 1986 *Kobe Design University, 1989 *Tohoku University of Art and Design, 1991 *Shizuoka Institute of Science and Technology, 1991 *Niigata Institute of Technology, 1995 *Maebashi Institute of Technology, 1997 *Kochi University of Technology, 1997 *Aichi University of Technology, 2000 *Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 2006 *Advanced Institute of Industrial Technology, 2006 *Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, 2011


Kenya

In Kenya, Technical Universities are special Universities that focus on technical and engineering courses and offer certifications in the same from Artisan, Craft, Diploma, Higher Diploma, Degree, Masters and Doctorate levels. They are former national polytechnics and are the only institutions of learning that offer the complete spectrum of tertiary education programs. They Include * Technical University of Kenya, Technical University of Kenya, Formerly Kenya National Polytechnic in Nairobi * Technical University of Mombasa, Technical University of Mombasa, Formerly Mombasa National Polytechnic in Mombasa


Jordan

*Princess Sumaya University for Technology in Amman *Jordan University of Science and Technology in Irbid *Balqa Applied University in Salt *Tafila Technical University in Tafila


Malaysia

;Polytechnics Polytechnics in Malaysia has been operated for almost 53 years. The institutions provide courses for bachelor's degree & Bachelor of Science (BSc) (offer at Premier Polytechnics for September 2013 & 2014 intake), Advanced Diploma, Diploma and Special Skills Certificate. It was established by the Ministry of Education with the help of UNESCO in 1969. The amount of RM24.5 million is used to fund the pioneer of Politeknik Ungku Omar located in Ipoh, Perak from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). At present, Malaysia have developed 36 polytechnic at all over states in engineering, agriculture, commerce, hospitality and design courses with 60,840 students in 2009 to 87,440 students in 2012. The following is a list of the polytechnics in Malaysia in order of establishment:- ;Technical University There are 4 technical universities in Malaysia and all are belongs to Malaysian Technical University Network: *Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia *Universiti Malaysia Perlis *Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka *Universiti Malaysia Pahang


Mauritius

The only technical university in Mauritius is the University of Technology, Mauritius with its main campus situated in La Tour Koenig, Pointe aux Sables. It has a specialized mission with a technology focus. It applies traditional and beyond traditional approaches to teaching, training, research and consultancy. The university has been founded with the aim to play a key role in the economic and social development of Mauritius through the development of programmes of direct relevance to the country’s needs, for example in areas like technology, sustainable development science and public sector policy and management.


Mexico

In Mexico there are different Institutes and Colleges of Technology. Most of them are public institutions. The National Technological Institute of Mexico (in Spanish: Tecnológico Nacional de México, TecNM) is a Mexican public university system created on 23 July 2014 by presidential decree with the purpose to unify 263 public institutes of technology that had been created since 1948 and are found all around Mexico. Another important institute of technology in Mexico is the National Polytechnic Institute (''Instituto Politécnico Nacional''), which is located in the northern region of Mexico City.


Moldova

* Technical University of Moldova


Nepal

*Institute of Engineering *CTEVT, Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training


New Zealand

New Zealand polytechnics are established under the Education Act 1989 as amended and are typically considered state-owned tertiary institutions along with university, universities, colleges of education and wananga, wānanga; there is today often much crossover in courses and qualifications offered between all these types of Tertiary Education Institutions. Some have officially taken the title 'institute of technology' which is a term recognized in government strategies equal to that of the term 'polytechnic'. One has opted for the name 'Universal College of Learning' (UCOL) and another 'Unitec New Zealand'. These are legal names but not recognized terms like 'polytechnic' or 'institute of technology'. Many if not all now grant at least bachelor-level degrees. Some colleges of education or institutes of technology are privately owned, however, the qualification levels vary widely. Since the 1990s, there has been consolidation in New Zealand's state-owned tertiary education system. In the polytechnic sector: Wellington Polytechnic amalgamated with Massey University. The Central Institute of Technology explored a merger with the Waikato Institute of Technology, which was abandoned, but later, after financial concerns, controversially amalgamated with Hutt Valley Polytechnic, which in turn became Wellington Institute of Technology. Some smaller polytechnics in the North Island, such as Waiarapa Polytechnic, amalgamated with Universal College of Learning, UCOL. (The only other amalgamations have been in the colleges of education.) The Auckland University of Technology is the only polytechnic to have been elevated to
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...

university
status; while Unitec New Zealand, Unitec has had repeated attempts blocked by government policy and consequent decisions; Unitec has not been able to convince the courts to overturn these decisions. In mid-February 2019, the Minister of Education (New Zealand), Minister of Education Minister Chris Hipkins proposed merging the country's sixteen polytechnics into a "NZ Institute of Skills and Technology" in response to deficits and a decline in domestic enrollments. The proposed merger will be subject to a six-week consultation period until 27 March.


