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Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of 2017. is the third-most populous with a population of 3,115,320 residents, and stretches beyond the boundaries of the city wall for approximately 20 miles. Founded by Greeks in the BC, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban areas in the world. In the ninth century BC, a colony known as Parthenope ( grc, Παρθενόπη) was established on the . In the 6th century BC, it was refounded as Neápolis. The city was an important part of , played a major role in the merging of Greek and Roman society, and was a significant cultural centre under the Romans. It served as the capital of the (661–1139), then of the (1282–1816), and finally of the until the in 1861. Naples is also considered a capital of the Baroque, beginning with the artist 's career in the 17th century, and the artistic revolution he inspired. It was also an important centre of and . The city has long been a global point of reference for classical music and opera through the . Between 1925 and 1936, Naples was expanded and upgraded by 's government. During the later years of , it sustained as they invaded the peninsula. The city received extensive post-1945 reconstruction work. Since the late 20th century, Naples has had significant economic growth, helped by the construction of the business district and an advanced transportation network, which includes the high-speed rail link to Rome and and an expanded . Naples is the third-largest urban economy in Italy, after and . The is one of the most important in Europe. In addition to commercial activities, it is home to the , the NATO body that oversees , the and . Naples' historic city centre is the largest of its kind in Europe and has been designated as a UNESCO . A wide range of culturally and historically significant sites are nearby, including the and the Roman ruins of and . Naples is also known for its natural beauties, such as , , , and . is noted for its association with , which originated in the city, as well as numerous other local dishes. Restaurants in the Naples' area have earned the most stars from the of any Italian province. Naples' skyline in was the first skyline of Italy, built in 1994, and for 15 years it was the only one until 2009. The best-known sports team in Naples is the football club , two-time Italian champions who play at the in the southwest of the city, in the quarter.


History


Greek birth and Roman acquisition

Naples has been inhabited since the period. The earliest settlements were established in the Naples area in the . Sailors from the Greek island of established a small commercial port called (, meaning "Pure Eyes", a Siren in ) on the in the ninth century BC. By the eighth century BC, the settlement had expanded to include Monte Echia. In the sixth century BC the city was refounded as Neápolis (), eventually becoming one of the foremost cities of Magna Graecia. The city grew rapidly due to the influence of the powerful Greek of , and became an ally of the against . During the , the city, now a bustling centre of trade, was by the ; however, the Romans soon captured the city from them and made it a . During the , the strong walls surrounding Neápolis repelled the invading forces of the Carthaginian general . Naples was greatly respected by the Romans as a paragon of . During the Roman era, the people of Naples maintained their and customs, while the city was expanded with elegant Roman s, , and . Landmarks such as the were built, and many emperors chose to holiday in the city, including and . , the author of Rome's , the ', received part of his education in the city, and later resided in its environs. It was during this period that Christianity first arrived in Naples; the and are said to have preached in the city. , who would become Naples' , was martyred there in the 4th century AD. The last emperor of the , , was d to Naples by the Germanic king in the 5th century AD.


Duchy of Naples

Following the decline of the , Naples was captured by the , a , and incorporated into the . However, of the recaptured Naples in 536, after entering the city via an aqueduct. In 543, during the , briefly took the city for the Ostrogoths, but the Byzantines seized control of the area following the on the slopes of . Naples was expected to keep in contact with the , which was the centre of Byzantine power on the . After the ate fell, a was created. Although Naples' culture endured, it eventually switched allegiance from to Rome under Duke , putting it under by 763. The years between 818 and 832 were tumultuous in regard to Naples' relations with the , with numerous local pretenders feuding for possession of the ducal throne. was appointed without imperial approval; his appointment was later revoked and took his place. However, the disgruntled general populace chased him from the city, and instead elected , a man who minted coins with his own initials, rather than those of the Byzantine Emperor. Naples gained complete independence by the early ninth century. Naples allied with the Muslim in 836, and asked for their support to repel the siege of troops coming from the neighbouring . However, during the 850s, led the Arab- conquest of the city, and managed to sack it and take huge amount of its wealth. The duchy was under the direct control of the for a brief period, after the capture by of the , a long-term rival of Naples; however, this regime lasted only three years before the Greco-Roman-influenced dukes were reinstated. By the 11th century, Naples had begun to employ mercenaries to battle their rivals; Duke hired to wage war on Capua for him. By 1137, the Normans had attained great influence in Italy, controlling previously independent principalities and duchies such as , , , , and ; it was in this year that Naples, the last independent duchy in the southern part of the peninsula, came under Norman control. The last ruling duke of the duchy, , was forced to surrender to , who was proclaimed by seven years earlier. Naples thus joined the , with as the capital.


As part of the Kingdom of Sicily

After a period of Norman rule, in 1189 the was in a succession dispute between of an illegitimate birth and the , a Germanic , as its Prince Henry had married the last legitimate heir to the Sicilian throne. In 1191 Henry invaded Sicily after being crowned as and many cities surrendered, but Naples resisted him from May to August under the leadership of , , and before the Germans suffered from disease and were forced to retreat. and died of disease during . In light of this Tancred achieved another unexpected achievement during his counterattack that his contender Constance, now empress, was captured. He had the empress imprisoned at at Naples before her release on May 1192 under the pressure of . In 1194 Henry started his second campaign upon the death of Tancred, but this time Aligerno surrendered without resistance, and finally Henry conquered Sicily, putting it under the rule of Hohenstaufens. The , the first university in Europe dedicated to training secular administrators, was founded by , making Naples the intellectual centre of the kingdom. Conflict between the Hohenstaufens and the led in 1266 to crowning the duke King of Sicily: Charles officially moved the capital from Palermo to Naples, where he resided at the . Having a great interest in architecture, Charles I imported French architects and workmen and was personally involved in several building projects in the city. Many examples of sprang up around Naples, including the , which remains the city's main church.


Kingdom of Naples

In 1282, after the , the Kingdom of Sicily was divided into two. The Angevin included the southern part of the Italian peninsula, while the island of became the . Wars between the competing dynasties continued until the in 1302, which saw recognised as king of Sicily, while was recognised as king of Naples by . Despite the split, Naples grew in importance, attracting and merchants, bankers, and some of the most prominent artists of the time, such as , and . During the 14th century, the Angevin king captured the city several times. In 1442, conquered Naples after his victory against the last king, , and Naples was unified with Sicily again for a brief period.


Aragonese and Spanish

Sicily and Naples were separated since 1282, but remained dependencies of under . The new dynasty enhanced Naples' commercial standing by establishing relations with the . Naples also became a centre of the Renaissance, with artists such as , , and arriving in the city. In 1501, Naples came under direct rule from under , with the Neapolitan king being taken as a prisoner to France; however, this state of affairs did not last long, as Spain won Naples from the French at the in 1503. Following the Spanish victory, Naples became part of the , and remained so throughout the period. The Spanish sent s to directly deal with local issues: the most important of these viceroys was , who was responsible for considerable social, economic and urban reforms in the city; he also supported the activities of the . In 1544, around 7,000 people were taken as by and brought to the of North Africa (see ). By the 17th century, Naples had become Europe's second-largest city – second only to Paris – and the largest European Mediterranean city, with around 250,000 inhabitants. The city was a major cultural centre during the era, being home to artists such as , and , philosophers such as , , and , and writers such as . A revolution led by the local fisherman saw the creation of a brief independent in 1647, though this lasted only a few months before Spanish rule was reasserted. In 1656, an outbreak of killed about half of Naples' 300,000 inhabitants. In 1714, Spanish rule over Naples came to an end as a result of the ; the n ruled the city from through viceroys of his own. However, the saw the Spanish regain Sicily and Naples as part of a , with the 1738 recognising the two polities as independent under a cadet branch of the Spanish . During the time of , the effects of the were felt in Naples: , an ally of the Bourbons, even arrived in the city in 1798 to warn against the French republicans. Ferdinand was forced to retreat and fled to , where he was protected by a . However, Naples' ' were strongly and , favouring the Bourbons; in the mêlée that followed, they fought the Neapolitan pro- aristocracy, causing a civil war. Eventually, the Republicans conquered and proclaimed a , secured by the . A religious army of ''lazzaroni'' known as the ' under Cardinal was raised; they met with great success, and the French were forced to surrender the Neapolitan castles, with their fleet sailing back to . Ferdinand IV was restored as king; however, after only seven years conquered the kingdom and installed kings, including his brother (the Spanish king). With the help of the and its allies, the Bonapartists were defeated in the , and Ferdinand IV once again regained the throne and the kingdom.


