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The island of
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
, comprising
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster- ...

Northern Ireland
and the
Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga, Éire ), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a country in north-western Europe consisting of 26 of the 32 Counties of Ireland, counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, on the eastern ...

Republic of Ireland
, has an extensive network of tens of thousands of kilometres of public roads, usually surfaced. These roads have been developed and modernised over centuries, from trackways suitable only for walkers and horses, to surfaced roads including modern
motorways network. A controlled-access highway is a type of highway A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but also includes other public roads and public tracks. In some areas of the Un ...
. The major routes were established before Irish independence and consequently take little cognisance of the border other than a change of identification number and street furniture. Northern Ireland has had motorways since 1962, and has a well-developed network of primary, secondary and local routes. The Republic started work on its motorway network in the early 1980s; and historically, the road network there was once somewhat less well developed. However, the
Celtic Tiger The "Celtic Tiger" ( ga, An Tíogar Ceilteach) is a term referring to the economy of the Republic of Ireland from the mid-1990s to the late 2000s, a period of rapid real economic growth fuelled by foreign direct investment. The boom was dampened ...
economic boom and an influx of
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
structural funding, saw national roads and regional roads in the
Republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

Republic
come up to international standard quite quickly. In the mid-1990s, for example, the Republic went from having only a few short sections of motorway to a network of motorways,
dual carriageway A dual carriageway (British English) or divided highway (American English) is a class of highway with carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation (BrE) or median (AmE). Roads with two or more ...
s and other improvements on most major routes as part of a
National Development Plan National Development Plan (NDP, ga, Plean Forbartha Náisiúnta) was the title given by the Irish Government to a scheme of organised large-scale expenditure on (mainly) national infrastructure. The first five-year plan ran from 1988 to 1993, ...
. Road construction in Northern Ireland now tends to proceed at a slower pace than in the Republic, although a number of important bypasses and upgrades to dual carriageway have recently been completed or are about to begin. Roads in Northern Ireland are classified as either Highways, motorways (shown by the letter ''M'' followed by a route number, e.g. M1), A-roads (shown by the letter ''A'' followed by a route number, e.g. A6), B-roads (shown by the letter ''B'' followed by a route number, e.g. B135) and other roads. There are two types of A-roads: primary and non-primary. Roads in the Republic are classified as motorways (shown by the letter ''M'' followed by a route number, e.g. M7), national roads (shown by the letter ''N'' followed by a route number, e.g. N25), regional roads (shown by the letter ''R'' followed by a route number, e.g. R611) and local roads (shown by the letter ''L'' followed by a route number, e.g. L4202). There are two types of national roads: national primary routes and national secondary routes. Road signs in Northern Ireland follow the same design rules as the rest of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. Distance signposts in Northern Ireland show distances in miles, while all signposts placed in the Republic since the 1990s use kilometres. The Republic's road signs are generally bilingual, using both official languages,
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
and English. However, signs in the
Gaeltacht ( , ; plural ) is an Irish-language word for any primarily Irish-speaking region. In Ireland, the term ''Gaeltacht'' refers individually to any, or collectively to all, of the districts where the government recognises that the Irish language i ...

Gaeltacht
(Irish speaking areas) use only Irish. The Irish language names are written in italic script, the English in capitals. Signs in Northern Ireland are in English only. Warning signs in the Republic have a yellow background and are diamond-shaped, those in Northern Ireland are triangle-shaped and have a white background with a red border. Speed limits in Northern Ireland are specified in miles per hour. Those in the Republic use
kilometres per hour The kilometre per hour (SI symbol: km/h; abbreviations: kph, kmph, km/hr) is a Units of measurement, unit of speed, expressing the number of kilometres travelled in one hour. History Although the metre was formally defined in 1799, the term "kil ...
(km/h), a change introduced on 20 January 2005. This involved the provision of 58,000 new metric speed limit signs, replacing and supplementing 35,000 imperial signs.


History

There have been routes and trackways in Ireland connecting settlements and facilitating trade since ancient times. Ireland was never part of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
and, therefore, Roman roads were not built in Ireland. However, an
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
road with a stone surface has been excavated in
Munster Munster ( gle, an Mhumhain or ) is one of the provinces of Ireland Since pre-historic times, there have been four Provinces of Ireland: Connacht, Leinster, Munster, and Ulster. The Irish language, Irish word for this territorial division ...

Munster
and togher ( ga, tóchar) roads, a type of
causeway A causeway is a track, road or railway on the upper point of an embankment Embankment may refer to: Geology and geography * A levee, an artificial bank raised above the immediately surrounding land to redirect or prevent flooding by a river ...

causeway
built through
bogs A bog or bogland is a wetland A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently (for years or decades) or seasonally (for weeks or months). Flooding results in oxygen-free (Anoxic waters, anoxic) processes ...
, were found in many areas of the country. According to an entry in the
Annals of the Four Masters Entry for AD 432 The ''Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland'' ( ga, Annála Ríoghachta Éireann) or the ''Annals of the Four Masters'' (''Annála na gCeithre Máistrí'') are chronicle A chronicle ( la, chronica, from Greek language, Greek ' ...

Annals of the Four Masters
for
AD
AD
123, there were five principal highways ( ga, slighe) leading to
Tara Tara may refer to: Arts and entertainment Film and television * ''Tara'' (1992 film), an Indian film directed by Bijaya Jena * ''Tara'' (2001 film), an American film, also known as ''Hood Rat'', directed by Leslie Small * ''Tara'' (2010 film), a ...
( ga, Teamhair) in
Early Medieval Ireland Early may refer to: History * The beginning or oldest part of a defined historical period, as opposed to middle or late periods, e.g.: ** Early Christianity ** Early modern Europe Places in the United States * Early, Iowa * Early, Texas * Early B ...
. Early medieval law-tracts set out five types of road including the highway (''slighe''), the ' egionalmain road' (''ród'' or ''rout''), the 'connecting road' (''lámraite''), the 'side road' (''tógraite'') which could be tolled, and the 'cow road' (''bóthar''). ''Bóthar'' is the most common term for 'road' in modern
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
: its
diminutive A diminutive is a root word A root (or root word) is the core of a word that is irreducible into more meaningful elements. In morphology, a root is a morphologically simple unit which can be left bare or to which a prefix A prefix is an aff ...
form, ''bóithrín'', (or
boreen A boreen or bohereen (, pronounced ) is a country lane A country lane is a narrow road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), paved or otherwise improved to ...
in English) is used as a term for very narrow, rural roads. The development of roads in Ireland seemed to have stagnated until the eighteenth- and early nineteenth-centuries. However, in the 18th century, a network of turnpike roads (charging tolls) was built: "a turnpike was a primitive form of turnstile – a gate across the road, opened on payment of a toll. The average length of a turnpike road was 30 miles". Routes to and from
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_ ...