Nigeria

Virtually, every state in Nigeria has a polytechnic university operated by either the federal or state government. In Rivers State for example, there are two state-owned polytechnic universities; Kenule Beeson Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic, Bori City and the Rivers State College of Arts and Science, Port Harcourt. The former was established on 13 May 1988 while the latter–though founded in 1984–was approved by the National Board for Technical Education, NBTE in 2006. The first private polytechnic university in the state is the Eastern Polytechnic, Port Harcourt, Eastern Polytechnic, established in 2008.


Pakistan

The polytechnic institutes in Pakistan offer Diploma in Engineering spanning three years in different engineering branches. This diploma is known as Diploma of Associate Engineering (DAE). Students are admitted to the diploma program based on their results in the 10th grade standardized exams. The main purpose of the diploma offered in polytechnic institutes is to train people in various trades. These institutes are located throughout Pakistan and started in early 1950s. After successfully completion of diploma at a polytechnic, students can either get employment or enroll in Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) and Bachelor of Engineering (BE) degree programs. Universities of Engineering & Technology in Pakistan offer undergraduate (B.E., BE/BS/BSc Engineering) and postgraduate (Master of Engineering, ME/MS/MSc Engineering and
PhD A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
) degree programs in
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
. B.E., BE/BS/BSc Engineering is a professional degree in Pakistan. It is a 4 years full-time program after HSSC (higher secondary school certificate).


Philippines

*Mapúa University, the premier engineering school of the Philippines. Being an internationally accredited engineering school, it consistently tops various board exams for engineering students in the Philippines. *Technological Institute of the Philippines, a premier engineering school with an international accreditation. *Bicol University, center in teaching excellence, offers IT courses and a well known university. *Cebu Institute of Technology – University, a premier engineering school, this university is known to have high selectivity in admissions as well as excellence in engineering research and education. *Cebu Technological University *FEU Institute of Technology, a premier engineering school known for its technological academic teaching and board topnotchers operating under the Far Eastern University system. *Mindanao State University–Iligan Institute of Technology, the premier state university in the southern Philippines and the science and technology flagship campus of the Mindanao State University System (the second biggest university system in the Philippines after the University of the Philippines). *Polytechnic University of the Philippines, a state university in the Philippines that consistently tops various board exams for engineering students in the Philippines, also referred to as the National Comprehensive University of the Philippines. *Quezon City Polytechnic University, a local university, this university is well known in engineering, IT and technical education. *Rizal Technological University, the only university that offers degree courses in astronomy. *Technological University of the Philippines, the premier state university of technology education in the Philippines.


Poland

Politechnika (translated as a "technical university" or "university of technology") is the designation of a technical university in Poland. Here are some of the larger polytechnics in Poland: *Politechnika Śląska *Politechnika Wrocławska *Politechnika Warszawska *Poznań University of Technology, Politechnika Poznańska *Politechnika Krakowska *Politechnika Gdańska *Politechnika Łódzka *Politechnika Białostocka *Politechnika Lubelska Other polytechnic universities: *Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza *Uniwersytet Technologiczno-Przyrodniczy im. Jana i Jędrzeja Śniadeckich w Bydgoszczy (University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz) *Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny (West Pomeranian University of Technology)