Independent Two Sicilies

The in 1815 saw the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily combine to form the , with Naples as the capital city. In 1839, Naples became the first city on the Italian peninsula to have a railway, with the construction of the .


Italian unification to the present day

After the led by , which culminated in the controversial , Naples became part of the in 1861 as part of the , ending the era of Bourbon rule. The economy of the area formerly known as the Two Sicilies declined, leading to an unprecedented , with an estimated 4 million people emigrating from the Naples area between 1876 and 1913. In the forty years following unification, the population of Naples grew by only 26%, vs. 63% for Turin and 103% for Milan; however, by 1884, Naples was still the largest city in Italy with 496,499 inhabitants, or roughly 64,000 per square kilometre (more than twice the population density of Paris). Public health conditions in certain areas of the city were poor, with twelve epidemics of and causing the death of some 48,000 people in the half century 1834–1884, and a high (for the time) of 31.84 per thousand even in the epidemic-free period 1878–1883. Then in 1884, Naples fell victim to a major epidemic, caused largely by the city's poor infrastructure. As response to these problems the government prompted since 1852 a radically transformation of the city called ''risanamento'' with the objective of improving the sewerage infrastructure and replacing the most clustered areas with large and airy avenues as this was considered the main cause of insalubrity. The project proved difficult to accomplish both politically and economically due to corruption as shown in the , land speculation and extremely long bureaucracy, all these led to the project to take several decades to complete with contrasted results. The most notable transformations made were the construction of Via Caracciolo in place of the beach along the promenade, the creation of and and the construction of Corso Umberto. Naples was the Italian city during . Though Neapolitans did not rebel under , Naples was the first Italian city to ; the city was completely freed by 1 October 1943, when British and American forces entered the city. Departing Germans the library of , as well as the Italian Royal Society. They also destroyed the city archives. Time bombs planted throughout the city continued to explode into November. The symbol of the rebirth of Naples was the rebuilding of the church of , which had been destroyed in a bombing raid. Special funding from the Italian government's was provided from 1950 to 1984, helping the Neapolitan economy to improve somewhat, with city landmarks such as the being renovated. However, high unemployment continues to affect Naples. Italian media attributed the past city's to the activity of the network. Due to this event, environmental contamination and increased health risks are also prevalent. In 2007, 's government held senior meetings in Naples to demonstrate their intention to solve these problems. However, the had a severe impact on the city, intensifying its waste-management and unemployment problems. By August 2011, the number of unemployed in the Naples area had risen to 250,000, sparking public protests against the economic situation. In June 2012, allegations of blackmail, extortion and illicit contract tendering emerged in relation to the city's waste management issues."Cricca veneta sui rifiuti di Napoli: arrestati i fratelli Gavioli" (in Italian)
. ''Il Mattino''. 20 June 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2012.

. ''Il Mattino di Padova''. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
Naples hosted the 6th in September 2012 and the 63rd in October 2012. In 2013, it was the host of the and the host for the .


Architecture


UNESCO World Heritage Site

Naples' 2,800-year history has left it with a wealth of historical buildings and monuments, from medieval castles to classical ruins, and a wide range of culturally and historically significant sites nearby, including the and the Roman ruins of and . The most prominent forms of architecture visible in present-day Naples are the , and styles. Naples has a total of 448 historical churches (1000 in total), making it one of the most Catholic cities in the world in terms of the number of places of worship. In 1995, the historic centre of Naples was listed by as a , a United Nations programme which aims to catalogue and conserve sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the .


Piazzas, palaces and castles

The main city square or ' of the city is the . Its construction was begun by the Bonapartist king and finished by the Bourbon king . The piazza is bounded on the east by the and on the west by the church of , with the colonnades extending on both sides. Nearby is the , which is the oldest in Italy. Directly across from San Carlo is , a shopping centre and social hub. Naples is well known for its historic castles: The most ancient is ("Egg Castle"), which was built on the tiny of Megarides, where the original an colonists had founded the city. In Roman times the islet became part of 's villa and later it was the site to which the last western Roman emperor, , was exiled. It had also been the prison for between 1191 and 1192 after her being captured by Sicilians, and and before their executions. , also known as ''Maschio '', is one of the city's foremost landmarks; it was built during the time of , the first . Castel Nuovo has seen many notable historical events: for example, in 1294, resigned as pope in a hall of the castle, and following this was elected pope by the cardinal , before moving to Rome. was built in the 12th century by , the son of , the first monarch of the . It was expanded by and became one of his royal palaces. Along its history the castle was the residence of many kings and queens. In the 16th century it became the Hall of justice. Another Neapolitan castle is , which was completed in 1329 and is built in the shape of a . Its strategic position that overlook the entire city made it the aim of various invaders. During the uprising of in 1647, the Spanish took refuge in Sant'Elmo to escape the revolutionaries. The , built in 1392 and highly modified in the 16th century by the Spanish, was demolished in 1906 to make room for the Via Marina, although two of the castle's towers remain as a monument. The Vigliena Fort, which was built in 1702, was destroyed in 1799 during the royalist war against the Parthenopean Republic, and is now abandoned and in ruin.


Museums

Naples is widely known for its wealth of historical museums. The is one of the city's main museums, with one of the most extensive collections of of the in the world. It also houses many of the antiques unearthed at and , as well as some artefacts from the and periods. Previously a Bourbon palace, now a museum and art gallery, the is another museum of note. The from the 13th to the 18th centuries, including major works by , , , , , and . The royal apartments are furnished with antique 18th-century furniture and a collection of and from the various royal residences: the famous once stood just adjacent to the palace. In front of the stands the , which contains the . Occupying a 19th-century palazzo renovated by the Portuguese architect , the Museo d'Arte Contemporanea Donnaregina (MADRE) features an procession of permanent installations by artists such as , , and . The 16th-century palace of Roccella hosts the Palazzo delle Arti Napoli, which contains the civic collections of art belonging to the City of Naples, and features temporary exhibits of art and culture. Palazzo Como, which dates from the 15th century, hosts the Museo Filangieri of , created in 1883 by Gaetano Filangieri.


Churches and other religious structures

Naples is the seat of the , and is highly important to the populace ; there are hundreds of churches in the city. The is the city's premier place of worship; each year on 19 September, it hosts the longstanding Miracle of , the city's . During the miracle, which thousands of Neapolitans flock to witness, the dried blood of Januarius is said to turn to liquid when brought close to holy s said to be of his body. Below is a selective list of Naples' major churches, chapels, and monastery complexes: * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Other features

Aside from the Piazza del Plebiscito, Naples has two other major public squares: the and the . The latter originally had only a memorial to religious s, but in 1866, after the , four lions were added, representing the four rebellions against the Bourbons. The is a Renaissance-era hospital for the poor, erected by the Spanish in 1667. It was the forerunner of a much more ambitious project, the started by . This was for the destitute and ill of the city; it also provided a self-sufficient community where the poor would live and work. Though a notable landmark, it is no longer a functioning hospital.


