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Queens is a
borough of New York City New York City is composed of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. Each borough is coextensive with a respective Administrative divisions of New York (state)#County, county of New York (state), New York State. ...
, coextensive with Queens County, in the
U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with the . Due to this shared sovereignty, are both of t ...
of
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
. Located on
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic ...
, it is the largest borough of
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
in area; it is bracketed by the borough of
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the te ...

Brooklyn
at the western tip of Long Island to its west and Nassau County to the east. Queens also shares water borders with the boroughs of
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
,
the Bronx The Bronx () is a borough of New York City New York City is composed of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. Each borough is coextensive with a respective Administrative divisions of New York (state)#Count ...
, and
Staten Island Staten Island () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use o ...

Staten Island
(via the
Rockaways The Rockaway Peninsula, commonly referred to as The Rockaways or Rockaway, is the name of a peninsula within the New York City borough (New York City), borough of Queens on Long Island, New York (state), New York. Relatively isolated from Manhat ...
). With a population of 2,405,464 as of the 2020 census, Queens is the second most populous county in New York State, second to Kings County (Brooklyn), and is therefore also the second most populous of the five New York City boroughs. Were it a city, Queens would rank as the fourth most-populous in the U.S.. Approximately 47 percent of the residents of Queens are
foreign-born Foreign-born (also non-native) people are those born outside of their country of residence. Foreign born are often non-citizens, but many are naturalized citizens of the country in which they live, and others are citizens by descent, typically thr ...
. Queens is the most diverse place on Earth and is one of the most
ethnically diverse The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. ...
counties in the United States. Queens was established in 1683 as one of the original 12 counties of the
Province of New York The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony A proprietary colony was a type of English colony mostly in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all w ...
. The settlement was presumably named for the English Queen
Catherine of Braganza Katherine, also spelled Catherine, and Catherina, other variations are feminine Given name, names. They are popular in Christian countries because of their derivation from the name of one of the first Christian saints, Catherine of Alexandria. ...

Catherine of Braganza
(1638–1705). From 1683 to 1899, the County of Queens included what is now Nassau County. Queens became a borough during the
consolidation of New York City The City of Greater New York was the term used by many politicians and scholars for the expanded City of New York New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the most populous city in the United States The United Stat ...
in 1898, combining the separate towns of
Long Island City Long Island City (LIC) is a residential and commercial neighborhood on the extreme western tip of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New Y ...

Long Island City
, Newtown,
Flushing Flushing may refer to: Places * Flushing, Cornwall, a village in the United Kingdom * Flushing, Queens, New York City ** Flushing Bay, a bay off the north shore of Queens ** Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), a community in Queens ** Flushing M ...
,
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...
, and western Hempstead. With the exception of Hempstead, all are today considered neighborhoods of Queens. Queens has the most diversified economy of the five boroughs of New York City. It is home to two of New York City's airports:
John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the ...
and . Landmarks in Queens which support its economy include
Flushing Meadows–Corona Park Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, often referred to as Flushing Meadows Park, or simply Flushing Meadows, is a public park in the northern part of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state ...

Flushing Meadows–Corona Park
;
Citi Field Citi Field is a baseball park located in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in New York City. Completed in 2009, it is the home field of the New York Mets of the National League East division of Major League Baseball. The stadium was built as a repla ...

Citi Field
, home to the
New York Mets The New York Mets are an American professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and are paid to play for a specific team or club system. It is played in baseball league, lea ...
baseball team; the
USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center The USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center is a stadium complex within Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, New York City, United States. It has been the home of the U.S. Open (tennis), US Open Grand Slam (tennis), Grand Slam tennis to ...
, site of the U.S. Open tennis tournament;
Kaufman Astoria Studios The Kaufman Astoria Studios is a film studio located in the Astoria section of the New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. ...
;
Silvercup Studios Silvercup Studios is one of the largest film and television production facilities in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States ...

Silvercup Studios
; and the
Aqueduct Racetrack Aqueduct Racetrack is a Thoroughbred horse racing facility and casino in the South Ozone Park, Queens, South Ozone Park and Jamaica, Queens, Jamaica neighborhoods of Queens, New York City, United States. Aqueduct is the only racetrack located w ...

Aqueduct Racetrack
.
Flushing Flushing may refer to: Places * Flushing, Cornwall, a village in the United Kingdom * Flushing, Queens, New York City ** Flushing Bay, a bay off the north shore of Queens ** Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), a community in Queens ** Flushing M ...
is undergoing rapid
gentrification Gentrification is a process of changing the character of a neighborhood through the influx of more affluent residents and businesses. It is a common and controversial topic in politics and in urban planning. Gentrification often increases th ...

gentrification
with investment by Chinese transnational entities, while
Long Island City Long Island City (LIC) is a residential and commercial neighborhood on the extreme western tip of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New Y ...
is undergoing gentrification secondary to its proximity across the
East River The East River is a salt water in . The waterway, which is actually not a despite its name, connects on its south end to on its north end. It separates the borough of on from on the n mainland, and also divides from Queens and , also o ...

East River
from Manhattan. The borough has diverse housing, ranging from high-rise apartment buildings in some areas of western and central Queens, such as Ozone Park, Jackson Heights, Flushing,
Astoria Astoria may refer to: Places United States * Astoria, Illinois * Astoria, Missouri * Astoria, Queens, neighborhood in New York City * Astoria, Oregon * Astoria, South Dakota * Astoria Township, Fulton County, Illinois Other places * Astoria ...
, and Long Island City, to neighborhoods with many low-rise structures in the eastern part of the borough.


History


Colonial and post-colonial history

The first European settlement in the region were the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
, who established the colony of
New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonl ...
. The first settlements were established in 1635 followed by further settlement at
Maspeth Maspeth is a residential and commercial community in the borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although ...
in 1642 (ultimately unsuccessful), and Vlissingen (now
Flushing Flushing may refer to: Places * Flushing, Cornwall, a village in the United Kingdom * Flushing, Queens, New York City ** Flushing Bay, a bay off the north shore of Queens ** Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), a community in Queens ** Flushing M ...
) in 1645. Other early settlements included Newtown (now Elmhurst) in 1652 and
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...
in 1655. However, these towns were mostly inhabited by English settlers from
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
via eastern
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic ...
( Suffolk County) who were subject to Dutch law. After the capture of the colony by the English and its subsequent renaming as ''New York'' in 1664, the area (and all of Long Island) became known as
Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the most northern area of England England ...
. The
Flushing Remonstrance 200 px, U.S. Postage Stamp commemorating religious freedom and the Flushing Remonstrance. The Flushing Remonstrance was a 1657 petition to Director-General of New Netherland Peter Stuyvesant, in which some thirty residents of the small settlement ...
signed by colonists in 1657 is considered a precursor to the
United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or orga ...

United States Constitution
's provision on freedom of religion in the
Bill of Rights A bill of rights, sometimes called a declaration of rights or a charter of rights, is a list of the most important rights Rights are legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental ...

Bill of Rights
. The signers protested the Dutch colonial authorities' persecution of
Quakers Quakers are people who belong to a historically Protestant Christian Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Ref ...

Quakers
in what is today the borough of Queens. Originally, Queens County included the adjacent area now comprising Nassau County. It was an original county of New York State, one of twelve created on November 1, 1683. The county is assumed to have been named after
Catherine of Braganza Katherine, also spelled Catherine, and Catherina, other variations are feminine Given name, names. They are popular in Christian countries because of their derivation from the name of one of the first Christian saints, Catherine of Alexandria. ...

Catherine of Braganza
, since she was queen of England at the time (she was Portugal's royal princess Catarina, daughter of King
John IV of Portugal John IV ( pt, João, ; 19 March 1604 – 6 November 1656), List of monarchs by nickname, nicknamed John the Restorer ( pt, João o Restaurador), was the List of Portuguese monarchs, King of Portugal whose reign, lasting from 1640 until his death, ...
). The county was founded alongside (
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the te ...

Brooklyn
, which was named after her husband, King Charles II), and (
Staten Island Staten Island () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use o ...

Staten Island
, named after his illegitimate son, ). However, the namesake is disputed. While Catherine's title seems the most likely namesake, no historical evidence of official declaration has been found. On October 7, 1691, all counties in the
Colony of New York In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of politics, political activities, political thoughts, political behavior, and ...
were redefined. Queens gained North and South Brother Islands as well as Huletts Island (today known as
Rikers Island Rikers Island is a island in the East River The East River is a salt water Estuary, tidal estuary in New York City. The waterway, which is actually not a river despite its name, connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island S ...

Rikers Island
). On December 3, 1768, Queens gained other islands in Long Island Sound that were not already assigned to a county but that did not abut on
Westchester County Westchester County is located in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North ...

Westchester County
(today's
Bronx County The Bronx () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the ter ...
). Queens played a minor role in the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
, as compared to Brooklyn, where the
Battle of Long Island The Battle of Long Island, also known as the Battle of Brooklyn and the Battle of Brooklyn Heights, was an action of the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and t ...

Battle of Long Island
was largely fought. Queens, like the rest of what became New York City and Long Island, remained under British occupation after the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and was occupied throughout most of the rest of the
Revolutionary WarRevolutionary War(s) may refer to: * American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the armed conflict between Great Britain and 13 of its North American colonies, which had declared themselves the independent United States of America * French Revolution ...
. Under the
Quartering Act The Quartering Acts were two or more Acts of British Parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assem ...
, British soldiers used, as
barracks Barracks are usually a group of long buildings built to house military personnel or laborers. The English word comes via French from an old Spanish word "barraca" (hut), originally referring to temporary shelters or huts for various people and ani ...

barracks
, the public inns and uninhabited buildings belonging to Queens residents. Even though many residents opposed unannounced quartering, they supported the British crown. The quartering of soldiers in private homes, except in times of war, was banned by the
Third Amendment to the United States Constitution The Third Amendment (Amendment III) to the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. This founding document, originally comprising seven articles, delineates t ...
.
Nathan Hale Nathan Hale (June 6, 1755 – September 22, 1776) was an American Patriot, soldier and spy for the Continental Army The Continental Army was the army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" emi ...

Nathan Hale
was captured by the British on the shore of
Flushing Bay Flushing Bay is a tidal embayment A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay. A large bay is usually called a Gulf (geography), gulf, sea, sound ...

Flushing Bay
and
hanged Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose A noose is a loop at the end of a rope in which the knot tightens under load and can be loosened without untying the knot. The knot can be used to secure a rope to a post, pole, or animal but ...

hanged
in
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
. From 1683 until 1784, Queens County consisted of five towns: Flushing, Hempstead,
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...
, Newtown, and Oyster Bay. On April 6, 1784, a sixth town, the
Town of North Hempstead The Town of North Hempstead is one of three Administrative divisions of New York#Town, towns in Nassau County, New York, Nassau County, New York (state), New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town population was 226,322. The town oc ...
, was formed through secession by the northern portions of the Town of Hempstead. The seat of the county government was located first in Jamaica, but the courthouse was torn down by the British during the American Revolution to use the materials to build barracks. After the war, various buildings in Jamaica temporarily served as courthouse and jail until a new building was erected about 1787 (and later completed) in an area near Mineola (now in Nassau County) known then as Clowesville. The 1850 United States census was the first in which the population of the three western towns exceeded that of the three eastern towns that are now part of Nassau County. Concerns were raised about the condition and distance of the old courthouse, and several sites were in contention for the construction of a new one. In 1870,
Long Island City Long Island City (LIC) is a residential and commercial neighborhood on the extreme western tip of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New Y ...
split from the Town of Newtown, incorporating itself as a city, consisting of what had been the village of Astoria and some unincorporated areas within the town of Newtown. Around 1874, the seat of county government was moved to Long Island City from Mineola. On March 1, 1860, the eastern border between Queens County (later Nassau County) and Suffolk County was redefined with no discernible change. On June 8, 1881, North Brother Island was transferred to
New York County Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

New York County
. On May 8, 1884,
Rikers Island Rikers Island is a island in the East River The East River is a salt water Estuary, tidal estuary in New York City. The waterway, which is actually not a river despite its name, connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island S ...

Rikers Island
was transferred to New York County. In 1886, Lloyd's Neck, which was then part of the town of Oyster Bay and had earlier been known as Queens Village, was set off and separated from Queens County and annexed to the town of Huntington in Suffolk County. On April 16, 1964, South Brother Island was transferred to Bronx County.


Incorporation as borough

The New York City borough of Queens was authorized on May 4, 1897, by a vote of the
New York State Legislature The New York State Legislature consists of the two houses that act as the state legislature A state legislature is a Legislature, legislative branch or body of a State (country subdivision), political subdivision in a Federalism, federal syste ...
after an 1894 referendum on consolidation. The eastern of Queens that became Nassau County was partitioned on January 1, 1899. Queens Borough was established on January 1, 1898. "The city of
Long Island City Long Island City (LIC) is a residential and commercial neighborhood on the extreme western tip of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New Y ...

Long Island City
, the towns of Newtown,
Flushing Flushing may refer to: Places * Flushing, Cornwall, a village in the United Kingdom * Flushing, Queens, New York City ** Flushing Bay, a bay off the north shore of Queens ** Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), a community in Queens ** Flushing M ...
and
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...
, and that part of the town of Hempstead, in the county of Queens, which is westerly of a straight line drawn through the middle of the channel between Rockaway Beach and Shelter Island, in the county of Queens, to the Atlantic Ocean" was annexed to New York City, dissolving all former municipal governments (
Long Island City Long Island City (LIC) is a residential and commercial neighborhood on the extreme western tip of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New Y ...

Long Island City
, the county government, all towns, and all villages) within the new borough. The areas of Queens County that were not part of the consolidation plan, consisting of the towns of North Hempstead and Oyster Bay, and the major remaining portion of the Town of Hempstead, remained part of Queens County until they seceded to form the new Nassau County on January 1, 1899. At this point, the boundaries of Queens County and the Borough of Queens became coterminous. With consolidation, Jamaica once again became the county seat, though county offices now extend to nearby
Kew Gardens Kew Gardens is a botanic garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the ...
also. In 1899, New York City conducted a to determine the exact border of Queens between the Rockaways and
Lawrence Lawrence may refer to: Education Colleges and universities * Lawrence Technological University Lawrence Technological University (LTU), frequently referred to as Lawrence Tech, is a private university Private universities (and private colleg ...
. This proved difficult because the border was defined as "middle of the channel between Rockaway Beach and Shelter Island" (now called Long Beach Island), and that particular channel had closed up by 1899. The surveyors had to determine where the channel had been when the consolidation law was written in 1894. The surveyors did so in part by speaking with local fishermen and oystermen who knew the area well. From 1905 to 1908 the
Long Island Rail Road The Long Island Rail Road , often abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of New York (state), New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County, New York, Suffolk Cou ...

Long Island Rail Road
in Queens became electrified. Transportation to and from
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
, previously by ferry or via bridges in Brooklyn, opened up with the
Queensboro Bridge The Queensboro Bridge, officially named the Ed Koch Queensboro Bridge, is a cantilever bridge A cantilever bridge is a bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a bo ...

Queensboro Bridge
finished in 1909, and with railway tunnels under the
East River The East River is a salt water in . The waterway, which is actually not a despite its name, connects on its south end to on its north end. It separates the borough of on from on the n mainland, and also divides from Queens and , also o ...

East River
in 1910. From 1915 onward, much of Queens was connected to the
New York City Subway The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the New York City, City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, an affiliate agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA). Opened on Octobe ...

New York City Subway
system. With the 1915 construction of the
Steinway Tunnel The Steinway Tunnel is a pair of tubes carrying the IRT Flushing Line () of the New York City Subway The New York City Subway is a rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, ...
carrying the
IRT Flushing Line The IRT Flushing Line is a rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn Rapid transit in Germany consists of four U-Bahn systems and fourteen S-Bahn systems. The U-Bahn ...
between Queens and Manhattan, and the robust expansion of the use of the
automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on Track (rail transport), rails (such as trains o ...

automobile
, the population of Queens more than doubled in the 1920s, from 469,042 in 1920 to 1,079,129 in 1930. In later years, Queens was the site of the
1939 New York World's Fair The 1939–40 New York World's Fair was a world's fair A world's fair is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations. These exhibitions vary in character and are held in different parts of the world at ...
and the
1964 New York World's Fair The 1964/1965 New York World's Fair was a world's fair that held over 140 pavilions, 110 restaurants, for 80 nations (hosted by 37), 24 US states, and over 45 corporations to build exhibits or attractions at Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Quee ...
.
LaGuardia Airport LaGuardia Airport is a civil airport in East Elmhurst, Queens, East Elmhurst, Queens, New York City. Covering in its present form, the facility was established in 1929 and began operating as public airport in 1939. It is named after former F ...

LaGuardia Airport
, in northern Queens, opened in 1939. Idlewild Airport, in southern Queens and now called
JFK Airport John F. Kennedy International Airport (colloquially referred to as JFK Airport) is an international airport in Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest ...
, opened in 1948. In one of several notable incidents,
TWA Flight 800 Trans World Airlines Flight 800 (TWA 800) was a Boeing 747-100 that exploded and crashed into the Atlantic Ocean near East Moriches, New York, on July 17, 1996, at about 8:31 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time, EDT, 12 minutes after takeoff from Joh ...
took off from the airport on July 17, 1996. In another,
American Airlines Flight 587 American Airlines Flight 587 was a regularly scheduled international passenger flight from John F. Kennedy International Airport to Las Américas International Airport in Santo Domingo , total_type = Total , population_density_km2 = auto , ...
took off from the latter airport on November 12, 2001, but ended up crashing in Queens' Belle Harbor area, killing 265 people. In late October 2012, much of Queens' Breezy Point area was destroyed by a massive six-alarm fire caused by
Hurricane Sandy Hurricane Sandy (unofficially referred to as Superstorm Sandy) was the deadliest, the most destructive, and the strongest tropical cyclone, hurricane of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm inflicted nearly $70 billion (2012 USD) ...
.


Geography

Queens is located on the far western portion of geographic
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic ...
and includes a few smaller islands, most of which are in
Jamaica Bay Image:Waterways New York City Map Julius Schorzman.png, 250px, The main waterways surrounding New York City. 1. Hudson River, 2. East River, 3. Long Island Sound, 4. Newark Bay, 5. Upper New York Bay, 6. Lower New York Bay, 7. Jamaica Bay, 8. Atlan ...

Jamaica Bay
, forming part of the
Gateway National Recreation Area Gateway National Recreation Area is a U.S. National Recreation Area in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With an e ...
, which in turn is one of the
National Parks#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state dec ...
of New York Harbor. According to the
United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, ...
, Queens County has a total area of , of which is land and (39%) is water.
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the te ...

Brooklyn
, the only other New York City borough on geographic Long Island, lies just south and west of Queens, with
Newtown Creek Newtown Creek, a long tributary of the East River The East River is a salt water tidal estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connec ...
, an
estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed Coast, coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime envir ...

estuary
that flows into the
East River The East River is a salt water in . The waterway, which is actually not a despite its name, connects on its south end to on its north end. It separates the borough of on from on the n mainland, and also divides from Queens and , also o ...

East River
, forming part of the border. To the west and north is the East River, across which is
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
to the west and
The Bronx The Bronx () is a borough of New York City New York City is composed of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. Each borough is coextensive with a respective Administrative divisions of New York (state)#Count ...
to the north. Nassau County is east of Queens on Long Island.
Staten Island Staten Island () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use o ...

Staten Island
is southwest of Brooklyn, and shares only a three-mile-long water border (in the Outer Bay) with Queens. North of Queens are
Flushing Bay Flushing Bay is a tidal embayment A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay. A large bay is usually called a Gulf (geography), gulf, sea, sound ...

Flushing Bay
and the
Flushing River The Flushing River, also known as Flushing Creek, is a waterway that flows northward through the Boroughs of New York City, borough of Queens in New York City, mostly within Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, emptying into the Flushing Bay and the ...

Flushing River
, connecting to the
East River The East River is a salt water in . The waterway, which is actually not a despite its name, connects on its south end to on its north end. It separates the borough of on from on the n mainland, and also divides from Queens and , also o ...

East River
. The East River opens into
Long Island Sound Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between ri ...

Long Island Sound
. The midsection of Queens is crossed by the created by the
Wisconsin Glacier The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsin glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex. This advance included the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, which nucleated in the northern North American Cordill ...
. The
Rockaway Peninsula The Rockaway Peninsula, commonly referred to as The Rockaways or Rockaway, is the name of a peninsula within the New York City borough (New York City), borough of Queens on Long Island, New York (state), New York. Relatively isolated from Manhat ...
, the southernmost part of all of Queens, sits between Jamaica Bay and the , featuring of beaches.


Climate

Under the
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climate science, climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by ...
, using the coldest month (January) isotherm, Queens and the rest of New York City have a
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography Geograp ...
(Cfa) with partial shielding from the
Appalachian Mountains The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a mountain range, system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician, Ordovician Period. They once reache ...

Appalachian Mountains
and moderating influences from the . Queens receives precipitation throughout the year, with an average of per year. In an average year, there will be 44 days with either moderate or heavy rain. An average winter will have 22 days with some snowfall, of which nine days have at least of snowfall. Summer is typically hot, humid, and wet. An average year will have 17 days with a high temperature of or warmer.Climatological Report (Annual): LaGuardia NY
. ''National Weather Service''. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
In an average year, there are 14 days on which the temperature does not go above all day. Spring and autumn can vary from chilly to very warm. The highest temperature ever recorded at
LaGuardia Airport LaGuardia Airport is a civil airport in East Elmhurst, Queens, East Elmhurst, Queens, New York City. Covering in its present form, the facility was established in 1929 and began operating as public airport in 1939. It is named after former F ...

LaGuardia Airport
was on July 3, 1966. The highest temperature ever recorded at
John F. Kennedy International Airport John F. Kennedy International Airport (colloquially referred to as JFK Airport) is an international airport in Queens, New York City, and one of the primary airports serving New York City. The airport is the busiest international air passeng ...
was , also on July 3, 1966.Climatological Report (Annual): LaGuardia NY
. ''National Weather Service''. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
LaGuardia Airport's record-low temperature was on February 15, 1943, the effect of which was exacerbated by a shortage of
heating oil Heating oil is any petroleum product Petroleum products are materials derived from crude oil (petroleum Petroleum (), also known as crude oil and oil, is a #Latent heat of vaporization, naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found ...
and
coal Coal is a combustible , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , ...

coal
. John F. Kennedy International Airport's record-low temperature was , on February 8, 1963, and January 21, 1985. On January 24, 2016, of snow fell, which is the record in Queens.
Tornado A tornado is a violently rotating column of air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmos ...

Tornado
es are generally rare; the most recent tornado, an EF0, touched down in College Point on August 3, 2018, causing minor damage. Before that, there was a tornado in Breezy Point on September 8, 2012, which damaged the roofs of some homes,< and an EF1 tornado in
Flushing Flushing may refer to: Places * Flushing, Cornwall, a village in the United Kingdom * Flushing, Queens, New York City ** Flushing Bay, a bay off the north shore of Queens ** Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), a community in Queens ** Flushing M ...
on September 26, 2010.


Neighborhoods

Four
United States Postal Service The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a te ...
postal zones serve Queens, based roughly on those serving the towns in existence at the consolidation of the five boroughs into New York City: Long Island City (
ZIP code#REDIRECT ZIP Code A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service (USPS). Introduced in 1963, the basic format consisted of five digits. In 1983, an extended ZIP+4 code was introduced; it included the five digits of the ZIP ...
s starting with 111), Jamaica (114), Flushing (113), and
Far Rockaway Far Rockaway is a neighborhood on the eastern part of the Rockaway, Queens, Rockaway peninsula in the New York City borough (New York City), borough of Queens. It is the easternmost section of the Rockaways. The neighborhood extends from Beach 32 ...
(116). Also, the Floral Park post office (110), based in Nassau County, serves a small part of northeastern Queens. Each of these main post offices has neighborhood stations with individual ZIP codes, and unlike the other boroughs, these station names are often used in addressing letters. These ZIP codes do not always reflect traditional neighborhood names and boundaries; "
East Elmhurst East Elmhurst is a residential neighborhood in the northwest section of the New York City Borough (New York City), borough of Queens. It is bounded to the south by Jackson Heights, Queens, Jackson Heights and Corona, Queens, Corona, to the north a ...
", for example, was largely coined by the USPS and is not an official community. Most neighborhoods have no solid boundaries. The Forest Hills and Rego Park neighborhoods, for instance, overlap. Residents of Queens often closely identify with their neighborhood rather than with the borough or city. The borough is a patchwork of dozens of unique neighborhoods, each with its own distinct identity:
  1. Flushing Flushing may refer to: Places * Flushing, Cornwall, a village in the United Kingdom * Flushing, Queens, New York City ** Flushing Bay, a bay off the north shore of Queens ** Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), a community in Queens ** Flushing M ...
    , one of the largest neighborhoods in Queens, has a large and growing
    Asian Asian may refer to: * Items from or related to the continent of Asia: ** Asian people, people in or descending from Asia ** Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia ** Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asi ...
    community. The community consists of
    Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
    ,
    Koreans Koreans ( South Korean: , , North Korean: , , ; see names of Korea There are various names of Korea in use today, all derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties. The modern English name "Korea Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") ...
    , and
    South Asian South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is a landmass variously described as part of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention ( ...
    s. Asians have now expanded eastward along the Northern Boulevard axis through Murray Hill, Whitestone, Bayside, Douglaston–Little Neck, and eventually into adjacent Nassau County. These neighborhoods historically contained
    Italian American Italian Americans ( it, italoamericani or ''italo-americani'', ) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Atto ...
    s and Greeks, as well as
    Latino American Hispanic and Latino Americans ( es, Americanos hispanos y latinos, pt, Americanos hispânicos e latinos) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the Unite ...
    s. The busy intersection of
    Main Street Main Street is a metonym Metonymy () is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept. Etymology The words ''metonymy'' and ''metonym'' come from the Greek ...
    ,
    Kissena Boulevard Kissena Boulevard is a thoroughfare spanning the Flushing, Queens, Flushing and Pomonok, Queens, Pomonok neighborhoods of the borough (New York City), borough of Queens in New York City, extending from Main Street, Queens, Main Street in the C ...
    , and 41st Avenue defines the center of
    Downtown Flushing There are multiple Chinatowns in the borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, off ...
    and the
    Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠) There are multiple Chinatowns in the United States, Chinatowns in the borough (New York City), borough of Queens in New York City. The original Queens Chinatown emerged in Flushing, Queens, Flushing, initially as a satellite of the original China ...
    , known as the "Chinese
    Times Square Times Square is a major commercial intersection, tourist destination, entertainment center, and in the section of , at the junction of and . Brightly lit by numerous billboards and advertisements, it stretches from West to West Streets, an ...

    Times Square
    " or the "Chinese
    Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

    Manhattan
    ". The segment of Main Street between Kissena Boulevard and
    Roosevelt Avenue Roosevelt Avenue and Greenpoint Avenue are main thoroughfares in the New York City Borough (New York City), boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn. Roosevelt Avenue begins at 48th Street and Queens Boulevard in the neighborhood of Sunnyside, Queens, S ...
    , punctuated by the
    Long Island Rail Road The Long Island Rail Road , often abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of New York (state), New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County, New York, Suffolk Cou ...

    Long Island Rail Road
    trestle Trestle or Trestles may refer to: * Structures and structural elements ** Trestle support, the structural element that supports a trestle bridge, trestle desk, trestle table, or similar structures ** Trestle bridge, a bridge composed of trestle sup ...

    trestle
    overpass, represents the cultural heart of the Flushing Chinatown. Housing over 25,000 individuals born in China alone,
    Flushing Flushing may refer to: Places * Flushing, Cornwall, a village in the United Kingdom * Flushing, Queens, New York City ** Flushing Bay, a bay off the north shore of Queens ** Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), a community in Queens ** Flushing M ...
    has become home to one of the largest Chinatowns, representing the largest Chinese population of any U.S. municipality other than New York City in total.
  2. Howard Beach Howard Beach is a neighborhood in the southwestern portion of the New York City Borough (New York City), borough of Queens. It is bordered to the north by the Belt Parkway and Conduit Avenue in Ozone Park, Queens, Ozone Park, to the south by Jama ...
    , Whitestone, and Middle Village are home to large Italian American populations.
  3. Ozone Park and
    South Ozone Park South Ozone Park is a neighborhood in the southwestern section of the New York City borough (New York City), borough of Queens. It is just north of John F. Kennedy International Airport, between Aqueduct Racetrack to the west and the Van Wyck Expres ...
    have large Italian,
    Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano) refers to people, cultures Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and B ...
    , and Guyanese populations.
  4. Rockaway Beach has a large
    Irish American Irish Americans or Hiberno Americans ( ga, Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland. About 32 million Americans — 9.7% of the total population — identified as being Irish in the 2019 American Commu ...
    population.
  5. Astoria Astoria may refer to: Places United States * Astoria, Illinois * Astoria, Missouri * Astoria, Queens, neighborhood in New York City * Astoria, Oregon * Astoria, South Dakota * Astoria Township, Fulton County, Illinois Other places * Astoria ...
    , in the northwest, is traditionally home to one of the largest
    Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
    populations outside
    Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

    Greece
    . It also has large
    Spanish American Spanish Americans ( es, españoles estadounidenses, ''hispanoestadounidenses'', or ''hispanonorteamericanos'') are Americans Americans are the and of the .; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, 494 n.3 (3d Cir. 2018) (" and ...
    and
    Italian American Italian Americans ( it, italoamericani or ''italo-americani'', ) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Atto ...
    communities, and is home to a growing population of immigrants from the Middle East, South Asia, the
    Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rathe ...

    Balkans
    as well as young professionals from Manhattan. Nearby
    Long Island City Long Island City (LIC) is a residential and commercial neighborhood on the extreme western tip of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New Y ...

    Long Island City
    is a major commercial center and the home to , the largest housing project in North America.
  6. Maspeth Maspeth is a residential and commercial community in the borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although ...
    and Ridgewood are home to many Eastern European immigrants such as
    Romanian Romanian may refer to: *anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Euro ...
    ,
    Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
    ,
    Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refer to: ** Serbian language ...
    ,
    Albanian Albanian may refer to: *Pertaining to Albania in Southeast Europe; in particular: **Albanians, an ethnic group native to the Balkans **Albanian language **Albanian culture **Demographics of Albania, includes other ethnic groups within the country ...