Portugal

Till recently, there was a Technical University of Lisbon (UTL). It included several of the most prestigious schools, including, an engineering school (Instituto Superior Tecnico) and one of the most ancient business schools in the world (ISEG Lisbon). But UTL merged with the University of Lisbon. In this field, here are also a number of non-university list of higher education institutions in Portugal, higher educational institutions which are called Polytechnic (Portugal), polytechnic institutes since 1970s. Some of these institutions existed since the 19th century with different designations (industrial and commercial institutes, agricultural managers, elementary teachers and nurses schools, etc.). In theory, the polytechnics higher education system is aimed to provide a more practical training and be profession-oriented, while the university higher education system is aimed to have a stronger theoretical basis and be highly research-oriented. The polytechnics are also oriented to provide shorter length studies aimed to respond to local needs. The Portuguese polytechnics can then be compared to the US community colleges. Since the implementation of Bologna Process in Portugal in 2007, the polytechnics offer the 1st cycle (licentiate degree) and 2nd cycle (master's degree) of higher studies. Until 1998, the polytechnics only awarded bachelor ( pt, bacharelato) degrees (three-year short-cycle degrees) and were not authorized to award higher degrees. They however granted post-bachelor diplomas in specialized higher studies (DESE, ''diploma de estudos superiores especializados''), that could be obtained after the conclusion of a two-year second cycle of studies and were academical equivalent to the university's licentiate degrees (''licenciatura''). After 1998, they started to be allowed to confer their own licentiate degrees, which replaced the DESE diplomas.


Romania

* Politehnica University of Bucharest, 1864 * Polytechnic University of Timișoara, 1920 * Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iași, 1937 * Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 1948 * Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest, 1948 * Oil & Gas University of Ploieşti, 1948 * Technical Military Academy of Bucharest, 1949


Russia

* Bauman Moscow State Technical University * Saint Petersburg Polytechnical University * Novosibirsk State Technical University * Tomsk Polytechnic University * Moscow Polytechnic University


Singapore

The Polytechnics in Singapore do not offer bachelors, masters or PhD degrees. However, the Polytechnics in Singapore offers three-year diploma courses in fields such as information technology, engineering subjects and other vocational fields, like psychology and nursing. The Polytechnic diploma certification in Singapore is equivalent to a junior college in the UK or a community college in the United States. There are 5 polytechnics in Singapore. They are namely: Singapore Polytechnic, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Temasek Polytechnic, Nanyang Polytechnic and Republic Polytechnic. A Polytechnic diploma in Singapore is known to be parallel and sometimes equivalent to the first years at a bachelor's degree-granting institution, thus, Polytechnic graduates in Singapore have the privilege of being granted transfer credits or module exemptions when they apply to local and overseas universities, depending on the university's policies on transfer credits. The only university in Singapore with the term "institute of technology", most notably the Singapore Institute of Technology were developed in 2009 as an option for Polytechnic Diploma graduates who desire to pursue a bachelor's degree. Other technological university in Singapore includes the Nanyang Technological University (1981) and the Singapore University of Technology and Design (2009).


Slovakia

*Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava The world's first institution of technology or technical university with tertiary technical education is the Banská Akadémia in
Banská Štiavnica Banská Štiavnica (; german: Schemnitz; hu, Selmecbánya (Selmec), ) is a town in central Slovakia, in the middle of an immense caldera created by the collapse of an ancient volcano. For its size, the caldera is known as the Štiavnica Mountains ...

Banská Štiavnica
, Slovakia, founded in 1735, Academy since December 13, 1762 established by queen Maria Theresa in order to train specialists of silver and gold mining and metallurgy in neighbourhood. Teaching started in 1764. Later the department of Mathematics, Mechanics and Hydraulics and department of Forestry were settled. University buildings are still at their place today and are used for teaching. University has launched the first book of electrotechnics in the world. *Technical University of Košice *University of Žilina *Technical University in Zvolen *Trenčín University in Trenčín *Dubnica Technology Institute


South Africa

In South Africa, there was a division has existed in South Africa between universities and technikons (polytechnics), as well between institutions servicing particular racial and language groupings. By the mid-2000s, former technikons have either been merged with traditional universities to form comprehensive universities or have become universities of technology; however, the universities of technology have not to date acquired all of the traditional rights and privileges of a university (such as the ability to confer a wide range of degrees).


