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Rotherham () is a large
market Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finland and Sweden Art, entertainment, and media Films *Market (1965 film), ''Market'' (1965 ...
and minster town in
South Yorkshire South Yorkshire is a ceremonial county, ceremonial and metropolitan county in England. It is the southernmost county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region and had a population of 1.34 million in 2011. It has an area of and consists of four ...

South Yorkshire
, England. The River Rother (which the town takes its name from) merges with the River Don. The River Don then flows through the town centre. It is the main settlement of the
Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham The Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham is a metropolitan borough of South Yorkshire South Yorkshire is a ceremonial county and metropolitan county in England. It is the southernmost county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region and had ...
. Traditional industries included glass making and flour milling. Most around the time of the
industrial revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
, it was also known as a
coal mining in the United States , Belgium Coal mining is the process of resource extraction, extracting coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata (Argentina Argentina (), officially the Arge ...

coal mining
town as well as a contributor to the steel industry. The town's historic county is
Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the most northern area of England. There are three ...

Yorkshire
. From 1889 until 1974, the County of York's ridings became counties in their own right, the
West Riding of Yorkshire The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England Northern England, also known as the North ...
was the town's county while South Yorkshire is its current county. Rotherham had a population of 109,691 in the
2011 census2011 censuses were conducted in the following countries: * Australia: Census in Australia * Austria: Demographics of Austria * Bangladesh: 2011 Bangladesh Census * Bulgaria: Demographics of Bulgaria * Canada: Canada 2011 Census * Croatia: 2011 Censu ...
. The district borough, governed from the town, had a population of , the most populous district in England.


History


Early history

Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history between the use of the first stone tools by hominins 3.3 million years ago and the ...
and
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...

Roman
settlements dot the area covered by the district, including a small Roman fort to the south-west in the upper flood meadow of the Don at
Templeborough Templeborough (historically Templebrough) is a suburb of Rotherham Rotherham () is a large minster town in South Yorkshire, England which along with its nearby settlements form the Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham The Metropolitan Bo ...
. Rotherham was founded in the very early
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of w ...
. Its name is from Old English ''hām'' 'homestead, estate', meaning 'homestead on the Rother'. The river name was carried into Old English from Brittonic branch of Celtic words: ''ro-'' 'over, chief' and ''duβr'' 'water', thus 'main river'; a similar size namesake is in
East Sussex East Sussex is a county in South East England on the English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" ( Cotentinais) or (Jèrriais), (Guernésiais), "The Channel"; br, Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; c ...

East Sussex
, see Rother. It established itself as a
Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languag ...
market town, on a Roman road near a
ford Ford commonly refers to: * Ford Motor Company The Ford Motor Company, commonly known as Ford, is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit (strait) , nicknames ...
ed part of the River Don. By the late Saxon period, Rotherham was at the centre of a large
parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a priest#Christianity, priest, often termed a parish priest, ...
on the Don's banks. Following the
Norman Conquest The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and ...
an absentee lord held the most inhabited
manor Manor may refer to: Land tenure *Manor, the land belonging to the Lord of the manor under manorialism in parts of medieval Europe, notably England *Manor house, the main residence of the lord of the manor *Lord of the manor, the landholder of a ma ...
, Nigel Fossard (however today's
city proper A city proper is the geographical area contained within city limits City limits or city boundaries refer to the defined boundary or border of a city. The area within the city limit can be called the city proper. Town limit/boundary and village ...
takes in eight outlying Domesday estates). The Domesday 'Book' or Survey records this lord of the manor with a Norman name took the place of the Saxon
lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief, or a ruler. The appellation can also denote certain persons who hold a title of the Peera ...
Hakon holding 20 years before in 1066 and was tenant of an overlord of hundreds of such manors, Robert de Mortain, the
Conqueror's
Conqueror's
half-brother. The central assets at the time were medium in rank among manors: eight adult male householders were counted as villagers, three were smallholders and one the priest, three ploughlands were tilled by one lord's plough team and two and a half men's plough teams were active. The manor's other resources were a church, four loosely called 'acres' of meadow, and seven of woodland. Rotherham had a mill valued at an ordinary half of one pound sterling. His successors, the De Vesci family, rarely visited the town and did not build a castle but maintained a Friday
market Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finland and Sweden Art, entertainment, and media Films *Market (1965 film), ''Market'' (1965 ...
and a
fair A fair (archaic: faire or fayre) is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities. It is normally of the essence of a fair that it is temporary with scheduled times lasting from an afternoon to several weeks. Typ ...

fair
. In the mid 13th century, John de Vesci and Ralph de Tili gave all their possessions in Rotherham to
Rufford Abbey Rufford Abbey is a country estate A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutio ...