    Albanian
    , and other Slavic populations. Ridgewood also has a large Hispanic population.
  7. Jackson Heights and Elmhurst make up a conglomeration of
    Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano) refers to people, cultures Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and B ...
    ,
    Asian Asian may refer to: * Items from or related to the continent of Asia: ** Asian people, people in or descending from Asia ** Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia ** Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asi ...
    ,
    Tibetan Tibetan may mean: * of, from, or related to Tibet * Tibetan people, an ethnic group * Tibetan language: ** Classical Tibetan, the classical language used also as a contemporary written standard ** Standard Tibetan, the most widely used spoken dialec ...
    , and
    South Asian South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is a landmass variously described as part of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention ( ...
    communities. Jackson Heights is also known as "Little Colombia" thanks to the gastronomical and demographic impact of Colombian people.
  8. Woodside is home to a large
    Filipino American Filipino Americans ( fil, Mga Pilipinong Amerikano) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General'' ...

    Filipino American
    community and has a " Little Manila" as well a large
    Irish American Irish Americans or Hiberno Americans ( ga, Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland. About 32 million Americans — 9.7% of the total population — identified as being Irish in the 2019 American Commu ...
    population. Many Filipino Americans live in Hollis and .
  9. Richmond Hill, in the south, is often thought of as "Little Guyana" for its large community, as well as Punjab Avenue (ਪੰਜਾਬ ਐਵੇਨਿਊ), or , for its high concentration of
    Punjabi people The Punjabis (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as ...

    Punjabi people
    .
  10. Rego Park, Forest Hills,
    Kew Gardens Kew Gardens is a botanic garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the ...
    , and
    Kew Gardens Hills Kew Gardens Hills is a neighborhood in the middle of the New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2019 po ...
    have traditionally large
    Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

    Jewish
    populations (historically from
    Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

    Germany
    and
    Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical reg ...

    Eastern Europe
    ; though more recent immigrants are from
    Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

    Israel
    ,
    Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

    Iran
    , and the former
    Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
    ). These neighborhoods are also known for large and growing Asian communities, mainly immigrants from
    China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

    China
    .
  11. Jamaica Estates, Jamaica Hills,
    HillcrestHillcrest may refer to: Places Australia *Hillcrest, Queensland, a suburb of Logan City *Hillcrest, South Australia, suburb of Adelaide Canada *Hillcrest, Alberta, also known as Hillcrest Mines *Hillcrest, Norfolk County, Ontario, an unincorporat ...
    ,
    Fresh Meadows Fresh Meadows is a neighborhood in the northeastern section of the New York City borough (New York City), borough of Queens. Fresh Meadows used to be part of the broader town of Flushing, Queens, Flushing and is bordered to the north by the Horace ...
    , and Hollis Hills are also populated with many people of Jewish background. Many Asian families reside in parts of Fresh Meadows as well.
  12. Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...
    is home to large
    African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that ...

    African American
    ,
    Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
    , and
    Central American Central America ( es, América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North and South America South America is a c ...
    populations. There are also middle-class African American and Caribbean neighborhoods such as Saint Albans, ,
    Cambria Heights Cambria Heights is a residential neighborhood in the southeastern portion of the New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With ...
    , Springfield Gardens, Rosedale, Laurelton, and Briarwood along east and southeast Queens.
  13. Bellerose and Floral Park, originally home to many Irish Americans, is home to a growing South Asian population, predominantly
    Indian American Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are citizens of the United States with ancestry from India. The U.S. Census Bureau, United States Census Bureau uses the term Asian Indian to avoid confusion with Native Americans in the United States, Nativ ...
    s.
  14. Corona and Corona Heights, once considered the "Little Italy" of Queens, was a predominantly Italian community with a strong African American community in the northern portion of Corona and adjacent
    East Elmhurst East Elmhurst is a residential neighborhood in the northwest section of the New York City Borough (New York City), borough of Queens. It is bounded to the south by Jackson Heights, Queens, Jackson Heights and Corona, Queens, Corona, to the north a ...
    . From the 1920s through the 1960s, Corona remained a close-knit neighborhood. Corona today has the highest concentration of Latinos of any Queens neighborhood, with an increasing Chinese American population, located between Elmhurst and Flushing.


Demographics

At the 2020 census, 2,405,464 people lived in Queens. In 2018's
American Community Survey The American Community Survey (ACS) is a demographics survey program conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. It regularly gathers information previously contained only in the long form of the decennial census, such as ancestry, citizenship, educati ...
, the population of Queens was estimated by the
United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, ...
to have increased to 2,278,906, a rise of 2.2%. Queens' estimated population represented 27.1% of New York City's population of 8,398,748; 29.6% of Long Island's population of 7,701,172; and 11.7% of New York State's population of 19,542,209. The 2019 estimates reported a decline to 2,253,858. In 2018, there were 865,878 housing units, and 777,904 households, 2.97 persons per household, and a median value of $481,300. There was an owner-occupancy rate of 44.5. In the
2010 United States census The United States Census of 2010 was the twenty-third United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in ...
, Queens recorded a population of 2,230,722. There were 780,117 households enumerated, with an average of 2.82 persons per household. The
population density Population density (in agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise tr ...

population density
was 20,465.3 inhabitants per square mile (7,966.9/km2). There were 835,127 housing units at an average density of 7,661.7 per square mile (2,982.6/km2). The racial makeup of the county in 2010 was 39.7%
White White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue). It is the color of snow, chalk, and milk, and is the opposite of black. White objects fully diffuse reflection, reflect and scattering, scatter all the visible spectrum, visible wa ...
, 19.1%
Black Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absorption (chemistry), diffusion of particles of gas or liquid into liquid or solid materials *Absorption (skin), a rout ...
or
African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that ...
, 0.7%
Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
, 22.9%
Asian Asian may refer to: * Items from or related to the continent of Asia: ** Asian people, people in or descending from Asia ** Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia ** Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asi ...
, 0.1%
Pacific Islander Pacific Islanders, Pacificer, Pasifika, or Pasefika, are the peoples of the Pacific Islands. It is a geographic and ethnic/racial term to describe the inhabitants and diaspora of any of the three major sub-regions of Oceania Oceania (, , ...
, 12.9% from
other races Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon novel), a 1971 horror novel by Tom Tryon * The Other (short story ...
, and 4.5% from two or more races. A total of 27.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latin American of any race. The
non-Hispanic white Non-Hispanic Whites (also referred to as Anglo-Americans)Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief ''Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary'' Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1994--Merriam-Webster See original definition (definition #1) of ''Anglo'' ...
population was 27.6%. In 2019, non-Hispanic whites made up an estimated 24.4% of the population, and Blacks or African Americans were 17.3%. The largest minority groups for the borough were Hispanic and Latin Americans (28.2%), and Asians (26.0%). In Queens, residents consisted of 6.2% under 5, 13.9% 6-18, 64.2% 19–64, and 15.7% over 65. Females made up 51.5% of the population. An estimated 47.5% of residents are foreign-born in 2018. The per capita income was $28,814, and the median household income was $62,008. In 2018, 12.2% of residents lived below the poverty line. The New York City Department of City Planning was alarmed by the negligible reported increase in population between 2000 and 2010. Areas with high proportions of immigrants and undocumented aliens are traditionally undercounted for a variety of reasons, often based on a mistrust of government officials or an unwillingness to be identified. In many cases, counts of vacant apartment units did not match data from local surveys and reports from property owners.


Ethnic groups

According to a 2001 Claritas study, Queens was the most diverse county in the United States among counties of 100,000+ population. A 2014 analysis by ''
The Atlantic ''The Atlantic'' is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher. It was founded in 1857 in Boston, as ''The Atlantic Monthly'', a literary and cultural magazine that published leading writers' commentary on education, the , and other maj ...

The Atlantic
'' found Queens County to be the 3rd most racially diverse county-equivalent in the United States—behind Aleutians West Census Area and
Aleutians East Borough Aleutians East Borough () is a 2nd class List of boroughs and census areas in Alaska, borough in the U.S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census the borough's population was 3,141. The borough seat is Sand Point, Alaska, ...
in Alaska—as well as the most diverse county in New York. Meanwhile, a 2017 study by
AxiosAxios commonly refers to: * Axios (river), a river which runs through Greece and North Macedonia * Axios (website), ''Axios'' (website), an American news and information website Axios may also refer to: Brands and enterprises * Axios, a brand of ...
found that, although numerous smaller counties in the United States had higher rates of diversity, Queens was the United States' most diverse populous county. In Queens, approximately 48.5% of the population was
foreign born Foreign Born was an American folk rock band. They formed in San Francisco during the late summer months of 2003, but soon relocated to Los Angeles. They self-released their first 12" single ("We Had Pleasure" b/w "Escape"), and then their debut ...
as of 2010. Within the foreign born population, 49.5% were born in
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
, 33.5% in
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...

Asia
, 14.8% in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
, 1.8% in
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
, and 0.4% in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
. Roughly 2.1% of the population was born in
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico) is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...

Puerto Rico
, a U.S. territory, or abroad to American parents. In addition, 51.2% of the population was born in the United States. Approximately 44.2% of the population over 5 years of age speak
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
at home; 23.8% speak
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
at home. Also, 16.8% of the populace speak other
Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, based on speech and gesture (spoken language), Signed language, sign, or o ...
at home. Another 13.5% speak a non-Indo-European Asian language or language of the
Pacific Islands This is a list of islands in the Pacific Ocean, collectively called the Pacific Islands. Three major groups of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as w ...
at home. Among the Asian population in 2010, people of Chinese ethnicity made up the largest ethnic group at 10.2% of Queens' population, with about 237,484 people; the other East and Southeast Asian groups are:
Koreans Koreans ( South Korean: , , North Korean: , , ; see names of Korea There are various names of Korea in use today, all derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties. The modern English name "Korea Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") ...
(2.9%),
Filipinos Filipinos ( fil, Mga Pilipino) are the people who are citizens of or native to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Re ...

Filipinos
(1.7%),
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...
(0.3%), Thais (0.2%),
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...
(0.2%), and
Indonesians Indonesians (Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of the ...
and Burmese both make up 0.1% of the population. People of
South Asian South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is a landmass variously described as part of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention ( ...
descent made up 7.8% of Queens' population:
Indians Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
(5.3%),
Bangladeshi Bangladeshis ( bn, বাংলাদেশি ; formerly known as Bangalees) are the citizens Citizenship is the Status (law), status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of belonging to thereof. I ...
(1.5%),
Pakistanis Pakistanis ( ur, , translit=Pākistānī Qaum, ) are the nationals and citizens of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in ...
(0.7%), and Nepali (0.2%). In 2019, Chinese Americans remained the largest Asian ethnicity (10.9%) followed by Asian Indians (5.7%). Asian Indians had estimated population of 144,896 in 2014 (6.24% of the 2014 borough population), as well as
Pakistani American Pakistani Americans ( ur, ) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, 494 n.3 ( ...
s, who numbered at 15,604. Queens has the second largest
Sikh Sikhs ( or ; pa, ਸਿੱਖ, ', ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a Monotheism, monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The te ...

Sikh
population in the nation after
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
. Among the Hispanic or Latin American population,
Puerto Ricans Puerto Ricans ( es, Puertorriqueños; or boricuas) are the people of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Ric ...
made up the largest ethnic group at 4.6%, next to
Mexicans Mexicans ( es, mexicanos) are the of . The most spoken language by Mexicans is , but some may also speak languages from 68 different and other languages brought to Mexico by recent immigration or learned by Mexican immigrants residing in ot ...
, who made up 4.2% of the population, and
Dominicans Dominican may refer to: * Someone or something from or related to the Dominican Republic ( , stress on the "mi"), on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles, in the Caribbean ** People of the Dominican Republic ** Demographics of the Domin ...
at 3.9%.
Central American Central America ( es, América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North and South America South America is a c ...
s made up 2.4% and are mostly
Salvadorans Salvadorans (Spanish language, Spanish: ''Salvadoreños''), also known as Salvadorians or Salvadoreans, are citizens of El Salvador, a country in Central America. Most Salvadorans live in El Salvador, although there is also a significant Salvadora ...
.
South American South America is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered f ...

South American
s constitute 9.6% of Queens's population, mainly of
Ecuadorian Ecuadorians are people identified with Ecuador Ecuador ( ; ; Quechuan languages, Quechua: ''Ikwayur''; Shuar language, Shuar: ''Ecuador'' or ''Ekuatur''), officially the Republic of Ecuador ( es, República del Ecuador, which literally tra ...
(4.4%) and Colombian descent (4.2%). The 2019 American Community Survey estimated Mexicans and Puerto Ricans were equally the largest groups (4.5% each) in Queens, and Cuban Americans were the third largest single group. Other Hispanic and Latinos collectively made up 18.9% of the population. The Hispanic or Latino population increased by 61% to 597,773 between 1990 and 2006 and now accounts for over 26.5% of the borough's population. Queens has the largest Colombian population in the city, accounting for over 35.6% of the city's total Colombian population, for a total of 145,956 in 2019; it also has the largest
Ecuadorian Ecuadorians are people identified with Ecuador Ecuador ( ; ; Quechuan languages, Quechua: ''Ikwayur''; Shuar language, Shuar: ''Ecuador'' or ''Ekuatur''), officially the Republic of Ecuador ( es, República del Ecuador, which literally tra ...
population in the city, accounting for 62.2% of the city's total Ecuadorian population, for a total of 101,339. Queens has the largest
Peruvian Peruvians ( es, Peruanos) are people identified with the country of Peru. There were Andean and Coastal Ancient civilizations like Caral, the oldest civilization of Peru and the Americas, who inhabited Peruvian territory for several millennia be ...
population in the city, accounting for 69.9% of the city's total Peruvian population, for a total of 30,825. Queens has the largest
Salvadoran Salvadorans ( Spanish: ''Salvadoreños''), also known as Salvadorians or Salvadoreans, are citizens of El Salvador , national_anthem = '' Himno Nacional de El Salvador''( en, "National Anthem of El Salvador") , image_map = El Salvador (orth ...
population in the city, accounting for 50.7% of the city for a total population of 25,235. The
Mexican Mexican may refer to: Mexico and its culture *Being related to, from, or connected to the country of Mexico, in North America ** Being related to the State of Mexico, one of the 32 federal entities of Mexico ** Culture of Mexico *** Mexican cuisi ...
population in Queens has increased 45.7% since 2011 to 71,283, the second-highest in the city, after Brooklyn. Queens is also home to 49.6% of the city's Asian population. Among the five boroughs, Queens has the largest population of
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
,
Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
,
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language **Korean alphabet, known as Hangul or Chosŏn'gŭl **Korean dialects and the Jeju language **S ...
,
Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, ...

Filipino
,
Bangladeshi Bangladeshis ( bn, বাংলাদেশি ; formerly known as Bangalees) are the citizens Citizenship is the Status (law), status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of belonging to thereof. I ...
and
Pakistani American Pakistani Americans ( ur, ) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, 494 n.3 ( ...
s. Queens has the largest
Asian American Asian Americans are Americans Americans are the and of the .; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, 494 n.3 (3d Cir. 2018) (" and are not ous. While all citizens are nationals, not all nationals are citizens."); ''United Sta ...
population by county outside the
Western United States The Western United States (also called the American West, the Far West, and the West) is the region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the ...
; according to the 2006 American Community Survey, Queens ranks fifth among US counties with 477,772 (21.18%) Asian Americans, behind
Los Angeles County, California Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, and sometimes abbreviated as L.A. County, is the most populous county in the United States and in the U.S. state of California, with more than ten million inhabitants as of the 2020 Uni ...
,
Honolulu County, Hawaii Honolulu County (officially known as the City and County of Honolulu, formerly Oahu County) is a consolidated city–county In local government in the United States, United States local government, a consolidated city-county is formed when on ...
,
Santa Clara County, California Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is California's List of counties in California, 6th most populous county, with a population of 1,781,642, as of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. Santa Clara County and neighboring ...
, and
Orange County, California Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area Greater Los Angeles, with a 2019 population of 18,710,563, is the second-largest urban region area in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA) ...
. Some main European ancestries in Queens as of 2000 include:
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...
(8.4%),
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
(5.5%),
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
(3.5%),
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
(2.7%),
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
(2.3%), and
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
(2.0%). Of the
European American European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans Americans are the citizens and nationals Nationals may refer to: * People of a given nationality * A tournament or convention of national scope * Washington Nationals, ...

European American
population, Queens has the third largest
Bosnian Bosnian may refer to: *Anything related to the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina or its inhabitants *Anything related to Bosnia (region) or its inhabitants * Bosniaks, an ethnic group mainly inhabiting Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of three Ethnic gr ...
population in the United States behind only
St. Louis St. Louis () is the second-largest city in Missouri Missouri is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State ( ...

St. Louis
and
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
, numbering more than 15,000. The ''Jewish Community Study of New York 2011'', sponsored by the
UJA-Federation of New York UJA-Federation of New York, ( United Jewish Appeal - Federation of Jewish Philanthropies of New York, Inc.) is the largest local philanthropy in the world. Headquartered in New York City, the organization raises and allocates funds annually to fulf ...
, found that about 9% of Queens residents were Jews. In 2011, there were about 198,000 Jews in Queens, making it home to about 13% of all people in Jewish households in the eight-county area consisting of the Five Boroughs and
Westchester Westchester may refer to: __NOTOC__ Geography *Westchester Station, Nova Scotia, Canada United States *Westchester, Connecticut *Westchester, Florida *Westchester, Illinois *Westchester, Indiana *Westchester, Los Angeles, California *Westchester Co ...

Westchester
, Nassau, and
Suffolk Suffolk () is a ceremonial county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), W ...
counties. Russian-speaking Jews make up 28% of the Jewish population in Queens, the largest in any of the eight counties. In Queens, the Black and African American population earns more than non-Hispanic whites on average. Many of these Blacks and African Americans live in quiet, middle-class suburban neighborhoods near the Nassau County border, such as Laurelton and
Cambria Heights Cambria Heights is a residential neighborhood in the southeastern portion of the New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With ...

Cambria Heights
which have large black populations whose family income is higher than average. The migration of European Americans from parts of Queens has been long ongoing with departures from Ozone Park, Woodhaven, Bellerose, Floral Park, and Flushing (most of the outgoing population has been replaced with Asian Americans). Neighborhoods such as Whitestone, College Point, North Flushing, Auburndale, Bayside, Middle Village, and Douglaston–Little Neck have not had a substantial exodus of white residents, but have seen an increase of Asian population, mostly Chinese and Korean. Queens has experienced a
real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more genera ...

real estate
boom making most of its neighborhoods desirable for people who want to reside near Manhattan but in a less urban setting.


Languages

According to the office of the
New York State Comptroller The New York State Comptroller is a state cabinet officer of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, ...
in 2000, 138 languages are spoken in the borough. Another survey, in 2010, by the
Modern Language Association The Modern Language Association of America, often referred to as the Modern Language Association (MLA), is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of language and literature. The MLA aims to "strengthen the study ...
, found that – of those over the age of five residing in Queens – 56.16% spoke a language other than English in the home. ! 1 !! 2 !! 3 !! 4 !! 5 !! 6 !! 7 !! 8 !! 9 !! 10 !! 11 !! 12 !! 13 !! 14 !! 15 !! 16 !! 17 !! 18 !! 19 !! 20 !! 21 !! 22 !! 23 !! 24 !! 25 !! 26 !! 27 !! 28 !! 29 !! 30 !! , -style="vertical-align:bottom" !
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
!!
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
!!
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
!! Various
Indic !!
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language **Korean alphabet, known as Hangul or Chosŏn'gŭl **Korean dialects and the Jeju language **S ...
!!
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
!!
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
!!
Tagalog Tagalog may refer to: Language * Tagalog language Tagalog (, ; ) is an Austronesian languages, Austronesian language spoken as a first language by the ethnic Tagalog people, who make up a quarter of the population of the Philippines, and as a se ...
!!
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
!! French
Creole
!!
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
!!
Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, North India. Hindi has been described as a Standard la ...

Hindi
!!
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
!! Other
Asian Asian may refer to: * Items from or related to the continent of Asia: ** Asian people, people in or descending from Asia ** Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia ** Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asi ...
!! Other
Indo-
Euro
pean
!! !!
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
!! Serbo-
Croatian
!!
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the o ...
!! Various
African !! !!
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
!! Gujarati !!
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
!! !! Other
!! Other
!! Hungar-
ian
!!
Thai Thai or THAI may refer to: * Of or from Thailand, a country in Southeast Asia ** Thai people, the dominant ethnic group of Thailand ** Thai language, a Tai-Kadai language spoken mainly in and around Thailand *** Thai script *** Thai (Unicode block) ...

Thai
!! !! All
non-
English , -style="text-align:right" , 905,890 , , 493,462 , , 166,570 , , 71,054 , , 56,701 , , 34,596 , , 32,268 , , 31,922 , , 31,651 , , 27,345 , , 24,118 , , 19,868 , , 19,262 , , 18,931 , , 16,435 , , 14,685 , , 12,505 , , 10,008 , , 9,410 , , 8,787 , , 7,364 , , 7,308 , , 6,942 , , 6,927 , , 6,723 , , 4,884 , , 4,667 , , 3,053 , , 2,830 , , 2,636 , , 1,160,483 , -style="text-align:right" , 43.84 , , 23.88 , , 8.06 , , 3.44 , , 2.74 , , 1.67 , , 1.56 , , 1.54 , , 1.53 , , 1.32 , , 1.17 , , 0.96 , , 0.93 , , 0.92 , , 0.80 , , 0.71 , , 0.61 , , 0.48 , , 0.46 , , 0.43 , , 0.36 , , 0.35 , , 0.34 , , 0.34 , , 0.33 , , 0.24 , , 0.23 , , 0.15 , , 0.14 , , 0.13 , , 56.16 , - , colspan=31 ,


Religion

In 2010 statistics, the largest religious group in Queens was the , with 677,520
Roman Catholics The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ri ...

Roman Catholics
worshiping at 100 parishes, followed by an estimated 81,456
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
with 57 congregations, 80,000
Orthodox Orthodox, Orthodoxy, or Orthodoxism may refer to: Religion * Orthodoxy, adherence to accepted norms, more specifically adherence to creeds, especially within Christianity and Judaism, but also less commonly in non-Abrahamic religions like Neo-paga ...
Jews with 110 congregations, 33,325
non-denominational Christian Nondenominational Christianity (or non-denominational Christianity) consists of church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services an ...
adherents with 129 congregations, 28,085
AME American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the mo ...
Methodists with 14 congregations, 24,250
Greek Orthodox The name Greek Orthodox Church ( Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἐκκλησία, ''Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía'', ), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox ...
with 6 congregations, 16,775
Hindus Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...
with 18 congregations, 13,989 AoG Pentecostals with 64 congregations, 13,507
Seventh-day Adventists The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church, errors in the ...
with 45 congregations, and 12,957
Mahayana Mahāyāna (; "Great Vehicle") is a term for a broad group of Buddhism, Buddhist traditions, Buddhist texts#Mahāyāna texts, texts, Buddhist philosophy, philosophies, and practices. Mahāyāna Buddhism developed in India (c. 1st century BCE on ...
Buddhists with 26 congregations. Altogether, 49.4% of the population was claimed as members by religious congregations, although members of historically African American denominations were underrepresented due to incomplete information. In 2014, Queens had 738 religious organizations, the thirteenth most out of all U.S. counties.


Culture

Queens has been the center of the punk rock movement, particularly in New York;
Ramones The Ramones were an American punk rock band that formed in the New York City neighborhood of Forest Hills, Queens, in 1974. They are often cited as the first true punk rock group. Despite achieving only limited commercial success initially, t ...
originated out of Forest Hills, it has also been the home of such notable artists as
Tony Bennett Anthony Dominick Benedetto (born August 3, 1926), known professionally as Tony Bennett, is an American singer of traditional pop Traditional pop (also known as classic pop and pre-rock and roll pop) is Western Western may refer to: Place ...

Tony Bennett
,
Francis Ford Coppola Francis Ford Coppola (; ; born April 7, 1939) is an American film director, Film producer, producer, and screenwriter. He was a central figure in the New Hollywood filmmaking movement of the 1960s and 1970s. List of awards and nominations rece ...

Francis Ford Coppola
,
Paul Simon Paul Frederic Simon (born October 13, 1941) is an American musician, singer, songwriter, and actor whose career has spanned six decades. He is one of the most acclaimed songwriters in popular music. Simon was born in Newark, New Jersey, and gr ...

Paul Simon
, and
Robert Mapplethorpe Robert Michael Mapplethorpe (; November 4, 1946 – March 9, 1989) was an American photographer, best known for his black-and-white photographs. His work featured an array of subjects, including celebrity portraits, male and female nudes, self- ...
. Queens Poet Laureates (generally, 3-year appointments): * 1997–2001: Stephen Stepanchev (inaugural Poet Laureate) * 2001–2004: Hal Sirowitz (born 1949) * 2004–2007: Ishle Yi Park * 2007–2010: Julio Marzan * 2010–2014: Paolo Javier * 2015–2019: Maria Lisella Queens has notably fostered
African American culture African-American culture refers to the contributions of African Americans African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citiz ...
, with establishments such as The Afrikan Poetry Theatre and the Black Spectrum Theater Company catering specifically to African Americans in Queens. In the 1940s, Queens was an important center of
jazz Jazz is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human s ...
; such jazz luminaries as
Louis Armstrong Louis Daniel Armstrong (August 4, 1901 – July 6, 1971), nicknamed "Satchmo", "Satch", and "Pops", was an American and . He is among the most influential figures in . His career spanned five decades and different eras in the history of j ...

Louis Armstrong
,
Charlie Parker Charles Parker Jr. (August 29, 1920 – March 12, 1955), nicknamed "Bird" or "Yardbird", was an American jazz Saxophone, saxophonist, band leader and composer. Parker was a highly influential soloist and leading figure in the development of beb ...
, and
Ella Fitzgerald Ella Jane Fitzgerald (April 25, 1917 – June 15, 1996) was an American jazz singer, sometimes referred to as the First Lady of Song, Queen of Jazz, and Lady Ella. She was noted for her purity of tone, impeccable diction, phrasing, timing, int ...

Ella Fitzgerald
took up residence in Queens, seeking refuge from the segregation they found elsewhere in New York. Additionally, many notable hip-hop acts hail from Queens, including
Nas Nas (born 1973) is the stage name of American rapper Nasir Jones. Nas, NaS, or NAS may also refer to: Aviation * Nasair, a low-cost airline carrier and subsidiary based in Eritrea * National Air Services, an airline in Saudi Arabia ** Nas Air ( ...

Nas
, Run-D.M.C.,
Kool G Rap Nathaniel Thomas Wilson (born July 20, 1968), better known by his stage name Kool G Rap (or simply G Rap), is an American rapper from Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New Yor ...
,
A Tribe Called Quest A Tribe Called Quest was an American Hip hop music, hip hop group formed in St. Albans, Queens, New York in 1985,Q ...
,
LL Cool J James Todd Smith (born January 14, 1968), known professionally as LL Cool J (short for Ladies Love Cool James), is an American rapper Rapping (also rhyming, spitting, emceeing or MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporate ...

LL Cool J
,
MC Shan Shawn Moltke (born September 6, 1965) better known by his stage name MC Shan, is an American hip hop Hip hop or hip-hop is a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found ...
,
Mobb Deep Mobb Deep was an American hip hop music, hip hop duo from New York City. The duo consisted of rappers Prodigy (rapper), Prodigy and Havoc (musician), Havoc. They are considered to be among the main progenitors of hardcore East Coast hip hopEdward ...
,
50 Cent Curtis James Jackson III (born July 6, 1975), known professionally as 50 Cent, is an American rapper, songwriter, television producer, actor, and entrepreneur. Known for his impact in the hip hop industry, he has been described as a "master ...

50 Cent
,
Nicki Minaj Onika Tanya Maraj-Petty (born December 8, 1982), known professionally as Nicki Minaj (), is a Trinidadian-born rapper, singer, and songwriter. She is known for her animated flow Flow may refer to: Science and technology * ...

Nicki Minaj
,
Tony Yayo Marvin Bernard (born March 31, 1978), better known by his stage name Tony Yayo, is an American rapper Rapping (also rhyming, spitting, emceeing or MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and ...
,
Tragedy Khadafi Percy Lee Chapman (born August 13, 1971), known by his stage name Tragedy Khadafi (formerly Intelligent Hoodlum), is an American rapper and record producer. Chapman hails from the Queensbridge Housing Projects in Queens, New York City,Brown, Mar ...
,
N.O.R.E. Victor Santiago, Jr. (born September 6, 1977), better known by his stage name A stage name is a pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a parti ...
,
Capone (rapper) Kiam Akasi Holley (born February 8, 1976), better known by his stage name Capone, is an American rapper from Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest boro ...
,
Ja Rule Jeffrey Bruce Atkins (born February 29, 1976), better known by his stage name Ja Rule (), is an American rapper, singer, songwriter and actor. Born in Hollis, Queens Hollis is a residential middle class, middle-class neighborhood within the so ...
,
Heems Himanshu Kumar Suri (born July 6, 1985), better known by his stage name Heems, is an American rapper Rapping (also rhyming, spitting, emceeing or MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and st ...
of
Das Racist Das Racist was an American alternative hip hop Alternative hip hop (also known as alternative rap) is a subgenre of hip hop music that encompasses the wide range of styles that are not typically identified as mainstream. AllMusic AllMusic ...
and
Action Bronson Ariyan Arslani (born December 2, 1983), better known by the stage name A stage name is a pseudonym used by performers and entertainers such as actors, comedians, singers, and musicians. Such titles are adopted for a wide variety of reasons, ...

Action Bronson
. Queens hosts various museums and cultural institutions that serve its diverse communities. They range from the historical (such as the
John Bowne House The John Bowne House is a house in Flushing, Queens, Flushing, Queens, New York City, that is known for its role in establishing religious tolerance in the United States. Built around 1661, it was the location of a Religious Society of Friends, Qua ...
) to the scientific (such as the
New York Hall of Science The New York Hall of Science, also known as NYSCI, is a science museum A science museum is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for (conserves) ...
), from conventional art galleries (such as the
Noguchi Museum The Noguchi Museum, in Queens, New York, chartered as The Isamu Noguchi Foundation and Garden Museum, was designed and created by the Japanese-American sculptor Isamu Noguchi. Opening on a limited basis to the public in 1985 the purpose of the ...

