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PREKMURJE (Slovene pronunciation: ( listen ); dialectically : Prèkmürsko or Prèkmüre; Hungarian : Muravidék) is a geographically, linguistically, culturally and ethnically defined region settled by Slovenes
Slovenes
and a Hungarian minority , lying between the Mur River in Slovenia
Slovenia
and the Rába Valley (the watershed of the Rába ) (Slovene : Porabje) in the most western part of Hungary
Hungary
. It maintains certain specific linguistic, cultural and religious features that differentiate it from other Slovenian traditional regions.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name * 2 Geography * 3 Population

* 4 History

* 4.1 Overview * 4.2 Antiquity to Middle Ages * 4.3 Habsburg Royal Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
* 4.4 20th century

* 5 Administrative divisions * 6 Languages * 7 Cuisine * 8 Notable people * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

NAME

It is named after the Mur river , which separates it from the rest of Slovenia
Slovenia
(a literal translation from Slovene would be Over-Mur or Transmurania). In Hungarian , the region is known as Muravidék, and in German as Übermurgebiet.

The name Prekmurje
Prekmurje
was introduced in the twentieth century, although it is derived from an older term. Before 1919, the Slovenian-inhabited lands of Vas County in the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
and Austria- Hungary
Hungary
were known as the Slovene March or "Vendic March" (in Slovenian: Slovenska krajina, in Hungarian: Vendvidék). The part of modern Prekmurje
Prekmurje
that belonged to Zala County (the area between Lendava
Lendava
, Kobilje and Beltinci ) was not considered to be a part of the Slovenian March. Until the early 19th century, this region of the Zala County belonged ecclesiastically to the Archdiocese of Zagreb and in the legal documents of the Archdiocese it was called as "Transmurania" or "Prekmurje", that is the "territory on the other side of the Mur river". After 1919, this name was reintroduced, now for administrative purposes, by the new Yugoslav administration. It, however, did not gain much popularity among the locals. The name "Slovenian March" was still used by the local inhabitants until the mid 1920s, but was gradually replaced by the term "March of the Mur" (Slovenian: Murska krajina). The current Hungarian name for Prekmurje, Muravidék, dates from the interwar period and is a translation of the Slovenian Murska krajina. From the mid 1930s onward, the name Prekmurje
Prekmurje
became widely used in the press and eventually became the most common name for the region. After World War II
World War II
, this name replaced all previous designations.

Nowadays, the older term Vendvidék still exists in Hungarian, but it is used only for the small settlement area of Hungarian Slovenes between Szentgotthárd and the Slovenian border that remained part of Hungary
Hungary
after 1919.

GEOGRAPHY

The Lendava
Lendava
Hills (Lendavske gorice) in winter

The region is divided into three geographical subregions: the hilly area to the north of Murska Sobota , known as Goričko ; the eastern flatlands along the Mur River , known as Ravensko (literally, "The Flatlands"), and the western lowlands around Lendava
Lendava
, known as Dolinsko (literally, "The Lowlands"). Northeast of Lendava, there is a small hilly sub-region, known as the Lendava
Lendava
Hills (Lendavske gorice).

The administrative and commercial centre of the region is the town of Murska Sobota . The only other major town is Lendava. Other significant rural centres are Dobrovnik , Turnišče , Beltinci, and Črenšovci .

POPULATION

A traditional house in Prekmurje.

The majority of the inhabitants of the region are ethnic Slovenes
Slovenes
. There are also sizable Hungarian and Romani minorities in the region.

In 1921, the total population of the area numbered 92,295 people, including 74,199 Slovene speakers, 14,065 speakers of Hungarian , and 2,540 German speakers. Since then, the number of Hungarian speakers has been falling slowly but steadily. The German-speaking community, which used to be concentrated in three villages near the Austrian border and in Murska Sobota, was either expelled from the area or assimilated after World War II
World War II
.

Since the early 1950s, Hungarian has had co-official status in the areas of traditional settlement of the Hungarian minority. Three municipalities are completely bilingual – Lendava
Lendava
(Hungarian : Lendva), Hodos (Slovene : Hodoš) and Dobronak (Slovene : Dobrovnik) – while two - ( Šalovci and Moravske Toplice ) are only partially bilingual. Two municipalities, Hodos and Dobronak, have a Hungarian majority.

Prekmurje
Prekmurje
has traditionally been the most heterogeneous Slovene region regarding religious affiliation. Besides a Roman Catholic majority, there is a significant Protestant
Protestant
(mostly Lutheran
Lutheran
) minority, concentrated in the Goričko hills, which represents between one fourth and one fifth of the population of Prekmurje. Three municipalities have a Lutheran
Lutheran
majority ( Puconci , Gornji Petrovci and Hodos ), while in Moravske Toplice , Lutherans form just under a half of the population.