Rufford Abbey
, a period of growing wealth in the church. The monks collected
tithe A tithe (; from : ''teogoþa'' "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory to government. Today, tithes are normally voluntary and paid in or s, whereas historically tithes were ...
s from the town and gained rights to an extra market day on Monday and to extend the annual fair from two to three days.David Hey, ''Medieval South Yorkshire'' The townsmen of Rotherham formed the "Greaves of Our Lady's Light", an organisation which worked with the town's three
guild A guild is an association of artisan Wood carver in Bali An artisan (from french: artisan, it, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates material objects partly or entirely by hand. These objects may be functional ...
s. It was suppressed in 1547 but revived in 1584 as the
feoffees Under feudalism, the feudal system in England, a feoffee () is a trustee who holds a fief (or "fee"), that is to say an estate in land, for the use of a beneficial owner. The term is more fully stated as a feoffee to uses of the beneficial owner. T ...
of the
common land Common land is land owned by a person or collectively by a number of persons, over which other persons have certain common rights, such as to allow their livestock to graze upon it, to collect wood, or to cut turf for fuel. A person who has a r ...
s of Rotherham, and remains in existence. In the 1480s the Rotherham-born
Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the archbishop of Canterbury. The archbishop is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of York and the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, which covers the ...
,
Thomas Rotherham Thomas Rotherham (24 August 1423 – 29 May 1500), also known as Thomas (Scot) de Rotherham, was an English cleric Clergy are formal leaders within established religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of des ...
, instigated the building of a College of Jesus or Jesus College, Rotherham to rival the colleges of
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, the population of the Cambridge built-up area (which is larger ...
and
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Ki ...
. It was the first brick building in what is now South Yorkshire and taught
theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity.
, religious chant and hymns,
grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the me ...
and
writing Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private and public, and inner tho ...

writing
. The College and new parish church of All Saints made Rotherham an enviable and modern town at the turn of the 16th century. The college was dissolved in 1547 in the reign of
Edward VI Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged fr ...
, its assets stripped for the crown to grant to its supporters. Very little remains of the original building in College Street. Walls of part of the College of Jesus are encased within number 23 and Nos 2, 2A, 4 (later for a time ''Old College Inn'', a beerhouse), 6 and 8 Effingham Street. A doorway was rescued from the demolition and relocated to nearby Boston Park in 1879. Fragments of walls are the earliest surviving brick structure in South Yorkshire and are remains of the key institution to Rotherham's growth into a town of regional significance. Sixty years after the College's dissolution Rotherham was described by a wealthy visitor as falling from a fashionable college town to having admitted gambling and vice. The history of Thomas Rotherham and education in the town are remembered in the name of
Thomas Rotherham College (Lest We Should Appear Ungrateful) , established = , closed = , type = 16–19 academy , religious_affiliation = , president = , head_label = Interim Principal , head = David Naisbitt , r_head_label = , ...

Thomas Rotherham College
.


Industrial Revolution

The region had been exploited for
iron Iron () is a with Fe (from la, ) and 26. It is a that belongs to the and of the . It is, on , right in front of (32.1% and 30.1%, respectively), forming much of Earth's and . It is the fourth most common . In its metallic state, iron ...

iron
since Roman times, but it was
coal Coal is a black or brownish-black , formed as called . Coal is mostly with variable amounts of other , chiefly , , , and . Coal is formed when dead decays into and is converted into coal by the heat and pressure of deep burial over mill ...

coal
that first brought the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
to Rotherham. Exploitation of the coal seams was the driving force behind the improvements to navigation on the River Don, which eventually formed the
Sheffield and South Yorkshire Navigation The Sheffield and South Yorkshire Navigation (S&SY) is a system of navigable inland waterways (canals Canals are waterways channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport File:CMA CGM Balzac.j ...
system of navigable inland waterways. In the early Industrial Revolution major uses of iron demanded good local
ore ore – psilomelane Psilomelane is a group name for hard black manganese oxides including hollandite and romanechite. Psilomelane consists of hydrous manganese Manganese is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart- ...
and established processing skills for iron strength, qualities found in Rotherham's smelting plants and foundries. Iron, and later
steel Steel is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appea ...

steel
, became the principal industry in Rotherham, surviving into the 20th century. The Walker family built an iron and steel empire in the 18th century, their foundries producing high quality
cannon A cannon is a large-caliber A 45 ACP hollowpoint (Federal Cartridge, Federal HST) with two .22 Long Rifle, 22 LR cartridges for comparison In gun A gun is a ranged weapon designed to use a shooting tube ( gun barrel) to launc ...

cannon
, including some for the ship of the line , and
cast iron Cast iron is a group of iron Iron () is a chemical element with Symbol (chemistry), symbol Fe (from la, Wikt:ferrum, ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal that belongs to the first transition series and group 8 element, group 8 of ...
bridge A bridge is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to ...

bridge
s, one of which was commissioned by
Thomas Paine Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the ...