Subterranean Naples

lies a series of caves and structures created by centuries of mining, and the city rests atop a major zone. There are also a number of ancient reservoirs dug out from the soft on which, and from which, much of the city is built. Approximately of the many kilometres of tunnels under the city can be visited from the , situated in the historic centre of the city in . This system of tunnels and cisterns underlies most of the city and lies approximately below ground level. During , these tunnels were used as s, and there are inscriptions in the walls depicting the suffering endured by the refugees of that era. There are large in and around the city, and other landmarks such as the , the main cistern serving the during Roman times. Several archeological excavations are also present; they revealed in the , and in , the biggest thermal complex of the city in Roman times.


Parks, gardens, villas, fountains and stairways

Of the various in Naples, the most prominent are the , which was built by the Bourbon king in the 1780s; the park was originally a "Royal Garden", reserved for members of the royal family, but open to the public on special holidays. The Bosco di Capodimonte, the city's largest verdant space served as a royal hunting preserve, within the Park there are a further 16 historic buildings including residences, lodges, churches as well as fountains, statues, orchards and woods. Another important park is the , which looks towards the tiny volcanic islet of ; beyond Nisida lie and . was named after , the classical Roman poet and Latin writer who is thought to be nearby. Naples is noted for its numerous stately s, fountains and stairways, such as the , the and the .


Neo-Gothic, ''Liberty Napoletano'' and modern architecture

Various buildings inspired by the are extant in Naples, due to the influence that this movement had on the Scottish-Indian architect , one of the most active Neapolitan architects of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Young left a significant footprint in the cityscape and designed many urban projects, such as the city's first subway. In the first years of the 20th century, a local version of the phenomenon, known as "Liberty Napoletano", developed in the city, creating many buildings which still stand today. In 1935, the Rationalist architect Luigi Cosenza created a new fish market for the city. During the era, the first structures of the city's "service center" were built, all in a Rationalist-Functionalist style, including the Palazzo delle Poste and the Pretura buildings. The is the only adjacent cluster of skyscrapers in southern Europe.


Geography

The city is situated on the , on the western coast of ; it rises from sea level to an elevation of . The small rivers which formerly crossed the centre of the city have since been covered over by construction. It lies between two notable regions, and the ( en, Phlegraean Fields). The islands of , and can all be reached from Naples by s and ferries. and the are situated south of the city, while the Roman ruins of , , and , which were destroyed in the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD, are also visible nearby. The port towns of and , which were part of the Roman naval facility of , lie to the west of the city.


Quarters

The thirty quarters (') of Naples are listed below. For administrative purposes, these thirty neighborhoods are grouped together into ten governmental community boards.


Climate

Naples has a borderline (''Csa'') and a (''Cfa'') in the , since only two summer months have less than of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as solely humid subtropical or Mediterranean. The climate and fertility of the made the region famous during Roman times, when emperors such as and holidayed near the city. The climate is a crossover between maritime and continental features, as typical of peninsular Italy. Maritime features moderate the winters but cause occasionally heavy rainfall, particularly in the Autumn and Winter months while summers are quite similar to inland areas much further north in the country with high temperatures and humidity. The continental influence still ensures summer highs averaging near , and Naples falls within the range with summer daily means above with hot days, warm nights and occasional summer thunderstorms. Winters are mild with snow very rarely falling in the city itself but often settling on the peak of Vesuvius. November is the wettest month in Naples while July is the driest.


Demographics

, the population of the ''comune di Napoli'' totals around 960,000. Naples' wider , sometimes known as Greater Naples, has a population of approximately 4.4 million. The for the Neapolitan province in general is relatively young: 19% are under the age of 14, while 13% are over 65, compared to the national average of 14% and 19%, respectively. Naples has a higher percentage of females (52.5%) than males (47.5%).‘City’ population (i.e. that of the ' or municipality)
City of Naples
. Comuni-italiani.it. 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
Naples currently has a higher than other parts of Italy, with 10.46 births per 1,000 inhabitants, compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births. The city's population rose from 621,000 in 1901 to 1,226,000 in 1971, before declining to 957,811 in 2011 as city-dwellers moved to the suburbs. According to different sources, Naples' is either the -most-populated metropolitan area in Italy after (with 4,434,136 inhabitants according to Svimez Data) or the third (with 3.1 million inhabitants according to the ). In addition, Naples is Italy's most densely populated major city, with approximately 8,182 people per square kilometre; however, it has seen a notable decline in population density since 2003, when the figure was over 9,000 people per square kilometre. In contrast to many northern Italian cities, there are relatively few foreign immigrants in Naples; 94.3% of the city's inhabitants are . In 2017, there were a total of 58,203 foreigners in the city of Naples; the majority of these are mostly from , , , and . Statistics show that, in the past, the vast majority of immigrants in Naples were female; this happened because male immigrants in Italy tended to head to the wealthier north.


Education

Naples is noted for its numerous higher education institutes and research centres. Naples hosts what is thought to be the oldest state university in the world, in the form of the , which was founded by in 1224. The university is among the most prominent in Italy, with around 100,000 students and over 3,000 professors in 2007. It is host to the , which was opened in 1807 by , using plans drawn up under the Bourbon king . The garden's 15 hectares feature around 25,000 samples of vegetation, representing over 10,000 plant species. Naples is also served by the "" (today named ), a modern university which opened in 1989, and which has strong links to the nearby . Another notable centre of education is the , which specialises in , and was founded by the missionary Matteo Ripa in 1732, after he returned from the court of , the of the of . Other prominent universities in Naples include the , the private , and the . The is the city's foremost institution of musical education; the earliest Neapolitan music conservatories were founded in the 16th century under the Spanish. The located on the Via Santa Maria di Costantinopoli is the city's foremost art school and one of the oldest in Italy. Naples hosts also the , established in 1812 by the king and the astronomer Federigo Zuccari, the oldest study station in the world, Anton Dohrn, created in 1872 by German scientist , and the world's oldest permanent volcano observatory, the , founded in 1841. The Observatory lies on the slopes of Mount Vesuvius, near the city of , and is now a permanent specialised institute of the .


Politics


Governance

Each of the 7,904 ' in Italy is today represented locally by a headed by an elected mayor, known as a ''sindaco'' and informally called the first citizen (''primo cittadino''). This system, or one very similar to it, has been in place since the invasion of Italy by forces in 1808. When the was restored, the system was kept in place with members of the nobility filling mayoral roles. By the end of the 19th century, had begun to emerge; during the , each commune was represented by a ''podestà''. Since , the political landscape of Naples has been neither strongly nor – both and have governed the city at different times, with roughly equal frequency. Currently, the mayor of Naples is , an , former in the , and former rector of the .


Administrative subdivisions


Economy

Naples is Italy's fourth-largest economy after , Rome and , and is the world's by , with an estimated 2011 GDP of US$83.6 billion, equivalent to $28,749 per capita."Which are the largest city economies in the world and how might this change by 2025?"
. November 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
Naples is a major , and the is one of the Mediterranean's largest and busiest. The city has experienced significant economic growth since World War II, but joblessness remains a major problem, and the city is characterised by high levels of political corruption and . Naples is a major national and international tourist destination, being one of Italy and Europe's top tourist cities. Tourists began visiting Naples in the 18th century, during the . In terms of international arrivals, Naples was the 166th-most-visited city in the world in 2008, with 381,000 visitors (a 1.6% decrease from the previous year), coming after , but overtaking , , and . In recent times, there has been a move away from a traditional agriculture-based economy in the province of Naples to one based on . In early 2002, there were over 249,590 enterprises operating in the province registered in the Chamber of Commerce Public Register. The service sector employs the majority of Neapolitans, although more than half of these are small enterprises with fewer than 20 workers; 70 companies are said to be medium-sized with more than 200 workers; and 15 have more than 500 workers. In 2003, employment in the province of Naples was distributed as follows:


Tourism

Naples is, with , , and , one of the main Italian tourist destinations. With 3,700,000 visitors in 2018, the city has completely emerged from the strong tourist depression of past decades (due primarily to the unilateral destination of an industrial city but also to the damage to image caused by the Italian media, from the and the , in favor of the coastal centers of its ). To adequately assess the phenomenon, however, it must be considered that a large slice of tourists visit Naples per year, staying in the numerous localities in its surroundings, connected to the city with both private and public direct lines. Daily visits to Naples are carried out by various Roman tour operators and by all the main tourist resorts of : Naples is the eleventh most visited and the first in the . The sector is constantly growing and the prospect of reaching the art cities of its level is once again expected in a relatively short time; tourism is increasingly assuming a decisive weight for the city's economy, which is why, exactly as happened for example in the case of Venice or Florence, the risk of gentrification of the is now high.