Dublin
were developed initially and the network spread throughout the country. Turnpikes operated between 1729 and 1858 when the extensive railway network made them increasingly unpopular. Specialist routes to facilitate the butter trade, which centred on
Cork Cork or CORK may refer to: Materials * Cork (material), an impermeable buoyant plant product ** Cork (plug), a cylindrical or conical object used to seal a container ***Wine cork Places Ireland * Cork (city) ** Metropolitan Cork, also known as G ...
, were built in
Munster Munster ( gle, an Mhumhain or ) is one of the provinces of Ireland Since pre-historic times, there have been four Provinces of Ireland: Connacht, Leinster, Munster, and Ulster. The Irish language, Irish word for this territorial division ...

Munster
. The first ''butter road'' was commissioned in 1748 and was built by John Murphy of
Castleisland Castleisland ( ir, Oileán Ciarraí) is a town and commercial centre in County Kerry in south west Republic of Ireland, Ireland. The town is known for the width of its main street. As of the 2016 Census, Castleisland had a population of 2,486. Cas ...

Castleisland
in
County Kerry County Kerry ( gle, Contae Chiarraí) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers ...

County Kerry
. In other areas, notably in
County Wicklow County Wicklow ( ; ga, Contae Chill Mhantáin ) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by Willi ...
, military roads were built to help secure British military control over remote areas. The Military Road through County Wicklow was begun in 1800 and completed in 1809. The R115 is part of the Military Road for its entire length. Railways became the dominant form of land transport from the mid-19th century. This situation persisted until the first half of the 20th century when motorised road transport (cars, buses and trucks) gradually began to take over from railways as the most important form of land transport. Pre-independence legislation (the Ministry of Transport Act, 1919) laid the foundation for the regulation of the modern system of public roads in Ireland. The Act gave the Minister for Local Government the power to classify roads: Trunk Road Funds were used to enable local councils to improve major roads and road surfacing was gradually undertaken throughout the 1920s, 1930s and beyond. By the 1950s an established system of road classification and numbering with Trunk Roads and Link Roads had long been developed. The present system of road classification and numbering began in 1977 when twenty-five
National primary road A national primary road ( ga, Bóthar príomha náisiúnta) is a road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot ...
s and thirty-three
National secondary road National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared territory. A nation is more overtly political than an ...
s were designated. Regional roads were first formally designated in 1994, although Regional road route-numbers began appearing on signposts in the 1980s. Th
Roads Act 1993
also classified all public roads which are not national or regional roads as local roads.


Roads in the Republic of Ireland

The Republic has an extensive network of public roads connecting all parts of the country. As of 31 December 2013, there was a total of 7,959.309 km (4945 miles) of national roads: of which 5,305.56 km (3297 miles) were national primary routes (including motorways) and 2,653.749 km (1649 miles) were national secondary routes. By May 2018 Network Lengths were as follows. National Primary Roads (including motorways) 2,717 km (1689 miles) National Secondary Roads 2,696 km (1675 miles) ''Total National Road N (and M) Network 5,413 km'' (3363 miles) In addition to national roads, the Republic also has an extensive network of other public roads: there are: 13,124 kilometres (8155 miles) of Regional Roads R and 81,300 kilometres (50,500 miles) of Local L roads. Local Roads are broken into three classes, Local Primary (LP) 23,789 km (14782 miles), Local Secondary (LS) 33,366 km (20733 miles) and Local Tertiary LT 23,789 km (14782 miles) For a combined public road network length of 99,830 km (62,030 miles) in 2018 The Republic's major road network is focused on Dublin. Motorways were extended from Dublin to other major cities as part of the
Transport 21 Transport 21 was an Republic of Ireland, Irish infrastructure plan, announced in November 2005. Its aims were to greatly expand Ireland's transport network. A cost estimate of €34 billion was attached to the plan at the time. The plan include ...
programme which aimed to have a world-class motorway network in place by the end of 2010. At that time, Ireland's main cities (
Cork Cork or CORK may refer to: Materials * Cork (material), an impermeable buoyant plant product ** Cork (plug), a cylindrical or conical object used to seal a container ***Wine cork Places Ireland * Cork (city) ** Metropolitan Cork, also known as G ...
,
Limerick Limerick ( ; ga, Luimneach ) is a city in County Limerick County Limerick ( ga, Contae Luimnigh) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.) ...

Limerick
,
Galway Galway ( ; ga, Gaillimh, ) is a in the , in the of . It is the of , which is named after it. It lies on the between and , and is the on the island of Ireland and the , with a population at the 2016 Census of 79,934. Located near an ...

Galway
,
Waterford Waterford ( ; from Old Norse , meaning "ram (wether) fjord") is a City status in Ireland, city in Ireland. It is in County Waterford in the South-East Region, Ireland, south-east of Ireland and is located in the Provinces of Ireland, provinc ...

Waterford
and
Belfast Belfast ( ; , ) is the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland, standing on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast. It is the 12th-largest city in the United Kingdom and the second-largest on the island of Ireland. It had a popul ...

Belfast
) excluding
Derry Derry, officially Londonderry (), is the second-largest city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2 ...

Derry
were connected to Dublin with motorways or with near-motorway standard roads. Dublin was the focus of some other major projects, such as the East-Link and
West-Link The West-Link ( ga, Droichead an Nascbhóthair Thiar) is a toll bridge (actually twin bridges) on the M50 motorway (Ireland), M50 motorway to the west of Dublin, Ireland, operated by eFlow, Emovis (trading as eFlow) for Transport Infrastructure Ire ...
toll-bridges, as well as the
Dublin Port Tunnel The Dublin Tunnel (Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United King ...
. Major by-pass projects were also built around other cities and towns. The
Jack Lynch Tunnel The Jack Lynch Tunnel ( Irish: ''Tollán Sheáin Uí Loingsigh'') is an immersed tube tunnel and an integral part of the N40 road (Ireland), N40 southern ring road of Cork (city), Cork in Ireland. It is named after former Taoiseach, Jack Lynch, ...
under the
River Lee The River Lee (Irish: ''An Laoi'') is a river in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It rises in the Shehy Mountains on the western border of County Cork and flows eastwards through Cork (city), Cork, where it splits in two for a short distance, c ...
in
Cork Cork or CORK may refer to: Materials * Cork (material), an impermeable buoyant plant product ** Cork (plug), a cylindrical or conical object used to seal a container ***Wine cork Places Ireland * Cork (city) ** Metropolitan Cork, also known as G ...
was a major project outside Dublin, and a fourth crossing at
Limerick Limerick ( ; ga, Luimneach ) is a city in County Limerick County Limerick ( ga, Contae Luimnigh) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.) ...