Spain

* Universidad Politécnica de Madrid * Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya * Universitat Politècnica de València * Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena


Sri Lanka

*University of Moratuwa *University of Vocational Technology *Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology *Technical College (Sri Lanka), Technical College


Sweden

* KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm * Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg *Faculty of Engineering (LTH), Lund University, Lund *Luleå University of Technology, Luleå *Blekinge Institute of Technology, Blekinge


Switzerland

* Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH Zurich) * École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)


Taiwan

The question of Taiwanese college education is, the students either from high school (the aims is to go to normal college) or tech high school(the aims is to go to work or technology university), almost all of the students take the same test(the score can go to two kinds of school), and the school would not care what kind of high school you are from. *
National Taiwan University of Science and Technology The National Taiwan University of Science and Technology () abbreviated as NTUST or Taiwan Tech (), is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general publ ...
* National Taipei University of Technology * National Taichung University of Science and Technology * National Yunlin University of Science and Technology * National Formosa University * National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology * National Pingtung University of Science and Technology


Thailand

Most of Thailand's institutes of technology were developed from technical colleges, in the past could not grant bachelor's degrees; today, however, they are
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...

university
level institutions, some of which can grant degrees to the doctorate, doctoral level. Examples are Pathumwan Institute of Technology (developed from Pathumwan Technical School), King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (Nondhaburi Telecommunications Training Centre) and King Mongkut's Institute of Technology North Bangkok (Thai-German Technical School). There are two former institutes of technology, which already changed their name to "University of Technology": Rajamangala University of Technology (formerly Institute of Technology and Vocational Education) and King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi (Thonburi Technology Institute). Institutes of technology with different origins are Asian Institute of Technology, which developed from SEATO Graduate School of Engineering and Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, an engineering school of Thammasat University. Suranaree University of Technology is the only government-owned technological university in Thailand that was established (1989) as such; while Mahanakorn University of Technology is the most well known private technological institute. Technology/Technical colleges in Thailand is associated with bitter rivalries which erupts into frequent off-campus brawls and assassinations of students in public locations that has been going on for nearly a decade, with innocent bystanders also commonly among the injured and the military under martial law still unable to stop them from occurring.


Turkey

In Turkey and the Ottoman Empire, the oldest technical university is
Istanbul Technical University Istanbul Technical University ( tr, İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, commonly referred to as ITU or The Technical University) is an international technical university An institute of technology (also referred to as: technological university, tech ...
. Its graduates contributed to a wide variety of activities in scientific research and development. In 1950s, 2 technical universities were opened in Ankara and Trabzon. In recent years, Yildiz University is reorganized as Yildiz Technical University and 2 institutes of technology were founded in İzmit, Kocaeli and Izmir. In 2010, another technical university named Bursa Technical University was founded in Bursa. Moreover, a sixth technical university is about to be opened in Konya named Konya Technical University. File:Itu sdkm.jpg, Istanbul Technical University Suleyman Demirel Cultural Center, Istanbul. File:Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi 07.jpg, Yıldız Technical University, located in Beşiktaş district of Istanbul. File:MiddleEastTechnicalUniversityTreeOfScience800x512.jpg, Statue of Tree of Science by the main entrance to Middle East Technical University campus in Ankara. File:İYTE Teknopark Entrance.jpg, A-1 Building, İzmir Institute of Technology Teknopark, Izmir. File:Ktu foto 2.jpg, Entrance of mechanical engineering department, Karadeniz Technical University, located in Trabzon.


Ukraine

*Donbas State Technical University *Donetsk National Technical University *Kyiv Polytechnic Institute *Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute *Lviv Polytechnic


United Kingdom

Polytechnics Polytechnics were
tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, ...
teaching institutions in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. The comparable institutions in Scotland were collectively referred to as Central Institutions. From 1965 to 1992, UK polytechnics operated under the Binary Divide, binary system of education along with universities. Polytechnics offered diplomas and degrees (bachelor's, master's, PhD) validated at the national level by the
Council for National Academic Awards The Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) was the national degree-awarding authority in the United Kingdom from 1965 until its dissolution on 20 April 1993. The establishment followed the recommendation of the UK government Committee on High ...
(CNAA). Initially they excelled in engineering and applied science degree courses and other science, technology, engineering and mathematics, STEM subjects similar to technological universities in the US and continental Europe. Polytechnics were associated with innovations including women’s studies, the academic study of communication studies, communications and media studies, media, sandwich degrees and the rise of management and business studies. Britain's first polytechnic, the Royal Polytechnic Institution later known as the Polytechnic of Central London (now the
University of Westminster The University of Westminster is a public university, public research university based in London, United Kingdom. Founded in 1838 as the Royal Polytechnic Institution, it was the first Polytechnic (United Kingdom), polytechnic to open in London. T ...

