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Hungarian Language
Hungarian () is an Uralic language spoken in Hungary and parts of several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary, it is also spoken by Hungarian communities in southern Slovakia, western Ukraine ( Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, northeastern Slovenia (Prekmurje), and eastern Austria. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States and Canada) and Israel. With 17 million speakers, it is the Uralic family's largest member by number of speakers. Classification Hungarian is a member of the Uralic language family. Linguistic connections between Hungarian and other Uralic languages were noticed in the 1670s, and the family itself (then called Finno-Ugric) was established in 1717. Hungarian has traditionally been assigned to the Ugr ...
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Hungary
Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. Spanning of the Carpathian Basin, it is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, and Austria to the west. Hungary has a population of nearly 9 million, mostly ethnic Hungarians and a significant Romani minority. Hungarian, the official language, is the world's most widely spoken Uralic language and among the few non-Indo-European languages widely spoken in Europe. Budapest is the country's capital and largest city; other major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs, and Győr. The territory of present-day Hungary has for centuries been a crossroads for various peoples, including Celts, Romans, Germanic tribes, Huns, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundation of the Hungarian state was established in the late 9th century AD with the conquest of the Carpathian Basin by H ...
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Berehove Raion
Berehove Raion ( uk, Берегівський район, hu, Beregszászi járás) is a district (raion) in Zakarpattia Oblast (province) in the westernmost corner of Ukraine. The administrative center is Berehove. For many centuries the territory of the district was part of Bereg County. Population: On 18 July 2020, as part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, the number of raions of Zakarpattia Oblast was reduced to six, and the area of Berehove Raion was significantly expanded. The January 2020 estimate of the raion population was Location The district covers . It is located in the Hungarian plain at the south-western portion of the region on the border with Hungary. The district also borders with such districts of the region as Mukachevo, Uzhhorod and Khust. It also borders with Romania from south-east after annexing abolished Vynohradiv Raion due to administrative reform of Ukraine. Through the district flow three rivers Tisza, Borzhava, and Salva. Most of the te ...
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Hungarian Diaspora
Hungarian diaspora ( hu, magyar diaszpóra) is a term that encompasses the total ethnic Hungarian population located outside current-day Hungary. There are two main groups of the diaspora. The first group includes those who are autochthonous to their homeland and live outside Hungary since the border changes of the post- World War I Treaty of Trianon of 1920.During World War II, some areas were regained by Hungary, but lost with the 1947 Treaty of Paris The victorious forces redrew the borders of Hungary so that it runs through Hungarian majority areas. As a consequence, 3.3 million Hungarians found themselves outside the new borders. These Hungarians are usually not counted into the term "Hungarian diaspora" but are regardless listed in this article. The other main group is the emigrants who left Hungary at various times (such as the Hungarian Revolution of 1956). There has been some emigration since Hungary joined the EU, especially to countries such as Germany, but that has ...
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Vojvodina
Vojvodina ( sr-Cyrl, Војводина}), officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, is an autonomous province that occupies the northernmost part of Serbia. It lies within the Pannonian Basin, bordered to the south by the national capital Belgrade and the Sava and Danube Rivers. The administrative center, Novi Sad, is the second-largest city in Serbia. The historic regions of Banat, Bačka, and Syrmia overlap the province. Modern Vojvodina is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, with some 26 ethnic groups and six official languages. About two million people, nearly 27% of Serbia's population, live in the province. Naming ''Vojvodina'' is also the Serbian word for voivodeship, a type of duchy overseen by a voivode. The Serbian Voivodeship, a precursor to modern Vojvodina, was an Austrian province from 1849 to 1860. Its official name is the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Its name in the province's six official languages is: * Croatian: ''Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina'' ...
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Transylvania
Transylvania ( ro, Ardeal or ; hu, Erdély; german: Siebenbürgen) is a historical and cultural region in Central Europe, encompassing central Romania. To the east and south its natural border is the Carpathian Mountains, and to the west the Apuseni Mountains. Broader definitions of Transylvania also include the western and northwestern Romanian regions of Crișana and Maramureș, and occasionally Banat. Transylvania is known for the scenery of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history. It also contains Romania's second-largest city, Cluj-Napoca, and other iconic cities and towns such as Brașov, Sibiu, Târgu Mureș, Alba Iulia and Sighișoara. It is also the home of some of Romania's List of World Heritage Sites in Romania, UNESCO World Heritage Sites such as the villages with fortified churches in Transylvania, Villages with fortified churches, the Historic Centre of Sighișoara, the Dacian Fortresses of the Orăștie Mountains and the Rosia Montana Mining Cultural Landsc ...