Limerick
under the
River Shannon The River Shannon ( ga, Abhainn na Sionainne, ', '), at in length, is the longest Rivers of Ireland, river in the British Isles.ESManage Project: Irish Freshwater Resources and Assessment of Ecosystem Services Provision - Environmental Protectio ...
(known as the
Limerick Tunnel The Limerick Tunnel () is a , twin bore road tunnel underneath the River Shannon on the outskirts of Limerick city. The tunnel forms part of the N18 road (Ireland), N18 Limerick Southern Ring Road. The tunnel is tolled. Construction Construction ...
) opened in 2010. The different classes of roads in Ireland are allocated blocks of numbers so that no number is used more than once save in the case of Local Primary Roads.(not all road numbers are currently in use): * National Primary Roads are numbered from N1 to N50 (motorway sections are signed with M prefix instead of N ). * National Secondary Roads are numbered from N51 to N99. * Regional Roads are numbered from R100 to R999. * Local Primary Roads are numbered from L1000 to L4999. * Local Secondary Roads are numbered from L5000 to L8999. * Local Tertiary Roads are numbered from L10001 to L89999 with the first 4 digits representing the Local Primary or Secondary road it starts off from. Local Tertiary roads which are unrelated to a Local Primary or Secondary road are given numbers from L90000 up.


Motorways

In the
Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga, Éire ), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a country in north-western Europe consisting of 26 of the 32 Counties of Ireland, counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, on the eastern ...

Republic of Ireland
, a motorway forms part of a national primary route, but is indicated by the prefix M instead of N. Motorways are the highest standard roads and certain drivers and vehicles are prohibited from using them. The motorway network has been expanded extensively since the 1990s, through construction of new motorways and redesignation of existing motorway-standard dual-carriageway sections of National Primary routes. The first motorway section in the state was the
M7
M7
Naas Naas ( ; ga, Nás na Ríogh or ) is the county town of County Kildare in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. In 2016, it had a population of 21,393, making it the second largest town in County Kildare after Newbridge, County Kildare, Newbridge. H ...

Naas
by-pass, which opened in 1983. Since 2009, all motorways in Ireland are part of, or form, ''
national primary road A national primary road ( ga, Bóthar príomha náisiúnta) is a road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot ...
s''. At the end of 2004 there were of motorway in the Republic and of dual-carriageway. This was extended, by the end of 2005, to of motorway and of dual-carriageway. By the end of December 2009 there were of motorway in Ireland, with under construction at the time. As of 2019, the following motorway routes are in operation: * M1, part of the
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_ ...

Dublin
Belfast Belfast ( ; , ) is the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland, standing on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast. It is the 12th-largest city in the United Kingdom and the second-largest on the island of Ireland. It had a popul ...

Belfast
route: from M50 J3 at Dublin Airport to Thistle Cross (just north of
Dundalk Dundalk ( ; ga, Dún Dealgan , meaning "the fort of Dealgan", a Fir Bolg In medieval Irish myth, the Fir Bolg (also spelt Firbolg and Fir Bholg) are the fourth group of people to settle in Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots d ...
), where it reverts to the N1 numbering as a dual carriageway up to the border with
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster- ...

Northern Ireland
, where it continues without interruption as the A1 dual carriageway to a junction with Northern Ireland's M1 and on to Belfast. * M2, part of the Dublin
Derry Derry, officially Londonderry (), is the second-largest city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2 ...

Derry
/
Letterkenny Letterkenny ( ), nicknamed "the Cathedral Town", is the largest and most populous town in County Donegal, Ireland. It lies on the River Swilly in East Donegal and has a population of 19,274. It is the List of settlements on the island of Ireland ...
route: from just north of M50 J5 to just north of
Ashbourne, County Meath Ashbourne, historically called ''Killeglan'' or ''Kildeglan'' (), is the second largest town in County Meath, Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. ...
, (where it reverts to a single-carriageway road (N2) as far as the border, then continues as the A5 to Derry or recrosses the border to become the N14 to Letterkenny). * M3, part of the Dublin
Cavan Cavan ( ; ) is the county town of County Cavan in Ireland. The town lies in Ulster, near the border with County Fermanagh in Northern Ireland. The town is on the main N3 road (Ireland), N3 road that links Dublin (to the south) with Enniskillen, ...
/
Enniskillen Enniskillen ( , from ga, Inis Ceithleann , 'Cethlenn, Ceithlenn's island') is the largest town in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. It is in the middle of the county, between the Upper and Lower sections of Lough Erne. It had a population of ...
/
DonegalDonegal may refer to: County Donegal, Ireland * County Donegal, a county in the Republic of Ireland, part of the province of Ulster * Donegal Bay, an inlet in the northwest of Ireland bordering counties Donegal, Leitrim and Sligo * Donegal (town), ...
route: from Clonee (on N3 from M50 J6) to Kells bypass. The route continues as the N3 as far as the border, then becomes the A509 to Enniskillen, whereupon it is renumbered the A46 to the border at
BelleekBelleek may refer to: * Belleek, County Fermanagh, a village and civil parish in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland **Belleek Pottery, the village's major industry * Belleek, County Armagh, a townland in County Armagh, Northern Ireland (also known a ...
and resumes its N3 identity as far as
Ballyshannon Ballyshannon () is a town in County Donegal County Donegal ( ; ga, Contae Dhún na nGall) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, ...

Ballyshannon
on the N15
Sligo Sligo ( ; ga, Sligeach , meaning 'abounding in shells') is a coastal seaport and the county town of County Sligo, Republic of Ireland, Ireland, within the western province of Connacht. With a population of approximately 20,000 in 2016, it is th ...

Sligo
Donegal road. * M4, part of the DublinSligo route: from Lucan (on N4 from M50 J7) to
Kinnegad Kinnegad or Kinagad (, meaning "‘the head of the ford of withes") is a town in County Westmeath, Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is sepa ...
at which point it reverts to dual carriageway to (bypass)
Mullingar Mullingar ( ; ) is the county town of County Westmeath in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is the 3rd most populous town in the Midlands, Ireland, Midlands region, with a population of 20,928 in the 2016 census. The Counties of Meath and Wes ...
. *
M6
M6
, part of the Dublin
Galway Galway ( ; ga, Gaillimh, ) is a in the , in the of . It is the of , which is named after it. It lies on the between and , and is the on the island of Ireland and the , with a population at the 2016 Census of 79,934. Located near an ...

Galway
route: leaves M4 at J11 near Kinnegad, ending at the N18 crossing where it reverts to the N6 dual carriageway around Galway. The section around
Athlone Athlone (; ) is a town on the border of County Roscommon and County Westmeath, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is located on the River Shannon near the southern shore of Lough Ree. It is the second most populous town in the Midlands Region, Ire ...

Athlone
reverts to N6 status as it is an all-traffic dual carriageway. This was the first city-to-city motorway link in Ireland. Opened in January 2010. *
M7
M7
, part of the Dublin
Limerick Limerick ( ; ga, Luimneach ) is a city in County Limerick County Limerick ( ga, Contae Luimnigh) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.) ...

Limerick
route: begins at the
Naas Naas ( ; ga, Nás na Ríogh or ) is the county town of County Kildare in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. In 2016, it had a population of 21,393, making it the second largest town in County Kildare after Newbridge, County Kildare, Newbridge. H ...