Noguchi Museum
) to unique graffiti exhibits (such as
5 Pointz 5 Pointz: The Institute of Higher Burnin' or 5Pointz Aerosol Art Center, Inc., mainly referred to as simply 5 Pointz or 5Pointz, was an American mural space at 45–46 Davis Street in Long Island City Long Island City (LIC) is a residential a ...
). Queens's cultural institutions include, but are not limited to: The travel magazine ''
Lonely Planet Lonely Planet is an Australian travel guide book A guide book or travel guide is "a book of information about a place designed for the use of visitors or tourists". It will usually include information about sights, accommodation, restaurants ...

Lonely Planet
'' also named Queens the top destination in the country for 2015 for its cultural and culinary diversity. Stating that Queens is "quickly becoming its hippest" but that "most travelers haven't clued in... yet," the ''Lonely Planet'' stated that "nowhere is the image of New York as the global melting pot truer than Queens."


Food

The cuisine available in Queens reflects its vast cultural diversity. The cuisine of a particular neighborhood often represents its demographics; for example,
Astoria Astoria may refer to: Places United States * Astoria, Illinois * Astoria, Missouri * Astoria, Queens, neighborhood in New York City * Astoria, Oregon * Astoria, South Dakota * Astoria Township, Fulton County, Illinois Other places * Astoria ...
hosts many s, in keeping with its traditionally Greek population. Jackson Heights is known for its prominent
Indian cuisine Indian cuisine consists of a variety of regional and traditional cuisines native to the Indian subcontinent. Given the diversity in soil, climate, culture, ethnic groups, and occupations, these cuisines vary substantially and use locally avai ...

Indian cuisine
and also many Latin American eateries. The Queens Night Market in
Flushing Meadows–Corona Park Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, often referred to as Flushing Meadows Park, or simply Flushing Meadows, is a public park in the northern part of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state ...

Flushing Meadows–Corona Park
, operating on Sundays from April to October starting in 2015, contains samples of food from dozens of countries.


Economy

Queens has the second-largest economy of New York City's five boroughs, following Manhattan. In 2004, Queens had 15.2% (440,310) of all private-sector jobs in New York City and 8.8% of private-sector wages. In 2012, private-sector employment increased to 486,160. Queens has the most diversified economy of the five boroughs, with occupations spread relatively evenly across the health care, retail trade, manufacturing, construction, transportation, and
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ...
and
television production A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a which can be broadcast via , , or , excluding , , or that are typically placed between shows. Television shows are most often well ahead of time and appear o ...
sectors, such that no single sector is overwhelmingly dominant. The diversification in Queens' economy is reflected in a large amount of employment in the export-oriented portions of its economy—such as transportation, manufacturing, and business services—that serve customers outside the region. This accounts for more than 27% of all Queens jobs and offers an average salary of $43,727, 14% greater than that of jobs in the locally oriented sector. The borough's largest employment sector—trade, transportation, and utilities—accounted for nearly 30% of all jobs in 2004; in 2012, its largest employment sector became
health care Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health, according to the , is "a state of complete physical, and social and not merely the absence of and ".. (2006)''Constitution of the World Health Organization''– ''Basic Docume ...
and social services. Queens is home to two of the three major New York City area airports,
JFK International Airport John F. Kennedy International Airport (colloquially referred to as JFK Airport) is an international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air trans ...
and
LaGuardia Airport LaGuardia Airport is a civil airport in East Elmhurst, Queens, East Elmhurst, Queens, New York City. Covering in its present form, the facility was established in 1929 and began operating as public airport in 1939. It is named after former F ...

LaGuardia Airport
. These airports are among the busiest in the world, leading the airspace above Queens to be the most congested in the country. This airline industry is particularly important to the economy of Queens, providing almost one-quarter of the sector's employment and more than 30% of the sector's wages. Education and health services were the next largest sector in Queens and comprised almost 24% of the borough's jobs in 2004; in 2012, transportation and warehousing, and retail were the second largest at 12% each. The manufacturing and construction industries in Queens are among the largest of the city and accounted for nearly 17% of the borough's private sector jobs in 2004. Comprising almost 17% of the jobs in Queens is the information, financial activities, and business and professional services sectors in 2004. , Queens had almost 40,000 business establishments. Small businesses act as an important part of the borough's economic vitality with two-thirds of all businesses employing between one and four people. Several large companies have their headquarters in Queens, including watchmaker
Bulova Bulova is an American watch brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brands are used in business, marketing, and advertising for ...

Bulova
, based in
East Elmhurst East Elmhurst is a residential neighborhood in the northwest section of the New York City Borough (New York City), borough of Queens. It is bounded to the south by Jackson Heights, Queens, Jackson Heights and Corona, Queens, Corona, to the north a ...
; internationally renowned piano manufacturer
Steinway & Sons Steinway & Sons, also known as Steinway, () is a German-American piano The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings ...
in Astoria;
Glacéau Energy Brands, also doing business as Glacéau, is a privately owned subsidiary of The Coca-Cola Company based in Whitestone, Queens, Whitestone, Queens, New York, that manufactures and distributes various lines of enhanced water. Founded in May 199 ...
, the makers of Vitamin Water, headquartered in Whitestone; and JetBlue Airways, an airline based in Long Island City. Long Island City is a major manufacturing and back-office center. Whitestone, Queens, Flushing is a major commercial hub for Chinese American and Korean American businesses, while
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...
is the major civic and transportation hub for the borough.


Sports

Citi Field Citi Field is a baseball park located in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in New York City. Completed in 2009, it is the home field of the New York Mets of the National League East division of Major League Baseball. The stadium was built as a repla ...

Citi Field
is a 41,922-seat stadium opened in April 2009 in
Flushing Meadows–Corona Park Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, often referred to as Flushing Meadows Park, or simply Flushing Meadows, is a public park in the northern part of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state ...

Flushing Meadows–Corona Park
that is the home ballpark of the
New York Mets The New York Mets are an American professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and are paid to play for a specific team or club system. It is played in baseball league, lea ...
of Major League Baseball. Shea Stadium, the former home of the Mets and the New York Jets of the National Football League, as well as the temporary home of the New York Yankees and the New York Giants, New York Giants Football Team stood where Citi Field's parking lot is now located, operating from 1964 to 2008. The US Open (tennis), U.S. Open tennis tournament has been played since 1978 at the
USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center The USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center is a stadium complex within Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, New York City, United States. It has been the home of the U.S. Open (tennis), US Open Grand Slam (tennis), Grand Slam tennis to ...
, located just south of Citi Field. With a capacity of 23,771, Arthur Ashe Stadium is List of tennis stadiums by capacity, the biggest tennis stadium in the world. The U.S .Open was formerly played at the West Side Tennis Club in Forest Hills.
South Ozone Park South Ozone Park is a neighborhood in the southwestern section of the New York City borough (New York City), borough of Queens. It is just north of John F. Kennedy International Airport, between Aqueduct Racetrack to the west and the Van Wyck Expres ...
is the home of
Aqueduct Racetrack Aqueduct Racetrack is a Thoroughbred horse racing facility and casino in the South Ozone Park, Queens, South Ozone Park and Jamaica, Queens, Jamaica neighborhoods of Queens, New York City, United States. Aqueduct is the only racetrack located w ...

Aqueduct Racetrack
, operated by the New York Racing Association and offers Thoroughbred horse-racing from late October/early November through April. Belmont Park Racetrack is mostly in Nassau County; however, a section of the property, including the Belmont Park station on the
Long Island Rail Road The Long Island Rail Road , often abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of New York (state), New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County, New York, Suffolk Cou ...

Long Island Rail Road
, is in Queens.


Government

Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, Queens has been governed by the New York City Charter that provides for a strong mayor–council government, mayor–council system. The centralized New York City government is responsible for New York City Department of Education, public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services in Queens. The Queens Library is governed by a 19-member Board of Trustees, appointed by the Mayor of New York City and the Borough President of Queens. Since 1990 the Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Queens' Borough President is Melinda Katz, elected in November 2013 as a Democratic Party (United States), Democrat with 80.3% of the vote. Queens Borough Hall is the seat of government and is located in
Kew Gardens Kew Gardens is a botanic garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the ...
. The Democratic Party holds most public offices. Sixty-three percent of registered Queens voters are Democrats. Local party platforms center on affordable housing, education, and economic development. Controversial political issues in Queens include development, noise, and the cost of housing. Each of the city's five counties has its criminal court system and District Attorney, the chief public prosecutor who is directly elected by popular vote. Richard Brown (lawyer), Richard A. Brown, who ran on both the Republican and Democratic Party tickets, was the Queens County District Attorney (New York), District Attorney of Queens County from 1991 to 2018. The new DA as of January 2020 is Melinda Katz. Queens has 12 seats on the New York City Council, the second-largest number among the five boroughs. It is divided into 14 community districts, each served by a local Community Boards of Queens, Community Board. Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for residents. Although Queens is heavily Democratic, it is considered a swing county in New York politics. Republican Party (United States), Republican political candidates who do well in Queens usually win citywide or statewide elections. Republicans such as former Mayors Rudolph Giuliani and Michael Bloomberg won majorities in Queens. Republican State Senator Serphin Maltese represented a district in central and southern Queens for twenty years until his defeat in 2008 by Democratic City Councilman Joseph Addabbo, Jr. In 2002, Queens voted against incumbent Republican Governor of New York George Pataki in favor of his Democratic opponent, Carl McCall by a slim margin. On the national level, Queens has not voted for a Republican candidate in a presidential election since 1972, when Queens voters chose Richard Nixon over George McGovern. Since the 1996 United States presidential election, 1996 presidential election, Democratic presidential candidates have received over 70% of the popular vote in Queens. Since the election of Donald Trump, Queens has become known in the United States for its surge in progressivism, progressive politics and grassroots campaigning.


Representatives in Congress

In 2018, seven Democrats represented Queens in the United States House of Representatives. * Thomas Suozzi (first elected in 2016) represents New York's 3rd congressional district, which covers the northeast Queens neighborhoods of Little Neck, Queens, Little Neck, Whitestone, Glen Oaks, Queens, Glen Oaks, and Floral Park. The district also covers the North Shore (Long Island), North Shore of Nassau County. * Gregory Meeks (first elected in 1998) represents New York's 5th congressional district, which covers the entire
Rockaway Peninsula The Rockaway Peninsula, commonly referred to as The Rockaways or Rockaway, is the name of a peninsula within the New York City borough (New York City), borough of Queens on Long Island, New York (state), New York. Relatively isolated from Manhat ...
as well as the southeast Queens neighborhoods of Broad Channel, Queens, Broad Channel,
Cambria Heights Cambria Heights is a residential neighborhood in the southeastern portion of the New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With ...
, Hollis,
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...
, Laurelton, , Rosedale, Saint Albans, Springfield Gardens, and
South Ozone Park South Ozone Park is a neighborhood in the southwestern section of the New York City borough (New York City), borough of Queens. It is just north of John F. Kennedy International Airport, between Aqueduct Racetrack to the west and the Van Wyck Expres ...
. The district also includes
John F. Kennedy International Airport John F. Kennedy International Airport (colloquially referred to as JFK Airport) is an international airport in Queens, New York City, and one of the primary airports serving New York City. The airport is the busiest international air passeng ...
. * Grace Meng (first elected in 2012) represents New York's 6th congressional district, which includes the central and eastern Queens neighborhoods of Auburndale, Queens, Auburndale, Bayside, Elmhurst,
Flushing Flushing may refer to: Places * Flushing, Cornwall, a village in the United Kingdom * Flushing, Queens, New York City ** Flushing Bay, a bay off the north shore of Queens ** Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), a community in Queens ** Flushing M ...
, Forest Hills, Glendale, Queens, Glendale,
Kew Gardens Kew Gardens is a botanic garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the ...
,
Maspeth Maspeth is a residential and commercial community in the borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although ...
, Middle Village, Murray Hill, and Rego Park. * Nydia Velázquez (first elected in 1992) represents New York's 7th congressional district, which includes the southwest Queens neighborhoods of Maspeth, Ridgewood, and Woodhaven, Queens, Woodhaven. The district also covers central and western
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the te ...

Brooklyn
and the Lower East Side of
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
. * Hakeem Jeffries (first elected in 2012) represents New York's 8th congressional district, which includes the southwest Queens neighborhoods of Ozone Park and
Howard Beach Howard Beach is a neighborhood in the southwestern portion of the New York City Borough (New York City), borough of Queens. It is bordered to the north by the Belt Parkway and Conduit Avenue in Ozone Park, Queens, Ozone Park, to the south by Jama ...
. The district also covers central and southern Brooklyn. * Carolyn Maloney (first elected in 1992) represents New York's 12th congressional district, which includes the western Queens neighborhoods of
Astoria Astoria may refer to: Places United States * Astoria, Illinois * Astoria, Missouri * Astoria, Queens, neighborhood in New York City * Astoria, Oregon * Astoria, South Dakota * Astoria Township, Fulton County, Illinois Other places * Astoria ...
,
Long Island City Long Island City (LIC) is a residential and commercial neighborhood on the extreme western tip of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New Y ...

Long Island City
, Sunnyside, Queens, Sunnyside, and Maspeth. The district also covers the East Side (Manhattan), East Side of
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
. * Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (first elected in 2018) represents New York's 14th congressional district, which includes the northwest Queens neighborhoods of Astoria, College Point, Corona, Queens, Corona,
East Elmhurst East Elmhurst is a residential neighborhood in the northwest section of the New York City Borough (New York City), borough of Queens. It is bounded to the south by Jackson Heights, Queens, Jackson Heights and Corona, Queens, Corona, to the north a ...
, Jackson Heights, Woodside, and Elmhurst. The district also covers the East Bronx.


Education


Elementary and secondary education

Elementary and secondary school education in Queens is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. Public schools in the borough are managed by the New York City Department of Education, the largest public school system in the United States. Most private schools are affiliated with or identify themselves with the Roman Catholic or
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jewish
religious communities. Townsend Harris High School is a Queens public magnet high school for the humanities consistently ranked as among the top 100 high schools in the United States. One of the nine Specialized High Schools in New York City is located in Queens. Located in the York College, City University of New York Campus in Jamaica, the Queens High School for the Sciences at York College, which emphasizes both science and mathematics, ranks as one of the best high schools in both the state and the country. It is one of the smallest Specialized High Schools that requires an entrance exam, the Specialized High Schools Admissions Test. The school has a student body of around 400 students.


Postsecondary institutions

* LaGuardia Community College, part of the City University of New York (CUNY), is known as "The World's Community College" for its diverse international student body representing more than 150 countries and speaking over 100 languages. The college has been named a National Institution of Excellence by the Post-secondary_educational_organizations_in_the_United_States#Policy_Center_on_the_First_Year_of_College, Policy Center on the First Year of College. In a 2003 benchmark survey, in the Large Community College category (8,000–14,999 students), LaGuardia was one of three community colleges in the United States, community colleges ranked number one, nationally. The college hosts the LaGuardia and Wagner Archives. * Queens College, New York, Queens College is one of the elite colleges in the CUNY system. Established in 1937 to offer a strong liberal arts education to the residents of the borough, Queens College has over 16,000 students including more than 12,000 undergraduates and over 4,000 graduate students. Students from 120 different countries speaking 66 different languages are enrolled at the school, which is located in
Flushing Flushing may refer to: Places * Flushing, Cornwall, a village in the United Kingdom * Flushing, Queens, New York City ** Flushing Bay, a bay off the north shore of Queens ** Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), a community in Queens ** Flushing M ...
. Queens College is also the host of City University of New York School of Law, CUNY's law school. The Queens College Campus is also the home of Townsend Harris High School and the Queens College School for Math, Science, and Technology (PS/IS 499). * Queensborough Community College, originally part of the State University of New York, is in Bayside and is now part of CUNY. It prepares students to attend senior colleges mainly in the CUNY system. * St. John's University (New York City), St. John's University is a private, coeducational Roman Catholic university founded in 1870 by the Vincentian Family, Vincentian Fathers. With over 19,000 students, St. John's is known for its pharmacy, business and law programs as well as its men's basketball and soccer teams. * Vaughn College of Aeronautics and Technology is a private, cutting edge, degree-granting institution located across the Grand Central Parkway from LaGuardia Airport. Its presence underscores the importance of aviation to the Queens economy. * York College (New York), York College is one of CUNY's leading general-purpose liberal arts colleges, granting bachelor's degrees in more than 40 fields, as well as a combined BS/MS degree in Occupational Therapy. Noted for its Health Sciences Programs York College is also home to the Northeast Regional Office of the Food and Drug Administration.


Queens Public Library

The Queens Public Library is the public library system for the borough and one of three library systems serving New York City. Dating back to the foundation of the first Queens library in Flushing in 1858, the Queens Public Library is one of the largest public library systems in the United States. Separate from the New York Public Library, it is composed of 63 branches throughout the borough. In the fiscal year 2001, the Library achieved a circulation of 16.8 million. The Library has maintained the highest circulation of any city library in the country since 1985 and the highest circulation of any library in the nation since 1987. The Library maintains collections in many languages, including Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Russian, Haitian Creole, Polish, and six Indic languages, as well as smaller collections in 19 other languages.


Transportation

According to 2011–2015 American Community Survey, ACS Microdata, 38% of Queens households did not own a car; the citywide rate is 55%.


Vehicles for hire

As of 2019, the city had about 80,000 for-hire vehicles, of which, two-thirds were Ridesharing company, ride-hail – Uber, Lyft, Via Transportation, Via, and Juno (company), Juno. Until the Covid-19 pandemic, the ride-hail car offered a Ridesharing company, ride-share option. There are about 13,500 traditional taxis (yellow cabs with Taxi medallion, medallions) in the city, 7,676 boro taxis, 38,791 black cars, 21,932 livery cars, 288 commuter vans, and 2,206 paratransit vehicles.


Roundtrip car sharing

Zipcar, and others, entered New York City market in 2002 offering Shared_transport#Roundtrip_Carsharing, roundtrip car sharing from private locations, mostly from parking garages. In 2018, the city partnered with the roundtrip car share companies, led by Zipcar, to launch the nation's larges on-street car-sharing program with the greatest :en:wikt:take-up, take-up in
The Bronx The Bronx () is a borough of New York City New York City is composed of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. Each borough is coextensive with a respective Administrative divisions of New York (state)#Count ...
and in Queens – Jackson Heights,
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...
, and
Far Rockaway Far Rockaway is a neighborhood on the eastern part of the Rockaway, Queens, Rockaway peninsula in the New York City borough (New York City), borough of Queens. It is the easternmost section of the Rockaways. The neighborhood extends from Beach 32 ...
. In 2020, during beginning throes of the COVID-19 pandemic, Enterprise_Holdings#Enterprise_CarShare, Enterprise CarShare suspended service in New York City. Among the traditional car rental locations in Queens, both international airports harbor larger fleets, conveniently close to Queens residents.


Micromobility

Citi Bike – a docked-Bicycle-sharing system, bike and e-bike sharing company had, as of July 2019, 169,000 annual subscribers. In 2021, the New York City Department of Transportation, Department of Transportation and Citi Bike announced that, as part of its Phase 3 expansion, it was doubling its service area to 70 square miles and tripling the number of bikes to 40,000. The expansion includes 52 new docking stations in Astoria, as well as new stations in Sunnyside and Woodside. Non-docked e-Moped, moped service was launched in the city by Revel Transit, Revel in 2019. Companies such as Bird (transportation company), Bird, Lime (transportation company), Lime, VeoRide introduced non-docked Scooter-sharing system, e-scooter-sharing in 2021.


Airports

Queens has crucial importance in international and interstate air traffic, with two of the New York metropolitan area's three major airports located there. John F. Kennedy International Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), in 2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic, served 62.6 million passengers (enplanements + deplanements) – 34.3 million of which were international, ranking it the Busiest airports in the United States by international passenger traffic, busiest airport in the United States by international passenger traffic. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the United States imposed travel restrictions, first, in January 2020, on travelers from China and, in the following months, on travelers from other countries. 2020 annual passenger traffic at JFK dropped to 16.6 million (-73.4%) – 8.4 million (-73.4%) of which were international, still ranking it the busiest airport in the United States by international passenger traffic. JFK is owned by the City of New York and managed, since 1947, by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The airport's runways and six terminals cover an area of on
Jamaica Bay Image:Waterways New York City Map Julius Schorzman.png, 250px, The main waterways surrounding New York City. 1. Hudson River, 2. East River, 3. Long Island Sound, 4. Newark Bay, 5. Upper New York Bay, 6. Lower New York Bay, 7. Jamaica Bay, 8. Atlan ...

Jamaica Bay
in southeastern Queens. The airport's original official name was New York International Airport, although it was commonly known as Idlewild, with the name changed to Kennedy in December 1963 to honor the assassination of John F. Kennedy, November 22, 1963.
LaGuardia Airport LaGuardia Airport is a civil airport in East Elmhurst, Queens, East Elmhurst, Queens, New York City. Covering in its present form, the facility was established in 1929 and began operating as public airport in 1939. It is named after former F ...

LaGuardia Airport
is located in
East Elmhurst East Elmhurst is a residential neighborhood in the northwest section of the New York City Borough (New York City), borough of Queens. It is bounded to the south by Jackson Heights, Queens, Jackson Heights and Corona, Queens, Corona, to the north a ...
, in northern Queens, on
Flushing Bay Flushing Bay is a tidal embayment A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay. A large bay is usually called a Gulf (geography), gulf, sea, sound ...

Flushing Bay
. Originally opened in 1939, the airport's two runways and four terminals cover , serving 28.4 million passengers in 2015. In 2014, citing outdated conditions in the airport's terminals, Vice President Joe Biden compared LaGuardia Airport to a "third world country". In 2015, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began a $4 billion project to renovate LaGuardia Airport's terminals and entryways. The project is expected to be complete by 2021.


Public transportation


Subways

The MTA, New York City's 24-hour subway system, has 472 stations, more than any other metro system in the world – List of New York City Subway stations in Queens, 81 of those stations on seven main lines are in Queens. The subway system has almost twice as many miles of track as any other North American system – (i) revenue length (the opposite of "revenue" track would be non-revenue track or dead mileage), (ii) Network length (transport), total length, and (iii) route length. Queens has miles of route length – underground, elevated, other. The A (New York City Subway service), A train – from 207th Street station, 207th Street in Manhattan to Far Rockaway–Mott Avenue station, Far Rockaway in Queens – is the longest line, more than 31 miles. The subway system transports triple the number of people than the next five largest American cities – Chicago, Washington, Boston, San Francisco, and Philadelphia combined. The A (New York City Subway service), A, G (New York City Subway service), G, J/Z (New York City Subway service), J/Z, and M (New York City Subway service), M routes connect Queens to Brooklyn without going through Manhattan first. The F (New York City Subway service), F, M, N (New York City Subway service), N, and R (New York City Subway service), R trains connect Queens and Brooklyn via Manhattan, while the E (New York City Subway service), E, W (New York City Subway service), W, and 7 (New York City Subway service), 7/<7> trains connect Queens to Manhattan only. Trains on the M service go through Queens twice in the same trip; both of its full-length terminals, in Middle Village–Metropolitan Avenue (BMT Myrtle Avenue Line), Middle Village and Forest Hills–71st Avenue (IND Queens Boulevard Line), Forest Hills, are in Queens.


Long Island Rail Road

The LIRR, also part of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, MTA, operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, including holidays – carrying an average of 301,000 customers a day (80 million a year, adjusting downward for weekends) on about 735 scheduled trains. It is the busiest commuter rail hub in the United States. Most of its branches originate or terminate at Penn Station. All but one of its branches (the Port Washington Branch) pass through Jamaica station, Jamaica. The New York City area served by the LIRR is called the City Terminal Zone. Within that zone, Queens has stations in Long Island City station, Long Island City, Hunterspoint Avenue station (LIRR), Hunterspoint Avenue (in
Long Island City Long Island City (LIC) is a residential and commercial neighborhood on the extreme western tip of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New Y ...

Long Island City
), Bayside station (LIRR), Bayside, Forest Hills station (LIRR), Forest Hills, Flushing–Main Street station (LIRR), Flushing, Woodside station (LIRR), Woodside, and
Kew Gardens Kew Gardens is a botanic garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the ...
– 22 Queens stations, in all. There are also several stations where LIRR passengers can transfer to the subway. Sunnyside Yard is used to store Amtrak intercity and NJ Transit commuter trains from Penn Station in Manhattan. The US$11.1 billion East Side Access project, which will bring LIRR trains to Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan, is under construction and is scheduled to open in 2022; this project will create a new train tunnel beneath the
East River The East River is a salt water in . The waterway, which is actually not a despite its name, connects on its south end to on its north end. It separates the borough of on from on the n mainland, and also divides from Queens and , also o ...

East River
, connecting
Long Island City Long Island City (LIC) is a residential and commercial neighborhood on the extreme western tip of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New Y ...

Long Island City
in Queens with the East Side (Manhattan), East Side of Manhattan.


JFK AirTrain

The elevated AirTrain JFK, AirTrain people mover system connects JFK International Airport to the New York City Subway and the Long Island Rail Road along the Van Wyck Expressway; a separate AirTrain system is planned alongside the Grand Central Parkway to connect LaGuardia Airport to these transit systems. Plans were announced in July 2015 to entirely rebuild LaGuardia Airport itself in a multibillion-dollar project to replace its aging facilities, and this project would accommodate the new AirTrain connection.


MTA buses

2019 bus ridership, citywide, on the MTA system, was 2.2 million per average weekday – about 678 million for the year. In Queens, the Q58 (New York City bus), Q58 and Q20_and_Q44_buses#Q44, Q44 Select Bus Service were the seventh and tenth, respectively, citywide, busiest local lines in 2019. In addition to regular bus lines serving
LaGuardia Airport LaGuardia Airport is a civil airport in East Elmhurst, Queens, East Elmhurst, Queens, New York City. Covering in its present form, the facility was established in 1929 and began operating as public airport in 1939. It is named after former F ...

LaGuardia Airport
, the MTA offers two Select Bus Services, regular fare, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The M60 (New York City bus), M60 – terminals Marine Air Terminal, A, LaGuardia_Airport#Terminal_B, B, LaGuardia_Airport#Terminal_C, C, LaGuardia_Airport#Terminal_D, D – to and from
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
via Grand Central Parkway and the Triborough Bridge – in Harlem, along 125th Street (Manhattan), 125th Street (with a stop at the Harlem–125th Street station, 125th Street Metro-North station), ending in Morningside Heights on the Upper West Side, a few blocks south of Columbia University. The Q70 (New York City bus), Q70 – terminals LaGuardia_Airport#Terminal_B, B, LaGuardia_Airport#Terminal_C, C, LaGuardia_Airport#Terminal_D, D – through Queens, ending in Woodside at 61st Street and Greenpoint and Roosevelt Avenues, Roosevelt Avenue. Overall, about List of bus routes in Queens, 100 local bus routes operate within Queens, and another List of express bus routes in New York City, 20 express routes shuttle commuters between Queens and Manhattan, under the MTA Regional Bus Operations, MTA New York City Bus and MTA Bus brands.


Proposed streetcar

A streetcar line Brooklyn Queens Connector, connecting Queens with Brooklyn was proposed by the city in February 2016. The planned timeline calls for service to begin around 2024.


Water transit

New York Water Taxi operates service across the
East River The East River is a salt water in . The waterway, which is actually not a despite its name, connects on its south end to on its north end. It separates the borough of on from on the n mainland, and also divides from Queens and , also o ...

East River
from Hunters Point, Queens, Hunters Point in Long Island City to Manhattan at 34th Street (Manhattan), 34th Street and south to Pier 11 at Wall Street. In 2007, limited weekday service was begun between Breezy Point, the westernmost point in the Rockaways, to Pier 11 via the Brooklyn Army Terminal. Summertime weekend service provides service from Lower Manhattan and southwest Brooklyn to the peninsula's Gateway National Recreation Area, Gateway beaches. In the Effects of Hurricane Sandy in New York, aftermath of
Hurricane Sandy Hurricane Sandy (unofficially referred to as Superstorm Sandy) was the deadliest, the most destructive, and the strongest tropical cyclone, hurricane of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm inflicted nearly $70 billion (2012 USD) ...
on October 29, 2012, ferry operator SeaStreak began running a city-subsidized ferry service between a makeshift ferry slip at Beach 108th Street and Beach Channel Drive in Rockaway Park, Queens, Rockaway Park and piers in Manhattan and Brooklyn. The service was extended multiple times. finally ending on October 31, 2014. In February 2015, Mayor Bill de Blasio announced that the city government would begin a citywide ferry service called NYC Ferry to extend ferry transportation to communities in the city that have been traditionally underserved by public transit. The ferry opened in May 2017, with the Queens neighborhoods of Rockaway and Astoria served by their eponymous routes. A third route, the East River Ferry, serves Hunter's Point South.


Roads


Highways

Queens is traversed by three trunk east–west highways. The Long Island Expressway (Interstate 495 (New York), Interstate 495) runs from the Queens Midtown Tunnel on the west through the borough to Nassau County on the east. The Grand Central Parkway, whose western terminus is the Triborough Bridge, extends east to the Queens/Nassau border, where its name changed to the Northern State Parkway. The Belt Parkway begins at the Gowanus Expressway in Brooklyn, and extends east into Queens, past
Aqueduct Racetrack Aqueduct Racetrack is a Thoroughbred horse racing facility and casino in the South Ozone Park, Queens, South Ozone Park and Jamaica, Queens, Jamaica neighborhoods of Queens, New York City, United States. Aqueduct is the only racetrack located w ...

Aqueduct Racetrack
and JFK Airport. On its eastern end at the Queens/Nassau border, it splits into the Southern State Parkway which continues east, and the Cross Island Parkway (New York), Cross Island Parkway which turns north. There are also several major north–south highways in Queens, including the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway (Interstate 278), the Van Wyck Expressway (Interstate 678), the Clearview Expressway (Interstate 295 (New York), Interstate 295), and the Cross Island Parkway. Queens has six state highways that run west–east largely on surface roads. From north to south, they are New York State Route 25A (Northern Boulevard), New York State Route 25B (Hillside Avenue), New York State Route 25 (Queens Boulevard, Hillside Avenue, and Braddock Avenue), New York State Route 24 (Hempstead Avenue), and New York State Route 27 (Conduit Avenue). The only state highway that primarily uses an expressway is New York State Route 878, which uses the Nassau Expressway in southern Queens.