Thomas Paine
. Rotherham's cast iron industry expanded rapidly in the early 19th century, the Effingham Ironworks, later Yates, Haywood & Co, opened in 1820. Other major
iron founderAn iron founder (also iron-founder or ironfounder) in its more general sense is a worker in molten ferrous In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of ...
s included William Corbitt and Co; George Wright and Co of Burton Weir; Owen and Co of Wheathill Foundry; Morgan Macauley and Waide of the Baths Foundry; the Masbro’ Stove Grate Co belonging to Messrs. Perrot, W. H. Micklethwait and John and Richard Corker of the Ferham Works. G & WG Gummer Ltd exported brass products across the world, supplying fittings for hotels, hospitals, Turkish baths and the RMS Mauretania. Their fittings could also be found on five battleships used in World War II and HMS Ark Royal. The Parkgate Ironworks was established in 1823 by Sanderson and Watson, and changed ownership several times. In 1854, Samuel Beal & Co produced wrought iron plates for
Isambard Kingdom Brunel Isambard Kingdom Brunel (; 9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859) was an English civil engineer A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering Civil engineering is a Regulation and licensure in engineering, professional ...
's famous steamship the SS ''Great Eastern''. In 1864, the ironworks was taken over by the Parkgate Iron Co. Ltd, becoming the
Park Gate Iron and Steel Company The Park Gate Iron and Steel Company was a British company that smelted iron ore and turned it into Rolling (metalworking), rolled steel and semi-finished casting products. Its works was at Parkgate, South Yorkshire on a triangular site bounded on ...
in 1888. The company was purchased by Tube Investments Ltd in 1956 and closed in 1974.
Steel, Peech and TozerImage:Henry Steel, Vanity Fair, 1877-10-27.jpg, 200px, Henry Steel Steel, Peech and Tozer was a large steel maker with works situated at Ickles and Templeborough, in Rotherham, South Yorkshire, England. History An area of land, almost a crescent ...
's massive Templeborough steelworks (now the
Magna Science Adventure Centre Magna Science Adventure Centre is an educational visitor attraction, appealing primarily to children, located in a disused steel mill in the Templeborough Templeborough (historically Templebrough) is a suburb of Rotherham Rotherham () is a ...

Magna Science Adventure Centre
) was, at its peak, over a mile (1.6 km) long, employing 10,000 workers, and housing six
electric arc furnace An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace A furnace is a structure in which heat is produced with the help of combustion. Furnace may also refer to: Appliances Buildings * Furnace (house heating): a furnace , or a heater or boiler , used to ...

electric arc furnace
s producing 1.8 million tonnes of steel a year. The operation closed down in 1993. The first railway stations,
Holmes Holmes may refer to: Name * Holmes (surname) * Holmes (given name) * Baron Holmes, noble title created twice in the Peerage of Ireland * Baron Holmes of Richmond, British life peer Places In the United States * Holmes, California, an unincorpor ...
and Rotherham Westgate both on the
Sheffield and Rotherham Railway The Sheffield and Rotherham Railway was a short railway in England, between Sheffield Sheffield is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kupe ...
opened on 31 October 1838. Holmes station was located close to the works of
Isaac Dodds and Son Isaac Dodds and Son was a locomotive manufacturer based in the Holmes district of Rotherham, South Yorkshire, England. Isaac Dodds took over part of the works of Samuel Walker and Company in Rotherham sometime while he was Superintendent of the S ...
, pioneers in the development of railway technology. Later railway stations included
Parkgate and Aldwarke railway station Parkgate and Aldwarke railway station was a railway station situated in Parkgate, Rotherham, Parkgate a district of Rotherham, South Yorkshire, England on the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway company's line between Rotherham Road ra ...
on the
Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway The Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway (MS&LR) was formed in 1847 when the Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Railway joined with authorised but unbuilt railway companies, forming a proposed network from Manchester to Grimsby. ...
, which opened in July 1873, the
Parkgate and Rawmarsh railway station Parkgate and Rawmarsh railway station, originally named Rawmarsh was situated in Parkgate, adjacent to the Park Gate Iron and Steel Company's works. It served the communities of Parkgate, Rotherham, Parkgate and Rawmarsh, in South Yorkshire, Engl ...
on the
North Midland Railway The North Midland Railway was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Ov ...
and the
Rotherham Masborough railway station Rotherham Masborough railway station was the main railway station Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In ...
also on the North Midland Railway. Rotherham Forge and Rolling Mill occupied an island in the river known as Forge Island. It's managing director was Francis Charles Moss of Wickersley before his death in 1942. The site was later occupied by a Tesco superstore and is set to be the location for a new leisure development with a proposed cinema, food and drink outlets and a hotel. Joseph Foljambe established a factory to produce his Rotherham plough, the first commercially successful iron
plough A plough or plow ( US; both ) is a farm tool for loosening or turning the soil before sowing Sowing is the process of planting. An area or object that has had seeds planted in it will be described as a sowed area. Plants which are usu ...

plough
. A
glass works Glassblowing is a glassforming technique that involves inflating molten glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, f ...

glass works
was set up in Rotherham in 1751, and became Beatson Clark & Co, one of the town's largest manufacturers, exporting glass medicine bottles worldwide. Beatson Clark & Co was a family business until 1961, when it became a
public company A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a whose ownership is organized via shares of which are intended to be freely traded on a or in markets. A public company ...
. The glass works operated on the same site, although the family connection ceased and the company is owned by Newship Ltd, a holding company linked to the industrialist John Watson Newman. It continues to the manufacture glass containers for the
pharmaceutical A medication (also called medicament, medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug used to medical diagnosis, diagnose, cure, therapy, treat, or preventive medicine, prevent disease. Drug therapy (pharmacotherapy) ...
, food and drinks industries. In the 19th century, other successful industries included
pottery Pottery is the process and the products of forming vessels and other objects with and other materials, which are fired at high temperatures to give them a hard, durable form. Major types include , and . The place where such wares are mad ...