Naas
bypass at the end of the N7 Naas Road dual carriageway from M50 J9 and continues to Rossbrien outside Limerick where the motorway forms an interchange with the N18 & M20 routes at junction 30. *
M8
M8
, part of the Dublin
Cork Cork or CORK may refer to: Materials * Cork (material), an impermeable buoyant plant product ** Cork (plug), a cylindrical or conical object used to seal a container ***Wine cork Places Ireland * Cork (city) ** Metropolitan Cork, also known as G ...
route: branches off the M7 at junction 19 and continues to the Dunkettle interchange outside Cork where it forms an interchange with the N25 and N40 routes. *
M9
M9
, part of the Dublin
Waterford Waterford ( ; from Old Norse , meaning "ram (wether) fjord") is a City status in Ireland, city in Ireland. It is in County Waterford in the South-East Region, Ireland, south-east of Ireland and is located in the Provinces of Ireland, provinc ...

Waterford
route: branches off the M7 at junction 11 and continues towards the Quarry Roundabout outside Waterford where it forms a junction with the N24. * M11, two separate parts of the Dublin
Wexford Wexford () is the county town of County Wexford, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. Wexford lies on the south side of Wexford Harbour, the estuary of the River Slaney near the southeastern corner of the Ireland, island of Ireland. The town is linked ...

Wexford
route: the southern tip of the M50 to the west side of Bray and from Coyne's Cross to just north of Oilgate. * M17, part of the GalwaySligo route: begins at junction 18 on the M6 and continues to a terminus roundabout on the outskirts of
Tuam Tuam ( ; ga, Tuaim , meaning 'mound' or 'burial-place') is a town in Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_ ...
. Continues northbound towards Sligo as the N17. *
M18
M18
, part of the Limerick Ennis - Galway route: begins at junction 9 for
Shannon Airport Shannon Airport ( ga, Aerfort na Sionainne) is an international airport located in County Clare in the Republic of Ireland. It is adjacent to the Shannon Estuary and lies halfway between Ennis and Limerick. The airport is the third busiest air ...
from the N18 dual carriageway from the Rossbrien Interchange in Limerick and continues to junction 18 with a junction on the M6 for
Galway Galway ( ; ga, Gaillimh, ) is a in the , in the of . It is the of , which is named after it. It lies on the between and , and is the on the island of Ireland and the , with a population at the 2016 Census of 79,934. Located near an ...

Galway
. *
M20
M20
, part of the CorkLimerick route: branches off the M7 at junction 30 and the N18 at junction 1 at the Rossbrien interchange outside Limerick and continues for 10 km (6 miles) towards Attyflin near
Patrickswell Patrickswell, historically known as Toberpatrick (), is a small town in County Limerick, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is primarily a commuter village for people working in Limerick, particularly the nearby industrial suburb of Raheen, County L ...
at junction 4. Here the route forms an interchange with the N20 towards Cork and the N21 to
Tralee Tralee ( ; ga, Trá Lí, ; formerly , meaning 'strand of the Lee River') is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage ...

Tralee
&
Killarney Killarney ( ; ga, Cill Airne , meaning 'church of sloes') is a town in County Kerry, southwestern Republic of Ireland, Ireland. The town is on the northeastern shore of Lough Leane, part of Killarney National Park, and is home to St Mary's C ...

Killarney
. Both the N20 & N21 from here are single carriageway. *
M50
M50
, 45 km (28 miles) C – shaped
ring road A ring road (also known as circular road, beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop, bypass or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country. The most common purpose of a ring road is to assist in ...
that forms a bypass of Dublin. The motorway connects to all the national primary routes from Dublin to the main
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...
and regions of Ireland as well as Dublin City centre. In June 2007, it was announced that around 800 kilometres (500 miles) of 'new' motorway would be created; however, much of this resulted from the re-classification of most of the country's high-quality dual carriageways to motorway regulations rather than the construction of purpose-built motorways. This affected most of the major inter-urban routes between Dublin and various towns and cities and some of the
Atlantic Corridor The Atlantic corridor or Atlantic motorway is a proposed road project in Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its ...
along the Western seaboard.


Planned motorways

*
M20
M20
; Completion of the upgrading of the N20 route between
Cork Cork or CORK may refer to: Materials * Cork (material), an impermeable buoyant plant product ** Cork (plug), a cylindrical or conical object used to seal a container ***Wine cork Places Ireland * Cork (city) ** Metropolitan Cork, also known as G ...
and
Limerick Limerick ( ; ga, Luimneach ) is a city in County Limerick County Limerick ( ga, Contae Luimnigh) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.) ...

Limerick
to motorway standard. This will extend the existing section of M20 outside Limerick to Cork. By 2015, TII planned that there would be approximately 1090 km (680 miles) of motorway in Ireland, comprising the
M50
M50
(45.55 km (28 miles)),
M20
M20
(90 km (55 miles) approx), M18 (70 km (45 miles) approx), M17 (25.5 km (15 miles)), M11 (62 km (39 miles)),
M9
M9
(116.5 km (72 miles)),
M8
M8
(147 km (91 miles)),
M7
M7
(185 km (115 miles)),
M6
M6
(144 km (90 miles)), M4 (62 km (39 miles)), M3 (57 km (35 miles)), M2 (13 km (8 miles)), and M1 (89 km (55 miles)). However the
Irish financial crisis The post-2008 Irish economic downturn in the Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga, Éire ), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 Counties of Ireland, counties of the island of Irel ...
brought this target into question.


National primary roads

National Primary routes form the main cross country roads in Ireland and include all motorways. This category of road is numbered from 1–50 with the prefix "N" (or "M" for motorway sections). The routes numbered N1-N11 radiate anti-clockwise from Dublin, with those in the range N12-N26 being cross-country roads and N27-N33 being newer short link roads. The N40 is the Cork Ring Road and the N50 is the Dublin Ring Road. National secondary roads (see next section) are numbered under the same scheme with higher numbers. On road signage, destinations served but not on the route in question are listed in brackets, with the connecting route also listed (see thumbnail). Northern Ireland route sections (which are classified separately according to NI schemes) are in some cases included in a theoretical complete cross-border route – for example the N3 route, which re-enters the Republic. These are listed here in brackets for completeness (and are present on southern road signage). This list ignores the sections of route reclassified as motorway (see previous section).