Streets

The streets of Queens are laid out in a semi-grid plan, grid system, with a numerical system of street names (similar to Manhattan and the Bronx). Nearly all roadways oriented north–south are "Streets", while east–west roadways are "Avenues", beginning with the number 1 in the west for Streets and the north for Avenues. In some parts of the borough, several consecutive streets may share numbers (for instance, 72nd Street followed by 72nd Place and 72nd Lane, or 52nd Avenue followed by 52nd Road, 52nd Drive, and 52nd Court), often confusing non-residents. Also, incongruous alignments of street grids, unusual street paths due to geography, or other circumstances often lead to the skipping of numbers (for instance, on Ditmars Boulevard, 70th Street is followed by Hazen Street which is followed by 49th Street). Numbered roads tend to be residential, although numbered commercial streets are not rare. A fair number of streets that were country roads in the 18th and 19th centuries (especially major thoroughfares such as New York State Route 25A, Northern Boulevard, Queens Boulevard, Hillside Avenue (Queens), Hillside Avenue, and Jamaica Avenue (Queens), Jamaica Avenue) carry names rather than numbers, typically though not uniformly called "Boulevards" or "Parkways". Queens house numbering was designed to provide convenience in locating the address itself; the first half of a number in a Queens address refers to the nearest cross street, the second half refers to the house or lot number from where the street begins from that cross street, followed by the name of the street itself. For example, to find an address in Queens, 14-01 120th Street, one could ascertain from the address structure itself that the listed address is at the intersection of 14th Avenue and 120th Street and that the address must be closest to 14th Avenue rather than 15th Avenue, as it is the first lot on the block. This pattern doesn't stop when a street is named, assuming that there is an existing numbered cross-street. For example, Queens College is situated at 65–30 Kissena Boulevard, and is so named because the cross-street closest to the entrance is 65th Avenue. Many of the village street grids of Queens had only worded names, some were numbered according to local numbering schemes, and some had a mix of words and numbers. In the early 1920s, a "Philadelphia Plan" was instituted to overlay one numbered system upon the whole borough. The Topographical Bureau, Borough of Queens, worked out the details. Subway stations were only partly renamed, and some, including those along the
IRT Flushing Line The IRT Flushing Line is a rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn Rapid transit in Germany consists of four U-Bahn systems and fourteen S-Bahn systems. The U-Bahn ...
(), now share dual names after the original street names. In 2012, some numbered streets in the Douglaston Hill Historic District were renamed to their original names, with 43rd Avenue becoming Pine Street. The Rockaway Peninsula does not follow the same system as the rest of the borough and has its own numbering system. Streets are numbered in ascending order heading west from near the Nassau County border, and are prefixed with the word "Beach." Streets at the easternmost end, however, are nearly all named. Bayswater, Queens, Bayswater, which is on Jamaica Bay, has its numbered streets prefixed with the word "Bay" rather than "Beach". Another deviation from the norm is Broad Channel, Queens, Broad Channel; it maintains the north–south numbering progression but uses only the suffix "Road," as well as the prefixes "West" and "East," depending on location relative to Cross Bay Boulevard (Queens), Cross Bay Boulevard, the neighborhood's major through street. Broad Channel's streets were a continuation of the mainland Queens grid in the 1950s; formerly the highest-numbered avenue in Queens was 208th Avenue rather than today's 165th Avenue in Howard Beach & Hamilton Beach. The other exception is the neighborhood of Ridgewood, which for the most part shares a grid and house numbering system with the Brooklyn neighborhood of Bushwick, Brooklyn, Bushwick. The grid runs east–west from the LIRR Bay Ridge Branch right-of-way (transportation), right-of-way to Flushing Avenue; and north–south from Forest Avenue in Ridgewood to Bushwick Avenue in Brooklyn before adjusting to meet up with the Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, Bedford-Stuyvesant grid at Broadway. All streets on the grid have names.


Bridges and tunnels

Queens is connected to the Bronx by the Bronx–Whitestone Bridge, the Throgs Neck Bridge, the Triborough Bridge (also known as the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge), and the Hell Gate Bridge. Queens is connected to Manhattan Island by the Triborough Bridge, the
Queensboro Bridge The Queensboro Bridge, officially named the Ed Koch Queensboro Bridge, is a cantilever bridge A cantilever bridge is a bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a bo ...

Queensboro Bridge
, and the Queens–Midtown Tunnel, as well as to Roosevelt Island by the Roosevelt Island Bridge. While most of the Queens/Brooklyn border is on land, the Kosciuszko Bridge crosses the
Newtown Creek Newtown Creek, a long tributary of the East River The East River is a salt water tidal estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connec ...
connecting
Maspeth Maspeth is a residential and commercial community in the borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although ...
to Greenpoint, Brooklyn. The Pulaski Bridge connects McGuinness Boulevard in Greenpoint to 11th Street, Jackson Avenue, and Hunters Point Avenue in
Long Island City Long Island City (LIC) is a residential and commercial neighborhood on the extreme western tip of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New Y ...

Long Island City
. The J. J. Byrne Memorial Bridge (a.k.a. Greenpoint Avenue Bridge) connects the sections of Greenpoint Avenue in Greenpoint and Long Island City. A lesser bridge connects Grand Street and Grand Avenue, Grand Avenue in Queens to Grand Street in Brooklyn. The Cross Bay Veterans Memorial Bridge, built in 1939, traverses Jamaica Bay to connect the Rockaway Peninsula to Broad Channel, Queens, Broad Channel and the rest of Queens. Constructed in 1937, the Marine Parkway–Gil Hodges Memorial Bridge links Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn's longest thoroughfare, with Jacob Riis Park and the western end of the Peninsula. Both crossings were built and continue to be operated by what is now known as MTA Bridges and Tunnels. The IND Rockaway Line parallels the Cross Bay, has a mid-bay station at Broad Channel (IND Rockaway Line), Broad Channel which is just a short walk from the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, now part of
Gateway National Recreation Area Gateway National Recreation Area is a U.S. National Recreation Area in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With an e ...
and a major stop on the Atlantic Flyway.


Notable people

Many public figures have grown up or lived in Queens. Musicians raised in the borough include
Nas Nas (born 1973) is the stage name of American rapper Nasir Jones. Nas, NaS, or NAS may also refer to: Aviation * Nasair, a low-cost airline carrier and subsidiary based in Eritrea * National Air Services, an airline in Saudi Arabia ** Nas Air ( ...

Nas
,
LL Cool J James Todd Smith (born January 14, 1968), known professionally as LL Cool J (short for Ladies Love Cool James), is an American rapper Rapping (also rhyming, spitting, emceeing or MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporate ...

LL Cool J
, The Ramones,
A Tribe Called Quest A Tribe Called Quest was an American Hip hop music, hip hop group formed in St. Albans, Queens, New York in 1985,Q ...
,
Mobb Deep Mobb Deep was an American hip hop music, hip hop duo from New York City. The duo consisted of rappers Prodigy (rapper), Prodigy and Havoc (musician), Havoc. They are considered to be among the main progenitors of hardcore East Coast hip hopEdward ...
, Onyx (hip hop group), Onyx,
Ja Rule Jeffrey Bruce Atkins (born February 29, 1976), better known by his stage name Ja Rule (), is an American rapper, singer, songwriter and actor. Born in Hollis, Queens Hollis is a residential middle class, middle-class neighborhood within the so ...
,
50 Cent Curtis James Jackson III (born July 6, 1975), known professionally as 50 Cent, is an American rapper, songwriter, television producer, actor, and entrepreneur. Known for his impact in the hip hop industry, he has been described as a "master ...

50 Cent
, Lloyd Banks,
Tony Yayo Marvin Bernard (born March 31, 1978), better known by his stage name Tony Yayo, is an American rapper Rapping (also rhyming, spitting, emceeing or MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and ...
, Run–D.M.C.,
Nicki Minaj Onika Tanya Maraj-Petty (born December 8, 1982), known professionally as Nicki Minaj (), is a Trinidadian-born rapper, singer, and songwriter. She is known for her animated flow Flow may refer to: Science and technology * ...

Nicki Minaj
, Lil Tecca, Rich The Kid,
Action Bronson Ariyan Arslani (born December 2, 1983), better known by the stage name A stage name is a pseudonym used by performers and entertainers such as actors, comedians, singers, and musicians. Such titles are adopted for a wide variety of reasons, ...

Action Bronson
, Nadia Ali (singer), Nadia Ali,
Tony Bennett Anthony Dominick Benedetto (born August 3, 1926), known professionally as Tony Bennett, is an American singer of traditional pop Traditional pop (also known as classic pop and pre-rock and roll pop) is Western Western may refer to: Place ...

Tony Bennett
. Jazz greats
Louis Armstrong Louis Daniel Armstrong (August 4, 1901 – July 6, 1971), nicknamed "Satchmo", "Satch", and "Pops", was an American and . He is among the most influential figures in . His career spanned five decades and different eras in the history of j ...

Louis Armstrong
and Norman Mapp both resided in Corona, as well as rock duo Simon & Garfunkel and guitarists Scott Ian and Johnny Ramone. K-pop rapper Mark Lee (singer), Mark Lee from the boy group NCT (band), NCT grew up in Queens before moving to Canada. Madonna, from 1979 to 1980, lived in Corona as a member of the band Breakfast Club. Actors such as Adrien Brody, Zoe Saldana, Lucy Liu, John Leguizamo, Susan Sarandon, and Idina Menzel were born or raised in Queens. Actress Mae West also lived in Queens. Writers from Queens include John Guare (''The House of Blue Leaves'') and Laura Z. Hobson (''Gentleman's Agreement (novel), Gentleman's Agreement''). Mafia boss John Gotti lived in Queens for many years. Richard Feynman, a scientist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, was born in Queens and grew up in Far Rockaway, Queens, Far Rockaway. Lee "Q" O'Denat, founder of WorldStarHipHop was from Hollis, Queens. Donald Trump, a businessman who became the Donald Trump, 45th President of the United States, was born in Jamaica Hospital Medical Center and raised at 81-15 Wareham Place in Jamaica Estates, later moving to Midland Parkway. He was preceded in the White House by former First Lady of the United States, First Ladies Nancy Reagan, who lived in Flushing as a child. Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President, lived at Sagamore Hill (house), Sagamore Hill in Oyster Bay (town), New York, Oyster Bay from the mid-1880s until he died; the area was considered part of Queens until the formation of neighboring Nassau County in 1899. Queens has also been home to athletes such as professional basketball player Rafer Alston Basketball players Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Metta World Peace were both born in Queens, as was Olympic athlete Bob Beamon. Tennis star John McEnroe was born in Douglaston, Queens, Douglaston. National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, Hall of Fame baseball pitcher Whitey Ford grew up in Astoria. Journalist Marie Colvin was a native of Queens.


In popular culture

Queens has also served as a setting for various fictional characters, one of the more famous being Spider-Man, Peter Parker / Spider-Man from Marvel Comics. He grew up in Forest Hills with his Aunt May and Uncle Ben.


The Cemetery Belt

Several large cemeteries in Queens – St. Michael's Cemetery (New York), St. Michaels, All Faiths Cemetery, Luthern, Calvary Cemetery (Queens), Calvary, Cypress Hills Cemetery, Cypress Hill, Mount Olivet Cemetery (Queens), Mt. Olivet and Mount Zion Cemetery (New York City), Mt. Zion – together with several in Brooklyn are collectively known as The Cemetery Belt. Calvary, by itself – with about 3 million burials – has the larges number of interments of any cemetery in the United States.


See also

* List of tallest buildings in Queens * National Register of Historic Places listings in Queens County, New York * Queens directories


Notes


References

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{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, ARDA,, 2010 , last1=ARDA , author-link1=Association of Religion Data Archives , date=2010 , title=County Membership Report – Queens County (New York) , url=http://www.thearda.com/rcms2010/rcms2010A.asp?U=36081&T=county&Y=2010&S=adh , publisher=The Association of Religion Data Archives , access-date = January 2, 2020 {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Beers,, 1873, p= , last1=Beers , first1=Frederick William (1839–1933), cartographer (supervisor) , date=1873 , title=Atlas of Long Island, New York – From Recent and Actual Surveys and Records , url=https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e2-6331-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99 , language=en-US , type=192 pages, including 98 color maps, folded , location=New York City, New York , publisher=Beers, Comstock & Cline (publisher). Charles Hart (1824–1914) (printer). Louis E. Neuman (1835–1902) (engraver) , access-date=September 1, 2021 , via=New York Public Library, Digital Collections and the Library of Congress {{LCCN, 2016430357; {{OCLC, 994815013, show=all, {{OCLC search link, 953568433 & {{OCLC search link, 13964902 (microfilm).
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{{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, ''Biography.com'', "Tony Bennett," April 2,, 2014 , last1=''Biography.com'' , author-link1=Biography (TV program) , date=April 2, 2014 , orig-date={{space, nitLast updated February 1, 2021{{space, nit , title=Tony Bennett , url=https://www.biography.com/musician/tony-bennett , publisher=A&E Television Networks (publisher) , access-date=February 15, 2018 {{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, ''Biography.com'', "Kareem Abdul-Jabbar," April 2,, 2014 , last1=''Biography.com'' , author-link1=Biography (TV program) , date=April 2, 2014 , orig-date={{space, nitLast updated January 13, 2021{{space, nit , title=Kareem Abdul-Jabbar , website=Biography.com , url=https://www.biography.com/athlete/kareem-abdul-jabbar , publisher=A&E Television Networks (publisher) , access-date=February 15, 2018 {{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, ''Biography.com'', "John McEnroe," April 2,, 2014 , last1=''Biography.com'' , author-link1=Biography (TV program) , date=April 2, 2014 , orig-date={{space, nitLast updated March 30, 2021{{space, nit , title=John McEnroe , url=https://www.biography.com/athlete/john-mcenroe , publisher=A&E Television Networks (publisher) , access-date=February 15, 2018 {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Ciccone & Leigh, July, 2008, p= , last1=Ciccone , first1=Christopher , last2=Leigh , first2=Wendy (1950–2016) , author-link2=:de:Wendy Leigh , date=July 2008 , title=Life With My Sister Madonna , url={{GBurl, mqqFX9lU98IC, p=56, dq="corona"+"breakfast club" , publisher=Simon & Schuster, Simion Spotlight Entertainment , page=56 , access-date=August 31, 2010 , via=Google Books , postscript=.{{space, 1''See article → Life with My Sister Madonna.'' {{LCCN, 2008300312 (hardcover), {{LCCN, 2009536200 (paperback); {{ISBN, 1-4165-8762-4, 978-1-4165-8762-0; {{OCLC, 232128720, show=all. {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, CCSSE,, 2003, p= , last1=Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE) (publisher) , author-link1=Community College Survey of Student Engagement , date=2003 , title=''"Engaging Community Colleges – National Benchmarks of Quality – 2003 Findings"'' , url=https://cccse.org/sites/default/files/2003_National_Report.pdf , page=12 , access-date= {{OCLC, 1064663491, 425804160.
Of the four categories, (i) Extra-Large Colleges (15,000 or more students), (ii) Large Colleges (8,000–14,999 students), (iii) Medium Colleges (4,500–7,999 students), and (iv) Small Colleges (4,499 or fewer students), LaGuardia Community College was in the top three of Large Colleges.
{{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, DiNapoli,, , p= , last1=DiNapoli , first1=Thomas Peter, II (born 1954), New York State Comptroller , author-link1=Thomas DiNapoli , last2=Bleiwas , first2=Kenneth B., Deputy Comptroller , date=December 2013 , title=An Economic Snapshot of Queens , url=https://www.osc.state.ny.us/files/reports/osdc/pdf/report-9-2014.pdf , publisher=New York Department of State , access-date=February 9, 2021 {{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, ''Dominion of New York,'' September 6,, 2011 , last1=''Dominion of New York'' , last2=Dia , first2=Hannington , date=September 6, 2011 , title=Best Black Arts & Culture in Queens 2011" (column) "Six Reasons to Love Queens , url=http://www.dominionofnewyork.com/2011/09/06/best-black-arts-culture-in-queens-2011/#.TzUk7dRDuHc , access-date=March 28, 2012 , postscript={{space, 1({{italic correction, ''Dominion'' was founded in 2012 by Kelly Virella). {{cite web , title=Early Five Borough's History , access-date=December 30, 2007 , url=http://www.hopefarm.com/5boros.htm , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210309050829/https://web.archive.org/web/20101021055612/http://hopefarm.com/5boros.htm , archive-date=March 9, 2021 , via=Wayback Machine
"When Queens County was created the courts were transferred from Hempstead to Jamaica Village and a County Court was erected. When the building became too small for its purposes and the stone meeting house had been erected, the courts were held for some years in that edifice. Later a new courthouse was erected and used until the seat of justice was removed to North Hempstead." {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Eisenstadt,, 2005, p= , last1=Eisenstadt , first1=Peter R. (born 1954) (editor-in-chief) , date=2005 , title=Encyclopedia of New York , url={{GBurl, tmHEm5ohoCUC, p=1274, dq="queens"+"elevation" , edition=1st , publisher=Syracuse University Press , page=1274 {{LCCN, 2005001032; {{ISBN, 0-8156-0808-X, 978-0-8156-0808-0.
  1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Eisenstadt, "New York City,", p=1062 , title=''"New York City"'' , url={{GBurl, tmHEm5ohoCUC, p=1062, dq="queens"+"elevation"+"highest"+"brooklyn"+"staten island" , page=1062
  2. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Eisenstadt, "Queens,", p=1274 , title=''"Queens"'' , url={{GBurl, tmHEm5ohoCUC, p=1274, dq="queens"+"elevation"+"highest" , page=1274
: {{hanging indent , text=Highest natural elevations in each borough (data varies):
  1. {{hanging indent , text=
    The Bronx The Bronx () is a borough of New York City New York City is composed of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. Each borough is coextensive with a respective Administrative divisions of New York (state)#Count ...
    : Riverdale, Bronx, Riverdale, Fieldston, Bronx, Fieldston on Grosvenor Avenue: {{convert, 284, ft, m, 1 (no plaque).
  2. {{hanging indent , text=
    Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

    Manhattan
    : Washington Heights, Manhattan, Washington Heights, Bennett Park (New York City), James Gordon Bennett Park at West 183rd Street & Fort Washington Avenue: {{convert, 265.05, ft, m, 1 (plaque).
  3. {{hanging indent , text=Queens: Glen Oaks, Queens, Glen Oaks at North Shore Towers: {{convert, 258.2, ft, m, 1 (no plaque).
  4. {{hanging indent , text=
    Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the te ...

    Brooklyn
    : Green-Wood Cemetery at Battle Hill (Brooklyn), Battle Hill: {{convert, 220, ft, m, 1 (no plaque).
  5. {{hanging indent , text=
    Staten Island Staten Island () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use o ...

    Staten Island
    : Todt Hill: {{convert, 412, ft, m, 1 (no plaque), sometimes chronicled as the highest point on the East Coast of the United States, Eastern Seaboard, south of Maine, all the way to the bottom of Florida.
{{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, ''Forbes'', April 10,, 2014, p= , last1=''Forbes'' , author-link1=Forbes , last2=Shao , first2=Heng , date=April 10, 2014 , title=Join the Great Gatsby: Chinese Real Estate Buyers Fan Out to Long Island’s North Shore , url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/hengshao/2014/04/10/chinese-real-estate-buyers-fan-out-to-long-islands-north-shore/ , page=14 , access-date=April 2, 2016 {{EBSCO, 95585487. {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, French,, 1860, p= , last1=French , first1=John Homer (1824–1888) , date=1860 , chapter=Queens County , title=Gazeteer of the State of New York , url=http://history.rays-place.com/ny/queens-towns.htm , url-status=dead , type=towns in Queens County , location=Syracuse, New York, Syracuse , publisher=R. Pearsall Smith (publisher) , access-date=December 28, 2007 , archive-url=https://archive.today/20130104114722/http://history.rays-place.com/ny/queens-towns.htm , archive-date=January 4, 2013 , via=Wayback Machine
  1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, French, Google Books (Harvard),, 1860, pp= , title=''Access – via Google Books (Harvard University)'' , url={{GBurl, R_zHwh4xByQC, p=546 , pages=546–551
{{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, Gleasin, March 11,, 2019, p= , last1=Gleason , first1=Will , date=March 11, 2019 , title=Citing Its Diversity and Culture, NYC Was Voted Best City in the World in New Global Survey , url=https://www.timeout.com/newyork/news/new-york-voted-best-city-in-the-world-in-massive-worldwide-survey-031119 , journal=Time_Out_(magazine)#Time_Out_New_York, TimeOut , access-date=June 23, 2019
"Just look at the Queens Night Market, which began in the summer of 2015 as a collection of 40 vendors serving authentic international cuisine in Flushing Meadows Corona Park. Since then, it's steadily attracted more and more attendees and, last year averaged 10,000 people a night. Those thousands of New Yorkers weren't just hungry for new food, but for new points-of-view. 'When I first started, it was all about how can we attract people with an event that's as affordable and diverse as possible,' says Night Market founder John Wang. 'We've now been able to represent over 85 countries, and I'm constantly hearing examples of people branching out and trying things they've never heard of before."
{{cite web , last1=Google Maps , author-link1=Google Maps , ref={{SfnRef, Google (map) , url=https://www.google.com/maps/place/Queens,+NY/@40.6511939,-74.0112772,11z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x89c24369470a592b:0x4109d18b6c5c7b05!8m2!3d40.7282239!4d-73.7948516 , title=Overview Map of Queens , access-date=January 6, 2017 {{cite web , last1=Greenspan , first1=Walter Perry (1945–2012) , title=Geographic History of Queens County , url=http://sites.rootsweb.com/~nyqueen2/History.htm , access-date=December 23, 2007
Greenspan, formerly a commodities analyst, was, for the last ten years of his life, active with Metro New York Genealogy. In the 1980s, he was, among other things, Presidident of the New York Chapter of the Futures Industry Association.
{{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Humphries,, 1989, p= , last1=Humphries , first1=Patrick , date=1989 , orig-date=1988 – ''Boy in the Bubble'' , title=Paul Simon – Still Crazy After All These Years , url=https://archive.org/details/paulsimonstillcr00hump/page/n5/mode/2up , url-access=registration , publisher=Doubleday (publisher), Doubleday , access-date=September 15, 2021 , via=Internet Archive {{LCCN, 8830030; {{ISBN, 0-3852-4908-X; {{OCLC, 740541862, show=all.
"Their house [
Paul Simon Paul Frederic Simon (born October 13, 1941) is an American musician, singer, songwriter, and actor whose career has spanned six decades. He is one of the most acclaimed songwriters in popular music. Simon was born in Newark, New Jersey, and gr ...