pottery
,
brass Brass is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appea ...

brass
making and the manufacture of cast iron fireplaces. Precision manufacturing companies in the town include AESSEAL, Nikken Kosakusho Europe, MTL Advanced, MGB Plastics and Macalloy. Rotherham is the location of the
Advanced Manufacturing Park The Advanced Manufacturing Park (AMP) is a manufacturing technology park in Waverley, Rotherham Rotherham () is a large minster town in South Yorkshire, England which along with its nearby settlements form the Metropolitan Borough of R ...
(AMP), which is home to a number of world-class companies including Rolls-Royce and McLaren Automotive.
Milling Milling may refer to: * Milling (grinding), breaking solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cutting in a mill * Milling (machining), a process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece * Milling (military tra ...
grain into flour was a traditional industry in Rotherham, formerly in the
Millmoor The Millmoor Ground, commonly known as Millmoor, is a Association football, football stadium in Rotherham, South Yorkshire, England. It was the home ground of Rotherham County F.C. between 1907 and 1925 and then its successor Rotherham United F.C. ...
area, hence
Rotherham United F.C. Rotherham United Football Club, nicknamed The Millers, is a professional association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a team sport played with a sphere, spherical Ball (association footba ...
's nickname "The Millers". Flour milling continued at the Rank Hovis town mill site on Canklow Road until September 2008. The site of the mill is a warehousing and distribution facility for
Premier Foods Premier Foods plc is a British food manufacturer headquartered in St Albans St Albans () is a cathedral city in Hertfordshire, England and the main urban area in the St Albans City and District, City and District of St Albans. It lies east of ...
.


Enterprise Zone 1983

In 1983 Rotherham became a designated
Enterprise Zone Enterprise (or the archaic spelling Enterprize) may refer to: Business and economics Brands and enterprises * Enterprise GP Holdings Enterprise GP Holdings was a midstream energy holding company based in Houston, Texas Houston ( ) is ...
with benefits and incentives given to attract new industry and development in the area. Within the first year ten new companies were established within the zone. The former chemical works at Barbot Hall, which had been empty and derelict, was developed into a new industrial estate and named 'Brookside', after Mangham Brook, running alongside it.


Floods of 2007

Rotherham was affected by flooding in the summer of 2007, which caused the closure of central roads, schools, transport services and damaged residential and commercial property, including the Parkgate Shopping complex and the
Meadowhall Centre Meadowhall is an indoor shopping centre A shopping center (American English) or shopping centre (Commonwealth English), also called a shopping complex, shopping arcade, shopping plaza or galleria, is a group of shops built together, sometime ...
, which suffered considerable internal water damage.
Ulley Reservoir Ulley Reservoir is a reservoir a few hundred yards to the west and downhill of the village of Ulley, south of Rotherham, South Yorkshire, England. It is away from junction 33 of the M1 motorway. History The reservoir was built in 1871 by d ...
caused major concern and forced the evacuation of thousands of homes when its dam showed signs of structural damage, threatening to break and release water into the suburbs of
Treeton Treeton is a village and civil parish of the Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham in South Yorkshire, England. It is located about south of the Rotherham, town of Rotherham and east of Sheffield City Centre. History There is evidence of Mesolith ...
,
Brinsworth Brinsworth is a village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, ...
and as well as potentially flooding the Junction 33 electrical sub-station.
Rother FM Rother FM was a local radio station serving Rotherham Rotherham () is a large market town, market and minster (church), minster town in South Yorkshire, England. The River Rother, South Yorkshire, River Rother (which the town takes its name f ...
evacuated its studios, passing its frequency temporarily to neighbouring station . A stretch of the
M1 motorway The M1 motorway connects London to Leeds, where it joins the A1 road (Great Britain), A1(M) near Aberford, to connect to Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle. It was the first inter-urban motorway to be completed in the UK; the first motorway in ...
was closed for three days owing to the flood risk in the event of a breach of the reservoir. Fire service and police officers used thirteen high-powered pumps to lower the water level in the reservoir and reduce pressure on the dam wall, which was damaged but held. By summer 2008, the reservoir and surrounding country park reopened. A new wetland and flood storage area, Centenary Riverside park, has since been built by Rotherham Council and the Environment Agency to prevent flooding in the future. The
Wildlife Trust for Sheffield and Rotherham Sheffield and Rotherham Wildlife Trust is a wildlife trust covering Sheffield and Rotherham, South Yorkshire, England. It has 15 reserves with its base in Sheffield. Reserves The trust manages fifteen reserves: :Agden Reservoir, Agden Bog :Black ...
manages the site as a local nature reserve. The site is home to the massive sculpture Steel Henge, a Stonehenge replica which is in fact made from iron ingots.