National secondary roads

National secondary roads fill in the rest of the main cross country routes in Ireland. They connect large towns (such as Birr) which are not served by National Primary routes, and some routes (such as N59) follow long coastal route connecting many towns. They are indicated with a "N" prefix followed by a number from 51 to 99 ( N87 is currently the highest). There are 2683.974 km (1668 miles) of national secondary roads in Ireland, making up slightly less than 50% of the entire national route (national primary and national secondary) network. National secondary routes are generally more poorly maintained than primary routes (although their quality can vary widely), but often carry more traffic than regional roads. Almost the entire network of national secondary roads is
single carriageway A single carriageway (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval E ...
, although there are some short sections of
dual carriageway A dual carriageway (British English) or divided highway (American English) is a class of highway with carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation (BrE) or median (AmE). Roads with two or more ...
on the
Tallaght ) , image_skyline = Tallaght Centre, South Dublin, 2007.jpg , image_caption = Central Tallaght , image_flag = , flag_size = , pushpin_map = Dublin#Ireland , pushpin_label_position = left , pushp ...
bypass section of the N81, on the N52 at
Dundalk Dundalk ( ; ga, Dún Dealgan , meaning "the fort of Dealgan", a Fir Bolg In medieval Irish myth, the Fir Bolg (also spelt Firbolg and Fir Bholg) are the fourth group of people to settle in Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots d ...
, on the N85 at
Ennis Ennis () is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for ...

Ennis
, on the N62 at
Athlone Athlone (; ) is a town on the border of County Roscommon and County Westmeath, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is located on the River Shannon near the southern shore of Lough Ree. It is the second most populous town in the Midlands Region, Ire ...

Athlone
and on the N71 between
Cork Cork or CORK may refer to: Materials * Cork (material), an impermeable buoyant plant product ** Cork (plug), a cylindrical or conical object used to seal a container ***Wine cork Places Ireland * Cork (city) ** Metropolitan Cork, also known as G ...
and Bandon. Typically, national secondary roads are of a similar standard or higher than regional roads although some are of lower quality than the better sections of regional roads. Many of them have been resurfaced with higher quality pavements in recent years with relatively smooth surfaces and good road markings and signposting. However, road widths and alignments are often inadequate, with many narrow and winding sections. National secondary roads generally do not bypass towns on their routes although there are a number of exceptions: the N52 bypasses
Nenagh Nenagh (, ; or simply ''An tAonach)'' meaning “The Fair of Ormond” or simply "The Fair", is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (U ...
,
Mullingar Mullingar ( ; ) is the county town of County Westmeath in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is the 3rd most populous town in the Midlands, Ireland, Midlands region, with a population of 20,928 in the 2016 census. The Counties of Meath and Wes ...
and the centre of Dundalk (as a relief road) with a further N52 bypass of
Tullamore Tullamore (; ) is the county town of County Offaly, in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. Located in the centre of the county, it is the fourth most populous town in the midlands of Ireland, midlands region with a population of 14,607 in the 2016 ce ...
planned, the N55 (along with the N3) bypasses
Cavan Cavan ( ; ) is the county town of County Cavan in Ireland. The town lies in Ulster, near the border with County Fermanagh in Northern Ireland. The town is on the main N3 road (Ireland), N3 road that links Dublin (to the south) with Enniskillen, ...
, the N56 forms part of the
DonegalDonegal may refer to: County Donegal, Ireland * County Donegal, a county in the Republic of Ireland, part of the province of Ulster * Donegal Bay, an inlet in the northwest of Ireland bordering counties Donegal, Leitrim and Sligo * Donegal (town), ...
bypass, the N61 and the N63 bypass
Roscommon Roscommon () is the county town and the largest town in County Roscommon in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is roughly in the centre of Ireland, near the meeting of the N60 road (Ireland), N60, N61 road (Ireland), N61 and N63 road (Ireland), N ...

Roscommon
, the N71 bypasses Halfway and
Skibbereen Skibbereen (; ) is a town in County Cork, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is located in West Cork on the N71 road (Ireland), N71 national secondary road. The name "Skibbereen" (sometimes shortened to "Skibb") means "little boat harbour". The Rive ...
, the N74 bypasses Cashel, the N76 bypasses Callan, the N77 forms the northern part of the
Kilkenny Kilkenny (). is a city in County Kilkenny, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is located in the South-East Region, Ireland, South-East Region and in the Provinces of Ireland, province of Leinster. It is built on both banks of the River Nore. T ...

Kilkenny
ring road, the N80 bypasses
Carlow Carlow ( ; ) is the county town of County Carlow, in the south-east of Republic of Ireland, Ireland, from Dublin. At the 2016 census, it had a combined urban and rural population of 24,272. The River Barrow flows through the town, and forms ...

Carlow
and the N85 bypasses
Ennis Ennis () is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for ...

Ennis
. When the
Fermoy Fermoy () is a town on the River Blackwater in east County Cork County Cork ( ga, Contae Chorcaí) is the largest and the southernmost county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesC ...
(Moorepark) to Kilbehenny section of the
M8
M8
was completed, the former N8 bypass of
Mitchelstown Mitchelstown () is a town in County Cork County Cork ( ga, Contae Chorcaí) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harr ...
was re-classified as the N73. Examples of national secondary roads are: * N52
Dundalk Dundalk ( ; ga, Dún Dealgan , meaning "the fort of Dealgan", a Fir Bolg In medieval Irish myth, the Fir Bolg (also spelt Firbolg and Fir Bholg) are the fourth group of people to settle in Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots d ...
via
Mullingar Mullingar ( ; ) is the county town of County Westmeath in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is the 3rd most populous town in the Midlands, Ireland, Midlands region, with a population of 20,928 in the 2016 census. The Counties of Meath and Wes ...
and Birr to
Nenagh Nenagh (, ; or simply ''An tAonach)'' meaning “The Fair of Ormond” or simply "The Fair", is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (U ...
joining M7 to
Limerick Limerick ( ; ga, Luimneach ) is a city in County Limerick County Limerick ( ga, Contae Luimnigh) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.) ...

Limerick
* N59
Galway Galway ( ; ga, Gaillimh, ) is a in the , in the of . It is the of , which is named after it. It lies on the between and , and is the on the island of Ireland and the , with a population at the 2016 Census of 79,934. Located near an ...

Galway
Clifden Clifden (, meaning "stepping stones") is a coastal town in County Galway County Galway ( ; gle, Contae na Gaillimhe) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Diction ...

Clifden
Westport Westport is the name of several communities around the world. Canada *Westport, Nova Scotia *Westport, Ontario **Westport Rideaus, local junior "B" ice hockey team **Westport/Rideau Lakes Airport *Westport, Newfoundland and Labrador Ireland *Wes ...
Bangor Erris Bangor may refer to: Geography Australia * Bangor, New South Wales * Bangor, Tasmania Canada * Bangor, Nova Scotia * Bangor, Saskatchewan France * Bangor, Morbihan Republic of Ireland * Bangor Erris, County Mayo United Kingdom Cornwall * Bang ...
Ballina
Ballysadare Ballysadare (), locally also Ballisodare, is a town in County Sligo, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is about 7 kilometres (4 miles) south of Sligo town. The town developed on an important crossing of the Owenmore River (County Sligo), Owenmor ...
* N62
Athlone Athlone (; ) is a town on the border of County Roscommon and County Westmeath, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is located on the River Shannon near the southern shore of Lough Ree. It is the second most populous town in the Midlands Region, Ire ...