Paul Simon
's family] was situated on 70th Road [at 137-62] in Kew Garden Hills, only three blocks away from the Art Garfunkel, Garfunkels' home [at 136-58 72nd Avenue in Kew Garden Hills]." (p. 3)
{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, "Inventing Gotham", , p= , url=http://mapsites.net/gotham01/ConsolidationDBQ.htm , url-access= , title=Inventing Gotham – New York City and the American Dream: Consolidation , date=n.d. , website=Mapsites.net , type=a virtual tour of New York City constructed for and by eleventh and twelfth grade students at the Fieldston School in
The Bronx The Bronx () is a borough of New York City New York City is composed of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. Each borough is coextensive with a respective Administrative divisions of New York (state)#Count ...
, publisher=Fieldston School, Department of History , language=en-US , access-date=December 28, 2007 , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110723202040/http://mapsites.net/gotham01/ConsolidationDBQ.htm , archive-date=July 23, 2011 , via=Mapsites.net (Wayback Machine)
  1. {{hanging indent , text=Illustration & editorial: {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Brooklyn Daily Eagle,'' November 5,, 1894, p= , last1=''Brooklyn Daily Eagle, The'' , author-link1=The Brooklyn Daily Eagle , date=November 5, 1894 , title=The Lady or the Tiger? , url=https://www.newspapers.com/image/50595037/ , type=anti-consolidation editorial – illustration by Orrin Welch Simons; 1867–1930 , language=en-US , volume=54 , issue=307 , page=19 , access-date=September 8, 2021 , via=Newspapers.com , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1(criticized by ''The New York Times{{italic correction, '').
  2. {{hanging indent , text=Document A: 1834: General Jeremiah Johnson (mayor), Jeremiah Johnson (1766–1852)
  3. {{hanging indent , text=Document B: 1834: Consolidation Committee of the State legislature
  4. {{hanging indent , text=Document C: 1849: ''The New York Tribune'' (a Republican newspaper)
  5. {{hanging indent , text=Document D: Andrew Haswell Green (1820–1903)
  6. {{hanging indent , text=Document E: Popular joke
  7. {{hanging indent , text=Document F: 1894: ''Puck (magazine), Puck'' magazine
  8. {{hanging indent , text=Document G: 1896: Rev. Richard Salter Storrs (1821–1900)
  9. {{hanging indent , text=Document H: 1893: St. Clair McKelway (1905–1980), editor of the ''Brooklyn Eagle''
  10. {{hanging indent , text=Document I: Consolidation League
  11. {{hanging indent , text=Document J: League of Loyal Citizens
  12. {{hanging indent , text=Document K: ''The New York Times,'' May 1, 1888
  13. {{hanging indent , text=Document L: 1894: Results of the Consolidation Referendum
{{cite web , last1=Leip , first1=David G. (born 1970) , title=Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections , url=https://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS , website=uselectionatlas.org , location=Ithaca, New York , publisher=Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections, LLC (a New York entity) , access-date=April 29, 2017 {{OCLC, 439540511. {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, Lloyd Harbor, Brief History}, title=Lloyd Harbor – A Brief History , url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090427205006/http://www.lloydharbor.org/village/brief_history.htm , publisher=Incorporated Village of Lloyd Harbor, Suffolk County, NY (website host) , access-date=April 9, 2009 , url-status= , archive-url=https://www.lloydharbor.org/about/ , archive-date=April 27, 2009 , via=Wayback Machine {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, ''Lonely Planet'', December 10,, 2014 , last1=''Lonely Planet'' , author-link1=Lonely Planet , date=December 10, 2014 , title=Best in the US 2015 , url=https://www.lonelyplanet.com/articles/best-in-the-us-2015 , access-date=December 10, 2015 {{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef , last1=Martin , first1=Aarian , date=June 15, 2019 , title=New York City Flexes Again, Extending Cap on Uber and Lyft" – "Officials want to extend the city's limit on the number of for-hire vehicles, and may consider a congestion charge , url=https://www.wired.com/story/new-york-city-flexes-extending-cap-uber-lyft/ , journal=Wired (magazine), Wired , access-date=September 21, 2021 {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Martin, Stocker, Nichols, Shaheen, February, 2021} , last1=Martin , first1=Elliot William, PhD , last2=Stocker , first2=Adam , last3=Nichols , first3=Aqshems M. , last4=Shaheen , first4=Susan Alison, PhD , title=''"Roundtrip Carsharing in New York City: An Evaluation of a Pilot Program and System Impacts"'' , url=https://www1.nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/roundtrip-carsharing-in-nyc-pilot-evaluation.pdf , publisher=UC Berkeley, Institute of Transportation Studies (ITS), Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC) , via=New York City Department of Transportation {{doi, 10.7922/G2R49P23; eScholarship {{URL, https://escholarship.org/uc/item/5kb1r71v, 5kb1r71v (permalink); {{OCLC, 1249955145. {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, McCurdy,, 2019, p= , last1=McCurdy , first1=John Gilbert, PhD (born 1972) , date=2019 , title=Quarters – The Accommodation of the British Army and the Coming of the American Revolution , publisher=Cornell University Press , postscript=.{{space, 1Retrieved June 1, 2020. {{LCCN, 2019002331 (print); {{LCCN, 2019004115 (ebook); {{ISBN, 978-1-5017-3661-2 (PDF); {{ISBN, 978-1-5017-3662-9 (ebook); {{ISBN, 978-1-501-73660-5 (cloth); {{OCLC, 1137756892, show=all.
  1. {{cite book , title=''Via Google Books'' , url={{GBurl, iuhzDwAAQBAJ, p=1
  2. {{cite book , title=''Via Google Books'' , url={{GBurl, IMCIDwAAQBAJ, p=PR3
{{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, McGlinn,, 2002, p= , last1=McGlinn , first1=Lawrence Alan, PhD (born 1962), Department of Geography SUNY-New Paltz , date=2002 , title=Beyond Chinatown: Dual Immigration and the Chinese Population of Metropolitan New York City , url=http://msaag.aag.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/13_McGlinn.pdf , pages=110–119 , journal=Middle States Geographer , type={{URL, msaag.aag.org/middle-states-geographer , volume=35 , publisher=Middle States Division of the Association of American Geographers (publisher) , access-date=April 2, 2016 {{ISSN, 1067-2230. {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Mushabac & Wigan, , 1997, p=, last1=Mushabac , first1=Jane Esther, PhD (born 1944) , last2=Wigan , first2=Angela Harman ({{italic correction, ''maiden''; born 1943; married to composer Mel W. Marvin) , date=1999 , orig-date=1997 , title=A Short and Remarkable History of New York City , type=entry: "1683" , postscript=.{{space, 1Retrieved December 11, 2011.
  1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , title=''1st printing →'' , url= , date=1997 , location=New York , publisher=City & Company (publisher) , page=19 , postscript={{space, 1→ Note: City & Company, founded by Helene Silver in 1994, was sold in 2002 to Rizzoli International Publications. The company name, as a New York entity, has been inactive since 2009. {{ISBN, 978-1-8854-9250-0; {{OCLC, 37464494.
  2. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , title=''2nd printing (link) →'' , url=https://archive.org/details/shortremarkableh00mush/page/18/mode/2up?ref=ol&view=theater , date=1999 , url-access=registration , publisher=Fordham University Press (publisher) , via=Internet Archive (Boston Public Library) , page= {{LCCN, 9904688; {{ISBN, 0-8232-1984-4; {{OCLC, 1252727441, show=all.
{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, NYC Origins, May 8,, 1999 , date=May 8, 1999 , title=New York City – Geography and Origins: Queens , url=https://www.ny.com/histfacts/geography.html#queens , website=NY.com , publisher=Mediabridge Infosystems, Inc. , access-date=March 28, 2012 {{cite web , date=April 5, 2018 , title=New Yorkers and Their Cars , url=https://edc.nyc/article/new-yorkers-and-their-cars , type={{URL, www.edc.nyc , publisher=New York City Economic Development Corporation (publisher) , postscript=.{{space, 1Originally retrieved July 6, 2016. Updated url retrieved September 21, 20201.
"According to recent census estimates, almost 1.4 million households in New York City own a car compared to 3.1 million total households." {{nowrap, ... "Manhattan, where only 22 percent of households own a car, while ownership is highest in Staten Island where cars are owned by 83 percent of all households. Queens (62 percent) is also above the city average, while the Bronx (40 percent) and Brooklyn (44 percent) look more like the city as a whole."
{{Cite web , ref={{SfnRef, ''NY City Lens'' April 24,, 2015 , last1=NY City Lens , author-link1=NY City Lens , last2=Uwimana , first2=Solange , date=April 24, 2015 , title=Sutphin Boulevard: The Next Tourist Hot Spot? , url=https://nycitylens.com/sutphin-boulevard-the-next-tourist-hot-spot/ , language=en-US , access-date=April 12, 2016 , publisher=Produced by students at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, ''NYG&B Newsletter'', Winter, 1998, p= , last1=''NYG&B Newsletter'' , last2=Macy , first2=Harry, Jr., Fellow of the American Society of Genealogists, F.A.S.G.
F.G.B.S.
, date=Winter 1998 , orig-date={{space, nitUpdated June 2011{{space, nit , title=Before the Five-Borough City: Queens , url=https://www.newyorkfamilyhistory.org/blog/five-borough-city-old-cities-towns-and-villages-came-together-form-greater-new-york , url-status= , website=bklyn-genealogy-info.com , publisher=New York Genealogical and Biographical Society , access-date=May 9, 2009 , page=6 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090703114614/http://www.bklyn-genealogy-info.com/Map/5.Bor.Q.Rich.html , archive-date=July 3, 2009 , via=Wayback Machine
This map shows the boundaries of the former towns and the former city within the present Borough of Queens. {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, } , last1=NYSERDA , author-link1=NYSERDA , date=February 2021 , title=''"New York State Transportation Electrification Report"'' , url=https://www.nyserda.ny.gov/-/media/Files/Publications/Research/Transportation/21-06-New-York-State-Transportation-Electrification-Report.pdf , edition=Final Report , type=Report Number 21-06 , publisher=New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) , access-date=September 21, 2021 {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, "Past Queens Poet Laureates,", 2019} , date=2019 , chapter=Past Queens Poet Laureates , chapter-url=https://queensbp.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/List-of-Queens-Poet-Laureates-1997-2019.pdf , title=''Office of the Queens Borough President – Poet Laureates'' , url=https://queensbp.org/poet-laureate/ , access-date=September 15, 2021 {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Penn State,, 2014 , last1=Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences , author-link1=Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences , date=2014 , chapter=Social Capital Variables for 2014 , chapter-url=https://aese.psu.edu/nercrd/community/social-capital-resources/social-capital-variables-for-2014 , title=''"Social Capital Variables Spreadsheet for 2014" (Excel)'' , url=https://aese.psu.edu/nercrd/community/social-capital-resources/social-capital-variables-for-2014/social-capital-variables-spreadsheet-for-2014 , publisher=Department of Agricultural Economics, Sociology, and Education, Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development , access-date=January 3, 2020 {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Peterson & Seyfried,, 1987, p= , last1=Peterson , first1=Jon Alvah, PhD (born 1935) (ed.) , last2=Seyfried , first2=Vincent Francis (1918–2012) (consultant) , date=1987 , orig-date=1983 , title=A Research Guide to the History of the Borough of Queens , location=New York , publisher=Department of History, Queens College, City University of New York
  1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Peterson & Seyfried,, 1983, p= , title=''1983 ed.'' – A Research Guide to the History of the Borough of Queens and Its Neighborhoods: Bibliography, Chronology, and Other Aids , type=70 pages {{OCLC, 1251870218, show=all.
  2. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Peterson & Seyfried,, 1987, p= , title=''1987 ed.'' – A Research Guide to the History of the Borough of Queens, New York City: Historical Sketches, Population Data, Chronologies, Bibliography, and Other Aids , type=59 pages {{OCLC, 18097590.
{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, , } , title=Facts & Figures – Subways , url=http://www.nycsubway.org/faq/factsfigures.html , website=www.nycsubway.org , access-date=March 9, 2014 , type=website managed by David C. Pirmann, born 1971, of Hoboken, New Jersey {{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, Port Authority , last1=Port Authority of New York and New Jersey , author-link1=Port Authority of New York and New Jersey , title=2000–2020 Monthly Airport Traffic Report Archives , url=https://www.panynj.gov/airports/en/statistics-general-info/Monthly_Airport_Activities.html , postscript=.{{space, 1Retrieved September 20, 2021.
  1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Port Authority, JFK, December, 2019 , title=''December 2019. "John F. Kennedy International Airport"'' , url=https://www.panynj.gov/content/dam/airports/statistics/statistics-general-info/monthly-2019/JFK_DEC_2019.pdf
  2. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Port Authority, JFK, December, 2020 , title=''December 2020. "John F. Kennedy International Airport"'' , url=https://www.panynj.gov/content/dam/airports/statistics/statistics-general-info/monthly-2020/JFK_DEC_2020.pdf
  3. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Port Authority, LGA, December, 2019 , title=''December 2019. "LaGuardia Airport"'' , url=https://www.panynj.gov/content/dam/airports/statistics/statistics-general-info/monthly-2019/LGA_DEC_2019.pdf
  4. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Port Authority, LGA, December, 2020 , title=''December 2020. "LaGuardia Airport"'' , url=https://www.panynj.gov/content/dam/airports/statistics/statistics-general-info/monthly-2020/LGA_DEC_2020.pdf
{{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, Powell, February, 1928 , last1=Powell , first1=Charles Underhill (1876–1956), Engineer in Charge, Topographical Bureau, Borough of Queens , date=February 1928 , editor-last1=Buttenheim , editor-first1=Harold Stanley (1905–1962) , title=Bringing Order Out of Chaos in Street Naming and House Numbering – How the Great Borough of Queens, Composed of Sixty Former Villages, Changed the Names of Most of Its Streets and Gave New Numbers to All Its Houses , url= , journal=The American City (magazine), The American City , location=Pittsfield, Massachusetts , publisher= , volume=38 , issue=2 , pages=91–93 , postscript=.{{space, 1Retrieved September 20, 2021. {{ISSN, 0002-7936.
  1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Powell, Internet Archive, February, 1928, p= , title=''pp. 91–93'' , url=https://archive.org/details/sim_american-city-county_1928-02_38_2/page/90/mode/2up?ref=ol&view=theater , via=Internet Archive (University of Michigan)
{{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, ''Queens: Economic Review'',, 2000, p= , date=2000 , title=Queens: An Economic Review , url=https://nysl.ptfs.com/data/Library1/1440.PDF , type=Report – Office of the State Deputy Comptroller for the City of New York: 11–2000 , publisher=Office of the
New York State Comptroller The New York State Comptroller is a state cabinet officer of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, ...
, Carl McCall, H. Carl McCall, New York State Comptroller, State Comptroller, New York City Public Information Office , pages=1, 5 , access-date=March 28, 2012 , via=New York State Library {{LCCN, 00325035; {{OCLC, 43393337.
{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, Queens District Attorney, , p= , last1=Queens District Attorney , last2=[{{space, nitUpdated January 6, 2020{{space, nit] , title=Melinda Katz, District Attorney , url=http://www.queensda.org/ , type={{URL, https://queensda.org , access-date=March 28, 2012 {{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, ''QueensMamas'', May 28,, 2011, p= , last1=''QueensMamas'' , date=May 28, 2011 , title=NYC Beaches 2011 – Summer Beach Season Kicks Off , url=http://www.queensmamas.com/queens_mamas/2011/05/summer-beach-season-kicks-off-in-nyc.html , url-status=dead , location=
Astoria Astoria may refer to: Places United States * Astoria, Illinois * Astoria, Missouri * Astoria, Queens, neighborhood in New York City * Astoria, Oregon * Astoria, South Dakota * Astoria Township, Fulton County, Illinois Other places * Astoria ...
, publisher= , access-date=March 28, 2012 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120320231702/http://www.queensmamas.com/queens_mamas/2011/05/summer-beach-season-kicks-off-in-nyc.html , archive-date=March 20, 2012 , via=Internet Archive , postscript=.{{space, 1
Astoria Astoria may refer to: Places United States * Astoria, Illinois * Astoria, Missouri * Astoria, Queens, neighborhood in New York City * Astoria, Oregon * Astoria, South Dakota * Astoria Township, Fulton County, Illinois Other places * Astoria ...
: The Mamas Network, Leni Calas ({{italic correction, ''née'' Elleni K. Calas; born 1979) (founding publisher)
{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, Queens Museum, July 23,, 2016, p= , last1=Queens Museum , author-link1=Queens Museum , date=July 23, 2016 , title=From 'Forest Hills: Birthplace of Punk' to 'Rock Rock Rockaway Beach' , url=http://www.queensmuseum.org/events/from-forest-hills-birthplace-of-punk-to-rock-rock-rockaway-beach , access-date=February 15, 2018 {{Cite web , ref={{SfnRef, ''Quora'', Queens,, 2000 , last1=''Quora'' , author-link1=Quora , last2=Ryan , first2=Jim , date=2020 , title=Are Locals From Queens, NY, Called 'Queens'? , url=https://www.quora.com/Are-locals-from-Queens-NY-called-queens , type={{URL, https://www.quora.com , access-date=September 19, 2020 {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, , 2008, p= , date=2008 , editor-last1=Rennert , editor-first1=Richard Scott (born 1956) , title=The Open Book: Celebrating 40 Years of America's Grand Slam , url=https://archive.org/details/usopenopenbookce0000unse/page/14/mode/2up?ref=ol&view=theater , url-access=registration , publisher=United States Tennis Association & Triumph Books (publisher) , page=14 , access-date=July 5, 2016 , via=Internet Archive (Gilbert M. Simmons Memorial Library, Kenosha Public Library) {{ISBN, 978-1-6007-8157-5, 1-6007-8157-8; {{OCLC, 213446843, show=all, {{OCLC, 1048021596, show=all.
"Moving the home of the US Open (tennis), US Open in 1978 across the borough of Queens, from the serene surroundings of Forest Hills to the 46.5 cement acres [188,000 m2; 2,030,000 sq ft; 18.8 ha] of Flushing Meadows, further expanded the US Open's ability to deliver world-class tennis and star-studded entertainment to the masses. Indeed, the
USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center The USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center is a stadium complex within Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, New York City, United States. It has been the home of the U.S. Open (tennis), US Open Grand Slam (tennis), Grand Slam tennis to ...
(the world's largest public tennis facility when not hosting tournament tennis) and its centerpiece, Arthur Ashe Stadium (the world's largest tennis stadium), have enabled the US Open to become the world's best-attended annual sporting event, with nearly three-quarters of a million fans on-site each year."
{{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Room, 1997,, 2006, p= , last1=Room , first1=Adrian (1933–2010) , author-link1=Adrian Room , title=Place Names of the World , location=Jefferson, North Carolina , publisher=McFarland & Company , postscript=.{{space, 1Retrieved September 15, 2021.
  1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , title=''1st ed. →'' Origins and Meanings of the Names for Over 5000 Natural Features, Countries, Capitals, Territories, Cities, and Historic Sites , url=https://archive.org/details/placenamesofworl00room/page/294/mode/2up?ref=ol&view=theater , date=1997 , url-access=registration , type=entry: "Queens" , via=Internet Archive (Columbia University) , page=295 {{LCCN, 9638011; {{ISBN, 0-7864-0172-9; {{OCLC, 1023788128, show=all.
  2. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , title=''2nd ed. →'' Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features and Historic Sites , url=https://archive.org/details/placenamesofworl02edroom/page/308/mode/2up?ref=ol&view=theater , date=2006 , url-access=registration , type=entry: "Queens" , via=Internet Archive (Albany County Public Library, Laramie, Wyoming) , page=308 {{LCCN, 2005017522; {{isbn, 0-7864-2248-3, 978-0-78642-248-7; {{OCLC, 60671826, show=all.
{{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Scheltema & Westerhuijs, , 2011, p= , editor-last1=Scheltema , editor-first1=Hugo Gajus , editor-last2=Westerhuijs , editor-first2=Heleen , date=2011 , title=Exploring Historic Dutch New York , location=New York , publisher=Museum of the City of New York & Dover Publications , postscript=.{{space, 1Introduction by Russell Shorto. Retrieved March 5, 2012. {{LCCN, 2019301028; {{ISBN, 978-0-4864-8637-6, {{ISBN, 0-4864-8637-0, {{ISBN, 978-0-4868-3493-1, {{ISBN, 0-4868-3493-X; {{OCLC, 841493950, show=all.
  1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , title=''Via Google Books'' , url={{GBurl, QAdxDwAAQBAJ, p=1 , type=limited preview
  2. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , title=''Via Google Books'' , url={{GBurl, 7CVyDwAAQBAJ, p=1 , type=limited preview
  3. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , title=''Via Google Books'' , url={{GBurl, qdXCAgAAQBAJ, p=1 , type=limited preview
{{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, Seyfried & Peterson, December 17,, 2007 , last1=Seyfried , first1=Vincent Francis (1918–2012) , author-link1=Vincent F. Seyfried , last2=Peterson , first2=Jon Alvah, PhD (born 1935); History Department, Queens College, City University of New York, Queens College/CUNY , date=December 17, 2007 , title=Historical Essay: A Thumbnail View , url=http://www.queensbp.org/content_web/tourism/tourism_history.shtml , journal=Cultural Affairs , type=official history page of the Queens Borough President's office , url-status=dead , language=en-US , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071218014547/http://www.queensbp.org/content_web/tourism/tourism_history.shtml , archive-date=December 18, 2007 , via=Wayback Machine {{OCLC, 640142399, 639544317.
{{space, 3"From the final withdrawal of the British in November 1783, until the 1830s, Queens continued as an essentially Long Island area of farms and villages. The location of the county government in Mineola (in present-day Nassau County) underscores the island orientation of that era. The population grew hardly at all, increasing only from 5,791 in 1800 to 7,806 in 1830, suggesting that many younger sons moved away, seeking fortunes where land was not yet so fully taken up for farming."
{{space, 3"Even more crucial to future development was the opening of the
Queensboro Bridge The Queensboro Bridge, officially named the Ed Koch Queensboro Bridge, is a cantilever bridge A cantilever bridge is a bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a bo ...

Queensboro Bridge
in 1909. This span ended the isolation of the borough's road system at precisely the time when mass use of the automobile was getting underway in the United States."
{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, Seyfried,, 2004, p= , last1=Seyfried , first1=Vincent Francis (1918–2012) , title=A Walk Through Queens with David Hartman and Historian Barry Lewis , url=http://www.thirteen.org/queens/history3.html , website=Educational Broadcasting Corporation , year=2004 , access-date=December 29, 2007
{{space, 3"The most momentous event in the history of Queens occurred in 1909 when the long-planned
Queensboro Bridge The Queensboro Bridge, officially named the Ed Koch Queensboro Bridge, is a cantilever bridge A cantilever bridge is a bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a bo ...

Queensboro Bridge
was finally opened. This ended the century-old isolation of the county and dependence on ferries."
{{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Shorto & Funk,, 2004 , last1=Shorto , first1=Russell (ed.) , author-link1=Russell Shorto , last2=Funk , first2=Howard Leroy (1930–2011) (consulting web designer) , author-link2= , date=2004 , chapter=Long Island: Maspeth / Middleburgh / Hastings / Newtown , chapter-url=https://www.newnetherlandinstitute.org/history-and-heritage/digital-exhibitions/a-tour-of-new-netherland/long-island/maspeth/ , title=A [Virtual] Tour of New Netherland , url=https://www.newnetherlandinstitute.org/history-and-heritage/digital-exhibitions/a-tour-of-new-netherland , language=en-US , publisher=New Netherland Project & New Netherland Institute (publisher). New York State Library & the Holland Society of New York (funders) , access-date=March 29, 2008 {{OCLC, 731873680 (New Netherland Institute, NNI). {{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, Silverman, September 16,, 2004, p= , last1=Silverman , first1=Stephen M. , author-link1=Stephen M. Silverman , date=September 16, 2004 , title=Punk Rock Legend Johnny Ramone Dies at 55 , url=http://www.people.com/people/article/0,,697848,00.html , journal=People (magazine), People , access-date=June 2, 2009
"Johnny Ramone, 55, was born John Cummings and grew up in Forest Hills, N.Y., soaking up rock in the '60s but then moving to an edgier sound."
{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, ''6sqft'', September 1,, 2015 , last1=''6sqft'' , last2=Schulz , first2=Dana , date=September 1, 2015 , orig-year={{space, nitUpdated August 23, 2017{{space, nit , title=A History of the US Open in New York: From the West Side Tennis Club to Arthur Ashe Stadium , url=https://www.6sqft.com/a-history-of-the-us-open-in-new-york-from-the-west-side-tennis-club-to-arthur-ashe-stadium/ , access-date=October 22, 2015 , location=Chelsea, Manhattan , publisher=CityRealty.com, LLC (a real estate listing site, founded 1994) (publisher); Daniel Levy, President {{cite book , ref= , date=2019 , editor-last1=Spiller , editor-first1=Harley Judd (born 1959) , title=Menus from the United States. ''"Queens"'' , publisher=Harley J. Spiller Collection, University of Toronto Scarborough, University of Toronto Libraries, Scarborough Library , postscript=.{{space, 1Retrieved September 29, 2021. ({{URL, https://archive.org/details/spiller, Harley J. Spiller Collection at Internet Archive) ({{cite book , title=''Harley J. Spiller Collection'' , url=https://discoverarchives.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/harley-j-spiller-collection , postscript={{space, 1at the University of Toronto Libraries, Scarborough Library).
{{space, 3The Harley J. Spiller collection is composed of some 10,000 items – menus, business cards, restaurant Matchbook, matchbooks, and a variety of objects related to Chinese cookery. The majority of the menus document Chinese cuisine of restaurants in New York State. The collection, however, also includes other menus from the United States, Canada, and elsewhere.
{{space, 3The Queens collection features single sheet and trifold menus – table placement and takeout – for Chinese cuisine, Chinese (Cantonese cuisine, Cantonese, Hong_Kong_cuisine#Hong_Kong-style_Western_cuisine, Hong Kong American, Hunan cuisine, Hunan, Beijing cuisine, Mandarin, Sichuan cuisine, Szechuan), Filipino cuisine, Filipino, Japanese cuisine, Japanese, Malaysian cuisine, Malaysian, Korean cuisine, Korean, Indonesian cuisine, Indonesian, Nepalese cuisine, Nepalese, Singaporean cuisine, Singaporean, Taiwanese cuisine, Taiwanese, Thai cuisine, Thai, Vietnamese cuisine, Vietnamese, Bangladeshi cuisine, Bangladeshi, Indian cuisine, Indian, Middle Eastern cuisine, Middle Eastern, Mughlai cuisine, Mughlai, Tibetan cuisine, Tibetan, Pakistan cuisine, Pakistan, Turkish cuisine, Turkish, Brazilian cuisine, Brazilian, Colombian cuisine, Colombian, Ecuadorian cuisine, Ecuadorian, Mexican cuisine, Mexican, Peruvian cuisine, Peruvian, Caribbean cuisine, Caribbean, Italian cuisine, Italian, French cuisine, French, Spanish cuisine, Spanish, American cuisine, American, Mediterranean cuisine, Mediterranean, and various Seafood cuisine.
{{space, 3Menus are from (in alphabetical order)
Astoria Astoria may refer to: Places United States * Astoria, Illinois * Astoria, Missouri * Astoria, Queens, neighborhood in New York City * Astoria, Oregon * Astoria, South Dakota * Astoria Township, Fulton County, Illinois Other places * Astoria ...
, Bayside (including Oakland Gardens, Queens, Oakland Gardens), College Point, Corona, Queens, Corona, Elmhurst,
Flushing Flushing may refer to: Places * Flushing, Cornwall, a village in the United Kingdom * Flushing, Queens, New York City ** Flushing Bay, a bay off the north shore of Queens ** Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), a community in Queens ** Flushing M ...
, Forest Hills,
Fresh Meadows Fresh Meadows is a neighborhood in the northeastern section of the New York City borough (New York City), borough of Queens. Fresh Meadows used to be part of the broader town of Flushing, Queens, Flushing and is bordered to the north by the Horace ...
, Glendale, Queens, Glendale, Jackson Heights,
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...
, Little Neck, Queens, Little Neck,
Long Island City Long Island City (LIC) is a residential and commercial neighborhood on the extreme western tip of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New Y ...

Long Island City
,
Maspeth Maspeth is a residential and commercial community in the borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although ...
, Middle Village, Rego Park, Ridgewood, Riverdale, Bronx, Riverdale (in
The Bronx The Bronx () is a borough of New York City New York City is composed of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. Each borough is coextensive with a respective Administrative divisions of New York (state)#Count ...
), Rockaway, Queens, Rockaway, Rockaway Park, Queens, Rockaway Park, Sunnyside, Queens, Sunnyside, and Woodside.
    : {{asteriskBy digitization date:
    1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , date=July 18, 2019 , title=''#{{space, 2–{{space, 1B'', url=https://archive.org/details/CA_UTSC_006-1-4-14-1/mode/1up?ref=ol&view=theater
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    5. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , date=July 18, 2019 , title=''M{{space, 1–{{space, 1R'', url=https://archive.org/details/CA_UTSC_006-1-4-14-5/mode/1up?ref=ol&view=theater
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    1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , date=November 11, 2019 , title=''#{{space, 2–{{space, 1D'', url=https://archive.org/details/CA_UTSC_006-1-4-27-1OS/mode/1up?ref=ol&view=theater
    2. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , date=November 11, 2019 , title=''E{{space, 1–{{space, 1H'', url=https://archive.org/details/CA_UTSC_006-1-4-27-2OS/mode/1up?ref=ol&view=theater
    3. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , date=November 11, 2019 , title=''I{{space, 2–{{space, 1M'', url=https://archive.org/details/CA_UTSC_006-1-4-27-3OS/mode/1up?ref=ol&view=theater
    4. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , date=November 20, 2019 , title=''N{{space, 1–{{space, 1Q'', url=https://archive.org/details/CA_UTSC_006-1-4-28-1OS/mode/1up?ref=ol&view=theater
    5. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , date=November 20, 2019 , title=''R{{space, 1–{{space, 1S'', url=https://archive.org/details/CA_UTSC_006-1-4-28-2OS/mode/1up?ref=ol&view=theater
    6. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , date=November 20, 2019 , title=''T{{space, 2–{{space, 1Z'', url=https://archive.org/details/CA_UTSC_006-1-4-28-3OS/mode/1up?ref=ol&view=theater
    7. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , date=January 15, 2020 , title=''Oversized'', url=https://archive.org/details/CA_UTSC_006-1-4-31-4/mode/1up?ref=ol&view=theater
{{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Sullivan,, 1927, p= , last1=Sullivan , first1=James (1873–1931) (editor-in-chief) , last2=Williams , first2=Edwin Melvin (1880–1966) , last3=Fitzpatrick , first3=James Benedict (1881–1964) , last4=Conklin , first4=Edwin Pierson (1874–1957) (associate editors) , date=1927 , title=History of New York State, 1523–1927 , url=https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001262471 , type=6 volumes – biographies in volume 6 , language=en-US , location=New York, Chicago , publisher=Lewis Historical Publishing Company, Inc. , postscript=.{{space, 1Retrieved December 28, 20007. {{LCCN, 27024237; {{OCLC, 5122461, show=all.
  1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Sullivan, HathiTrust (Virginia),, 1927, pp=340–341 , title=''Vol. 1. Part II. Chapter 4 – "Growth and Achievement" – via HathiTrust (University of Virginia)'' , url=https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uva.x004390637&view=1up&seq=444 , pages=340–141
  2. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Sullivan, US Genenet.org,, 1927, pp=340–341 , title=''Vol. 1. Part II. Chapter 4 – "Growth and Achievement" – via Geneanet.org'' , url=http://www.usgennet.org/usa/ny/state/his/bk2/ch4/pt8.html , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070822203458/http://www.usgennet.org/usa/ny/state/his/bk2/ch4/pt8.html , archive-date=August 22, 2007 , via=Wayback Machine
{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, ''TripSavvy,'' Queens Name," January 4,, 2006 , last1=''TripSavvy'' (formerly ''About.com'') , date=January 4, 2006 , author-link1=Dotdash , last2=Roleke , first2=John W. (born 1971) , title=How Did Queens Gets Its Name? , url=http://queens.about.com/od/queensalmanac/f/queens_name.htm , url-status=dead , access-date=March 28, 2012 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060104230530/http://queens.about.com/od/queensalmanac/f/queens_name.htm , archive-date=January 4, 2006 , via=Wayback Machine {{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, ''TripSavvy,'' "Beaches in Queens," July 10,, 2009 , last1=''TripSavvy'' (formerly ''About.com'') , author-link1=Dotdash , last2=Roleke , first2=John W. (born 1971) , date=July 10, 2009 , title=Beaches in Queens – The Beaches of the Rockaways, and the One in Long Island City , journal=Queens.about.com , url=http://queens.about.com/od/thingtodo/tp/beaches-queens.htm , url-status=dead , department=Guide , access-date=March 28, 2012 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090711220913/queens.about.com/od/thingtodo/tp/beaches-queens.htm , archive-date=July 11, 2009 , via=Wayback Machine
  1. "Rockaway Beach and Boardwalk"
  2. "Jacob Riis Beach"
  3. "Fort Tilden Beach"
  4. "Breezy_Point,_Queens#Geography, Breezy Point Tip"
  5. "Water Taxi Beach,
    Long Island City Long Island City (LIC) is a residential and commercial neighborhood on the extreme western tip of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New Y ...