Child sexual exploitation scandal

Following a 2012 article published in ''
The Times ''The Times'' is a British Newspaper#Daily, daily Newspaper#National, national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily Universal Register'', adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. ''The Times'' and its s ...
'' alleging the cover-up of organised, large-scale sexual abuse of young children by gangs of people of Pakistani origin in Rotherham, Rotherham Council commissioned Professor
Alexis Jay Alexandrina Henderson Farmer Jay, Order of the British Empire, OBE (born 25 April 1949) is a British social worker and academic. She is a visiting professor at the University of Strathclyde and the independent chair of thCentre for Excellence for ...
, a former chief social work adviser to the Scottish government, to lead an independent inquiry about the handling of the cases and a suspected child exploitation network. She issued an Rotherham child sexual exploitation scandal, exploitation report stretching beyond police-level investigated cases. Her report of August 2014 revealed an unprecedented scale of reported child sexual abuse within an urban area of this size over a 16-year period. Subsequently, Eric Pickles, the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government, commissioned Louise Casey to conduct a Best Value investigation of Rotherham Council. She issued a report of her findings in February 2015. Both reports stated that a majority of the known perpetrators were of British Pakistanis, Pakistani heritage, and reported a denial of severity which was to a large extent the responsibility of Councillors. Casey's report concluded that at the time of her inspection the Council was not :wiktionary:fit#Verb, fit for the purpose, and identified some necessary measures for preventing further repetition. On 4 February 2015, after receiving Casey's report, Pickles said that commissioners would be appointed to run the council pending new elections, and the council leader and cabinet resigned en masse to allow for a 'fresh start'. The National Crime Agency was called in to investigate whether Rotherham councillors were complicit in hiding the depth and scale of the child abuse (the figure of 1,400 children is now said to be conservative) due to a "fear of losing their jobs and pensions" following a concern that they might be considered "racist" if they spoke out. Also, according to the new report, the councillors were driven by "misplaced political correctness". Jayne Senior, a former youth town worker, was reported to have worked for more than a decade to expose rampant child sexual abuse in Rotherham, but she was met with "indifference and scorn". Senior was awarded an Order of the British Empire, MBE in the 2016 Birthday Honours.


Landmarks

Rotherham Minster or All Saints' Church in All Saints Square built largely of ashlar, neat-cut pieces of sandstone and low-pitch lead roofs dates from the 15th century and includes parts from earlier Saxon and Norman structures. Clayton and Bell working to George Gilbert Scott's designs constructed the east window. Stained glass makers and designers A. Gibbs, Camm Brothers, Heaton, Butler and Bayne and James Bell are known makers of the other windows. Gargoyles flank its clock on each face. It has a "recessed octagonal spire with crocketed arrises and pinnacled shafts rising from corner faces and a gilded weathervane." Architectural critics Nikolaus Pevsner, Pevsner and Simon Jenkins considered it "the best perpendicular [style] church in the country" and "the best work in the county", respectively. It is a listed building in the highest category of architecture, Grade I. Close to the town centre is the 15th-century Chapel of Our Lady of Rotherham Bridge (or "Chapel on the Bridge"), beside River Don Navigation#Bridge Street Bridge and Chantry Bridge, Chantry Bridge (a road bridge opened in the 1930s). It is one of four surviving bridge chapels in the country. The chapel was restored in 1923, having been used as the town jail and a tobacconist's shop. Built in the 18th century, Clifton House houses Clifton Park Museum. The remains of the 16th-century College of Jesus are in the town centre. Boston Castle, in the grounds of Boston Park, was built as a hunting lodge by Thomas Howard, 3rd Earl of Effingham between 1773 and 1774 to mark his opposition to British attempts to crush the Americans in their American Revolutionary War, war for independence. It is named after Boston, Massachusetts, the scene of the Boston Tea Party. On the outskirts of Rotherham, a brick-built glass making furnace, the Catcliffe Glass Cone, is the oldest surviving structure of its type in Western Europe and one of four remaining in the United Kingdom – the others being the Red House Cone in the Wordsley centre of the Dudley Glassworks in the West Midlands, Lemington Glass Works west of Newcastle upon Tyne and Alloa in Scotland. Threatened with demolition in the 1960s, it has been preserved as a Scheduled Ancient Monument and stands as a focal point in a sheltered housing complex and close to the path leading up the Rother valley. South of Maltby, South Yorkshire, Maltby in the east of the district, half-way to Worksop are the ruins of Roche Abbey, among the small minority in the United Kingdom bearing multi-storey walls, as most others are no more than foundations or a single storey of ruins following the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 1530s.


Education

Rotherham has three further education institutions and colleges. These are
Thomas Rotherham College (Lest We Should Appear Ungrateful) , established = , closed = , type = 16–19 academy , religious_affiliation = , president = , head_label = Interim Principal , head = David Naisbitt , r_head_label = , ...

Thomas Rotherham College
, Dearne Valley College and the Rotherham College of Arts and Technology. The Rotherham College of Arts and Technology has a campus in the Rotherham town centre and a second site in Dinnington, South Yorkshire, Dinnington, as well as a nearby, smaller campus for the construction-based subjects taught, such as bricklaying.