Transport

Naples is served by several major motorways (: '). The , the longest , links Naples to . The runs southwards from Naples to , where the begins, while the A16 runs east to . The A16 is nicknamed the ''autostrada dei Due Mari'' ("Motorway of the Two Seas") because it connects the to the . services are provided by , , and . The city's main railway station is , which is located in Piazza Garibaldi; other significant stations include the and . serves high-speed trains that do not start or finish at Napoli Centrale. Naples' streets are famously narrow (it was the first city in the world to set up a pedestrian one-way street), so the general public commonly use compact cars and for personal transit. Since 2007 trains running at have connected Naples with Rome with a journey time of under an hour, and direct high speed services also operate to Florence, Bologna, Milan, Turin and Salerno. Direct sleeper 'boat train' services operate nightly to cities in Sicily. The port of Naples runs several public ferry, and services, linking numerous locations in both the , including , and , and the , including , and . Services are also available to destinations further afield, such as , Sardinia, and the . The port serves over 6 million local passengers annually, plus a further 1 million international passengers. A regional hydrofoil transport service, the "Metropolitana del Mare", runs annually from July to September, maintained by a consortium of shipowners and local administrations. The is located in the suburb of . It is the largest airport in southern Italy, with around 250 national and international flights arriving or departing daily. The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Naples, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 77 min. 19% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 27 min, while 56.% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 7.1 km, while 11% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.


Urban public transport

Naples has an extensive public transport network, including , buses and es, most of which are operated by the municipally owned company . The city furthermore operates the ', the , an underground which integrates both surface railway lines and the city's , are noted for their decorative architecture and . There are also four s in the city (operated by ANM): , , and . Four public s are in operation in the city: within the bridge of , in via Acton, near the Sanità Bridge, and in the Ventaglieri Park, accompanied by two public s.


Culture


Art

Naples has long been a centre of art and architecture, dotted with Medieval, Baroque and Renaissance-era churches, castles and palaces. A key factor in the development of the Neapolitan school of painting was Caravaggio's arrival in Naples in 1606. In the 18th century, Naples went through a period of , following the discovery of the remarkably intact Roman ruins of and . The , founded by in 1752 as the Real Accademia di Disegno (: ''Royal Academy of Design''), was the centre of the artistic School of in the 19th century. Artists such as , , , and worked in Naples during this period, and many of their works are now exhibited in the Academy's art collection. The modern Academy offers courses in painting, , sculpture, design, , and urban planning. Naples is also known for its theatres, which are among the oldest in Europe – the dates back to the 18th century. Naples is also the home of the artistic tradition of . In 1743, Charles of Bourbon founded the Royal Factory of Capodimonte, many of whose artworks are now on display in the . Several of Naples' mid-19th-century porcelain factories remain active today.


Cuisine

Naples is internationally famous for its and wine; it draws culinary influences from the numerous cultures which have inhabited it over the course of its history, including the , Spanish and French. Neapolitan cuisine emerged as a distinct form in the 18th century. The ingredients are typically rich in taste, while remaining affordable to the general populace. Naples is traditionally credited as the home of . This originated as a meal of the poor, but under it became popular among the upper classes: famously, the pizza was named after Queen after her visit to the city. Cooked traditionally in a wood-burning , the ingredients of Neapolitan pizza have been strictly regulated by law since 2004, and must include wheat flour type "00" with the addition of flour type "0" , natural mineral water, peeled tomatoes or fresh es, , and extra virgin .
. Forno Bravo. 24 May 2004. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
is also associated with the city and is commonly eaten with clams '' vongole or lupini di mare': a popular Neapolitan
folkloric Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition a ...

folkloric
symbol is the comic figure
Pulcinella Pulcinella (; nap, Pulecenella) is a classical character that originated in ''commedia dell'arte'' of the 17th century and became a stock character in Naples, Neapolitan puppetry. Pulcinella's versatility in status and attitude has captivated au ...

Pulcinella
eating a plate of spaghetti. Other dishes popular in Naples include ''
Parmigiana Parmigiana (, , also called parmigiana di melanzane or melanzane alla parmigiana , is an Italian dish made with fried, sliced eggplant Eggplant ( US, Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign ...
di melanzane'', ''spaghetti alle vongole'' and '' casatiello''. As a coastal city, Naples is furthermore known for numerous seafood dishes, including ''impepata di cozze'' (peppered
mussel Mussel () is the used for members of several families of s, from saltwater and habitats. These groups have in common a shell whose outline is elongated and asymmetrical compared with other edible clams, which are often more or less rounded or ...

mussel
s), ''purpetiello affogato'' (
octopus An octopus (pl. octopuses/octopi, see below for variants) is a soft-bodied, eight- limbed mollusc Mollusca is the second-largest phylum of invertebrate animals after the Arthropoda. The members are known as molluscs or mollusks (). Ar ...

octopus
poached in broth), ''alici marinate'' (marinated
anchovies An anchovy is a small, common forage fish Forage fish, also called prey fish or bait fish, are small pelagic fish which are preyed on by larger predators for food. Predators include other larger fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Typical ocea ...

anchovies
), ''baccalà alla napoletana'' (salt
cod Cod is the common name for the demersal fish Demersal fish, also known as groundfish, live and feed on or near the bottom of seas or lakes (the demersal zone).Walrond Carl . "Coastal fish - Fish of the open sea floor"Te Ara - the Encyclo ...

cod
) and ''baccalà fritto'' (fried cod), a dish commonly eaten during the
Christmas Christmas is an annual festival commemorating Nativity of Jesus, the birth of Jesus Christ, observed primarily on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people Observance of Christmas by country, around the world ...

Christmas
period. Naples is well known for its sweet dishes, including colourful
gelato Gelato () is a popular frozen dessert of Italian origin. It is generally made with a base of 3.25% butterfat whole milk and sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in ...

gelato
, which is similar to
ice cream Ice cream is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert. It may be made from milk or cream and is flavoured with a sweetener, either sugar or an alternative, and a spice, such as Chocolate, cocoa or vanilla, or with fruit s ...

ice cream
, though more fruit-based. Popular Neapolitan pastry dishes include ''
zeppole A zeppola (; plural: zeppole; sometimes called frittelle, and in Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna and , also ''Saldigna'', ''Sardíngia'', ''Sardinna'', ''Sardinza''; sdc, Sardhigna; sdn, Saldigna; ca, label=Algherese ...
'' (more commonly called "'a Pasta Cresciuta" and "'e fFritt' 'e Viento") '''', '''' and ''
pastiera Pastiera napoletana (, ) is a type of Neapolitan tart made with cooked wheat Wheat is a grass widely Agriculture, cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The Taxonomy of wheat, many species of wheat together ...

pastiera
'', the latter of which is prepared specially for Easter celebrations. Another seasonal sweet is '' struffoli'', a sweet-tasting
honey Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance made by and some other . Bees produce honey from the y secretions of plants (floral ) or from secretions of other insects (such as ), by , activity, and water evaporation. Honey bees store honey in w ...

honey
dough decorated and eaten around Christmas. Neapolitan coffee is also widely acclaimed. The traditional
Neapolitan flip coffee potImage:Neapolitan flip coffee pot.jpg, A typical Neapolitan flip coffee pot. The pot has already been "flipped". There is no opening at that end of the pot; a lid has been placed there for storage., 250px The Neapolitan flip coffee pot ( it, napoletan ...