    Long Island City
    "
{{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, ''TripSavvy,'' Eating Out, Queens, January 2,, 2012 , last1=''TripSavvy'' (formerly ''About.com'') , author-link1=Dotdash , date=January 2, 2012 , title=''"Eating Out: Guide to Restaurants and Dining in Queens, NY" (column under the same title that ran from about 2006 to about 2016)'' , url=http://queens.about.com/od/eatingout/Eating_Out_Guide_to_Restaurants_and_Dining_in_Queens_NY.htm , url-status=dead , access-date=March 28, 2012 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120103152255/http://queens.about.com/od/eatingout/Eating_Out_Guide_to_Restaurants_and_Dining_in_Queens_NY.htm , archive-date=January 2, 2012 , via=Wayback Machine {{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, U.S. International Airline Stats , title=U.S. International Air Passenger and Freight Statistics , url=https://www.transportation.gov/policy/aviation-policy/us-international-air-passenger-and-freight-statistics-report , type=quarterly , series=International Aviation Developments Series , publisher=Office of the Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Aviation and International Affairs, United States Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of Airline Information (OAI) of the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) , postscript=.{{space, 1Retrieved September 20, 2021. {{OCLC, 58924747, show=all.
  1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, U.S. International Air Stats, December, 2019 , title=''December 2019. Table 6: "Top 40 U.S. Passenger Gateways to the World, Scheduled Service 1"'' , url=https://www.transportation.gov/sites/dot.gov/files/2020-12/US%20International%20Air%20Passenger%20and%20Freight%20Statistics%20for%20December%202019.pdf , type= , page=35
  2. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, U.S. International Air Stats, December, 2020 , title=''December 2020. Table 6: "Top 40 U.S. Passenger Gateways to the World, Scheduled Service 1"'' , url=https://www.transportation.gov/sites/dot.gov/files/2021-07/US%20International%20Air%20Passenger%20and%20Freight%20Statistics%20for%20December%202020.pdf , type= , page=36
{{Cite web , ref={{SfnRef, Venugopal, June 28,, 2019 , last1=Venugopal , first1=Arun , author-link=Arun Venugopal , date=June 28, 2019 , title=Why Queens Is the Center of the Nation's Progressive Movement , url=https://www.wnyc.org/story/how-queens-became-center-progressive-movement/ , work=WNYC , language=en , access-date=June 29, 2019
"Previously known to outsiders as Brooklyn's more-diverse, less-hip neighbor, a vast landscape of ethnic eateries, Queens has emerged as the capitol of the nation's progressive movement."
{{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Wikipedia Airport Databases , title=''Wikipedia Airport Databases (lists)'' , postscript=.{{space, 1Retrieved September 22, 2021.
  1. {{hanging indent , text= ''List of busiest airports by passenger traffic, Busiest airports by passenger traffic''
  2. {{hanging indent , text= ''List of the busiest airports in the United States, Busiest airports in the United States''
  3. {{hanging indent , text= ''List of busiest airports by international passenger traffic, Busiest airports by international passenger traffic''
  4. {{hanging indent , text= ''List of busiest airports in North America, Busiest airports in North America''
  5. {{hanging indent , text= ''List of busiest city airport systems by passenger traffic, Busiest city airport systems by passenger traffic''
  6. {{hanging indent , text= ''List of busiest airports by aircraft movements, Busiest airports by aircraft movements''
  7. {{hanging indent , text= ''List of busiest airports by cargo traffic, Busiest airports by cargo traffic''
{{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Willis,, 1920, p= , last1=Willis , first1=Walter Irving (1882–1937) (compiler & editor) , date=1920 , title=Queens Borough, New York City, 1910–1920; The Borough of Homes and Industry, a Descriptive and Illustrated Book Setting Forth Its Wonderful Growth and Development in Commerce, Industry and Homes During the Past Ten Years, 1910 to 1920; A Prediction of Even Greater Growth During the Next Ten Years, 1920 to 1930; And a Statement of Its Many Advantages, Attractions and Possibilities as a Section Wherein to Live, to Work and to Succeed , url=https://archive.org/details/queensboroughnew00chamrich/page/n5/mode/2up?ref=ol&view=theater , publisher=Chamber of Commerce of the Borough of Queens (publisher). Long Island Star Publishing Company (printer) , access-date=August 2, 2014 , via=Internet Archive {{LCCN, 20012286; {{OCLC, 35896461, show=all. {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''AM New York'', August 3,, 2018, p= , last1=''AM New York'' , author-link1=AM New York Metro , last2=Cook , first2=Lauren , date=August 3, 2018 , title=Tornado Touched Down in College Point, Queens, NWS Says , url=https://www.amny.com/news/tornado-queens-1.20271766 , access-date=August 4, 2018 {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, AP Newswire, March 25,, 2003 , last1=AP Newswire , author-link1=Associated Press , date=March 25, 2003 , title=''Adrien Brody, in his Academy Awards, Oscar Acceptance Speech, Pays Tribute to his Friend, Tommy Zarobinski, Deployed With the Army National Guard in Kuwait''
  1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, } , last1=(AP) , author-link1=Associated Press , date=March 25, 2003 , title=Brody's Friend's Parents Proud , url=http://www.cnn.com/2003/SHOWBIZ/03/25/showbuzz/ , url-status=dead , work=CNN , access-date=August 31, 2010 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080308164023/http://www.cnn.com/2003/SHOWBIZ/03/25/showbuzz/ , archive-date=March 8, 2008 , via=Wayback Machine
  2. {{hanging indent , text={{cite news , last1=(AP) , author-link1=Associated Press , date=March 26, 2013 , title=Oscar Winner Pays Homage to U.S. Soldier , url=https://www.newspapers.com/image/284605486/ , location=Fort Lauderdale , work=Sun-Sentinel, South Florida Sun Sentinel , volume=53 , issue=335 , edition=Broward Metro , page=2 (section A) , via=Newspapers.com , access-date=September 16, 2021 {{ProQuest, 387873468 (US Newsstream database).
"Adrien Brody, Brody, who grew up in Woodhaven, Queens, Woodhaven and Zarobinski [Thomas R. Zarobinski; born 1971], a native of Rego Park, attended the Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School for Performing Arts together, where Brody studied acting and Zarobinski studied drawing."
{{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Astoria Post,'' January 15,, 2021 , last1=''Astoria Post'' , last2=Griffin , first1=Allie , date=January 15, 2021 , title=More Than 50 Citi Bike Stations Will Be Installed in Astoria in the Coming Weeks , url=https://astoriapost.com/more-than-50-citi-bike-stations-will-be-installed-in-astoria-in-the-coming-weeks , location=Sunnyside, Queens, Sunnyside , publisher=Queens Post group, a subsidiary of Outer Boro Media, owned by Christian Murray and Czarinna Andres , access-date=September 21, 2021 {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Bloomberg News'', October 17,, 2014 , last1=Bloomberg News , author-link1=Bloomberg News , last2=Hymowitz , first2=Carol , date=October 27, 2014 , title=One Percenters Drop Six Figures at Long Island Mall , url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-10-27/one-percenters-drop-six-figures-at-long-island-mall.html , url-access=subscription , access-date=April 2, 2016 {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, ''Bloomberg News'', October 30,, 2018 , last1=''Bloomberg News'' , author-link1=Bloomberg News , last2=Goldman , first2=Henry , date=October 30, 2018 , title=NYC's Fastest-Growing Neighborhood Gets $180 Million Investment , url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-10-30/nyc-s-fastest-growing-neighborhood-gets-180-million-investment?srnd=premium , url-access=subscription , publisher=Bloomberg, L.P. , access-date=October 30, 2018 {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Business Insider'', May 27, 2015 , last=''Business Insider'' , author-link1=Business Insider , last2=Robinson , first2=Melia , date=May 27, 2015 , title=This Is What It's Like in One of the Biggest and Fastest-Growing Chinatowns in the World , url=http://www.businessinsider.com/i-ate-my-way-through-flushing-queens-and-now-i-get-why-its-the-bigger-and-better-chinatown-2015-5 , access-date=March 19, 2019, url-status=live, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170730033121/http://www.businessinsider.com/i-ate-my-way-through-flushing-queens-and-now-i-get-why-its-the-bigger-and-better-chinatown-2015-5, archive-date=July 30, 2017 {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Business Insider'', February 15, 2017 , last=''Business Insider'' , author-link1=Business Insider , last2=Lubin , first2=Gus , date=February 15, 2017 , title=Queens Has More Languages Than Anywhere in the World – Here's Where They're Found , url=https://www.businessinsider.com/queens-languages-map-2017-2 , access-date=December 29, 2019 {{cite news , last1=CNN.com , author-link1=CNN , date=June 11, 2002 , title='Dapper Don' John Gotti Dead – Brought Down by the Bull , url=http://archives.cnn.com/2002/US/06/10/john.gotti/ , url-status=dead , access-date=August 31, 2010 , edition=U.S. , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050813020339/http://archives.cnn.com/2002/US/06/10/john.gotti/ , archive-date=August 13, 2005 , via=Wayback Machine {{Cite news , ref={{SfnRef, CNN, April 16,, 2016 , last1=CNN.com , author-link1=CNN , last2=Kaye , first2=Randi , author-link2=Randi Kaye , date=April 16, 2016 , title=See Donald Trump's Boyhood Neighborhood , url=https://www.cnn.com/videos/us/2016/04/16/donald-trump-boyhood-neighborhood-queens-kaye-pkg-ac.cnn , type=video , series=''Anderson Cooper 360°'' (series) , access-date=April 21, 2016 {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''DNAinfo New York'', January 20,, 2014, p= , last1=''DNAinfo New York'' , author-link1=DNAinfo , last2=Honan , first2=Katie ({{italic correction, ''née'' Kathleen M. Honan; born 1985) , date=January 20, 2014 , title=Rockaway Ferry Floats on Through May, but Trip Will Cost Nearly Double , url=http://www.dnainfo.com/new-york/20140120/rockaway-beach/rockaway-ferry-floats-on-through-may-but-trip-will-cost-nearly-double , access-date=April 20, 2014 {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''DNAinfo New York'', January 20,, 2015, p= , last1=''DNAinfo New York'' , author-link1=DNAinfo , last2=Honan , first2=Katie ({{italic correction, ''née'' Kathleen M. Honan; born 1985) , date=January 20, 2015 , title=Cuomo Announces AirTrain to LaGuardia Airport from Subway, LIRR , url=http://www.dnainfo.com/new-york/20150120/east-elmhurst/cuomo-announces-airtrain-laguardia-airport-from-subway-lirr , access-date=January 20, 2015 {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, Ngu, August 13,, 2020 , last1=Guardian US, The , author-link1=The Guardian US , last2=Ngu , first2=Sarah , date=August 13, 2020 , title='Not What It Used to Be': In New York, Flushing’s Asian Residents Brace Against Gentrification , url=https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/aug/13/flushing-queens-gentrification-luxury-developments , language=en-US , edition=US , access-date=January 29, 2021 , url-access=registration
"The three developers have stressed in public hearings that they are not outsiders to
Flushing Flushing may refer to: Places * Flushing, Cornwall, a village in the United Kingdom * Flushing, Queens, New York City ** Flushing Bay, a bay off the north shore of Queens ** Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), a community in Queens ** Flushing M ...
, which is 69% Asian. {{'-They’ve been here, they live here, they work here, they've invested here,{{-' said Ross Moskowitz, an attorney for the developers at a different public hearing in February {{nowrap, ... Tangram Tower, a luxury mixed-use development built by F&T. Last year, prices for two-bedroom apartments started at $1.15m {{nowrap, ... The influx of transnational capital and rise of luxury developments in Flushing has displaced longtime immigrant residents and small business owners, as well as disrupted its cultural and culinary landscape. These changes follow the familiar script of gentrification, but with a change of actors: it is Chinese American developers and wealthy Chinese immigrants who are gentrifying this working-class neighborhood, which is majority Chinese."
{{Cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''The Independent,'' February 4,, 2016 , last1=''The Independent'' , author-link1=The Independent , last2=Guion , first2=Payton , date=February 4, 2016 , title=New York Mayor to Propose $2.5B Streetcar for Underserved Communities , url=https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/new-york-mayor-to-propose-25b-streetcar-in-underserved-communities-a6853761.html , url-access=subscription , language=en-GB , access-date=February 4, 2016 {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Indiana Daily Student,'' February 10,, 2005 , last1=''Indiana Daily Student'' , author-link1=Indiana Daily Student , last2=Aasen , first2=Adam Patrick (born 1984) , date=February 10, 2005 , title=The Man Behind the Melee , url=https://www.idsnews.com/article/2005/02/the-man-behind-the-melee , publisher=Indiana University Bloomington , access-date=April 20, 2014 {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Newsday'', February 22,, 1994, p= , last1=''Newsday'' , author-link1=Newsday , last2=Pérez-Rivas , first2=Manuel , date=February 22, 1994 , title=Queens Neighbornoods" "Queens in Albany" (series) "Beach Nourished by $$$ , url=https://www.newspapers.com/image/706886672/ , volume=54 , issue=172 , page=21 , url-access=subscription , access-date=August 4, 2018 , via=Newspapers.com {{ProQuest, 278781750 (hardcopy; US Newsstream). {{Cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Newsday'', February 22,, 1998, p= , last1=''Newsday'' , author-link1=Newsday , last2=Amon , first2=Rhoda ({{italic correction, ''née'' Rhoda Sher; 1923–2008) , date=February 22, 1998 , title=Our History – Our Towns – Nassau" (series) "Mineola: First Farmers, Then Lawyers , url=http://www.newsday.com/community/guide/lihistory/ny-historytown-hist002d%2C0%2C6131005.story?coll=ny_community_guide_lihistory_promo , type=All eds. , page=50 (section H) , access-date=November 11, 2012 , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081015160228/http://www.newsday.com/community/guide/lihistory/ny-historytown-hist002d%2C0%2C6131005.story?coll=ny_community_guide_lihistory_promo , archive-date=October 15, 2008 , via=Wayback Machine {{ProQuest, 279117006 (hardcopy; US Newsstream).
"That was the year when the "Old Brig" courthouse was vacated after 90 years of housing lawbreakers. The county court moved from Mineola, Long Island, Mineola to
Long Island City Long Island City (LIC) is a residential and commercial neighborhood on the extreme western tip of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New Y ...

Long Island City
."
{{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Newsday'', April 15,, 2005, p= , last1=''Newsday'' , author-link1=Newsday , last2=Blair , first2=Cynthia , date=April 15, 2005 , title=It Happened in New York" – "1855: Union Course Tavern, Oldest Bar in Queens, Opens , url=http://www.newsday.com/about/ny-ihiny041505story,0,5288754.htmlstory , url-status=dead , access-date=February 15, 2018 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090618083448/http://www.newsday.com/about/ny-ihiny041505story%2C0%2C5288754.htmlstory , page=65 (section A) , archive-date=June 18, 2009 ({{cite book , title=''alternate link'' , url=https://www.newspapers.com/image/709798538/ , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via Newspapers.com ).
"There is a painting of Mae West, who lived in Woodhaven, Queens, Woodhaven and performed at the Union Course Tavern, tavern, on the door."
{{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Newsday'', March 29,, 2007, p= , last1=''Newsday'' , author-link1=Newsday , last2=Mohan , first2=Geoffrey A. (born 1962), Staff Writer , date=March 29, 1998 , title=Long Island, Our History: Eastern Factions of Queens Win the Fight to Separate After Six Decades of Wrangling – Nassau's Difficult Birth , url=http://www.newsday.com/community/guide/lihistory/ny-history-hs615a,0,7026626.story?page=4 , url-status=dead , language=en-US , location=Melville, New York , publisher=Newsday Media , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081016012933/http://www.newsday.com/community/guide/lihistory/ny-history-hs615a%2C0%2C7026626.story?page=4 , archive-date=October 16, 2008 , access-date=December 31, 2007 , quote=North Hempstead, Oyster Bay and the rest of Hempstead were excluded from the vote. :: Access via Newspapers.com
  1. {{hanging indent, text={{Cite book , date=March 29, 1998 , title=''Nassau ed.'' , url=https://www.newspapers.com/image/707599747/ , volume= 58, no. 208 , issue=208 , pages=A14–A15, A47–A48 , url-access=subscription
  2. {{hanging indent, text={{Cite book , date=March 28, 1998 , title=''Suffolk ed.'' , url=https://www.newspapers.com/image/726258167/ , volume= 58, no. 207 , issue=208 , pages=A16–A17, A53–A54 , url-access=subscription
{{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Newsday'', July 1,, 2016, p= , last1=''Newsday'' , author-link1=Newsday , last2=Kellogg , first2=Valerie , date=July 1, 2016 , title=Donald Trump's Boyhood Home Selling For $1.65M in Queens , url=http://www.newsday.com/classifieds/real-estate/donald-trump-s-boyhood-home-in-queens-is-for-sale-1.11994797 , url-access=subscription , access-date=January 17, 2017 , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160705064104/http://www.newsday.com/classifieds/real-estate/donald-trump-s-boyhood-home-in-queens-is-for-sale-1.11994797 , archive-date=July 5, 2016 , via=Wayback Machine {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Newsday'', April 15,, 2018, p= , last1=''Newsday'' , author-link1=Newsday , last2=Castillo , first2=Alfonso A. , date=April 15, 2018 , title=East Side Access Price Goes Up Again, Now Stands at $11.2B – The Metropolitan Transportation Authority is Blaming Much of the Latest $955 Million Budget Increase on Amtrak , url=https://www.newsday.com/long-island/east-side-access-tour-1.18020231 , url-access=subscription , page=6 , access-date=November 28, 2018 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210709191909/https://www.newsday.com/long-island/east-side-access-tour-1.18020231 , archive-date=July 9, 2021 , via=Wayback Machine {{ProQuest, 2024950309 (hardcopy; US Newsstream) → {{Cite book , last1=''AM New York Metro'' , author-link1=AM New York Metro , date=April 16, 2018 , title=''(same article)'' , page=4 {{ProQuest, 2025258093 (hardcopy; US Newsstream). {{Cite news , ref={{SfnRef, New York ''Daily News'', November 15,, 2005, p= , last1=New York ''Daily News'' , author-link1=New York Daily News , last2=Neumaier , first2=Joe , title=Rent Control – One Part Original, One Part Newcomer , newspaper=New York Daily News , date=November 15, 2005 , url=http://www.nydailynews.com/archives/nydn-features/rent-control-part-original-part-newcomer-article-1.640767 , type=online) (print ed. → November 15, 2005; "Rent Control" – One Part Original, One Part Newcomer") (Sports Final ed. , url-access=subscription , url-status=dead , access-date=March 17, 2014 , page=52 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140323005353/http://www.nydailynews.com/archives/nydn-features/rent-control-part-original-part-newcomer-article-1.640767 , archive-date=March 23, 2014 , via=Wayback Machine {{ProQuest, 306013522 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 306005097 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 306005271 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 306016877 (hardcopy; US Newsstream) ({{cite book , title=''alternate link'' , url=https://www.newspapers.com/image/410078500/ , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via Newspapers.com ). {{Cite news , ref={{SfnRef, New York ''Daily News'', September 26,, 2010, p= , last1=New York ''Daily News'' , author-link1=New York Daily News , last2=Schapiro , first2=Rich , date=September 26, 2010 , title=Tornado Anxiety: City Twisters Just Coincidence, Experts Say , url=https://www.newspapers.com/image/575765311/ , url-access=subscription , page=22 , access-date=August 4, 2018 , via=Newspapers.com {{ProQuest, 755490021 (hardcopy; US Newsstream). {{Cite news , ref={{SfnRef, New York ''Daily News'', September 9,, 2012, p= , last1=New York ''Daily News'' , author-link1=New York Daily News , last2=Trapasso , first2=Clare , last3=Schapiro , first3=Rich , last4=McShane , first4=Larry , date=September 9, 2012 , title=Queens, B'klyn Become Tornado Alley for Day , url=https://www.newspapers.com/image/575701566/ , edition=Metro Final , volume=94 , issue=76 , page=4 , via=Newspapers.com {{ProQuest, 1038818684 (hardcopy; US Newsstream). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, New York ''Daily News'', December 11,, 2014, p= , last1=New York ''Daily News'', author-link1=New York Daily News , first2=Eli , last2=Rosenberg , first3=Chris , last3=Erikson , date=December 11, 2014 , title=Lonely Planet Guidebooks Call Queens the Best Travel Destination in the United States , url=http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/queens/queens-best-travel-destination-country-article-1.2040496 , url-status=dead , access-date=November 25, 2015 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141216205153/http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/queens/queens-best-travel-destination-country-article-1.2040496 , type=online) (print ed. → December 11, 2014; "Queens is King of U.S.") (Metro Final ed. , archive-date=December 16, 2014 , via=Wayback Machine , volume=96 , issue=248 , page=8 {{ProQuest, 1635183092 (hardcopy; US Newsstream) ({{cite book , title=''alternate link'' , url=https://www.newspapers.com/image/584756491/ , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via Newspapers.com ). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, New York ''Daily News'', January 20,, 2015, p= , last1=New York ''Daily News'' , author-link1=New York Daily News , last2=Durkin , first2=Erin , date=January 20, 2015 , title=Andrew Cuomo Announces $450M Plan to Build AirTrain Connecting LaGuardia Airport to the Subway , url=http://www.nydailynews.com/news/politics/cuomo-announces-plan-building-airtrain-laguardia-airport-article-1.2085807 , type=online) (print ed. → January 21, 2015; "High Hopes – Gov Seeks Train to LaGuardia") (Metro Final ed. , volume=96 , issue=210 , page=10 , access-date=January 21, 2015 {{ProQuest, 1647081122 (hardcopy; US Newsstream) ({{cite book , title=''link to print edition'' , url=https://www.newspapers.com/image/584688764/ , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via Newspapers.com ). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, New York ''Daily News'', May 1,, 2017, p= , last1=New York ''Daily News'' , author-link1=New York Daily News , date=May 1, 2017 , title=NYC Launches Ferry Service With Queens, East River Routes , url=http://www.nydailynews.com/newswires/new-york/nyc-launches-ferry-service-queens-east-river-routes-article-1.3122046 , type=Associated Press, AP , access-date=May 1, 2017 , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170501154444/http://www.nydailynews.com/newswires/new-york/nyc-launches-ferry-service-queens-east-river-routes-article-1.3122046 , archive-date=May 1, 2017 , via=Wayback Machine {{Cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Observer,'' February 4,, 2016 , last1=''New York Observer'' , author-link1=New York Observer , last2=Jorgensen , first2=Jillian , date=February 4, 2016 , title=A Streetcar Named Independence: De Blasio Invests in Non-MTA Transit , language=en-US , url=http://observer.com/2016/02/a-streetcar-named-independence-de-blasio-invests-in-non-mta-transit/ , access-date=February 5, 2016 {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''NY1 News'', November 1,, 2014, p= , last1=''NY1 News'' , author-link1=NY1 , last2=Chung , first2=Lori , author-link2= , date=November 1, 2014 , title=Commuters Bemoan Closing of Rockaway Ferry , url=https://www.ny1.com/nyc/all-boroughs/archives/2014/11/01/commuters-bemoan-closing-of-rockaway-ferry.NYC_218228 , language=en-US , publisher=Charter Communications , access-date=January 21, 2020 {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''NY1 News'', October 7,, 2019 , last1=''NY1 News'' , author-link1=NY1 , last2=McGowan , first2=Clodagh , author-link2= , date=October 7, 2019 , title=How Jackson Heights Earned the Nickname 'Little Colombia' , url=https://www.ny1.com/nyc/all-boroughs/news/2019/10/07/how-jackson-heights-earned-the-nickname--little-columbia , language=en-US , publisher=Charter Communications , access-date=May 19, 2020 {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', February 25,, 1872, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , url=https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1872/02/25/78777602.pdf , title=The Queens County Court-House Question – A New Building to be Erected at Mineola , date=February 25, 1872 , volume=21 , issue=6375 , page=4 (columns 6 & 7) , access-date=November 11, 2012 ({{cite book , title=''permalink'' , url=https://nyti.ms/3BVfifN , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via TimesMachine ). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', February 9,, 1874, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , date=February 9, 1874 , author-link1=The New York Times , url=https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1874/02/09/79216521.pdf , title=The New Queens County Court-House , volume=23 , issue=6988 , page=8 (column 7) , access-date=November 11, 2012 {{ProQuest} (hardcopy; US Newsstream); (online; US Newsstream) ({{cite book , title=''permalink'' , url=https://nyti.ms/2X4sjVo , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via TimesMachine ) ({{cite book , title=''link'' , url=https://www.newspapers.com/image/20583806/ , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via Newspapers.com ). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', September 13,, 1894, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , date=September 13, 1894 , title=Of Interest to Politicians , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1894/09/13/archives/of-interest-to-politicians.html , language=en-US , volume=63 , issue=13435 , page=9 (column 6) , access-date=January 28, 2008 , via=TimesMachine , url-access=subscription ({{URL, https://nyti.ms/2Wi1XiF, permalink).
{{space, 3"The question of the Greater New-York, which is also to be submitted to the people at this coming election, involves the proposition to unite in one city the following cities, counties, and towns: New York City,
Long Island City Long Island City (LIC) is a residential and commercial neighborhood on the extreme western tip of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New Y ...

Long Island City
, in Queens County; the Brooklyn, County of Kings, (Brooklyn;) the Staten Island, County of Richmond, (Staten Island, S.I.;) the towns of
Flushing Flushing may refer to: Places * Flushing, Cornwall, a village in the United Kingdom * Flushing, Queens, New York City ** Flushing Bay, a bay off the north shore of Queens ** Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), a community in Queens ** Flushing M ...
, Newtown,
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...
, in Queens County; the town of Westchester, in Westchester County, New York, Westchester County, and all that portion of the towns of Eastchester, Bronx, East Chester and Pelham, New York, Pelham which lies south of a straight line drawn from a point where the northerly line of the City of New-York meets the centre line of the Bronx River, to the middle of the channel between Hunter Island (Bronx), Hunter's and Glen Island Park, Glen Islands, in
Long Island Sound Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between ri ...

Long Island Sound
, and that part of the town of Hempstead, in Queens County, which is westerly of a straight line drawn from the south-easterly point of the town of Flushing in a straight line to the ."
{{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', October 16,, 1894, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , date=October 16, 1894 , title=Vote for Greater New-York – Commissioners Offer Arguments for a Mighty City , url=https://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9D06E0D91131E033A25755C1A9669D94659ED7CF , volume=44 , issue=13463 , page=9 (column 3) , access-date=December 28, 2007 , url-access=subscription ({{cite book , title=''permalink'' , url=https://nyti.ms/3tsYzNM , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via TimesMachine ). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', November 4,, 1894, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , date=November 4, 1894 , title=New-York's Place in Danger – Consolidation Defeated, She Must Yield to Chicago , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1894/11/04/archives/newyorks-place-in-danger-consolidation-defeated-she-must-yield-to.html , language=en-US , type=pre-election , volume=64 , issue=13479 , page=2 (columns 2 & 3) , access-date=December 28, 2007 , via=TimesMachine , url-access=subscription ({{URL, https://nyti.ms/2XMZ7Cr, permalink). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', November 8,, 1894, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , date=November 8, 1894 , title=Greater New-York in Doubt – The City Vote Is for It and Brooklyn Is Uncertain , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1894/11/08/archives/greater-newyork-in-doubt-the-city-vote-is-for-it-and-brooklyn-is.html , language=en-US , type=article is before results of the Queens vote is known , volume=64 , issue=13483 , page=1 (column 3) , access-date=December 28, 2007 , via=TimesMachine , url-access=subscription ({{URL, https://nyti.ms/2WuCTEZ, permalink) ({{cite book , title=''also accessible via Newspapers.com'' , url=https://www.newspapers.com/image/20615325/ , url-access=subscription ).
"The increase in area and population that New-York will acquire if consolidation becomes a fact will become evident by a glance at the following table {{nowrap, ... " {, border="0" cellpadding="0" style="border:1px solid #A3B1BF; color: black; background-color: white; font-size: 90%; border-radius: 12px 12px 12px 12px; " , -valign="bottom" style="text-align:center" , style="background-color:white", ---- , style="background-color:white", Area
in
square
miles ---- , style="background-color:white", Pop-
ulation ---- , -style="text-align:right" , style="background-color:#FFF8DC; text-align:left", {{hanging indent , text=Manhattan, New York City , style="background-color:#FFF8DC", 38.85 , style="background-color:#FFF8DC; , 1,801,739 , -style="text-align:right" , style="background-color:#EAEEF2; text-align:left", {{hanging indent , text= , style="background-color:#EAEEF2", 66.39 , style="background-color:#EAEEF2", 992,364 , -style="text-align:right" , style="background-color:#FFF8DC; text-align:left", {{hanging indent , text= , style="background-color:#FFF8DC", 57.19 , style="background-color:#FFF8DC", 53,452 , -style="text-align:right" , style="background-color:#EAEEF2; text-align:left", {{hanging indent , text=
Westchester County Westchester County is located in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North ...

Westchester County
, style="background-color:#EAEEF2", 20.24 , style="background-color:#EAEEF2", 18,182 , -style="text-align:left" , colspan=3 style="background-color:#FFF8DC" , Queens County: , -style="text-align:right" , style="background-color:#EAEEF2; text-align:left", {{hanging indent , text={{space, 2
Flushing Flushing may refer to: Places * Flushing, Cornwall, a village in the United Kingdom * Flushing, Queens, New York City ** Flushing Bay, a bay off the north shore of Queens ** Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), a community in Queens ** Flushing M ...
, style="background-color:#EAEEF2", 29.65 , style="background-color:#EAEEF2", 19,803 , -style="text-align:right" , style="background-color:#FFF8DC; text-align:left", {{hanging indent , text={{space, nit*Part of the town of Hempstead , style="background-color:#FFF8DC", 17.86 , style="background-color:#FFF8DC", 17,756 , -style="text-align:right" , style="background-color:#EAEEF2; text-align:left", {{hanging indent , text={{space, 2
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...
, style="background-color:#EAEEF2", 33.50 , style="background-color:#EAEEF2", 14,441 , -style="text-align:right" , style="background-color:#FFF8DC; text-align:left", {{hanging indent , text={{space, 2
Long Island City Long Island City (LIC) is a residential and commercial neighborhood on the extreme western tip of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New Y ...

Long Island City
, style="background-color:#FFF8DC", 7.14 , style="background-color:#FFF8DC", 30,506 , -style="text-align:right" , style="background-color:#EAEEF2; text-align:left", {{hanging indent , text={{space, 2 Newtown , style="background-color:#EAEEF2", 21.32 , style="background-color:#EAEEF2", 17,549 , -style="text-align:right" , style="background-color:#FFF8DC; text-align:left", {{hanging indent , text={{space, 2
Jamaica Bay Image:Waterways New York City Map Julius Schorzman.png, 250px, The main waterways surrounding New York City. 1. Hudson River, 2. East River, 3. Long Island Sound, 4. Newark Bay, 5. Upper New York Bay, 6. Lower New York Bay, 7. Jamaica Bay, 8. Atlan ...