University of Westminster
) was established in 1838 at Regent Street in London and its goal was to educate and popularize engineering and scientific knowledge and inventions in Victorian Britain "at little expense." The London Polytechnic led a mass movement to create numerous polytechnic institutes across the UK in the late 19th century. Most polytechnic institutes were established at the centre of major metropolitan cities and their focus was on engineering, applied science and technology education. The designation "institute of technology" was occasionally used by polytechnics (Bolton), Central Institutions (Dundee, Robert Gordon's) and postgraduate universities, (Cranfield and Wessex), most of which later adopted the designation university and there were two "institutes of science and technology": UMIST and UWIST (part of the University of Wales). Loughborough University was called Loughborough University of Technology from 1966 to 1996, the only institution in the UK to have had such a designation. Polytechnics were granted university status under the Further and Higher Education Act 1992. This meant that polytechnics could confer degrees without the oversight of the national CNAA organization. These institutions are sometimes referred to as New universities (United Kingdom)#Post-1992 universities that trace their roots to former polytechnics, post-1992 universities. Technical colleges In 1956, some colleges of technology received the designation college of advanced technology (United Kingdom), college of advanced technology. They became universities in 1966 meaning they could award their own degrees. Institutions called "technical institutes" or "technical schools" that were formed in the early 20th century provided further education between high school and university or polytechnic. Most technical institutes have been merged into regional colleges and some have been designated university colleges if they are associated with a local university. In 2016 the UK government announced plans to establish new "Institutes of Technology" in England as part of its reforms to post-16 skills provision "to provide technical education in STEM subjects at levels 3, 4 and 5. Each IoT is likely to build on infrastructure that already exists but will have its own independent identity, governance arrangements which directly involve employers and national branding". The first wave of 12 institutes was announced in 2019. Bidding for a second wave started in 2020.


United States

Polytechnic institutes in the USA are elite technological universities, many dating back to the mid-19th century. A handful of American universities include the phrases "Institute of Technology", "Polytechnic Institute", "Polytechnic University" or similar phrasing in their names; these are generally research-intensive universities with a focus on engineering, science and technology. The earliest of these institutions include: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI, 1824), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT, 1829), New York University Tandon School of Engineering, Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute (1854), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, 1861), Worcester Polytechnic Institute (1865), Stevens Institute of Technology (1870), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VPI or VT, 1872), Case Institute of Technology (1881), New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT, 1881), Georgia Institute of Technology (1885), California Institute of Technology (Caltech, 1891), Carnegie Institute of Technology (1900) and Industry (1891), Cal Poly San Luis Obispo(1901), and Cal Poly Pomona (1938). Conversely, schools dubbed "technical colleges" or "technical institutes" generally provide post-secondary training in technical and mechanical fields, focusing on training vocational skills primarily at a community college level, parallel and sometimes equivalent to the first two years at a bachelor's degree-granting institution.


Venezuela

Institutes of technology in Venezuela were developed in the 1950s as an option for post-secondary education in technical and scientific courses, after the ''polytechnic'' French concepts. At that time, technical education was considered essential for the development of a sound middle class economy. Nowadays, most of the ''Institutos de Tecnología'' are privately run businesses, with varying degrees of quality. Most of these institutes award diplomas after three or three and a half years of education. The institute of technology implementation (IUT, from ''Instituto universitario de tecnologia'' in Spanish) began with the creation of the first IUT at Caracas, the capital city of Venezuela, called IUT. Dr. Federico Rivero Palacio adopted the French "Institut Universitaire de Technologie"s system, using French personnel and study system based on three-year periods, with research and engineering facilities at the same level as the main national universities to obtain French equivalent degrees. This IUT is the first and only one in Venezuela having French equivalent degrees accepted, implementing this system and observing the high-level degrees some other IUTs were created in Venezuela, regardless of this the term IUT was not used appropriately resulting in some institutions with mediocre quality and no equivalent degree in France. Later, some private institutions sprang up using IUT in their names, but they are not regulated by the original French system and award lower quality degrees.


Vietnam

* Da Nang University of Technology * Hanoi University of Science and Technology * Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology * Le Quy Don Technical University * FPT University


See also

* Comparison of American and British English#school, Comparison of US and UK Education * Engineer's degree * List of forestry universities and colleges * List of institutions using the term "institute of technology" or "polytechnic" * List of schools of mines * Secondary Technical School * University of Science and Technology * Vocational university


References


External links

* {{Authority control Technical universities and colleges, Educational institutions Engineering education Vocational education