Neapolitan flip coffee pot
, known as the ''cuccuma'' or ''cuccumella'', was the basis for the invention of the
espresso machine An espresso machine brews coffee Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain '' Coffea'' species. When coffee berries turn from green to bright red in color – indicating ripeness ...

espresso machine
, and also inspired the
Moka pot The moka pot is a stove-top or electric coffee maker that brews coffee by passing boiling water pressurised by steam through ground coffee. Named after the Yemeni city of Mocha, Yemen, Mocha, it was invented by Italian people, Italian engineer Alf ...

Moka pot
.
Wineries A winery is a building or property that produces wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The ...
in the Vesuvius area produce wines such as the ''
Lacryma Christi Lacryma Christi, (also Lachryma Christi of Vesuvius, literally "tears of Christ"), is the name of a celebrated Neapolitan type of wine produced on the slopes of Mount Vesuvius in Campania, Italy. White Lacryma Christi is made mainly from Verdeca a ...
'' ("tears of Christ") and ''Terzigno''. Naples is also the home of ''
limoncello Limoncello () is an Italian lemon liqueur mainly produced in Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezzojuorno ...

limoncello
'', a popular
lemon liqueur Lemon liqueur is a liqueur made from lemons, liquor, and sugar. It is light to bright Lemon (color), lemon yellow in color; intensely lemony in flavor; clear, cloudy, or opaque; and sweet or sweet and sour. Lemon zest is used, water may be adde ...
. The nutritional value of the napolitan cuisine was discovered by the American epidemiologist
Ancel Keys Ancel Benjamin Keys (January 26, 1904 – November 20, 2004) was an American physiologist who studied the influence of diet on health. In particular, he hypothesized that dietary saturated fat causes cardiovascular heart disease and should b ...
in the 1950, being later often mentioned by epidemiologists as one of the best examples of the Mediterranean diet.


Festivals

The cultural significance of Naples is often represented through a series of festivals held in the city. The following is a list of several festivals that take place in Naples (note: some festivals are not held on an annual basis). * ''Festa di Piedigrotta'' ("Piedigrotta Festival") – A musical event, typically held in September, in memory of the famous Madonna of Piedigrotta. Throughout the month, a series of musical workshops, concerts, religious events and children's events are held for the entertainment of the citizens of Naples and surrounding areas. * ''Pizzafest'' – As Naples is famous for being the home of pizza, the city hosts an eleven-day festival dedicated to this iconic dish. This is a key event for Neapolitans and tourists alike, as a variety of stations are open for tasting a wide range of true Neapolitan style pizza. In addition to pizza tasting, a variety of entertainment shows are displayed. * ''Maggio dei Monumenti'' ("May of Monuments") – A cultural event where the city hosts a variety of special events dedicated to the birth of King Charles of Bourbon. It festival features art and music of the 18th century, and many buildings which may normally be closed throughout the year are opened for visitors to view. * ''Il Ritorno della festa di San Gennaro'' ("The Return of the Feast of San Gennaro") – An annual celebration and feast of faith held over the course of three days, commemorating Saint
Gennaro Januarius ( ; la, Ianuarius; Neapolitan language, Neapolitan and it, Gennaro), also known as , was Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Benevento, Bishop of Benevento and is a Christian martyrs, martyr and saint of the Catholic Church and the Eastern ...

Gennaro
. Throughout the festival, parades, religious processions and musical entertainment are featured. An annual celebration is also held in "
Little Italy Little Italy is a general name for an ethnic enclave File:India Square JC jeh.JPG, India Square in Jersey City, New Jersey#Demographics, Jersey City, New Jersey, one of 24 Indian American, Indian ethnic enclaves in the New York City Metropolit ...
" in Manhattan.


Language

The Naples language, considered to be a distinct language and mainly spoken in the city, is also found in the region of
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
and has been diffused into other areas of
Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregionA macroregion is a geopolitical subdivisi ...
by Neapolitan migrants, and in many different places in the world. On 14 October 2008, a regional law was enacted by Campania which has the effect that the use of the Neapolitan language is protected. The term "Neapolitan language" is often used to describe the language of all of
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
(except
Cilento Cilento is an Italian geographical region of Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = ...

Cilento
), and is sometimes applied to the entire South Italian language; ''
Ethnologue ''Ethnologue: Languages of the World'' (stylized as Ethnoloɠue) is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living language A language is a structured system of communicatio ...
'' refers to the latter as ''Napoletano-Calabrese''. This linguistic group is spoken throughout most of southern continental
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
, including the
Gaeta Gaeta (; lat, Cāiēta; grc, Καιήτη, Kaiḗtē) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function T ...

Gaeta
and district of southern
Lazio it, Laziale , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Lazio
, the southern part of
Marche Marche ( , ) is one of the Regions of Italy, twenty regions of Italy. In English, the region is referred to as The Marches ( ). The region is located in the Central Italy, central area of the country, bordered by Emilia-Romagna and the republic ...

Marche
and
Abruzzo Abruzzo (, , ; nap, label=Neapolitan language, Abruzzese Neapolitan, Abbrùzze , ''Abbrìzze'' or ''Abbrèzze'' ; nap, label=Sabino dialect, Aquilano, Abbrùzzu) or Abruzzi is a Regions of Italy, region of Southern Italy with an area of 10,763 ...

Abruzzo
, Molise,
Basilicata Basilicata (, , ), also known by Lucania, its ancient name Lucania (, also , ), is an administrative Regions of Italy, region in Southern Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Apulia to the north and east, and Calabria to the south. It has two ...
, northern
Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demogr ...

Calabria
, and northern and central
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
. In 1976, there were an estimated 7,047,399
native speakers A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', mean ...
of this group of dialects.


Literature and philosophy

Naples is one of the main centres of Italian literature. The history of the Neapolitan language was deeply entwined with that of the
Tuscan dialect Tuscan ( it, dialetto toscano ; it, vernacolo, label=locally) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian The Italo-Dalmatian languages, or Central Romance languages, are a group of Romance languages The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages ...
which then became the current Italian language. The first written testimonies of the Italian language are the Placiti Cassinensi legal documents, dated 960 A.D., preserved in the
Monte Cassino Monte Cassino (today usually spelled Montecassino) is a rocky hill about southeast of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and ...

Monte Cassino
Abbey, which are in fact evidence of a language spoken in a southern dialect. The Tuscan poet
Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (, , ; 16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist. He was known par excellence as the Certaldese, and one of the most important figur ...

Boccaccio
lived for many years at the court of King
Robert the Wise Robert of Anjou ( it, Roberto d'Angiò), known as Robert the Wise ( it, Roberto il Saggio; 1276 – 20 January 1343), was King of Naples The following is a list of rulers of the Kingdom of Naples, from its first Sicilian Vespers, separation from th ...
and used Naples as a setting for ''
The Decameron ''The Decameron'' (; it, label=Italian language, Italian, Decameron or ''Decamerone'' ), subtitled ''Prince Galehaut'' (Old it, Prencipe Galeotto, links=no ) and sometimes nicknamed ''l'Umana commedia'' ("the Human Comedy (drama), comedy", as ...

The Decameron
'' and a number of his later novels. His works contain some words that are taken from Neapolitan instead of the corresponding Italian, e.g. "testo" (neap.: "testa") which in Naples indicates a large terracotta jar used to cultivate shrubs and little trees. King
Alfonso V of Aragon Alfonso the Magnanimous (also Alphonso; ca, Alfons; 1396 – 27 June 1458) was the King of Aragon (as Alfonso V), Valencia Valencia (), officially València ( ), is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous communi ...
stated in 1442 that the Neapolitan language was to be used instead of
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
in official documents. Later Neapolitan was replaced by Italian in the first half of the 16th century, during Spanish domination. In 1458 the ''
Accademia Pontaniana The Accademia Pontaniana was the first academy in the modern sense, as a learned society for scholars and humanists and guided by a formal statute. Patronized by Alfonso V of Aragon Alfonso the Magnanimous (also Alphonso; ca, Alfons; 1396 ...