Jamaica Bay
---- , style="background-color:#FFF8DC", 25.63 ---- , style="background-color:#FFF8DC", {{nowrap, .... ---- , -style="text-align:right" , style="background-color:white; text-align:left", {{hanging indent , text={{space, 4Total area , style="background-color:white", 317.77 , style="background-color:white", {{space, 22,965,792 , -style="text-align:left" , colspan=3 style="background-color:white", {{space, 3{{nowrap, *Estimated "The townships in Queens County that are to be included in the Greater New-York have not been heard from yet {{nowrap, ... "
{{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times,'' December 15,, 1894, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , date=December 15, 1894 , title=The State Vote Canvassed – Official Announcement of the Result of the Election – Morton's Plurality 156,108 and Saxton's 127,483 – The Detailed Vote for Greater New-York , url=https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1894/12/15/106917592.pdf , language=en-US , volume=44 , issue=13515 , page=9 (Section 2; column 4) , access-date=December 28, 2007 , via= , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1 → The area included a radius of twenty miles (32 km), with the New York City Hall as a center to circumscribe it. Alternative access → {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, , , p= , title=''permalink'' , url=https://nyti.ms/2X3DJsA , url-access=subscription , via=TimesMachine {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', February 22,, 1896, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , date=February 22, 1896 , title=Report Favors Consolidation – An Argument Against the Claims of the Resubmissionists , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1896/02/22/archives/report-favors-consolidation-an-argument-against-the-claims-of-the.html , language=en-US , volume=45 , issue=13887 , page=1 , access-date=December 28, 2007 , via=TimesMachine , url-access=subscription ({{URL, https://nyti.ms/3DmFukY, permalink). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', June 7,, 1896, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , date=June 7, 1896 , title=The Coming Greater City – Benefits to Long Island and Villages Under Its Control , url=https://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9E0DE3DC1038E533A65754C0A9609C94679ED7CF , volume=45 , issue=13977 , page=16 (columns 1 & 2) , access-date=December 23, 2007 ({{cite book , title=''permalink'' , url=https://nyti.ms/3A5okXi , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via TimesMachine ) ({{cite book , title=''link'' , url=https://www.newspapers.com/image/20377794/ , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via Newspapers.com ). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', February 12,, 1899, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , date=February 12, 1899 , title=The East City Line Fixed – Its Base Found in the Sand of a Closed Beach Channel , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1899/02/12/archives/the-east-city-line-fixed-its-base-found-in-the-sand-of-a-closed.html , volume=48 , issue=15317 , page=15 (column 5) , access-date=December 28, 2007 ({{cite book , title=''permalink'' , url=https://nyti.ms/3gAn1b7 , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via TimesMachine ) ({{cite book , title=''link'' , url=https://www.newspapers.com/image/20452434/ , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via Newspapers.com ). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', February 16,, 1943, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , date=February 16, 1943 , title=Two Die in Unheated Homes in 8° Below Zero; Snow Due – Suffering in City Is Intense Because of Fuel Shortage – Transport Service Hampered – Slight Relief Today Forecast , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1943/02/16/archives/two-die-in-unheated-homes-in-8-below-zero-snow-due-suffering-in.html , edition=Late City , volume=92 , issue=31069 , pages=1–2 , access-date=August 4, 2018 ({{cite book , title=''permalink'' , url=https://nyti.ms/3tvGkaP , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via TimesMachine ). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', February 9,, 1963, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , date=February 9, 1963 , title=Eastern U.S. Hit by Subzero Cold: Winds Add to the Sharpness of 2 Below in New York , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1963/02/09/archives/eastern-us-hit-by-subzero-cold-winds-add-to-the-sharpness-of-2.html , type=special to ''The New York Times'' , edition=Western , volume=112 , issue=38367 , page=4 (column 6; top) , access-date=August 4, 2018 ({{cite book , title=''permalink'' , url=https://nyti.ms/2YKolC3 , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via TimesMachine ). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', July 4,, 1966 , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Dallos , first2=Robert E. , date=July 4, 1966 , title=Heat Reaches 103, Record for Year; Beaches Jammed – Readings of 100 Degrees Forecast for Today for Third Day in a Row – Some Relief in Sight – Buckling Roads and Stalled Cars Snarl Traffic – L.I. Derailment Hurts 10 , url=https://www.nytimes.com/1966/07/04/archives/heat-reaches-103-record-for-year-beaches-jammed-readings-of-100.html?searchResultPosition=2 , volume=115 , issue=39608 , page=1 , access-date=August 4, 2018 ({{cite book , title=''permalink'' , url=https://nyti.ms/3jWc0CX , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via TimesMachine ). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', January 21,, 1985 , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , date=January 21, 1985 , title=Upstate Storm Eases: Record Low Hits City , url=https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1985/01/21/230412.html?pageNumber=10 , type=online) (print ed. → January 21, 1985; "20 Inches of Snow in Buffalo") (Late ed.; East Coast) (Associated Press, AP , volume=134 , issue=46296 , page=10 (section A) , access-date=August 4, 2018 {{ProQuest, 425294243 (hardcopy; US Newsstream) ({{cite book , title=''permalink'' , url=https://nyti.ms/3hlmEkV , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via TimesMachine ). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', March 25,, 1998 , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Litsky , first2=Frank (1926–2018) , author-link2=Frank Litsky , date=March 25, 1998 , title=Basketball: N.I.T. – Minnesota Will Meet Penn State for the Title , url=https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C04E0DD1E38F936A15750C0A96E958260 , volume=147 , issue=51107 , page=2 (section C) , access-date=October 18, 2007 {{ProQuest, 430936116 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 2236193029 (online; US Newsstream) ({{cite book , title=''permalink'' , url=https://nyti.ms/2YxeUWn , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via TimesMachine ).
"Rafer Alston, the junior point guard from South Jamaica, Queens, explained it this way {{nowrap, ... "
{{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', January 1,, 2000, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Williams , first2=Lena , date=January 1, 2000 , title=Track and Field – Soothing an Old Ache , url=https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=980CE7D91338F932A35752C0A9669C8B63 , edition=Late , volume=149 , issue=51254 , page=4 (section D) , access-date=November 7, 2007 {{ProQuest, 431349849 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 2233856837 (online; US Newsstream) ({{cite book , title=''permalink'' , url=https://nyti.ms/2VsolVW , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via TimesMachine ).
"Neither the outpouring of affection from an adoring public nor the love he finally found after four failed marriages could make up for the neglect and physical abuse he suffered as a child growing up in South Jamaica, Queens."
{{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', August 17,, 2000 , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Berkow , first2=Ira , author-link2=Ira Berkow , date=August 17, 2000 , title=Ford Highlight Film Started Early , url=https://www.nytimes.com/2000/08/17/sports/on-baseball-ford-highlight-film-started-early.html , department=On Baseball , edition=Late , volume=149 , issue=51483 , page=1 (section D) , access-date=April 29, 2017 {{ProQuest, 431525428 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 2233220760 (online; US Newsstream) ({{cite book , title=''permalink'' , url=https://nyti.ms/2X8nOZF , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via TimesMachine ). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', December 15,, 2000 , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Kershaw , first2=Sarah , date=December 15, 2000 , title=Meet Me at 60th and 60th – Many Drivers Find Streets of Queens a Confusing Maze , url=https://www.nytimes.com/2000/12/15/nyregion/meet-me-at-60th-and-60th-many-drivers-find-streets-of-queens-a-confusing-maze.html , department=The Metro Section , type=online) (print ed. → December 15, 2000; "Many Drivers Find Streets of Queens A Confusing Maze") (Late ed.; East Coast , volume=150 , issue=51603 , page=1 (section B) , access-date=August 13, 2017 {{ProQuest, 431629713 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 2233049173 (online; US Newsstream) ({{cite book , title=''permalink'' , url=https://nyti.ms/3917i0d , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via TimesMachine ). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', September 8,, 2001 , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Ojito , first2=Mirta , author-link2=Mirta Ojito , date=September 8, 2001 , title=Campaigning For City Hall: The Battleground – Gauging the Vote of the Satisfied , url=https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9402EFD91E39F93BA3575AC0A9679C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=3 , type=online) (print ed. → September 8, 2001; "Gauging the Vote of the Satisfied – In Queens Neighborhood, Little Things Matter Most") (Late ed.; East Coast , volume=150 , issue=51870 , page=1 (section B) , access-date=November 11, 2007 {{ProQuest, 431865465 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 2231767130 (online; US Newsstream) ({{cite book , title=''permalink'' , url=https://nyti.ms/3tvuLQA , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via TimesMachine ). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', January 13,, 2002, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=O'Grady , first2=Jim ({{italic correction, ''né'' James W. O'Grady) , date=January 13, 2002 , title=Neighborhood Report: Richmond Hill – Making Guyana More Accessible, Two Sisters Start an Airline , url=https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE3DD1F39F930A25752C0A9649C8B63 , volume=151 , issue=51997 , page=7 (section 14) , access-date=September 30, 2007 ({{cite book , title=''permalink'' , url=https://nyti.ms/3nj0bc8 , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via TimesMachine ).
"Many of them live in Richmond Hill. Just as Chinese-Americans energized downtown
Flushing Flushing may refer to: Places * Flushing, Cornwall, a village in the United Kingdom * Flushing, Queens, New York City ** Flushing Bay, a bay off the north shore of Queens ** Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), a community in Queens ** Flushing M ...
, the Guyanese have revived a once-moribund shopping strip on Liberty Avenue (New York City), Liberty Avenue between the Van Wyck Expressway and Lefferts Boulevard, now known as Little Guyana."
{{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, Lippincott, January 27, 2002, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Lippincott , first2=Erin Elisa , title=Neighborhood Report – Kew Gardens – A Borough President's Goal: Dethroning the Queen of Queens , url=https://www.nytimes.com/2002/01/27/nyregion/neighborhood-report-kew-gardens-borough-president-s-goal-dethroning-queen-queens.html , date=January 27, 2002 , volume=151 , issue=52011 , page=8 (section 14) , access-date=August 3, 2017 {{ProQuest, 431958925 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 2231393915 (online; US Newsstream) ({{cite book , title=''permalink'' , url=https://nyti.ms/3l259qU , url-access=subscription , postscript={{space, 1– via TimesMachine ). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', October 13,, 2003 , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Ogunnaike , first2=Lola , author-link2=Lola Ogunnaike , date=October 13, 2003 , title=The Perks and Pitfalls of a Ruthless-Killer Role; Lucy Liu Boosts the Body Count in New Film , url=https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9906E5D7133FF930A25753C1A9659C8B63 , access-date=October 25, 2007 {{ProQuest, 432545699 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 2229682926 (online; US Newsstream).
"Born in Jackson Heights, Queens, Lucy Liu, Ms. Liu, the daughter of working-class Chinese immigrants, recalled many an afternoon spent parked in front of a television set."
{{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', February 8,, 2004 , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Shaman , first2=Diana , date=February 8, 2004 , title="If You're Thinking of Living In {{nowrap, ... " (series) "Douglaston, Queens; Timeless City Area, With a Country Feel , url=https://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/08/realestate/if-you-re-thinking-living-douglaston-queens-timeless-city-area-with-country-feel.html?pagewanted=all , type=online) (print ed. → February 8, 2004; "If You're Thinking of Living In {{nowrap, ... " (series) "Douglaston, Queens; Timeless City Area, With a Country Feel") (Late ed.; East Coast , page=5 (section 11) , access-date=January 21, 2012 {{ProQuest, 432666566 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 2229398132 (online; US Newsstream). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', October 1,, 2006, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Roberts , first2=Sam , author-link2=Sam Roberts (newspaper journalist) , title=Black Incomes Surpass Whites in Queens , date=October 1, 2006 , url=https://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/01/nyregion/01census.html , type=online) (print ed. → May 25, 2011; "In Queens, Blacks Are the Have-Nots No More") (New York ed. , page=29 (section A) , access-date=May 22, 2010 {{ProQuest, 433409052 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 2225332297 & {{ProQuest, 2225196560 (online; US Newsstream). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', April 4,, 2009, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Schreiber , first2=Jay , date=April 4, 2009 , title=Short-Lived, Long-Loved , url=https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E07E1DB1F3FF937A35757C0A96F9C8B63 , type=online ed. → April 3, 2009; "Ebbets Field and Shea: Short-Lived, Well Remembered" , page=3 (section D) , access-date=July 5, 2016 , postscript=.{{space, 1(Late ed.; East Coast). {{ProQuest, 434063308 (hardcopy; US Newsstream) & {{ProQuest, 2220224032 (online; US Newsstream). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', May 24,, 2011, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Roberts , first2=Sam , author-link2=Sam Roberts (newspaper journalist) , date=May 24, 2011 , title=Survey Hints at a Census Undercount in New York City , url=https://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/25/nyregion/survey-suggests-census-undercounted-new-york-city.html , type=online) (print ed. → May 25, 2011; "New York City's Claim of a Census Undercount May Be Justified, Canvassing Finds") (New York ed. , page=21 (section A) , access-date=September 12, 2016 {{ProQuest, 03624331 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 2217096891 (online; US Newsstream).
"How, they wondered, could Queens have grown by only one-tenth of 1 percent since 2000? How, even with a surge in foreclosures, could the number of vacant apartments have soared by nearly 60 percent in Queens and by 66 percent in Brooklyn? {{nowrap, ... Often, though, owners of illegally divided houses are reluctant to disclose the number of tenants, who tend to include people who are in the country illegally and are leery of providing any information to the government."
{{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', November 17,, 2011, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Hughes , first2=C. J. , title=Enticing Renters To Cross the Bridge (More Rentals-Planned in Long Island City) , url=https://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/20/realestate/posting-queens-more-rentals-planned-in-long-island-city.html?_r=1&ref=queens , date=November 17, 2011 , volume= , issue= , page=2 (section RE) {{ProQuest, 905001156 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 2216488789 (online; US Newsstream). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', March 26,, 2012, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Nir , first2=Sarah Maslin , author-link2=Sarah Maslin Nir , date=March 26, 2012 , title=In Queens, Taking a Step Back From Numbered Streets , url=https://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/27/nyregion/in-douglaston-queens-turning-away-from-numbered-streets.html?src=recg , type=online) (print ed. → March 27, 2012; "In Queens, Taking a Step Back From Numbered Streets") (New York ed.; East Coast , page=23 (section A) , access-date=March 28, 2012 {{ProQuest, 940930346 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 2216001643 (online; US Newsstream). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', February 6,, 2014 , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , date=February 6, 2014 , title=Biden Compares La Guardia Airport to 'Third World' , url=https://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/07/nyregion/biden-compares-la-guardia-airport-to-third-world.html , type=Associated Press, AP) (online) (print ed. → February 7, 2014; "Biden Compares La Guardia Airport to 'Third World{{'-") (Late ed.; East Coast , page=19 (section A) , access-date=July 6, 2016 {{ProQuest, 1495401223 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 2213767015 (online; US Newsstream).
"Mr. Biden said that if he blindfolded someone and took him to LaGuardia Airport, La Guardia, the person would think he was in 'some third world country.{{'-"
{{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', October 1,, 2014, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , date=October 1, 2014 , last2=Haller , first2=Vera Christiane , title=Downtown Flushing: Where Asian Cultures Thrive , url=https://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/05/realestate/downtown-flushing-where-asian-cultures-thrive.html?contentCollection=realestate&action=click&module=NextInCollection®ion=Footer&pgtype=article , type=online) (print ed. → October 5, 2014 , page=8 (RE section) , access-date=March 23, 2019 {{ProQuest, 2212955596 (online; US Newsstream). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', June 10,, 2015, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Meyers , first2=Naile-Jean , date=June 10, 2015 , title=Supporting Structure for Arthur Ashe Roof Is Completed , url=https://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/11/sports/tennis/supporting-structure-for-arthur-ashe-roof-is-completed.html , type=online) (print ed. → June 11, 2015; "Supporting Structure for Roof on Ashe Stadium Is Finished") (New York ed. , page=13 (section B) , access-date=July 7, 2016 , quote= {{ProQuest, 1687288412 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 1713677566 (online; US Newsstream).
"Zausner said the stadium, the largest in tennis, will maintain its seating capacity of 23,771, though some seats in the highest rows were removed to accommodate two video boards. Seats were added in lower levels to replace those lost, he said."
{{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', July 27,, 2015 , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=McGeehan , first2=Patrick , date=July 27, 2015 , title=La Guardia Airport to Be Overhauled by 2021, Cuomo and Biden Say , url=https://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/28/nyregion/la-guardia-airport-to-be-rebuilt-by-2021-cuomo-and-biden-say.html , type=online) (print ed. → July 28, 2015; "$4 Billion Plan for La Guardia Would Tear It Down and Start Over") (New York ed. , page=17 (section A) , access-date=July 6, 2016 {{ProQuest, 1699145344 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 1714006701 (online; US Newsstream).
"The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which operates the airport in northern Queens, estimates the overhaul will cost about $4 billion, most of which will go toward tearing down the LaGuardia_Airport#Terminal_B, Central Terminal Building, rebuilding it in place and augmenting it with a grand entry way."
{{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', February 3,, 2016 , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Grynbaum , first2=Michael M. , date=February 3, 2016 , title=Mayor de Blasio to Propose Streetcar Line Linking Brooklyn and Queens , url=https://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/04/nyregion/mayor-de-blasio-to-propose-streetcar-line-linking-brooklyn-and-queens.html , type=(print ed. → February 4, 2016; "Mayor Wants a Streetcar Line to Link Brooklyn and Queens") (Late ed.; East Coast , page=1 (seection A) , access-date=February 4, 2016 {{ProQuest, 1762277440 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 1762277108 (online; US Newsstream). {{Cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', June 15,, 2016 , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=McGeehan , first2=Patrick , date=June 15, 2016 , title=De Blasio's $325 Million Ferry Push: Rides to 5 Boroughs, at Subway Price , url=https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/16/nyregion/new-york-city-ferry-service.html , type=online) (print ed. → June 16, 2016; "New York's Ferry Push: Rides to 5 Boroughs, at a Subway Price") (New York ed. , page=1 (section A) , access-date=June 28, 2016, issn=0362-4331, newspaper=The New York Times {{ProQuest, 1797022833 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 1796775572 (online; US Newsstream). {{Cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', May 1,, 2017, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Levine , first2=Alexandra S. , last3=Wolfe, first3=Jonathan , date=May 1, 2017 , title=New York Today: Our City's New Ferry , url=https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/01/nyregion/new-york-today-citywide-ferry-service-begins.html , access-date=May 1, 2017 {{ProQuest, 1893466314 (online; US Newsstream). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''New York Times'', August 25,, 2018, p= , last1=''New York Times, The'' , author-link1=The New York Times , last2=Falkowitz , first2=Max , date=August 25, 2018 , title=A World of Food, Outside the U.S. Open Gates , url=https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/25/dining/food-queens-us-open.html?action=click&module=Editors%20Picks&pgtype=Homepage , type=online) (print ed. → August 26, 2018 → "7 Is the Tastiest Number" , page=15 (section F) , access-date=March 23, 2019 {{ProQuest, 2093023584 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); {{ProQuest, 2092795931 (online; US Newsstream). {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Queens Chronicle'', March 3,, 2016, p= , last1=''Queens Chronicle'' , author-link1=Queens Chronicle , last2=Marzlock , first2=Ron , date=March 3, 2016 , title=Trump's Queens Home , url=http://www.qchron.com/qboro/i_have_often_walked/trump-s-queens-home/article_9a0811ea-c1a0-5960-9ecc-b73a48500342.html , volume=39 , issue=9 , page=42 , access-date=November 4, 2016 ({{Cite book , title=''link to print edition'' , url=https://issuu.com/queenschronicle/docs/south_03-03-16small , via=ISSUU) {{Cite book , ref={{SfnRef, ''Queens Tribune'',, 2004 , last1=''Queens Tribune, The'' , author-link1=The Queens Tribune , date=2004 , title=Patchwork of Cultures: ''"A Queens Timeline"'' , url=http://queenstribune.com/guides/2005_PatchworkOfCultures/pages/QueensTimeline.htm , url-status=dead , edition=Special , access-date=December 23, 2007 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071109203348/http://queenstribune.com/guides/2005_PatchworkOfCultures/pages/QueensTimeline.htm , archive-date=November 9, 2007 , via=Wayback Machine {{nowrap, LCCN {{URL, https://www.loc.gov/item/sn89071405/, sn89071405 ; {{ISSN, 1521-2122; {{OCLC, 1097098828, 1023128279.
"1874 – Queens County Courthouse and seat of county government moved from Mineola, Long Island, Mineola (in present-day Nassau County) to
Long Island City Long Island City (LIC) is a residential and commercial neighborhood on the extreme western tip of Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New Y ...

Long Island City
."
{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, ''Quinnipiac Chronicle'', February 22,, 2012, p= , last1=''Quinnipiac Chronicle'' , author-link1=Quinnipiac Chronicle , last2=Boudreau , first2=Catherine , date=February 22, 2012 , title=The Refugee – Bosnian War Causes Family to Start Over in America , url=https://quchronicle.com/23441 , type={{URL, https://quchronicle.com/ , location=Hamden, Connecticut , publisher=Quinnipiac University , volume=81 , issue=18 , page=10 , access-date=July 19, 2017 ({{Cite book , title=''link to print edition'' , url=https://issuu.com/quchronicle/docs/issue_18_vol_81 , via=ISSUU) {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''TheStreet.com'', December 20,, 2013 , last1=''TheStreet.com'' , author-link1=TheStreet.com , last2=Reed , first2=Ted , date=December 20, 2013 , title=Fifty Years Ago, Idlewild Airport Became JFK , url=https://www.thestreet.com/investing/stocks/fifty-years-ago-idlewild-airport-became-jfk-12161394 , access-date=February 27, 2017
"Fifty years ago on Tuesday, one of the most commonly used words in New York suddenly began to disappear. The word was 'Idlewild,' and it was the name of New York's international airport. On December 24, 1963, the airport's name was changed to John F. Kennedy International Airport, commemorating a young president who had been assassinated just a month earlier."
{{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Times-Ledger'', , , p= , last1=''Times-Ledger'' , author-link1=TimesLedger Newspapers , last2=Donachie , first2=Patrick , date=March 10, 2016 , title=Flushing Neighbor Surprised Nancy Reagan Lived on Block , url=http://www.timesledger.com/stories/2016/11/reaganhouse_2016_03_11_q.html , url-access=registration , access-date=January 28, 2017 {{cite news , last1=WNBC , author-link1=WNBC , last2=Siff , first2=Andrew , date=March 16, 2016 , url=https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/new-york-city-citywide-ferry-service-hornblower-2017/810945/ , title=New York City's Ferry Service Set to Launch in 2017 , access-date=May 9, 2016 {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, WNBC, April 16,, 2018 , last1=WNBC , author-link1=WNBC , last2=Siff , first2=Andrew , date=April 16, 2018 , title=MTA Megaproject to Cost Almost $1B More Than Expected , url=https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/east-side-access-mta-project-cost-infrastructure/477189/ , access-date=November 28, 2018 {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Wall Street Journal'', August 20,, 2010, p= , last1=''Wall Street Journal, The'' , author-link1=Wall Street Journal , last2=Mokha , first2=Kavita , date=August 20, 2010 , title=New Immigrants Put Stamp on Richmond Hill , url=https://online.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748704868604575433532014656688 , url-access=subscription , access-date=November 9, 2014 {{Factiva, WSJO000020100820e68k001jl, {{Factiva, J000000020100820e68k0002v. {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Washington Post'', January 25,, 2016, p= , last1=''Washington Post, The'' , author-link1=The Washington Post , last2=Livingston , first2=Ian , date=January 25, 2016 , title=The 12 Best Meteorological Images of the Blizzard of 2016 , url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/capital-weather-gang/wp/2016/01/25/the-12-best-meteorological-images-of-the-blizzard-of-2016/ , type=blog , department=Capital Weather Gang , access-date=August 4, 2018 , postscript=.{{space, 1(re: January 2016 United States blizzard). {{ProQuest, 1759860668 (online; US Newsstream). {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, "2002 Election Results" , title=2002 Election Results: Governor and Lieutenant Governor , url=https://www.elections.ny.gov/NYSBOE/elections/2002/general/2002_gov.pdf , publisher=New York State Board of Elections , access-date=July 29, 2019 Elections: {{cite book , date=December 1, 2020 , title=''"Statement and Return Report for Certification – General Election 2020 – 11/03/2020 –Crossover – All Parties and Independent Bodies – President/Vice President – Citywide"'' , url=https://vote.nyc/page/election-results-summary-2020 , publisher=Board of Elections in the City of New York , access-date=September 15, 2021
  1. {{cite book , title=''"Election Results Summary 2020" → "General, November 3, 2020" → "Citywide President/Vice President Citywide" (recap)'' , url=https://vote.nyc/sites/default/files/pdf/election_results/2020/20201103General%20Election/00000100000Citywide%20President%20Vice%20President%20Citywide%20Recap.pdf
Elections: {{cite book , date=October 1, 2020 , title=''"2020 General Election Night Results"'' , url=https://www.elections.ny.gov/2020ElectionResults.html , publisher=New York State Board of Elections , access-date=September 15, 2021
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{{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Elections} , title=''Election Results: President and Vice President'' , publisher=New York State Board of Elections
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{{cite book , title=Local Government Handbook , publisher=New York State Department of State, Division of Local Government Services
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  3. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , title=''6th ed. (2011 reprint)'' , url=https://nysl.ptfs.com/data/Library1/Library1/pdf/756917598.pdf , date=2011 , pages=2 (chapter 1), 37 (chapter 4), 40 (chapter 5) , via=New York State Library , postscript={{space, 1 {{OCLC, 756917598.
  4. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , title=''7th ed. (7.0.0)'' , url=https://nysl.ptfs.com/data/Library1/Library1/pdf/1091629067.pdf , date=March 13, 2018 , pages=3 (chapter 1.1), 46 (chapter 5.2), 70 (chapter 7.1) , via=New York State Library , postscript={{space, 1 {{OCLC, 1091629067.
  5. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , title=''7th ed (7.0.0)'' , url=https://dos.ny.gov/system/files/documents/2019/05/pub.pdf , date=November 16, 2018 , pages=3 (chapter 1.1), 46 (chapter 5.2), 70 (chapter 7.1) , postscript={{space, 1
"Constitution of New York, The 1777 New York State Constitution, Article XXXVI, confirmed land grants and municipal charters granted by the English Crown prior to October 14, 1775. Chapter 64 of the Laws of 1788 organized the state into towns and cities." {{nowrap, ... "The basic composition of the counties was set in 1788 when the State Legislature divided all of the counties then existing into towns. Towns, of course, were of earlier origin, but in that year they acquired a new legal status as components of the counties."
{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, Bureau of Economic Analysis, December 12,, 2019, p= , last=Bureau of Economic Analysis , author-link1=Bureau of Economic Analysis , date=December 12, 2019 , title=Local Area Gross Domestic Product, 2018 , url=https://www.bea.gov/system/files/2019-12/lagdp1219.pdf , type=news release BEA 19–65 , page=35 , access-date=December 17, 2019 {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Business Wire'', July 23,, 2001, p= , last1=''Business Wire'' , author-link1=Business Wire , date=July 23, 2001 , title=Claritas Study Ranks Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Counties Nationwide; Analysis Shows California Leads Nation in Diversity Among Counties of 100,000-Plus Population , postscript=.{{space, 1Retrieved July 29, 2008. {{ProQuest, 445627485 (US Newsstream database).
  1. {{cite book , title=''Published July 25, 2001, by'' HispanicAd.com , url=https://hispanicad.com/blog/news-article/had/research/claritas-study-ranks-racial-ethnic-diversity
{{hanging indent , text={{cite book , title=''Original source → "Claritas Demographic Resource Guide"'' , location=San Diego , publisher=Claritas, Inc. {{OCLC, 51851506, show=all.
{{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Chan,, 2005 , date=2005 , editor-last1=Chan , editor-first1=Wai Sze (Lacey) , title=Quick Demographic Facts for Queens Library Service Areas , url=http://www.queenslibrary.org/pub/QuickFacts.asp , website=Queenslibrary.org , publisher=Queens Borough Public Library, Programs and Services Department , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110927072015/http://www.queenslibrary.org/pub/QuickFacts.asp , archive-date=September 27, 2011 {{ISBN, 0-9645-3375-8, 978-0-9645-3375-2; {{OCLC, 69186196, 70698782
OCLC Classify 70698782
{{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Cohen, Ukeles, Miller, June, 2012, p= , last1=Cohen , first1=Steven Martin, PhD , author-link1=Steven M. Cohen , last2=Ukeles , first2=Jacob Benjamin, PhD , last3=Miller , first3=Ronald, PhD , date=June 2012 , title=Jewish Community Study of New York 2011: Comprehensive Report , url=https://www.ujafedny.org/api/get/785729/download/ , publisher=Jewish Policy & Action Research,
UJA-Federation of New York UJA-Federation of New York, ( United Jewish Appeal - Federation of Jewish Philanthropies of New York, Inc.) is the largest local philanthropy in the world. Headquartered in New York City, the organization raises and allocates funds annually to fulf ...
, pages=49, 54, 227 , access-date=December 26, 2017 {{OCLC, 1079839584, show=all.
''Jewish Community Study.'' p. 227. {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Forstall, April 20,, 1995, p= , last1=Forstall , first1=Richard L. , date=April 20, 1995 , title=''"Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990"'' , url=http://www.honolulutraffic.com/Admin_Record/Administrative_Record_rev_2.28.12/Administrative_Record_Volumes_1-11/Vol002_AR00028614/AR00046310.pdf , publisher=Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau , access-date=January 7, 2015 , via={{url, http://www.honolulutraffic.com {{OCLC, 50183826, show=all.
  1. {{hanging indent , text=Extracted from {{cite book , title=Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790 – 1990 , url=https://www2.census.gov/library/publications/decennial/1990/population-of-states-and-counties-us-1790-1990/population-of-states-and-counties-of-the-united-states-1790-1990.pdf , publisher=Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau {{OCLC, 1136878696, show=all.
{{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, Gamio, July 4,, 2019 , last1=Gamio , first1=Lazaro , date=July 4, 2019 , title=Where America's Diversity Is Increasing the Fastest , url=https://www.axios.com/ae06eea7-e031-46a2-bb64-c74de85eca77.html , journal=
AxiosAxios commonly refers to: * Axios (river), a river which runs through Greece and North Macedonia * Axios (website), ''Axios'' (website), an American news and information website Axios may also refer to: Brands and enterprises * Axios, a brand of ...
, access-date=December 29, 2019 {{ProQuest, 2428620614 (US Newsstream database).
{{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Gibson, June, 1998, p= , last1=Gibson , first1=Campbell J. (born 1942) , date=June 1998 , title=''"Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990"'' , url=https://www.census.gov/library/working-papers/1998/demo/POP-twps0027.html , series=Working Paper Number POP-WP027 , publisher=U.S. Census Bureau , access-date=December 7, 2017 {{OCLC, 1253676076, show=all. {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Gibson, September 1,, 2002, p= , last1=Gibson , first1=Campbell J. (born 1942) , last2=Jung , first2=Kay , date=September 1, 2002 , title=''"Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals by Race (1790 to 1990) and by Hispanic origin (1970 to 1990) for Large Cities and Urban Places"'' , url=https://www.census.gov/library/working-papers/2002/demo/POP-twps0056.html , series=Working Paper Number POP-WP056 , publisher=Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau , access-date=December 7, 2017 {{OCLC, 73804741, show=all, {{OCLC, 50821504, show=all, {{OCLC search link, 52545755. {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, IndyStar.com,, 2020 , last1=''IndyStar.com'' (''The Indianapolis Star'') , author-link1=The Indianapolis Star , title=2020 Decennial Census – How Many People Live in Queens County, New York? , url=https://data.indystar.com/census/total-population/total-population-change/queens-county-new-york/050-36081/ , type=newspaper interactive database , access-date=August 17, 2021 {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Pakistani American Population,, 2019, p= , date=2019 , title=''"Profile of New York City's Pakistani Americans"'' , url=https://www.aafederation.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/2019pk.pdf , publisher=Asian American Federation of New York , access-date=September 14, 2021
  1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Pakistani American Population, December, 2004, p= , title=''December 2004 edition: "Census Profile: New York City's Pakistani American Population"'' , url=http://www.aafny.org/cic/briefs/pakistani.pdf , url-status=dead , publisher=Asian American Federation of New York , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110725220920/http://www.aafny.org/cic/briefs/pakistani.pdf , access-date=February 15, 2018 , archive-date=July 25, 2011 , via=Wayback Machine
{{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, , , p= , last1=Narula , first1=Svati Kirsten , date=April 29, 2014 , title=The 5 U.S. Counties Where Racial Diversity Is Highest—and Lowest , url=https://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2014/04/mapping-racial-diversity-by-county/361388/ , journal=
The Atlantic ''The Atlantic'' is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher. It was founded in 1857 in Boston, as ''The Atlantic Monthly'', a literary and cultural magazine that published leading writers' commentary on education, the , and other maj ...