Governance


Local governance

The Labour Party, who have controlled the authority since its 1974 incorporation currently hold 74% of local government seats. Rotherham's shadow cabinet local opposition is currently United Kingdom Independence Party, UKIP with 20% of the seats, no longer the Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party who went from 8% to 4% of seats in 2014, Independents account for 2% of seats and having had elections by thirds every other year. The method of election is changing to ''whole council elections'' every four years, from 2016. In 2013, Professor
Alexis Jay Alexandrina Henderson Farmer Jay, Order of the British Empire, OBE (born 25 April 1949) is a British social worker and academic. She is a visiting professor at the University of Strathclyde and the independent chair of thCentre for Excellence for ...
published a report about the Rotherham child sexual exploitation scandal (1997–2013). Following the report's publication, the council leader, Roger Stone of the Labour Party (UK), Labour Party, resigned - an act of contrition the report said should have been made years earlier - saying he would take full responsibility for "the historic failings described so clearly in the report."Becky Johnson,
'Horrific' Cases Of Child Abuse In Rotherham.
Sky News, 26 August 2014.
Labour Councillors Gwendoline Russell, Shaukat Ali and former council leader Roger Stone were suspended from the Labour Party, as was former Deputy Council Leader Jahangir Akhtar, who had lost his council seat in 2014. Chief Executive, Martin Kimber, said no council officers would face disciplinary action. Kimber announced on 8 September that he intended to step down in December 2014, and offered his "sincere apology to those who were let down". The council's director of children's services, Joyce Thacker, also left the authority by mutual agreement. Malcolm Newsam was appointed as Children's Social Care Commissioner in October 2014, and subsequently Ian Thomas was appointed as interim director of children's services. Shaun Wright, the Police and Crime Commissioner (PCC) for South Yorkshire Police, South Yorkshire from 2012, was the Labour councillor in charge of child safety at the council for five years from 2005-10. He initially refused demands to resign as PCC from the Home Secretary, Theresa May, as well as members of his own party and local Labour MP Sarah Champion, saying: "I believe I am the most appropriate person to hold this office at this current time." He resigned from the Labour Party on 27 August 2014, after an ultimatum by the party to either resign or face suspension from the party. Wright stood down as PCC on 16 September, saying that the prominence given to his role distracted from "the important issue, which should be everybody's focus - the 1,400 victims outlined in the report - and in providing support to victims and bringing to justice the criminals responsible for the atrocious crimes committed against them." The former Chief Constable, Meredydd Hughes, who served from 2004 to 2011 and who had unsuccessfully stood for the Labour Party nomination in the Police Crime Commissioner elections, was told by Labour MP Keith Vaz that he had 'failed' abuse victims. The inspector, Louise Casey aided by seven assistant inspectors produced the Inspection Report on 4 February 2015.Report of Inspection of Rotherham Metropolitan Borough Council, February 2015
HC1050, Louise Casey CB.
Following its conclusion that the Council was not fit for purpose the minister directed that the powers of the Council (RMBC) be transferred to his department and the cabinet would need to resign unless RMBC made sufficient representations within 14 days to contradict the report. The Secretary of State empowered a team of five Commissioners to replace councillors before a full election in 2016 and on the Report's strength, stated that as the authority was not currently fit for purpose its powers would not revert until the dis-empowered councillors could prove their fitness to carry out all of the Council's duties without intervention. One of these commissioners was appointed to specialise in child protection.


Representation in the national legislature

Like all of South Yorkshire the area consists of representatives of the Labour Party (UK), Labour Party at the Parliamentary level whose seats have been almost universally cast among analysts as 'safe seat, safe', that is having enjoyed 'substantial' majorities over a 'long' period of time; a typecast which heightens the incumbency, incumbency factor present in first past the post elections. The town's seat, including all its near suburbs, has been held by Labour MPs since a by-election in 1933. After the resignation and jailing of Denis MacShane in November 2012 due to expenses abuse, this area required a 2012 Rotherham by-election, by-election in 2012 and Sarah Champion for Labour became the MP at that by-election.


Geography

The town in great part occupies the slopes of two hills; that in the west is the start of a north-west crest topped by Keppel's Column, that in the east is a narrower crest alongside the Rother known as Canklow Hill, topped by a listed building, protected formally laid out public area, Boston Park, less than 500 metres east of and 80 metres above the Rother. The Rother here is between 32 and 34 metres above sea level. The south scarp here is slightly higher still, the Canklow Hill Earthworks, a Scheduled Ancient Monument, one of relatively few in the borough, as pre-dating recorded history. Rotherham's commercial town centre occupies the valley in between these hills on the navigable part of the River Don flowing from the south-west after it has turned approximately due north. The town centre is less than below and north of the confluence of the River Rother, South Yorkshire, Rother flowing from the south. The Mid Don Valley continues adjoining towns in the north of the Metropolitan Borough. Beyond the town centre and away from the Don Valley, the Rotherham district is largely rural, containing a mixture of retired people, larger properties, some farming and tourism and the landscaped Wentworth Woodhouse estate, where the last surviving kiln of the Rockingham Pottery can be seen. Aside from two regular roads and two bypasses (one being the motorway network), Sheffield is connected directly by the Trans Pennine Trail which passes the Meadowhall (shopping centre), Meadowhall shopping centre on both sides (which between the two places) as it includes Sheffield as southern detour. Rotherham Central station has frequent trains connecting to Sheffield in a time of 14 minutes; Manchester through a change in Sheffield is accessible in a similar circa 70 minutes to nearer Leeds and York as many towns and suburbs in South Yorkshire and West Yorkshire are all stops on Rotherham's railway – it is Doncaster which has the East Coast Main Line providing express intercity services.