Accademia Pontaniana
'', one of the first academies in Italy, was established in Naples as a free initiative by men of letters, science and literature. In 1480 the writer and poet Jacopo Sannazzaro wrote the first pastoral romance, ''Arcadia'', which influenced Italian literature. In 1634
Giambattista Basile Giambattista Basile (February 1566 – February 1632) was an Italian poet, courtier, and fairy tale collector. His collections include the oldest recorded forms of many well-known (and more obscure) European fairy tales. Biography Born in Giugl ...

Giambattista Basile
collected '' Lo Cunto de li Cunti'', five books of ancient tales written in the Neapolitan dialect rather than Italian. Philosopher
Giordano Bruno Giordano Bruno (; ; la, Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; born Filippo Bruno, January or February 1548 – 17 February 1600) was an Italian Dominican friar A friar is a brother and a member of one of the mendicant orders founded in the twelfth ...

Giordano Bruno
, who theorised the existence of infinite solar systems and the infinity of the entire universe, completed his studies at University of Naples. Due to philosophers such as
Giambattista Vico Giambattista Vico (born Giovan Battista Vico ; ; 23 June 1668 – 23 January 1744) was an Italian political philosopher and rhetorician, historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest hi ...

Giambattista Vico
, Naples became one of the centres of the Italian peninsula for historic and
philosophy of history Philosophy of history is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Reality ...
studies.
Jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of the propriety of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whol ...
studies were enhanced in Naples thanks to eminent personalities of jurists like
Bernardo Tanucci Bernardo Tanucci (20 February 1698 – 29 April 1783) was an Italian statesman, who brought enlightened government to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( nap, Regno d’ ’e Ddoje Sicilie; scn, Regnu dî Dui S ...
,
Gaetano Filangieri Gaetano Filangieri (22 August 1753 – 21 July 1788) was an Italy, Italian jurist and philosopher. Filangieri was born in San Sebastiano al Vesuvio, in the province of Naples, Italy, in the noble family of Filangieri. His father, Caesar, prince ...

Gaetano Filangieri
and
Antonio Genovesi Antonio Genovesi (1 November 171322 September 1769) was an Italian writer on philosophy and political economy. Biography Son of Salvatore Genovese, a shoemaker, and Adriana Alfinito of San Mango, Antonio Genovesi was born in Castiglione, near S ...

Antonio Genovesi
. In the 18th century Naples, together with
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...

Milan
, became one of the most important sites from which the
Enlightenment Enlightenment, enlighten or enlightened may refer to: Age of Enlightenment * Age of Enlightenment, period in Western intellectual history from the late 17th to late 18th century, centered in France but also encompassing: ** Midlands Enlightenment ...
penetrated into Italy. Poet and philosopher
Giacomo Leopardi Count Giacomo Taldegardo Francesco di Sales Saverio Pietro Leopardi (, ; 29 June 1798 – 14 June 1837) was an Italian philosopher, poet, essayist, and philologist Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it ...

Giacomo Leopardi
visited the city in 1837 and then died there. His works influenced
Francesco de Sanctis Francesco de Sanctis (Morra Irpina, 28 March 1817 – Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ; grc, wikt:Νεάπολις, Νεάπολις, Neápolis), from grc, Νεάπολις, lit=new city. is the regional capital of Campania an ...
who made his studies in Naples, and then eventually became Minister of Instruction during the Italian kingdom. De Sanctis was one of the first literary critics to discover, study and diffusing the poems and literary works of the great poet from
Recanati Recanati () is a town and '' comune'' in the Province of Macerata, in the Marche (man) (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes ...

Recanati
. Writer and journalist
Matilde Serao 200px, The house in Patras where Matilde Serao and Kostis Palamas were born 200px, Matilde Serao, by "Rossi" Matilde Serao (; gr, Ματθίλδη Σεράο; 7 March 1856 – 25 July 1927) was a Greek-born Italian journalist and novelist. She ...

Matilde Serao
co-founded the newspaper
Il Mattino ''Il Mattino'' (meaning ''The Morning'' in English) is an Italian language, Italian daily newspaper published in Naples, Italy. History and profile ''Il Mattino'' was first published on 16 March 1892 by the journalists Edoardo Scarfoglio and Mati ...
with her husband
Edoardo Scarfoglio Edoardo Scarfoglio (September 26, 1860 – October 6, 1917) was an Italian author and journalist, one of the early practitioners in Italian fiction of Literary realism, realism, a style of writing that embraced direct, colloquial language and reje ...
in 1892. Serao was an acclaimed novelist and writer during her day. Poet was one of the most famous writers in the Neapolitan dialect, and many of his poems were adapted to music, becoming famous Neapolitan songs. In the 20th century, philosophers like
Benedetto Croce Benedetto Croce (; 25 February 1866 – 20 November 1952) was an Italian idealist philosopher, historian and politician, who wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, historiography Historiography is the study of the methods o ...
pursued the long tradition of philosophy studies in Naples, and personalities like jurist and lawyer
Enrico De Nicola Enrico De Nicola, (; 9 November 1877 – 1 October 1959) was an Italian jurist, journalist, politician, and provisional Head of State of 1946 Italian constitutional referendum, republican Italy from 1946 to 1948. Afterwards, he became the first ...

Enrico De Nicola
pursued legal and constitutional studies. De Nicola later helped to draft the modern Constitution of the Italian Republic, and was eventually elected to the office of President of the Italian Republic. Other noted Neapolitan writers and journalists include Antonio De Curtis,
Curzio Malaparte Curzio Malaparte (; 9 June 1898 – 19 July 1957), born Curt Erich Suckert, was an Italian writer, film-maker, war correspondent and diplomat. Malaparte is best known outside Italy due to his works ''Kaputt'' (1944) and ''La pelle'' (1949). The f ...

Curzio Malaparte
, Giancarlo Siani,
Roberto Saviano Roberto Saviano (; born September 22, 1979) is an Italian writer, essayist, and screenwriter. In his writings, including articles and his book '' Gomorrah'', he uses literature and investigative reporting to tell of the economic reality of the te ...

Roberto Saviano
and
Elena Ferrante Elena Ferrante () is a pseudonym A pseudonym () or alias () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which differs from their original or true name (orthonym). This ...
.


Theatre

Naples was one of the centres of the peninsula from which originated the modern theatre genre as nowadays intended, evolving from 16th century " comedy of art". The masked character of
Pulcinella Pulcinella (; nap, Pulecenella) is a classical character that originated in ''commedia dell'arte'' of the 17th century and became a stock character in Naples, Neapolitan puppetry. Pulcinella's versatility in status and attitude has captivated au ...

Pulcinella
is worldwide famous figure either as theatrical character or
puppetry Puppetry is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a spe ...

puppetry
character. The music Opera genre of
opera buffa ''Opera buffa'' (; "comic opera", plural: ''opere buffe'') is a genre of opera Opera is a form of theatre in which music is a fundamental component and dramatic roles are taken by Singing, singers, but is distinct from musical theatre. Such ...
was created in Naples in the 18th century and then spread to Rome and to northern Italy. In the period of
Belle Époque The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (; French language, French for "Beautiful Epoch") is the term often given to a period of History of France, French and European history, usually dated to between 1871–80 and the outbreak of World War I ...
Naples rivalled with Paris for its Café-chantants, and many famous neapolitan songs were originally created to entertain the public in the cafès of Naples. Perhaps the most well known song is "Ninì Tirabusciò". The history of how this song was born was dramatised in the eponymous comedy movie " Ninì Tirabusciò: la donna che inventò la mossa" starring
Monica Vitti Monica Vitti (born Maria Luisa Ceciarelli; 3 November 1931) is an Italian actress best known for her starring roles in films directed by Michelangelo Antonioni during the early-to-mid 1960s. After working with Antonioni, Vitti changed focus and b ...