Before World War II
World War II
, there used to be a significant Jewish community, as well, mostly concentrated in the towns of Murska Sobota and Lendava
Lendava
(see also: Lendava
Lendava
Synagogue ). In the 1930s, two-thirds of all Slovenian Jews lived in Prekmurje. Most of them perished in the holocaust . There is also a significant Romani presence in the region, with Prekmurje
Prekmurje
being one of the two major settlement areas of Slovenian Romani (the other being Lower Carniola ).

HISTORY

See also: Slovene March (Kingdom of Hungary) and Republic of Prekmurje
Prekmurje
Principality of Lower Pannonia
Principality of Lower Pannonia
under prince Koceľ (9th century) Kingdom of Carantania
Carantania

OVERVIEW

The region has had a turbulent history: it has been inhabited since the Stone Age
Stone Age
, it was later included into the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and subsequently into the Odoacer
Odoacer
's Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
, the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
, the Kingdom of the Lombards
Lombards
, the Kingdom of the Avars , the Slavic state of Samo
Samo
, the Frankish Empire
Frankish Empire
, the Principality of Lower Pannonia
Pannonia
(9th century), and Arnulf 's Kingdom of Carantania (9th-10th century). In the late 10th century it was invaded by the Hungarians and was under administration of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
until the 16th century, when former territories of this kingdom were divided between the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
and the Ottoman Empire . Since then, Prekmurje
Prekmurje
was mostly under administration of the Habsburg Monarchy, with brief periods of Ottoman administration. Following the dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
in 1918, the region was firstly included into the Hungarian Democratic Republic and subsequently into the Hungarian Soviet Republic
Hungarian Soviet Republic
. In 1919, it proclaimed independence as the short-lived Republic of Prekmurje and was subsequently included into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
Slovenes
(later known as Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
). From 1941 to 1945, Prekmurje was temporarily occupied by the Axis Powers and in 1945 it was included into the new socialist Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
. Since 1991, it is part of an independent Slovenia
Slovenia
.

ANTIQUITY TO MIDDLE AGES

During the Roman administration, the region was part of the province of Pannonia
Pannonia
. Although, earlier Slavic settlements had existed in the area, the ancestors of modern Slovenes
Slovenes
moved from eastern Alps
Alps
and settled in Prekmurje
Prekmurje
after the Franks
Franks
defeated the Avars during the reign of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
. In the 9th century, this area was part of the Slavic state known as the Principality of Lower Pannonia
Principality of Lower Pannonia
. The center of this state was in the city of Blatnograd near Lake Balaton
Lake Balaton
. The principality was later dissolved and integrated in the Kingdom of Carantania
Carantania
established by the German Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia . This political entity in which all the ancestors of modern Slovenes were united under one ruler was soon destroyed by the Hungarian invaders who conquered the Pannonian plain and who incorporated Prekmurje
Prekmurje
into the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
. The area inhabited by Slovenes shrank to the present extent by the end of the 12th century and has remained stable since. In the 11th century, during Hungarian administration, the region was part of the Kolon county. Between the 11th century and 1526, it was divided between Vas County and Zala County . In the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th century, during the collapse of the central power in the Kingdom of Hungary, the region was part of the domain of semi-independent oligarch Henrik Kőszegi .

HABSBURG ROYAL KINGDOM OF HUNGARY

Map of the short-lived Republic of Prekmurje (1919)

In 1526, the region of Prekmurje
Prekmurje
came under Habsburg administration, although some villages were under Ottoman administration during short periods between 1566-1688. During Habsburg administration in the 16th-17th century, the region was part of the Captaincy between Balaton and Drava within the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. For a short time, Beltinci , under the name Balatin, became the sanjak center of the Ottoman Kanije Province . In 1687, the Vas and Zala counties were restored: with the small interruption from 1849 to 1867, most of Prekmurje
Prekmurje
belonged to Vas county except for Lendava
Lendava
district, which was part of Zala county until 1918.

20TH CENTURY

After the end of World War I
World War I
and dissolution of Habsburg Monarchy, there was briefly an independent Hungarian state and a short-lived Republic of Prekmurje that emerged in the midst of the chaos of the Hungarian Revolution of 1919 . The region was captured by Yugoslav troops and incorporated into the newly-established Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
Slovenes
(renamed Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in 1929). In 1918 the Catholic politicians and József Klekl aimed to create an autonomous entity or independent state, with the name Slovenska krajina . Between 1919 and 1922, the region belonged to Maribor
Maribor
county, between 1922 and 1929 to Maribor
Maribor
oblast, and between 1929 and 1941 to the Drava Banovina with Ljubljana
Ljubljana
as its capital. During World War II, it was occupied and annexed by the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
from 1941 to 1944 and by Nazi Germany between 1944 and 1945. Soviet troops took control of the area in May 1945. After the war it became part of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia
Slovenia
, which was one of the newly formed republics of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
. Administrative Map of Hungary
Hungary
between 1941-1944

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Prekmurje
Prekmurje
is part of the Mura Statistical Region
Mura Statistical Region
, also known as Pomurje or the Mura Region, which includes two historical regions: Prekmurje
Prekmurje
and the Prlekija sub-region.