Athlone
Horse and Jockey Horse and Jockey () is a village in County Tipperary County Tipperary ( ga, Contae Thiobraid Árann) is a Counties of Ireland, county in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is located in the Provinces of Ireland, province of Munster. The county ...

Horse and Jockey
* N74 CashelGolden
Tipperary Town Tipperary Town (; ) is a town and a civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and co ...
* N81
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_ ...

Dublin
Tullow Tullow (; , formerly ''Tulach Ó bhFéidhlim/ Tullowphelim'') is a market town in County Carlow, Ireland. It is located on the River Slaney where the N81 road (Ireland), N81 road intersects with the R725 road (Ireland), R725. , the population was ...

Tullow
* N86
Tralee Tralee ( ; ga, Trá Lí, ; formerly , meaning 'strand of the Lee River') is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage ...

Tralee
Dingle Dingle (Irish language, Irish: ''An Daingean'' or ''Daingean Uí Chúis'', meaning "fort of Ó Cúis") is a town in County Kerry, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. The only town on the Dingle Peninsula, it sits on the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic coast, ...

Dingle
via
Lispole Lios Póil (anglicized Lispole) is a Gaeltacht village in County Kerry, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is on the Dingle Peninsula, 8km east of the town of Dingle and 40km west of Tralee on the N86 road (Ireland), N86 National Secondary Route. Tr ...


Alternative National roads

Alternative National roads are regional roads which provide an alternative route to a national route. A large amount of national primary routes have been replaced by motorways, which certain drivers and vehicles are prohibited from using. These regional roads provide an alternative route to the motorway for these drivers. They are usually the former national road which was downgraded following the opening of the motorway. In 2010 new signage was introduced for alternative routes. They are signposted in black on a yellow background, instead of black on a white background for other regional roads. This new signage has been installed on most roads, being included when signage was replaced. Roads where the new signage has been installed include the R132 in Swords (alternative to M1), the R147 in Dunshaughlin (alternative to M3), the entire length of the R448 (alternative to M9), the R712 in Paulstown (alternative to N10) and the R772 from Rathnew to Arklow (alternative to M11).


Regional roads

Regional Roads fill in the rest of the main roads in Ireland. They connect many small towns to each other and to the national road network. There are over 11,600 kilometres (7200 miles) of regional roads. Regional roads are numbered with three digit route numbers, prefixed by "R" (e.g. R105). Route numbers range from R1xx in the north-east to R7xx in the south-east of the country, with newer short urban roads numbered R8xx and R9xx. They are signposted in black with a white background. Some of the more important regional roads such as the R136 Outer Orbital, Dublin and the R710 Waterford Outer Ring Road are dual-carriageway in whole or part. Most regional roads are however
single carriageway A single carriageway (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval E ...
roads, and many are rather narrow country roads. Regional roads are subject to a general
speed limit Road speed limits are used in most countries to set the legal maximum, middle or minimum speed at which road vehicles may travel on a given stretch of road. Speed limits are generally indicated on a traffic sign reflecting the maximum, middle o ...
of 80 km/h (50 mph) or 50 km/h (30 mph) in built-up areas. While funding for national primary roads is administered centrally by
Transport Infrastructure Ireland Transport Infrastructure Ireland ( ga, Bonneagar Iompair Éireann) is a state agency in Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Gre ...
(TII), regional and local roads are less well funded (although funding has increased in the 2000s). Local councils are responsible for these roads, as opposed to TII.


Local roads

All public roads which are not motorways, national roads or regional roads are local roads: "a public road, other than a national road or a regional road, shall be a local road". Local roads vary greatly in quality, from wide urban streets to very narrow, rural lanes, known as
boreen A boreen or bohereen (, pronounced ) is a country lane A country lane is a narrow road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), paved or otherwise improved to ...
s in Ireland. There are three types of Local road: Local Primary (local roads wider than 4 metres (13')), Local Secondary (local roads narrower than 4 metres (13')) and Local Tertiary (cul-de-sacs and other minor roads). Local roads are subject to a general
speed limit Road speed limits are used in most countries to set the legal maximum, middle or minimum speed at which road vehicles may travel on a given stretch of road. Speed limits are generally indicated on a traffic sign reflecting the maximum, middle o ...
of 80 km/h (50 mph) or 50 km/h (30 mph) in built-up areas. While this is the maximum speed allowed, drivers must adhere to the Road Traffic Act and drive with due care and attention and with regard to the road conditions. Local roads are not generally referred to by number, but are registered with a four- or five-digit "L" number, taking the form Lxxxx. It used to be rare to see these numbers on signposts (and these numbers do not appear on Ordnance Survey maps), but in 2006 the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government began a programme of new signage for regional roads that incorporates local road numbers on directional signage (see thumbnails).


Old system

The Republic of Ireland had a different road numbering system prior to the introduction of the National Route numbering system. Major roads were marked with "T" for
Trunk Road 300px, A63(T) trunk road connecting Hull to the M62 motorway in England. A trunk road, trunk highway, or strategic road is a major road, usually connecting two or more cities, ports, airports and other places, which is the recommended route fo ...
, less important roads were marked with "L" for Link Road. The first nine Trunk Roads (T1, T2, T3, T4, T4a, T5, T6, T7, T8) radiated out from Dublin (with the T8 branching off the T7 at Enniscorthy) and followed an anti-clockwise pattern. This pattern was similar to the existing anti-clockwise pattern which the routes radiating out of Dublin follow. Unlike the present system, where each road (whether N- or R-) has a unique number, under the Trunk/Link system, the L-roads were numbered separately beginning with L1. These L (for Link Road) classifications are not related to the current Lxxxx numbers for Local Roads. Confusingly, some old road signs still show the former (now obsolete) road numbers. Trunk Roads were broadly equivalent to the present National Roads, and Link Roads to the present Regional Roads. Most of the National Primary and National Secondary routes had been Trunk Roads and generally they followed the routes of these Trunk roads, albeit with a different numbering system. However, some National Primary and Secondary roads also incorporated Link Roads and unclassified roads into their routes. Furthermore, many Trunk Roads were downgraded to Regional roads, effectively 'de-trunked'. Some newer National Primary routes were built as new roads in the 1990s and therefore did not incorporate former Trunk, Link or unclassified roads into their routes.


Former major trunk roads in Ireland and current equivalents

*T1 = Dublin – north of Dundalk (Belfast). Mainly present R132, old N1; largely replaced by M1 *T2 = Dublin – north of Monaghan (Derry). Mainly present N2 road *T3 = Dublin–Sligo. Mainly present N4 road *T4 = Dublin–Galway. Mainly present N6 road (& R348). *T5 = Dublin–Limerick. Mainly present
N7 road
N7 road
*T6 = Dublin–Cork. Including parts of present N9 road, N8 road and N30 road *T7 = Dublin–Waterford. Mainly present N11 road *T8 = Enniscorthy–Rosslare. Mainly part of present N11 road and N25 road. *T11 = Cork–Sligo. Mainly present
N20 road The N20 road is a national primary road A national primary road ( ga, Bóthar príomha náisiúnta) is a road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), paved ...