Monica Vitti
. The Neapolitan popular genre of " Sceneggiata" is an important genre of modern folk theatre worldwide, dramatising common canon themes of thwarted love stories, comedies, tearjerker stories, commonly about honest people becoming
camorra The Camorra (; ) is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regio ...
outlaws due to unfortunate events. The Sceneggiata became very popular amongst the neapolitan people, and then became one of the best known genres of Italian cinema because of actors and singers like Mario Merola and Nino D'Angelo. Many writers and playwrights such as
Raffaele Viviani Raffaele Viviani (10 January 1888 in Castellammare di Stabia, Province of Naples – 22 March 1950) was an Italy, Italian author, playwright, actor and musician. Viviani belongs to the turn-of-the-century school of Literary realism, realism in ...

Raffaele Viviani
wrote comedies and dramas for this genre. Actors and comedians like and then his sons
Eduardo De Filippo Eduardo De Filippo (; 24 May 1900 – 31 October 1984), also known simply as Eduardo, was an Italian actor, playwright, and screenwriter, best known for his Neapolitan language, Neapolitan works ''Filumena Marturano'' and ''Side Street Story, N ...

Eduardo De Filippo
,
Peppino De Filippo Peppino De Filippo (born Giuseppe De Filippo; 24 August 1903 – 27 January 1980) was an Italy, Italian actor. De Filippo was born in Naples, brother of actor and Playwdramatist Eduardo De Filippo and of Titina De Filippo. He made his stage ...

Peppino De Filippo
and
Titina De Filippo Titina De Filippo (born Annunziata De Filippo; 27 March 1898 – 26 December 1963) was an Italian actress and playwright.Filumena Marturano ''Filumena Marturano'' (, ) is a play written in 1946 by Italian playwright, actor and poet Eduardo De Filippo Eduardo De Filippo (; 24 May 1900 – 31 October 1984), also known simply as Eduardo, was an Italian actor, playwright, and screenw ...
" and " Napoli Milionaria".


Music

Naples has played an important role in the history of for more than four centuries. The first music conservatories were established in the city under Spanish rule in the 16th century. The San Pietro a Majella music conservatory, founded in 1826 by , continues to operate today as both a prestigious centre of musical education and a musical museum. During the late
Baroque period The Baroque (, ; ) is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashi ...
,
Alessandro Scarlatti Pietro Alessandro Gaspare Scarlatti (2 May 1660 – 22 October 1725) was an Italian Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a of , , , , and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th century until the 1740s. In the territories of the ...

Alessandro Scarlatti
, the father of
Domenico Scarlatti Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti, also known as Domingo or Doménico Scarlatti (26 October 1685, in Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of Campania (man ...

Domenico Scarlatti
, established the Neapolitan school of opera; this was in the form of ''
opera seria ''Opera seria'' (; plural: ''opere serie''; usually called ''dramma per musica Dramma per musica ( Italian, literally: ''drama for music'', plural: ''drammi per musica'') is a libretto A libretto (Italian for "booklet") is the text used in, or ...
'', which was a new development for its time. Another form of opera originating in Naples is ''
opera buffa ''Opera buffa'' (; "comic opera", plural: ''opere buffe'') is a genre of opera Opera is a form of theatre in which music is a fundamental component and dramatic roles are taken by Singing, singers, but is distinct from musical theatre. Such ...
'', a style of
comic opera Comic opera, sometimes known as light opera, is a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending and often including spoken dialogue. Forms of comic opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater i ...
strongly linked to and Piccinni; later contributors to the genre included Gioachino Rossini, Rossini and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The Teatro di San Carlo, built in 1737, is the oldest working theatre in Europe, and remains the operatic centre of Naples. The earliest six-string guitar was created by the Neapolitan Gaetano Vinaccia in 1779; the instrument is now referred to as the romantic guitar. The Vinaccia family also developed the mandolin. Influenced by the Spanish, Neapolitans became pioneers of classical guitar music, with Ferdinando Carulli and Mauro Giuliani being prominent exponents. Giuliani, who was actually from
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
but lived and worked in Naples, is widely considered to be one of the greatest guitarist, guitar players and composers of the 19th century, along with his Catalonia, Catalan contemporary Fernando Sor. Another Neapolitan musician of note was opera singer Enrico Caruso, one of the most prominent opera tenors of all time: he was considered a man of the people in Naples, hailing from a working-class background. A popular traditional dance in
Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregionA macroregion is a geopolitical subdivisi ...
and Naples is the Tarantella, originated in the
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
region and spread next to all part of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The Neapolitan tarantella is a courtship dance performed by couples whose "rhythms, melodies, gestures, and accompanying songs are quite distinct" featuring faster more cheerful music. A notable element of popular Neapolitan music is the ''Canzone Napoletana'' style, essentially the traditional music of the city, with a repertoire of hundreds of folklore, folk songs, some of which can be traced back to the 13th century. The genre became a formal institution in 1835, after the introduction of the annual Festival of Piedigrotta songwriting competition. Some of the best-known recording artists in this field include Roberto Murolo, Sergio Bruni and Renato Carosone. There are furthermore various forms of music popular in Naples but not well known outside it, such as ''cantautore'' ("singer-songwriter") and ''sceneggiata'', which has been described as a musical soap opera; the most well-known exponent of this style is Mario Merola.


Cinema and television

Naples has had significant influence on Italian cinema. Because of the significance of the city, many films and television shows are set (entirely or partially) in Naples. In addition to serving as the backdrop for several movies and shows, many talented celebrities (actors, actresses, directors, and producers) are originally from the city of Naples. Naples was the location for several early Italian cinema masterpieces. ''Assunta Spina (1915 film), Assunta Spina'' (1915) was a silent film adapted from a theatrical drama by Neapolitan writer, . The film was directed by Neapolitan Gustavo Serena. Serena also starred in the 1912 film ''Romeo and Juliet.'' A list of some well-known films that take place (fully or partially) in Naples includes: * ''Shoeshine (film), Shoeshine'' (1946), directed by Neapolitan, Vittorio De Sica * ''Hands over the City'' (1963), directed by Neapolitan, Francesco Rosi * ''Journey to Italy'' (1954), directed by Roberto Rossellini * ''Marriage Italian Style'' (1964), directed by Neapolitan, Vittorio De Sica * ''It Started in Naples'' (1960), Directed by Melville Shavelson * ''The Hand of God (film)'' (2021), Directed by Paolo Sorrentino Naples is home of one of the first Italian colour films, ''Toto in Color'' (1952), starring Totò (Antonio de Curtis), a famous comedic actor born in Naples. Some notable comedies set in Naples include ''Ieri, Oggi e Domani'' (Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow), by Vittorio De Sica, starring Sophia Loren and Marcello Mastroianni, ''Adelina of Naples'' (Academy Award-winning movie), ''It Started in Naples'', ''L'oro di Napoli'' again by Vittorio De Sica, dramatic movies like Dino Risi's ''Profumo di donna, Scent of a Woman'', war movies like ''The Four Days of Naples (film), The Four Days of Naples'' by Sardinian director Nanni Loy, music and Sceneggiata movies like ''Zappatore'', from the eponymous song by Libero Bovio, starring singer and actor Mario Merola, crime movies like ''Il Camorrista'' with Ben Gazzara playing the part of infamous camorra boss Raffaele Cutolo, and historical or costume movies like ''That Hamilton Woman'' starring Vivien Leigh and Laurence Olivier. More modern Neapolitan films include ''Ricomincio da tre'', which depicts the misadventures of a young emigrant in the late 20th century. The 2008 film ''Gomorrah (film), Gomorrah'', based on the book by
Roberto Saviano Roberto Saviano (; born September 22, 1979) is an Italian writer, essayist, and screenwriter. In his writings, including articles and his book '' Gomorrah'', he uses literature and investigative reporting to tell of the economic reality of the te ...