Prekmurje
Prekmurje
is divided into 19 municipalities:

* Beltinci * Cankova * Črenšovci * Dobrovnik * Gornji Petrovci * Grad * Hodoš * Kobilje * Kuzma * Lendava
Lendava
* Moravske Toplice * Murska Sobota * Odranci * Puconci * Rogašovci * Šalovci * Tišina * Turnišče * Velika Polana

LANGUAGES

Main article: Prekmurje Slovene Miklós Küzmics 's catechism in the Prekmurje dialect from 1804

The majority of the population of Prekmurje
Prekmurje
uses Slovene, either in its standard form or in the Prekmurje dialect . Some of the local population speaks Hungarian or Romani . Before World War II
World War II
, German was also present in the region, especially in some areas along the border with Austria. According to the Yugoslav census of 1931, just over 2% of the population of the region spoke German as their native language, and around 12% used Hungarian. After 1945, most of the German speakers either fled or were expelled, and the use of Hungarian has been in slow but constant decline since 1918.

Prekmurje Slovene served as the regional language of the Prekmurje region and of the Slovenes
Slovenes
in Hungary
Hungary
for a long time. It had a codified standard form and even a small literary corpus of around 200 to 300 works. However, after the 1930s, and especially after the end of World War II
World War II
, the use of the written Prekmurje dialect steeply declined, but it has never been entirely abandoned. It has continued to be used by a broad range of people and, like other Slovene dialects, has retained its own special features that distinguish it from standard Slovene. Most Slovene speakers in the region, like elsewhere in Slovenia, thus live in a situation of diglossia . Although minority languages and the local dialect are still widely used in most spheres of private life, especially in rural areas, standard Slovene is used in education, media, and public life.

Hungarian is used in some border areas, especially around Lendava
Lendava
. In the officially bilingual areas, Hungarian is recognized by the Slovenian government and is used as the second official language alongside Slovene. In these areas, all public signs are written in both languages, and primary and secondary education is bilingual .

Some of the Roma population in the region have retained Romani . Slovenia
Slovenia
recognizes Romani as a minority language , but this official recognition has very few consequences in practice. The legal protection of Romani is much weaker than that for Hungarian.

CUISINE

The Prekmurska gibanica is a typical pastry of the Prekmurje region.

The region is known for its distinctive cuisine. Among traditional dishes, the best known are a pork, turnip and millet casserole called bujta repa and a layered pastry called prekmurska gibanica .

NOTABLE PEOPLE

* Mihael Bakoš , Lutheran
Lutheran
preacher and author; * Evald Flisar , writer; * László Göncz , historian and politician; * Feri Horvat , politician, Chairman of the Slovenian National Assembly (2004); * Miško Kranjec , writer; * Vlado Kreslin , singer; * Milan Kučan , politician, President of Slovenia
Slovenia
(1990–2002); * Števan Küzmič , Lutheran
Lutheran
preacher and author; * Mikloš Küzmič , writer and translator; * Feri Lainšček , writer; * Oto Luthar , historian; * Miki Muster
Miki Muster
, cartoonist; * Mitja Mörec , football player; * Avgust Pavel , ethnologist and translator; * Mária Pozsonec , politician; * Dušan Šarotar , writer; * Radovan Žerjav , politician, chairman of the Slovenian People\'s Party and Minister of Economy of Slovenia.

SEE ALSO

* Prekmurje Slovene * Prekmurje
Prekmurje
Slovenes
Slovenes
* Slovene March (Kingdom of Hungary) * Republic of Prekmurje * Wendish question * Međimurje

REFERENCES

* ^ "Slovenski pravopis 2001: Prekmurje". * ^ Források a Muravidék történetéhez/Viri za zgodovino Prekmurja, 292. p. * ^ Zupančič, Jernej (March 2009). "Ob etničnem in državnem robu na slovenskem vzhodu" (PDF). 20. zborovanje slovenskih geografov: Pomurje: trajnostni regionalni razvoj ob reki Muri (in Slovenian and English). Association of Slovenian Geographers. p. 17. ISBN 978-961-91456-1-6 . Retrieved 11 February 2011. * ^ "Slovenians in Hungary". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of Slovenia. Retrieved 11 February 2011. * ^ Lukácsné Bajzek Mária–Mladen Pavčić: A szlovén nyelv * ^ Franc Kuzmič: Bibliografija prekmurskih tiskov 1920-1998, Založba ZRC. 1999. ISBN 978-961-6182-78-2 . p. * ^ Vilko Novak: Izbor prekmurskega slovstva, Ljubljana
Ljubljana
1976. 98. p. * ^ Szijártó Imre: Murán innen, Murántúl (jelenkor.hu)

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Photos of the water mill on Mur river * Photos from