Green belt

Rotherham is within a Green belt (United Kingdom), green belt region that extends into the wider surrounding counties, and is in place to reduce urban sprawl, prevent the towns in the Sheffield urban area, Sheffield built-up area conurbation from further convergence, protect the identity of outlying communities, encourage brownfield reuse, and preserve nearby countryside. This is achieved by restricting inappropriate development within the designated areas, and imposing stricter conditions on permitted building." The green belt was first adopted in 1979, and the size in the borough in 2017 amounted to some , covering 72% of the overall borough. The green belt surrounds the Rotherham urban area, with larger outlying towns and villages within the borough such as Treeton, Swallownest and Thurcroft also exempted. However, smaller villages, hamlets and rural areas such as Morthen, Ulley, Guilthwaite, Hooton Roberts and Old Ravenfield are 'washed over', so minimising unsuitable development in these. A subsidiary aim of the green belt is to encourage recreation and leisure interests, with rural landscape features, greenfield areas and facilities including the Wentworth Woodhouse estate and temple, River Rother, northern portions of the River Don and Hooton Brook, Pinch Mill Brook, several golf courses, Ulley reservoir, Herringthorpe allotments, Rotherham Roundwalk and Sheffield Country Walk/Trans-Pennine trails, Thurcroft Hall, and Valley Park.


Demography

In 2011, Rotherham had a population of 109,691, this figure is for an urban subdivision and roughly corresponds with ward and output area boundaries. The population in 2001 was 117,262 but the figure includes Catcliffe which was a separate subdivision a decade later, so there may not have been an actual decrease in population. The population of Rotherham is increasing slightly because 110,550 people lived in the town in 2014. In 2011, 14.4% of Rotherham's population were non-white compared with 8.1% for the surrounding borough. Rotherham town has over double the percentage of Asian people compared with the
Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham The Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham is a metropolitan borough of South Yorkshire South Yorkshire is a ceremonial county and metropolitan county in England. It is the southernmost county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region and had ...
and a slightly larger percentage of black people.


Culture and attractions


Museums

The
Magna Science Adventure Centre Magna Science Adventure Centre is an educational visitor attraction, appealing primarily to children, located in a disused steel mill in the Templeborough Templeborough (historically Templebrough) is a suburb of Rotherham Rotherham () is a ...

Magna Science Adventure Centre
, an interactive science and adventure centre built in a former steel works in Templeborough, has become one of the most popular tourist destinations in the region. Clifton Park Museum medium-sized museum in Clifton Park. Admission is free.


Entertainment

The Rotherham Civic Theatre and Arts Centre, Civic Theatre and an Arts Centre is in the town centre. The Westgate district of the town centre is home to many pubs, bars and clubs and is the focal point of Rotherham's nightlife. In 2019, work began on the former Tesco site on forge island to build a multiplex cinema, 4 restaurants, new urban public space and a hotel. The project is due to open in phases with the cinema opening in 2022.


Events

Rotherham holds several public events through the year:- A fashion show Rotherham Rocks in July, takes place in 'All Saints Square' and Rotherham by the Sea, in August, is held in Clifton Park, which is transformed into a seaside beach with sand, deckchairs and other traditional seaside attractions. Rotherham Show is an annual event, held in Clifton Park, with stalls from all sectors of the community, shows and live bands in September. The Magna Centre also every year also hosts one of the countries largest Real Ale festivals, which is hosted over 4 days. In 2016 Rotherham's first carnival took place. The People's Parade which included over 400 people including costumes from Rampage, Luton - Batala a 50 piece Brazilian samba band and hundreds of local people, schools and community groups. The parade lead to a festival in the park with flags, decor 'Eh Up Rotherham' sign, rides, stalls Djs and bands, workshops and activities. Rotherham will in 2022 play host to the UEFA Women's Championship. Hosting several games at the New York Stadium.


Parks

Clifton Park, in the town centre is a large park and also includes sport facilities, an outdoor paddling pool, a small fairground and an adventure park. It has been voted and nominated several times over the past few years for numerous awards. The park also holds several events annually including the great Rotherham show and annual fireworks display which both attract thousands of people each year. Minster Gardens is an urban park in the heart of the town centre, next to Rotherham Minster and All Saints Square. It has an amphitheatre and space for open-air events, with stepped seating, lawns, grass terracing and a meadow area.


Music

Rotherham has several Brass band sections in the United Kingdom, Brass band clubs. It has also produced many classic and progressive rock bands, supported by the Classic Rock Society, such as Jive Bunny, Bring Me the Horizon, and Morris Minor and the Majors.


Shopping

Rotherham town centre has various chain stores including Tesco Extra. Following the availability of "Vitality Grants" from 2009 onwards, a number of new independent businesses opened in the town centre such as Yella Brick Road. In 2015, Rotherham won the Great British High Street award for its independent town centre shopping. Judges praised the transformation of key properties and the restoration of its "historic core". A plaque commemorating the award was unveiled by Secretary of State for Local Government & Committees Sajid Javid, Sajid Javid MP in September 2016. As of 2021 the majority of the retail in Rothehram is made up of a thriving independent scene with lots of new start up businesses opening in the town centre. Due to the close proximity of Sheffield City Centre, Meadowhall shopping centre and the towns Parkgate Retail Park Rotherham has struggled to attract major brands. This has created the opportunity for Rotherham to proposition itself as an independent alternative.