N20 road
, N18 road and N17 road *T12 = Cork–Wexford. Mainly present
N25 road The N25 road is a national primary road in Republic of Ireland, Ireland, forming the route from Cork (city), Cork to Rosslare Europort via Waterford City. The road is part of the European route E30, E30 European route and a short section is also ...
*T13 = Limerick–Waterford. Mainly present N24 road *T18 = Sligo – near Strabane (Derry). Mainly present N15 road *T28 = Limerick–Tralee. Mainly present
N21 road The N21 road is a national primary road in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. The route runs from the M20 motorway (Ireland), M20 outside Limerick to Tralee with connecting roads to other parts of County Kerry. It is in length. It runs through the t ...
*T29 = Cork–Tralee. Mainly present
N22 road The N22 road is a national primary road A national primary road ( ga, Bóthar príomha náisiúnta) is a road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), pave ...
*T35 = Dublin–Cavan–Donegal. Mainly present N3 road *T77 = Dublin–Ballina. Mainly parts of present N5 road &
N26 road The N26 road is a national primary road A national primary road ( ga, Bóthar príomha náisiúnta) is a road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), paved o ...


Roads in Northern Ireland

The main roads in Northern Ireland, which connect well with those in the Republic, are classified "M"/"A"/"B" as in Great Britain. Whereas the roads in Great Britain are numbered according to a zonal system, there is no available explanation for the allocation of road numbers in Northern Ireland, though their numbering is separate from the system in
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
,
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
and
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
.


European routes

The following
European routes The international E-road network is a numbering system for roads in Europe developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The network is numbered from E1 up and its roads ...
include sections in Ireland: * E1
Larne Larne (, the name of a Gaelic Ireland, Gaelic territory) is a town on the east coast of County Antrim, Northern Ireland, with a population of 18,755 at the United Kingdom census, 2011, 2011 Census. It is a major passenger and freight Roll-on/roll ...
Belfast Belfast ( ; , ) is the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland, standing on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast. It is the 12th-largest city in the United Kingdom and the second-largest on the island of Ireland. It had a popul ...

Belfast
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_ ...

Dublin
Rosslare
Rosslare
A Coruña A Coruña (; Spanish language, Spanish: ''La Coruña'', Help:IPA/Spanish, a koˈɾuɲa historical English language, English: Corunna or The Groyne) is a city and municipality of Galicia (Spain), Galicia, Spain. It is the second most populated ...

A Coruña
Pontevedra Pontevedra (, ) is a Spanish city in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula. It is the capital of both the ''Pontevedra (comarca), Comarca'' (County) and Province of Pontevedra, and of the Rias Baixas in Galicia, Spain, Galicia. It is also the ...

Pontevedra
Valença do Minho
Valença do Minho
Vila Real de Santo António Vila Real de Santo António (, often run together as ) is a city, civil parish, and List of municipalities in Portugal, municipality in the Algarve, Portugal. The population in 2011 was 19,156, in an area of 61.25 km². It is one of the few mu ...
Huelva Huelva (, ) is a city in southwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Huelva Huelva () is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provinc ...

Huelva
Sevilla Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish In English, Castilian Spanish is the variety of Peninsular Spanish spoken in northern and central Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de ...

Sevilla
* E16
Derry Derry, officially Londonderry (), is the second-largest city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2 ...

Derry
Belfast Belfast ( ; , ) is the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland, standing on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast. It is the 12th-largest city in the United Kingdom and the second-largest on the island of Ireland. It had a popul ...

Belfast
...
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesga; gd, Glaschu) is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia'' ...

Glasgow
Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically enc ...

Edinburgh
...
Bergen Bergen (), historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national a ...

Bergen
Arna Arna may refer to: People * Arna Bontemps (1902–1973), African-American poet, novelist, librarian, and member of the Harlem Renaissance * Arna Mer-Khamis (1929–1995), Israeli Jewish political and human rights activist * Arna Selznick, Canadian ...
Voss Voss () is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordi ...

Voss
...
Lærdal Lærdal is a List of municipalities of Norway, municipality in Vestland Counties of Norway, county, Norway. It is located on the south side of the Sognefjorden in the Districts of Norway, traditional district of Sogn. The administrative center of ...
Tyin
Tyin
Fagernes is the administrative centre of the Municipalities of Norway, municipality of Nord-Aurdal, in Oppland county, Norway. It is the largest settlement in the valley of Valdres, with a population of 1,801. On 14 June 2007 the municipal council (Norw ...
Hønefoss __NOTOC__ Hønefoss is a List of cities in Norway, town and the administrative center of the municipalities of Norway, municipality of Ringerike (municipality), Ringerike in Buskerud county, Norway. Hønefoss is an industrial center of inner Østla ...
Sandvika Sandvika () is the administrative centre of the municipality of Bærum Bærum () is a municipality in the Greater Oslo Region in Norway. It is part of the electoral district and historical county of Viken (county), Viken County. The administr ...

Sandvika
Oslo Oslo ( , , or ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and small ...

Oslo
* E18Craigavon
Belfast Belfast ( ; , ) is the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland, standing on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast. It is the 12th-largest city in the United Kingdom and the second-largest on the island of Ireland. It had a popul ...

Belfast
Larne Larne (, the name of a Gaelic Ireland, Gaelic territory) is a town on the east coast of County Antrim, Northern Ireland, with a population of 18,755 at the United Kingdom census, 2011, 2011 Census. It is a major passenger and freight Roll-on/roll ...
...
Stranraer Stranraer ( , in Scotland also ; gd, An t-Sròn Reamhar ), also known as The Toon, is a town in Dumfries and Galloway Dumfries and Galloway ( sco, Dumfries an Gallowa; gd, Dùn Phrìs is Gall-Ghaidhealaibh) is one of 32 unitary council ...
Gretna
Carlisle Carlisle ( , ; from xcb, Caer Luel; gd, Cathair Luail) is a border Borders are boundaries of or legal s, such as s, , , and other . Borders are established through agreements between political or social entities that control those are ...
NewcastleNewcastle usually refers to either: *Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne (, ), often simply Newcastle, is the most populous City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in North East England. It forms the Tyneside conurbati ...

Newcastle
...
Kristiansand Kristiansand is a seaside resort city ski resort, Slovakia A resort town, often called a resort city or resort destination, is an urban area where tourism or vacationing is the primary component of the local culture and economy. A typi ...

Kristiansand
Arendal Arendal () is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subo ...

Arendal
Porsgrunn is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a per ...
Larvik Larvik () is a List of cities in Norway, town and Municipalities of Norway, municipality in Vestfold in Vestfold og Telemark Counties of Norway, county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Larvik. The municipality ...

Larvik
Sandefjord Sandefjord () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. ...