The Atlantic
, language=en-US , access-date=May 8, 2017
{{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, "U.S. Gazetteer Files",, 2010, p= , date=August 22, 2012 , orig-year=2010 , url=https://www2.census.gov/geo/docs/maps-data/data/gazetteer/counties_list_36.txt , title=''2010 Census. "U.S. Gazetteer Files"'' , type=New York State, population by county; showing Geographic coordinate system, geographic coordinates – longitude and latitude , publisher=U.S. Census Bureau , access-date=January 7, 2015 {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, US Census Data, ACS 1-Year Estimates,, 2010 , title=U.S. Census Data – Decennial Census – Total Population – 2010: DEC Summary File 1 , url=https://data.census.gov/cedsci/ , type=data platform: Center for Enterprise Dissemination Services and Consumer Innovation , publisher=U.S. Census Bureau , access-date=September 14, 2021
  1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, US Census, Queens,, 2010 , title=Queens , url=https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?g=0600000US3608160323&tid=DECENNIALSF12010.P1 , type=View: tables. Table ID: P1
{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, US Census Data, ACS 1-Year Estimates,, 2020 , title=U.S. Census Data – American Community Survey – Demographic and Housing Estimates – 2019: American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates Data Profiles , url=https://data.census.gov/cedsci/ , type=data platform: Center for Enterprise Dissemination Services and Consumer Innovation , publisher=U.S. Census Bureau , access-date=February 9, 2021
  1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, US Census, Bronx,, 2020, title=Bronx , url=https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?g=0600000US3600508510&tid=ACSDP1Y2019.DP05 , type=View: tables. Table ID: DP05
  2. {{hanging indent , text={{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, US Census, Brooklyn,, 2020 , title=Brooklyn , url=https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?g=0600000US3604710022&tid=ACSDP1Y2019.DP05 , type=View: tables. Table ID: DP05
  3. {{hanging indent , text={{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, US Census, Manhattan,, 2020 , title=Manhattan , url=https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?g=0600000US3606144919&tid=ACSDP1Y2019.DP05 , type=View: tables. Table ID: DP05
  4. {{hanging indent , text={{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, US Census, Queens,, 2020 , title=Queens , url=https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?g=0600000US3608160323&tid=ACSDP1Y2019.DP05 , type=View: tables. Table ID: DP05
  5. {{hanging indent , text={{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, US Census, Staten Island,, 2020 , title=Staten Island , url=https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?g=0600000US3608570915&tid=ACSDP1Y2019.DP05 , type=View: tables. Table ID: DP05
{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, US Census Data, ACS 1-Year Estimates,, 2020 , title=U.S. Census Data – American Community Survey – Selected Characteristics of the Native and Foreign-Born Populations – 2019: American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates Data Profiles , url=https://data.census.gov/cedsci/ , type=data platform: Center for Enterprise Dissemination Services and Consumer Innovation , publisher=U.S. Census Bureau , access-date=September 14, 2021
  1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, US Census, Queens,, 2020 , title=Queens , url=https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?g=0600000US3608160323&tid=ACSST5Y2019.S0501 , type=View: tables. Table ID: S0501
{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, US Census Data, ACS 1-Year Estimates,, 2020 , title=U.S. Census Data – American Community Survey – Language Spoken at Home – 2019: American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates Data Profiles , url=https://data.census.gov/cedsci/ , type=data platform: Center for Enterprise Dissemination Services and Consumer Innovation , publisher=U.S. Census Bureau , access-date=September 14, 2021
  1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, US Census, Queens,, 2020 , title=Queens , url=https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?g=0600000US3608160323&tid=ACSST5Y2019.S1601 , type=View: tables. Table ID: S1601
{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, US Census, Queens, Asian-Indian,, 2014 , title=Selected Population Profile in the United States - 2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates Queens County, New York Asian Indian Alone , url=http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/ACS/14_1YR/S0201/0500000US36081/popgroup~013 , publisher=U.S. Census Bureau , access-date=April 2, 2016 , archive-url=https://archive.today/20200214003037/http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/ACS/14_1YR/S0201/0500000US36081/popgroup~013 , archive-date=February 14, 2020 , url-status=dead , via=Archive.today {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, US Census, Queens,, 2010 , title=U.S. Census 2010 , url=http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_SF1_QTP5&prodType=table , publisher=U.S. Census Bureau , archive-url=https://archive.today/20200212213909/http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_SF1_QTP5&prodType=table, url-status=dead, archive-date=2020-02-12 , via=Archive.today {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, U.S. Census, Queens, Data Map,, 2020 , title=2020 U.S. Census Demographic Data Map Viewer , url=https://mtgis-portal.geo.census.gov/arcgis/apps/MapSeries/index.html?appid=2566121a73de463995ed2b2fd7ff6eb7 , publisher=U.S. Census Bureau , access-date=August 12, 2021 {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, U.S. Decennial Census} , title=U.S. Decennial Census , url=https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census.html , publisher=U.S. Census Bureau , access-date=January 7, 2015 {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, Afrikan Poetry Theatre , url=http://afrikanpoetrytheatre.org/apt/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=16&Itemid=29 , url-status=dead , title=History of Afrikan Poetry Theatre , type={{URL, https://www.theafrikanpoetrytheatre.org , access-date=March 28, 2012 , publisher=The Afrikan Poetry Theatre , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120210002702/http://afrikanpoetrytheatre.org/apt/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=16&Itemid=29 , archive-date=February 10, 2012 {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, Aqueduct Racetrack Information , title=Aqueduct Racetrack General Information , url=https://www.nyra.com/aqueduct/information/ , publisher=
Aqueduct Racetrack Aqueduct Racetrack is a Thoroughbred horse racing facility and casino in the South Ozone Park, Queens, South Ozone Park and Jamaica, Queens, Jamaica neighborhoods of Queens, New York City, United States. Aqueduct is the only racetrack located w ...

Aqueduct Racetrack
, access-date=July 5, 2016
{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, Black Spectrum Theater , last1=Black Spectrum Theater Company , publisher=Black Spectrum Theater Company , author-link1=Black Spectrum Theater Company , date=December 11, 2010 , title=About , url=http://www.blackspectrum.com/performing-arts.html , type={{URL, http://www.blackspectrum.com , access-date=March 28, 2012 {{cite web , last1=Citi Field , author-link1=Citi Field , title=By the Numbers , url=http://newyork.mets.mlb.com/nym/ballpark/information/index.jsp?content=by_the_numbers , url-status=dead , access-date=July 5, 2016 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101231070942/http://newyork.mets.mlb.com/nym/ballpark/information/index.jsp?content=by_the_numbers , archive-date=December 31, 2010 , via=Wayback Machine {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, DOT Press Release, April 22,, 2021 , date=April 22, 2021 , title=Earth Day: Declaring On-Street Carshare 'An Unqualified Success,' DOT Announces Permanent Expansion of Pilot , url=https://www1.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/pr2021/pr21-016.shtml , type=Press Release #21-016 , publisher=New York City Department of Transportation , access-date=September 21, 2021 {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, DOT Final Report, April, 2021, p= , date=April 2021 , title=''"Carshare Parking Pilot Program – Final Report"'' , url=https://www1.nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/nyc-carshare-pilot-report.pdf , access-date=September 21, 2021 {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, DOT Carshare Pilot, April, 2021 , date=April 2021 , title=NYC DOT Carshare Pilot , url=https://nycdotcarshare.info/ , publisher=New York City Department of Transportation , access-date=September 21, 2021 {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, MTA: "Gil Hodges Bridge"} , last1=MTA Bridges and Tunnels (publisher) , author-link1=MTA Bridges and Tunnels , date=n.d. , orig-date=Updated Mar 30, 2020 , title=Marine Parkway–Gil Hodges Memorial Bridge , url=https://new.mta.info/bridges-and-tunnels/about/marine-parkway-gil-hodges-memorial-bridge , access-date=July 5, 2016
"The Marine Parkway–Gil Hodges Memorial Bridge was opened by the Marine Parkway Authority in 1937 to provide access to the
Rockaway Peninsula The Rockaway Peninsula, commonly referred to as The Rockaways or Rockaway, is the name of a peninsula within the New York City borough (New York City), borough of Queens on Long Island, New York (state), New York. Relatively isolated from Manhat ...
, which previously could be reached only by ferry or by a circuitous route around the eastern end of
Jamaica Bay Image:Waterways New York City Map Julius Schorzman.png, 250px, The main waterways surrounding New York City. 1. Hudson River, 2. East River, 3. Long Island Sound, 4. Newark Bay, 5. Upper New York Bay, 6. Lower New York Bay, 7. Jamaica Bay, 8. Atlan ...

Jamaica Bay
."
{{ref end {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, MTA: Bus info , last1=MTA , author-link1=Metropolitan Transportation Authority , date= April 14, 2020 , title=Subway and Bus Facts 2019 , url=https://new.mta.info/agency/new-york-city-transit/subway-bus-facts-2019 , access-date=September 21, 2021 {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, MTA: "Cross Bay Veterans Memorial Bridge"} , last1=MTA Bridges and Tunnels (publisher) , author-link1=MTA Bridges and Tunnels , date=n.d. , orig-date=Updated Mar 30, 2020 , title=Cross Bay Veterans Memorial Bridge , url=https://new.mta.info/bridges-and-tunnels/about/cross-bay-veterans-memorial-bridge , access-date=July 5, 2016
"In 1939 the New York City Parkway Authority built the Cross Bay Veterans Memorial Bridge, Cross Bay Bridge and Parkway, along with beach improvements in the
Rockaways The Rockaway Peninsula, commonly referred to as The Rockaways or Rockaway, is the name of a peninsula within the New York City borough (New York City), borough of Queens on Long Island, New York (state), New York. Relatively isolated from Manhat ...
."
{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, MTA: LIRR info , last1=MTA , author-link1=Metropolitan Transportation Authority , title=Long Island Rail Road - General Information , url=http://web.mta.info/lirr/about/GeneralInformation/ , access-date=September 21, 2021 {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, , , p= , title=Nadia Ali" → "Biography , url=http://www.nadiaali.com/biography , access-date=July 7, 2010
"Born in Libya to Pakistani parents, Nadia Ali (singer), Nadia Ali grew up in Queens, New York"
{{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, National Park Service: Jamaica Bay Unit , last1=National Park Service , author-link1=National Park Service , title=National Parks of New York Harbor – Fact Sheet: Gateway NRA – Jamaica Bay Unit , url=https://www.nps.gov/npnh/learn/news/fact-sheet-jaba.htm , access-date=March 28, 2012 {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, National Park Service: Sagamore Hill , last1=National Park Service , author-link1=National Park Service , date=March 31, 2017 , orig-date={{space, nitLast updated: July 9, 2021{{space, nit , title=Sagamore Hill National Historic Site , url=https://www.nps.gov/sahi/index.htm , access-date=September 25, 2017 {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, "NYC Ferry" (route map), August 23,, 2021, date=August 23, 2021 , title=''"NYC Ferry" (route map)'' , url=https://images.ferry.nyc/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/20131449/system_map_8-23_-.png , publisher=NYC Ferry, Hornblower Cruises (publisher) , access-date=September 15, 2021 {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, Nycgo, Astoria, October 22,, 2014 , last1=Nycgo.com , author-link1=NYC & Company , last2=Kuban , first2=Adam , author-link2=Adam Kuban , date=October 22, 2014 , title=Must-See Astoria: 12 Great Things to See and Do , url=https://www.nycgo.com/articles/must-see-astoria-slideshow/ , publisher=NYC & Company , access-date=March 28, 2012 {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, Port Authority, LGA,, 2016 , last1=Port Authority of New York and New Jersey , author-link1=Port Authority of New York and New Jersey , date=2016 , title=About LaGuardia , url=http://laguardiaairport.com/about-us/ , url-status=dead , access-date=July 6, 2016 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160627031839/http://laguardiaairport.com/about-us/ , archive-date=June 27, 2016 , via=Wayback Machine {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, Port Authority, JFK AirTrain,, 2016 , last1=Port Authority of New York and New Jersey , author-link1=Port Authority of New York and New Jersey , date=2016 , title=AirTrain JFK , url=https://jfkairport.com/to-from-airport/air-train , access-date=July 6, 2016 {{Cite NYC bus map , ref={{SfnRef, "Queens Bus Map" , Q {{cite web , ref={{SfnRef, "Queens Supreme Court," October 13,, 2013 , date=October 13, 2013 , title=Queens Supreme Court , url=https://www1.nyc.gov/site/dcas/business/dcasmanagedbuildings/queens-supreme-courthouse.page , website= NYC.gov , access-date=March 20, 2019 {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Seastreak Ferry , title=''Routes and Schedules: "New York", "New Jersey", "Massachusetts", "Rhode Island"'' , url=https://www.seastreak.com/ , type={{URL, https://seastreak.com , publisher=Seastreakusa.com , access-date=April 20, 2014 , postscript=(see article SeaStreak. {{NYCS const , ref={{SfnRef, Subway Map , map {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Zipcar,, 2020} , last1=Zhen , first1=Tracy , date=2020 , title=''"Zipcar Impact Report" ← webpage link'' , url=https://www.zipcar.com/impact , type={{URL, https://zipcar-drupal-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/drupal-presales/files/Zipcar_Impact_Report_2020_FINAL-Spreads.pdf, pdf link, access-date=September 27, 2021 , location=Boston , publisher=Zipcar , page=12


Further reading

{{See also, Timeline of Queens#Bibliography, l1=Bibliography of the history of Queens {{refbegin, 30em, indent=yes * {{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, McGovern & Frazier,, 2015 , last1=McGovern , first1=Brendan , last2=Frazier , first2=John W., Jr. PhD (born 1947) , date=2015 , title=Evolving Ethnic Settlements in Queens: Historical and Current Forces Reshaping Human Geography , journal=Focus on Geography , publisher=American Geographical Society (publisher) (Wiley (publisher), Wiley) , volume=58 , issue=1 , pages=11–26 {{doi, 10.1111/foge.12045; {{ISSN, 1949-8535, {{ISSN, 1549-4934 (publication); {{EBSCO, 100989570 (article); {{OCLC, 5735481287, 6894888949 (article). * {{cite journal , ref={{SfnRef, Miyares, October, 2004 , last1=Miyares , first1=Ines Maria, PhD (born 1958) , date=October 2004 , title=From Exclusionary Covenant to Ethnic Hyperdiversity in Jackson Heights, Queens , journal=Geographical Review , publisher=Taylor & Francis, Ltd. (publisher) , volume=94 , issue=4 , pages=462–483 Journal → {{ISSN, 0016-7428, {{eISSN, 1931-0846; Article → {{doi, 10.1111/j.1931-0846.2004.tb00183.x; {{JSTOR, 30034291; {{ProQuest, 225329687 (Research Library database); {{OCLC, 211830189, 1104949714. * {{cite book , last1=Hazelton , first1=Henry "Harry" Isham (1867–1938) , date=1925 , title=The Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens Counties of Nassau and Suffolk Long Island, New York, 1609–1924 , url={{GBurl, 8swpAQAAMAAJ, p=571 , access-date=October 5, 2021 , type=7 volumes , publisher=Lewis Historical Publishing Company, Inc. {{LCCN, 25010750; {{OCLC, 498971362, show=all, {{OCLC search link, 247484068, {{OCLC search link, 250867416.
    1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Hazelton, Vol. 1,, 1925, p= , title=''Vol. 1'' , url={{GBurl, Tw5VODUmt8sC, p=1-PP7 , via=Google Books (Columbia University)
    2. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Hazelton, Vol. 2,, 1925, p= , title=''Vol. 2'' , url={{GBurl, 8swpAQAAMAAJ, p=571 , via=Google Books (Wisconsin Historical Society)
    3. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Hazelton, Vol. 3,, 1925, p= , title=''Vol. 3'' , url={{GBurl, OgXUVGbvYiQC, p=1153 , via=Google Books (Columbia University)
    4. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Hazelton, Vol. 4,, 1925, p= , title=''Vol. 4'' , url={{GBurl, u80pAQAAMAAJ, p=1-PP9 , via=Google Books (Wisconsin Historical Society)
    5. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Hazelton, Vol. 5,, 1925, p= , title=''Vol. 5'' , url=https://archive.org/details/boroughsofbrookl05haze/page/n7/mode/2up , via=Internet Archive (Allen County Public Library)
    6. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Hazelton, Vol. 6,, 1925, p= , title=''Vol. 6'' , url={{GBurl, ZsspAQAAMAAJ, p=1-PP9 , via=Google Books (Wisconsin Historical Society)
    7. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Hazelton, Vol. 7,, 1925, p= , title=''Vol. 7'' , url={{GBurl, mPIr22cLiOEC, p=1-PP9 , via=Google Books (Columbia University)
* {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, ''History of Queens County,'', 1882, p= , date=1882 , title=History of Queens County, New York: With Illustrations, Portraits, and Sketches of Prominent Families and Individuals , language=en-US , location=New York , publisher=W.W. Munsell & Co. → William Watkins Munsell; 1850–1919 , postscript=.{{space, 1Retrieved September 7, 2021. {{LCCN, 01014233; {{OCLC, 4819282, show=all.
    1. {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, ''History of Queens County'', HathiTrust (Columbia),, 1882, p= , title=''Via HathiTrust (Columbia University)'' , url=https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nnc2.ark:/13960/t9n32m641&view=1up&seq=7&skin=2021
    2. {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, ''History of Queens County'', Internet Archive (Columbia),, 1882, p= , title=''Via Internet Archive (Columbia University)'' , url=https://archive.org/details/historyofqueensc00unse/page/n5/mode/2up?ref=ol&view=theater
* {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Onderdonk,, 1846 , last1=Onderdonk , first1=Henry, Jr. (1804–1886) , date=1846 , title=Documents and Letters Intended to Illustrate the Revolutionary Incidents of Queens County – With Connecting Narratives, Explanatory Notes, and Additions , language=en-US , location=Manhattan, New-York , publisher=Jonathan Leavitt (publisher), Leavitt, John Fowler Trow, Trow and Company (printer) , postscript=.{{space, 1Retrieved September 21, 2021. {{LCCN, 01014234; {{OCLC, 2860745, show=all.
    1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Onderdonk, Google (Harvard),, 1865, p= , title=''Via Google Books (Harvard)'' , url={{GBurl, DQYCAAAAYAAJ, p=3
    2. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Onderdonk, Google (Harvard),, 1865, p= , title=''Via Google Books (Indiana University)'' , url={{GBurl, 2no2AQAAMAAJ, p=3
* {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Onderdonk,, 1865 , last1=Onderdonk , first1=Henry, Jr. (1804–1886) , date=1865 , title=Queens County in Olden Times: Being a Supplement to the Several Histories Thereof , language=en-US , location=Jamaica, Queens, Jamaica, New York , publisher=Charles Welling (printer) , postscript=.{{space, 1Retrieved September 21, 2021. {{LCCN, 01014235; {{OCLC, 1194221823, show=all.
    1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Onderdonk, Google (Harvard),, 1865, p= , title=''Via Google Books (Harvard)'' , url={{GBurl, fOMVAAAAYAAJ, p=PP7
Items extracted from newspapers and other sources, arranged chronologically, 1639–1832.
* {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Riker,, 1852, p= , last1=Riker , first1=James, Jr. (1822–1889) , author-link1=James Riker , date=1852 , title=The Annals of Newtown, in Queens County, New-York: Containing Its History From Its First Settlement, Together With Many Interesting Facts Concerning the Adjacent Towns; Also, a Particular Account of Numerous Long Island Families Now Spread Over This and Various Other States of the Union , language=en-US , location=New York , publisher=D. Fanshaw → Daniel Fanshaw (1788–1860) , postscript=.{{space, 1Retrieved September 4, 2021. {{LCCN, 01014941; {{OCLC, 1264039133, show=all, {{OCLC search link, 58788151.
    1. {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Riker, Internet Archive (Columbia),, 1852, p= , title=''Via Internet Archive (Columbia University)'' , url=https://archive.org/details/annalsofnewtowni00rike_0/page/n9/mode/2up?ref=ol&view=theater
    2. {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Riker, Google Books (Princeton),, 1852, p= , title=''Google Books (Princeton University)'' , url={{GBurl, I5Q-AAAAYAAJ, p=PP9
* {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Skal,, 1908, p= , last1=Skal , first1=George Hugo August Eugen von (1854–1924) (author) , last2=Compiled by F.T. Smiley Publishing Co. , date=1908 , title=Illustrated History of the Borough of Queens, New York City , url={{GBurl, qPYTAAAAYAAJ, p=3 , language=en-US , location=New York City, New York , publisher=F. T. Smiley Publishing Co. → Frederick Thomas Smiley (1857–1910); Jerome Chester Smiley (1882–1968); George W. Flaacke , access-date=September 1, 2021 , via=Google Books (Harvard) , postscript=.{{space, 1→ also accessible via {{URL, https://archive.org/details/illustratedhisto00skal/page/n5/mode/2up, Internet Archive (Library of Congress). {{LCCN, 10008903; {{OCLC, 5883592, show=all.
    1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Skal, Part I,, 1908, p= , title=''Part I – "A History of the Borough of Queens"'' , url={{GBurl, qPYTAAAAYAAJ, p=7, dq= , pages=7–30
    2. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Skal, Part II,, 1908, p= , title=''Part II – "Queens Borough of the Present Day"'' , url={{GBurl, qPYTAAAAYAAJ, p=31, dq= , pages=31–38
    3. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Skal, Part III,, 1908, p= , title=''Part III – "Noteworth Buildings and Places"'' , url={{GBurl, qPYTAAAAYAAJ, p=39, dq= , pages=39–70
    4. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Skal, Part IV,, 1908, p= , title=''Part IV – "Men of Mark"'' , url={{GBurl, qPYTAAAAYAAJ, p=71, dq= , pages=71–90
    5. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Skal, Part V,, 1908, p= , title=''Part V – "A Glance to the Past and the Future"'' , url={{GBurl, qPYTAAAAYAAJ, p=91, dq= , pages=91–104
    6. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Skal, Part VI,, 1908, p= , title=''Part VI'' – "The Flushing Journal" , url={{GBurl, qPYTAAAAYAAJ, p=105, dq="smith" , pages=105–112
    7. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Skal, Bios,, 1908, p= , title=''"Biographical Sketches"'' , url={{GBurl, qPYTAAAAYAAJ, p=113, dq= , pages=113–167
* {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, USNY,, 1916 , last1=USNY , author-link1=University of the State of New York , date=1916 , title=A List of Books Relating to the History of the State of New York , type=reprinted from the ''12th Annual Report of the New York City Department of Education, State Department of Education'' , location=Albany, New York, Albany , publisher=University of the State of New York, New York City Department of Education, State Department of Education, School Libraries Division {{nowrap, LCCN {{URL, https://lccn.loc.gov/e16001026, e16001026 ; {{OCLC, 1011459, show=all.
    1. {{cite book , title=''Via Google Books (Harvard)'' , url={{GBurl, QQEuAAAAYAAJ, p=1
    2. {{cite book , title=''Via Google Books (UC Berkeley)'' , url={{GBurl, BSgzAQAAIAAJ, p=1
    3. {{cite book , title=''Via HathiTrust (Harvard)'' , url=https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hx4rlt&view=1up&seq=3
    4. {{cite book , title=''Via HathiTrust (UC Berkeley)'' , url=https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.$b728190&view=1up&seq=5
    5. {{cite book , title=''Via HathiTrust (Cornell)'' , url=https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo1.ark:/13960/t4gm8rk7k&view=1up&seq=3
    6. {{cite book , title=''Via Internet Archive (Cornell)'' , url=https://archive.org/details/cu31924014490506/page/n1/mode/2up?ref=ol&view=theater
* {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Copquin , last1=Copquin , first1=Claudia Gryvatz (born 1961) , date=2007 , orig-date=2009 , title=The Neighborhoods of Queens , type=guide to 99 neighborhoods , publisher=Yale University Press , postscript=.{{space, 1Retrieved September 21, 2021 – via Google Books. {{LCCN, 2007013716 (1st ed.; 2007); {{ISBN, 978-0-3001-1299-3, 0-3001-1299-8 (2007); {{ISBN, 978-0-3001-5133-6, 0-3001-5133-0, {{ISBN, 978-0-3001-5005-6, 0-3001-5005-9; {{OCLC, 262432302, show=all.
    1. {{cite book , title=''Via Google Books'' , url={{GBurl, b5UiKlrlAwEC , p=PR1 , type=limited preview
* {{cite book , last1=Glascock , first=Mary A. , date=1977 , title=An Annotated Bibliography of the History of Queens County , type=218 pages , publisher=Queens College, City University of New York {{OCLC, 10188022. * {{cite book , last1=Kingsley , first1=J. Donald, Executive Director , date=June 1958 , title=''"Queens Communities – Population Characteristics and Neighborhood Social Resources"'' , publisher=Bureau of Community Statistical Services Research Department, The Community Council of Greater New York , postscript=.{{space, 1Retrieved October 14, 2021. {{OCLC, 5625172, 248835739.
    1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, "Queens Communities" (Vol. 1), June, 1858, p= , title=''Vol. 1. "Astoria, Long Island City–Sunnyside, Woodside–Jackson Heights–Elmhurst–Corona, Forest Hills–Rego Park, Middle Village (Glendale part), Ridgewood–Maspeth (Glendale part), Woodhaven–Richmond Hill, Richmond Hill South–Ozone Park–South Ozone Park–Howard Beach, The Rockaways"'' , url=https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433089928646&view=1up&seq=5 , via=HathiTrust (New York Public Library)
    2. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, "Queens Communities" (Vol. 2), June, 1858, p= , title=''Vol. 2. "College Point–Whitestone, Flushing, Central Queens, Bayside–Oakland Gardens, Douglaston–Little Neck–Bellerose, Jamaica–South Jamaica, Queens Village–Hollis–St. Albans, Springfield Gardens–Laurelton–Rosedale"'' , url=https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433062496959&view=1up&seq=7 , via=HathiTrust (New York Public Library)
* {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Lieberman & Lieberman,, 1983 , last1=Lieberman , first1=Janet Elaine, PhD ({{italic correction, ''née'' Janet Elaine Rubensohn; 1921–2019) , last2=Lieberman , first2=Richard Kenneth, PhD (born 1947) , date=1983 , title=City Limits: A Social History of Queens , type=the two authors are not related , location=Dubuque, Iowa , publisher=Kendall Hunt Publishing Company , postscript={{space, 1(covers the 1870s to the 1930s). {{ISBN, 0-8403-3150-9, 978-0-8403-3150-2; {{OCLC, 10777703, show=all.
"Based on the work of the Community History Program at Fiorello H. LaGuardia Community College."
* {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Helmreich,, 2020 , last1=Helmreich , first1=William Benno, PhD (1945–2020) , author-link1=William B. Helmreich , date=2020 , title=The Queens Nobody Knows – An Urban Walking Guide , publisher=Princeton University Press , postscript=.{{space, 1Retrieved September 23, 2021 – via Google Books. {{LCCN, 2019058691 (hardback), {{LCCN, 2019058692 (ebook); {{ISBN, 978-0-6911-6688-9 (paperback), {{ISBN, 978-0-6912-0002-6 (ebook); {{OCLC, 1135915992, show=all.
    1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , title=''Via Google Books'' , url={{GBurl, Y6bgDwAAQBAJ, p=PR3 , type=limited preview
    2. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , title=''Via Google Books'' , url={{GBurl, wL_gDwAAQBAJ, p=PP1 , type=limited preview
* {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, ''Jackson,, 2010 , editor-last1=Jackson , editor-first1=Kenneth Terry, PhD (born 1939) , editor-link1=Kenneth T. Jackson , date=2010 , orig-date=1995 , title=Encyclopedia of New York City , url=https://archive.org/details/theencyclopediaofnewyorkcitysecondedition/page/n3/mode/2up?ref=ol&view=theater , edition=2nd , publisher=Yale University Press & New-York Historical Society (publisher) , access-date=September 22, 2021 , via=Internet Archive {{LCCN, 2010031294; {{ISBN, 0-3001-1465-6, 978-0-300-11465-2; {{OCLC, 1088488960, show=all. * {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Kadinsky,, 2015, p= , last1=Kadinsky , first1=Sergey , date=March 14, 2016 , title=Hidden Waters of New York City: A History and Guide to 101 Forgotten Lakes, Ponds, Creeks, and Streams in the Five Boroughs , location=Woodstock, Vermont , publisher=The Countryman Press , postscript={{space, 1(the author, among other things, has been a contributor to Forgotten NY). {{LCCN, 2015041163; {{ISBN, 978-1-5815-7355-8, 1-5815-7355-3; {{OCLC, 929863403, show=all.
    1. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Kadinsky (books),, 2015, p= , title=''Book – via Google Books'' , url={{GBurl, Czw1CgAAQBAJ, p=PP1 , type=limited preview , access-date=September 21, 2021 , page=96
    2. {{hanging indent , text={{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Kadinsky (blog) , title=''Author's blog – "Hidden Waters"'' , url=https://hiddenwatersblog.wordpress.com/author/sergeykadinskygmailcom/ , type=WordPress , access-date=September 21, 2021 {{OCLC, 1187187978.
* {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Walsh,, 2013, p= , last1=Walsh , first1=Kevin S. (born 1957) , author-link1= , last2=and the Greater Astoria Historical Society (authors) , date=2013 , title=Forgotton Queens , language=en-US , location=Charleston, South Carolina , publisher=Arcadia Publishing , postscript=.{{space, 1{{space, 1Retrieved September 21,2021. {{LCCN, 2013940008; {{ISBN, 1-4671-2065-0, 978-1-4671-2065-4; {{OCLC, 855044557.
    1. {{cite book , ref={{SfnRef, Walsh, Google Books,, 2013, p= , title=''Via Google Books'' , url={{GBurl, YJAbAgAAQBAJ, p=3
{{ref end


External links

{{Commons category, Queens, New York City {{Wikivoyage, Queens
Official History Page of the Queens Borough President's Office

La Guardia and Wagner Archives/Queens Local History Collection
{{Webarchive, url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120422195423/http://www.laguardiawagnerarchive.lagcc.cuny.edu/COLLECTIONS.aspx?ViwType=1&ColID=3 , date=April 22, 2012 * {{cite news , ref={{SfnRef, ''Queens Tribune'', July 29,, 2010, p= , date=July 29 – August 4, 2010 , title=They Came from Queens , url=https://issuu.com/queenstribune/docs/tribune_epaper_072910 , work=Queens Tribune , volume=40 , issue=30 , access-date=November 19, 2010 , via=ISSUU
Queens Buzz
{{Geographic location , Centre = Queens County, New York , North = The Bronx, Bronx County
(The Bronx) , Northeast =
Long Island Sound Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between ri ...

Long Island Sound
, East = Nassau County , South = , Southwest = Brooklyn, Kings County
(Brooklyn) , West = Brooklyn, Kings County
(Brooklyn) , Northwest = Manhattan, New York County
(Manhattan) , Southeast = Nassau County {{navboxes, list= {{Queens {{New York City {{New York metropolitan area {{Long Island region {{New York {{Northeastern U.S. majority-minority counties {{authority control Queens, New York, Boroughs of New York City Populated coastal places in New York (state) 1683 establishments in New York Populated places established in 1683