In film, art and literature


In film

Chef-writer Jamie Oliver's television series ''Jamie's Ministry of Food'' (2008) was based in Rotherham. He aimed to make Rotherham "the culinary capital of the United Kingdom" by his 'Pass it on' scheme, teaching groups some of which went on to work in restaurants. The Arctic Monkeys' song "Fake Tales of San Francisco" has a tribute line: "Yeah I'd love to tell you all my problem. You're not from New York City, you're from Rotherham". The 2013 film ''Five Pillars'' was largely set and filmed in Rotherham, which is also the hometown of the writer and director.


Sport

For the 2020-21 season, the town's association football team, Rotherham United F.C., Rotherham United, will play in the EFL Championship, the second tier of English Football. The team currently plays at the New York Stadium. Historically the town was represented by Rotherham Town F.C. (1878), Rotherham Town, and Rotherham County, who both played in the Football League. Rotherham R.U.F.C., Rotherham Titans rugby union team reached the Guinness Premiership in 1999 and 2003 before being relegated. The club plays at the Clifton Lane Sports Ground. The town is also represented in rugby league by the Rotherham Giants of the Rugby League Conference. Former Formula One team Virgin Racing were based in Dinnington, South Yorkshire, Dinnington in the borough. IndyCar and former ChampCar and Formula One driver Justin Wilson (racing driver), Justin Wilson was from Woodall, which is in the Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham. Motorcycle speedway racing was staged in the town about 1930. Hurdler Chris Rawlinson, Olympic gold medallist sailor Paul Goodison, Olympic silver medallist Peter Elliott (athlete), Peter Elliott, former England goalkeeper David Seaman, golfer Danny Willett and 2010 FIFA World Cup Final referee Howard Webb are all from Rotherham. Three Greyhound racing in the United Kingdom, greyhound racing tracks existed in or around the town. They were Rotherham Greyhound Stadium (1933-1974); around
Millmoor The Millmoor Ground, commonly known as Millmoor, is a Association football, football stadium in Rotherham, South Yorkshire, England. It was the home ground of Rotherham County F.C. between 1907 and 1925 and then its successor Rotherham United F.C. ...
(1930-1933) and in Hellaby#Sport, Hellaby. The racing was independent (not affiliated to the sports governing body the National Greyhound Racing Club) and all three tracks were known as flapping tracks, which was the nickname given to independent tracks.


Freedom of the borough

On Monday 3 August 2009 Rotherham became the first town to bestow the Freedom of the City, Freedom of the Borough on the Yorkshire Regiment, giving it the right to march through the town with "flags flying, bands playing and bayonets fixed". At a ceremony outside Rotherham Town Hall, the Regiment paraded two Guards of soldiers who had recently returned from Iraq and the Colours, standards and guidons, Colours of the 3rd Battalion Yorkshire Regiment (Duke of Wellington's), led by the Kings Division Band, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Vallings, the battalion commanding officer. The Mayor of Rotherham, Councillor Shaukat Ali, on behalf of the borough, presented the Freedom Scroll to Colonel Simon Newton, who accepted the honour for the regiment. The regiment is the only military unit to become Honorary Freemen of the Borough.


Notable people

Rotherham is the hometown of the Chuckle Brothers, Arsenal F.C., Arsenal and England football team, England goalkeeper David Seaman along with World Cup and English Premier League referee Howard Webb. Sean Bean began his acting career in Rotherham while actors Liz White (actress), Liz White, Ryan Sampson, Dean Andrews and Darrell D'Silva also hail from Rotherham, as does former leader of the Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party, William Hague, and Sir Donald Coleman Bailey. Presenter James May grew up in Rotherham. His co-presenter on Top Gear Jeremy Clarkson trained to be a journalist at the ''Rotherham Advertiser''. Comedians Sandy Powell (comedian), Sandy Powell and Duggie Brown were born in Rotherham, as was actress Lynne Perrie. Christopher Wolstenholme of Muse (band), Muse, DJ Kritikal Mass, Dean Andrews of ''Life on Mars (UK TV series), Life On Mars'', artist Margaret Clarkson (artist), Margaret Clarkson, band Jive Bunny & The Mastermixers and singer-actor Rob McVeigh were all born or mostly raised in Rotherham.


Twin towns

Rotherham's official twin towns are: * Saint-Quentin, Aisne, France


Partner towns

Rotherham has three partner towns: * Cluj-Napoca, Romania * Riesa, Germany * Zabrze, Poland


See also

*Listed buildings in Rotherham (Boston Castle Ward) *Rotherham Tramway *Trolleybuses in Rotherham


References


Further reading


Rotherham TimelineRotherham Greats


External links


Rotherham Metropolitan Borough CouncilBoston Castle, Rotherham, website
* {{Authority control Rotherham, Towns in South Yorkshire Unparished areas in South Yorkshire Geography of the Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham Folly castles in England