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Official Language
An official language is a language given supreme status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically the term "official language" does not refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government (e.g. judiciary, legislature, and/or administration). 178 countries recognize an official language, 101 of them recognizing more than one. The government of Italy made Italian official only in 1999, and some nations (such as the United States, Mexico and Australia) have never declared de jure official languages at the national level. Other nations have declared non-indigenous official languages. Many of the world's constitutions mention one or more official or national languages. Some countries use the official language designation to empower indigenous groups by giving them access to the government in their native languages. In countries that do not formally designate an official language, a ''de facto'' national language usually evolves. English is th ...
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Uralic Language
The Uralic languages (; sometimes called Uralian languages ) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia. The Uralic languages with the most native speakers are Hungarian (which alone accounts for more than half of the family's speakers), Finnish, and Estonian. Other significant languages with fewer speakers are Erzya, Moksha, Mari, Udmurt, Sami, Komi, and Vepsian, all of which are spoken in northern regions of Scandinavia and the Russian Federation. The name "Uralic" derives from the family's original homeland (''Urheimat'') commonly hypothesized to have been somewhere in the vicinity of the Ural Mountains. Finno-Ugric is sometimes used as a synonym for Uralic, though Finno-Ugric is widely understood to exclude the Samoyedic languages. Scholars who do not accept the traditional notion that Samoyedic split first from the rest of the Uralic family may treat the terms as synonymous. History Homela ...
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Finno-Ugric
Finno-Ugric ( or ; ''Fenno-Ugric'') or Finno-Ugrian (''Fenno-Ugrian''), is a traditional grouping of all languages in the Uralic language family except the Samoyedic languages. Its formerly commonly accepted status as a subfamily of Uralic is based on criteria formulated in the 19th century and is criticized by some contemporary linguists such as Tapani Salminen and Ante Aikio as inaccurate and misleading. The three most-spoken Uralic languages, Hungarian, Finnish, and Estonian, are all included in Finno-Ugric, although linguistic roots common to both branches of the traditional Finno-Ugric language tree ( Finno-Permic and Ugric) are distant. The term ''Finno-Ugric'', which originally referred to the entire family, is sometimes used as a synonym for the term ''Uralic'', which includes the Samoyedic languages, as commonly happens when a language family is expanded with further discoveries. Status The validity of Finno-Ugric as a phylogenic grouping is under challenge, with ...
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Research Institute For Linguistics Of The Hungarian Academy Of Sciences
The Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics ( hu, Nyelvtudományi Kutatóközpont) was created in 1949. It was under the supervision of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences from 1951 until 2019, when it was moved by a governmental decree to the supervision of , a decision contested by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Its primary tasks include research in Hungarian linguistics, general, theoretical and applied linguistics, Uralic linguistics, and phonetics, as well as the preparation of a comprehensive dictionary of the Hungarian language, and the maintenance of its archive materials. Other research projects investigate various aspects and different variants of Hungarian. Further tasks include the assembly of linguistic corpora and databases, and laying the linguistic groundwork for computational software and applications. The Institute also operates a public advice service on language and linguistics, prepares expert reports on relevant affairs on demand, and runs the Theoretic ...
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Zakarpattia Oblast
The Zakarpattia Oblast ( uk, Закарпатська область, Zakarpatska oblast) is an administrative oblast located in western Ukraine, mostly coterminous with the historical region of Carpathian Ruthenia. Its administrative centre is the city of Uzhhorod, Other major cities within the oblast include Mukachevo, Khust, Berehove, and Chop, the last of which is home to railroad transport infrastructure. Zakarpattia Oblast was established on 22 January 1946, after Czechoslovakia gave up its claim to the territory of '' Subcarpathian Ruthenia'' ( cs, Podkarpatská Rus) under a treaty between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union. The territory of '' Subcarpathian Ruthenia'' was then taken over by the Soviet Union and became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Some scholars say that during the Ukrainian independence referendum held in 1991, Zakarpatska Oblast voters were given a separate option on whether or not they favoured autonomy for the region. Althou ...
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Transcarpathian Region
The Zakarpattia Oblast ( uk, Закарпатська область, Zakarpatska oblast) is an Administrative divisions of Ukraine, administrative oblast located in western Ukraine, mostly coterminous with the historical region of Carpathian Ruthenia. Its Capital (political), administrative centre is the city of Uzhhorod, Other major cities within the oblast include Mukachevo, Khust, Berehove, and Chop, Ukraine, Chop, the last of which is home to railroad transport infrastructure. Zakarpattia Oblast was established on 22 January 1946, after Czechoslovakia gave up its claim to the territory of ''Carpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Ruthenia'' ( cs, Podkarpatská Rus) under a treaty between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union. The territory of ''Carpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Ruthenia'' was then taken over by the Soviet Union and became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Some scholars say that during the 1991 Ukrainian independence referendum, Ukrainian independe ...
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