Sandefjord
Horten is a town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares an origin with the w ...
Drammen Drammen is a city and municipality in Viken (county), Viken, Norway. The port and river city of Drammen is centrally located in the south-eastern and most populated part of Norway. Drammen municipality also includes smaller towns and villages s ...

Drammen
Oslo Oslo ( , , or ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and small ...

Oslo
Askim Askim () is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and ...
Karlstad Karlstad (, ) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be de ...

Karlstad
Örebro Örebro ( , ) is a Stad (Sweden), city with 124,027 inhabitants, the seat of Örebro Municipality and the capital of Örebro County in Sweden. It is the sixth largest city in Sweden and one of the largest inland hubs of the country. It is located ...
Västerås Västerås ( , , ) is a city in central Sweden on the shore of Lake Mälaren in the province of Västmanland, west of Stockholm. The city had a population of 127,799 at the end of 2019, out of the municipal total of 154,049. Västerås is the sea ...

Västerås
Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smalle ...

Stockholm
/ Kapellskär ...
Mariehamn Mariehamn (, ; fi, Maarianhamina ; la, Portus Mariae) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or mo ...

Mariehamn
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Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ; la, Aboa; russian: Турку, formerly ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social ...

Turku
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Naantali Naantali (; sv, Nådendal) is a town in southwestern Finland, known as one of the most important tourism, tourist centres of the country at summer-time. The municipality has a population of (), and is located in the regions of Finland, region o ...
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...

Helsinki
Kotka Kotka (; lit. "eagle Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey Birds of prey, also known as raptors, include species of bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class (biology), class Aves , ch ...
– Vaalimaa – Vyborg – Saint Petersburg *European route E20, E20 – Shannon Town, Shannon –
Limerick Limerick ( ; ga, Luimneach ) is a city in County Limerick County Limerick ( ga, Contae Luimnigh) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.) ...

Limerick
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_ ...

Dublin
... Liverpool – Manchester – Leeds – Kingston upon Hull ... Esbjerg – Copenhagen – Malmö – Helsingborg – Halmstad – Gothenburg –
Örebro Örebro ( , ) is a Stad (Sweden), city with 124,027 inhabitants, the seat of Örebro Municipality and the capital of Örebro County in Sweden. It is the sixth largest city in Sweden and one of the largest inland hubs of the country. It is located ...
Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smalle ...

Stockholm
... Tallinn – Narva – Saint Petersburg *European route E30, E30 –
Cork Cork or CORK may refer to: Materials * Cork (material), an impermeable buoyant plant product ** Cork (plug), a cylindrical or conical object used to seal a container ***Wine cork Places Ireland * Cork (city) ** Metropolitan Cork, also known as G ...
Waterford Waterford ( ; from Old Norse , meaning "ram (wether) fjord") is a City status in Ireland, city in Ireland. It is in County Waterford in the South-East Region, Ireland, south-east of Ireland and is located in the Provinces of Ireland, provinc ...

Waterford
Wexford Wexford () is the county town of County Wexford, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. Wexford lies on the south side of Wexford Harbour, the estuary of the River Slaney near the southeastern corner of the Ireland, island of Ireland. The town is linked ...

Wexford
– Rosslare Harbour, Rosslare ... Fishguard – Swansea – Cardiff – Newport, Wales, Newport – Bristol – London – Colchester – Ipswich – Felixstowe ... Hook of Holland – The Hague – Gouda, South Holland, Gouda – Utrecht (city), Utrecht – Amersfoort – Oldenzaal – Osnabrück – Bad Oeynhausen – Hanover – Braunschweig – Magdeburg – Berlin – Świebodzin – Poznań – Warsaw – Brest, Belarus, Brest – Minsk – Smolensk – Moscow – Ryazan – Penza – Samara, Russia, Samara – Ufa – Chelyabinsk – Kurgan – Ishim, Tyumen Oblast, Ishim – Omsk *N8 road (Ireland), E201 –
Cork Cork or CORK may refer to: Materials * Cork (material), an impermeable buoyant plant product ** Cork (plug), a cylindrical or conical object used to seal a container ***Wine cork Places Ireland * Cork (city) ** Metropolitan Cork, also known as G ...
– Portlaoise


See also

*
Atlantic Corridor The Atlantic corridor or Atlantic motorway is a proposed road project in Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its ...
*
Dublin Port Tunnel The Dublin Tunnel (Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United King ...
*History of Roads in Ireland *
Jack Lynch Tunnel The Jack Lynch Tunnel ( Irish: ''Tollán Sheáin Uí Loingsigh'') is an immersed tube tunnel and an integral part of the N40 road (Ireland), N40 southern ring road of Cork (city), Cork in Ireland. It is named after former Taoiseach, Jack Lynch, ...
*List of Ireland-related topics *List of roads of County Mayo *Local Roads in Ireland *Motorways in the Republic of Ireland *
National primary road A national primary road ( ga, Bóthar príomha náisiúnta) is a road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot ...
*
National secondary road National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared territory. A nation is more overtly political than an ...
*British car number plates#Northern Ireland, Northern Irish Vehicle Registration Plates * Regional road *Road signs in the Republic of Ireland *Road speed limits in the Republic of Ireland *Transport in Ireland *
Transport Infrastructure Ireland Transport Infrastructure Ireland ( ga, Bonneagar Iompair Éireann) is a state agency in Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Gre ...
*Trunk Roads in Ireland *Vehicle registration plates of Ireland *List of toll roads in the Republic of Ireland


References


S.I. No. 209/1994: Roads Act, 1993 (Declaration of National Roads) Order, 1994
(revoked) * S.I. No. 49 of 1995 Roads Act, 1993 (Declaration of National Roads) Order, 1995 (revoked) * S.I. No. 347 of 1996 Roads Act, 1993 (Declaration of National Roads) Order, 1996 (revoked) * S.I. No. 26 of 2003 Roads Act, 1993 (Classification of National Roads) (Kilcock – Kinnegad Route) Order, 2003 (revoked) * S.I. No. 249 of 2004 Roads Act, 1993 (Classification of National Roads) (Fermoy, Rathcormac and Watergrass Hill) Order, 2004 (revoked) * S.I. No. 18 of 2004 Roads Act, 1993 (Classification of National Roads) (Gormanstown to Dundalk Route) Order, 2004 (revoked)
Roads Act 1993 (Classification of National Roads) Order 2006

Department of Transport


External links


Roads Service – Northern Ireland

National Roads Authority
(Republic of Ireland) * A discussion on Raidió Teilifís Éireann, RTÉ RTÉ Radio 1, Radio One's science show Quantum Leap about the quality of GPS mapping in Ireland is availabl
here
The discussion starts 8mins 17sec into the show. It was aired o

Requires RealPlayer. {{DEFAULTSORT:Roads in Ireland Roads in Ireland, Lists of roads in Ireland, Road transport in Ireland Roads in Northern Ireland, Roads in the Republic of Ireland,