Roberto Saviano
, explores the dark underbelly of the city of Naples through five intertwining stories about the powerful Camorra, Neapolitan crime syndicate, as well as the Gomorrah (TV series), TV series of the same name. The Japanese series ''JoJo's Bizarre Adventure''s Part 5, Golden Wind (manga), Vento Aureo, takes place in the city. Several episodes of the animated series ''Tom and Jerry'' also have references/influences from Naples. The song "Santa Lucia (song), Santa Lucia" played by Tom Cat in ''Cat and Dupli-cat'' traced origin from Naples. Neapolitan Mouse takes place in the same city. Naples has appeared in episodes of TV serials such as ''The Sopranos'' and the 1998 version of ''The Count of Monte Cristo (1998 miniseries), The Count of Monte Cristo'', starring Gérard Depardieu.


Sports

Association football, Football is by far the most popular sport in Naples. Brought to the city by the British during the early 20th century, the sport is deeply embedded in local culture: it is popular at every level of society, from the ''scugnizzi'' (street children) to wealthy professionals. The city's best known football club is S.S.C. Napoli, SSC Napoli, which plays its home games at the Stadio San Paolo in Fuorigrotta. The club's stadium was renamed Stadio Diego Armando Maradona in honor of the Argentinian striker who played for them for seven years. The team plays in the Serie A league and has won the ''Scudetto'' twice, the Coppa Italia six times and the Supercoppa Italiana twice. The team has also won the UEFA Europa League, UEFA Cup, and once named FIFA Player of the Century Diego Maradona among its players. Naples has itself produced numerous prominent professional footballers, including Ciro Ferrara and Fabio Cannavaro. Cannavaro was Italy national football team, captain of Italy's national team until 2010, and led the team to victory in the 2006 FIFA World Cup, 2006 World Cup. He was consequently named FIFA World Player of the Year, World Player of the Year. Some of the city's smaller clubs include F.C. Sporting Neapolis Mugnano, Sporting Neapolis and Internapoli Camaldoli S.S.D., Internapoli, which play at the Stadio Arturo Collana. The city also has teams in a variety of other sports: Basket Napoli, Eldo Napoli represents the city in basketball's Serie A (basketball), Serie A and plays in the city of Bagnoli. The city co-hosted the EuroBasket 1969. Partenope Rugby are the city's best-known rugby union side: the team has won the rugby union Serie A (rugby union), Serie A twice. Other popular local sports include water polo, horse racing, sailing, fencing, boxing and martial arts. The Accademia Nazionale di Scherma (National Academy and Fencing School of Naples) is the only place in Italy where the titles "Master of Sword" and "Master of Kendo" can be obtained.


Tailoring

Neapolitan tailoring was born as an attempt to loosen up the stiffness of English tailoring, which didn't suit the Neapolitan lifestyle. Characteristics of Neapolitan tailoring: * The Shoulders: the Neapolitan jacket has no shoulder padding. Neapolitan tailors removed the shoulder padding from their jackets in order to provide more freedom of movement. For this reason, the Neapolitan shoulder on informal jackets is sewn like a shirt sleeve ("spalla a camicia") and it follows the natural curve of the human body rather than give it shape. This type of sleeve is cut about 10 cm larger than the armhole, and it can be finished with the "repecchia" – that shirring the tailor creates with the extra fabric. This little flair, is known as "manica a mappina", and it gives the jacket a "rugged" appearance. For formal occasions, the Neapolitan shoulder features a "rollino" – a little roll of padding that raises the sleeve head to drape more cleanly. * The Sleeves: the Neapolitan sleeve is shorter than that found on other jackets, as Neapolitans like shirt cuffs to show right above their wrists, especially when adorned with cufflinks. The sleeves are cut closer to the arms, in order to avoid extra fabric hanging when these are raised. * The Pockets: the pockets of a Neapolitan jackets are curved and applied as patches; the breast pocket is called "a barchetta", which means "little boat", due to the higher top corner of the pocket, which, along with the rounded bottom, gives it the shape of a stylized boat. The side pockets are equally curved, and their shape recalls that of a pot – hence the name "a pignata". Neither of these features have any practical functionality, but they are particular to Neapolitan tailoring and they contribute to the look of a jacket made in Naples. Double hand finished stitching may also run throughout the sides of the patch pockets – a recurring feature in informal Neapolitan tailoring. * The Lining: lining is considered an unnecessary burden and the Neapolitan tailors keep it as minimal as possible. Usually, the jacket is unlined or only half lined; even the sleeves are completely unlined, as they're meant to fit closely. Additionally, the lining is often left open ("volante," literally "flying") so that people can admire the fine details and construction of the jacket. * The Lapels: Neapolitan jackets are famous for their wide lapels, which are often peaked ("a punta") for double-breasted jackets, formal jackets, and coats. The "risvolto dentellato" (the "classic" style of lapels – not peaked) are wider in Neapolitan jackets: they can be as wide as 4 inches (compared to the 3 inches of a regular lapel width). Just as is the case for the pockets, the Neapolitan lapel features double stitching running along the sides – a detail that's peculiar of a Neapolitan creation – although reserved for the less formal pieces. The "scollo a martiello" (literally "hammer neck") is the opening of the jacket over the shirt, which in Neapolitan tailoring is parallel to the lapels. The cran is the space that separates the lapel and the neck, and it is usually higher in Neapolitan tailoring to create the illusion of a more slender figure. * The Body: Neapolitan jackets tend to be shorter in the back; in Neapolitan dialect, they say the jacket "zompa arrèto," which roughly translates as "it jumps in the back". This characteristic allows for the jacket to "slide" gracefully along the body. The vents on the sides are quite deep in Neapolitan jackets – up to 12 inches. The Dart (sewing), darts in the front go all the way down, to help the fabric follow the shape of the body and create elegant quarters. * Buttons and Buttonholes: the three-roll-two construction features a lapel that hides the third button, in order to provide extra freedom of movement thanks to a longer opening in the front. The buttonhole on the lapel is called "occhiello" in Italian, and it means "little eye" for its elongated almond shape. There isn't really a tradition for a specific type of buttonhole in Naples, but there is a tendency of Neapolitan tailors to prefer slightly shorter and thicker buttonholes that resemble those of a shirt, while "regular" buttonholes of English tradition are more elongated and slender. Some tailors add a little teardrop shape at the end of the buttonhole; an aesthetic choice that does not refer to a particular tradition. For the buttons on the sleeves, they are always working buttons, and they are always overlapping.


Neapolitans


Honorary citizens

People awarded the honorary citizenship of Naples are:


International relations


Twin towns and sister cities

Naples is town twinning, twinned with: * Gafsa, Tunisia * Kragujevac, Serbia * Palma de Mallorca, Spain * Athens, Greece * Santiago de Cuba, Cuba * Santiago de Cuba Province, Cuba * Nosy Be, Madagascar * Nablus, Palestine


Partnerships

* Sighetu Marmației, Romania * Călărași, Romania * Budapest, Hungary * Kagoshima, Japan * Baku, Azerbaijan * Tripoli, Lebanon, Tripoli, Lebanon * Kolkata, India * Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (since 1964)Fraternity cities on Sarajevo Official Web Site
. City of Sarajevo. 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2008.


See also

* Bourbon Tunnel, a tunnel in Naples * List of radio stations in Naples * List of tallest buildings in Naples * Neapolitan Mastiff


Notes


References


Bibliography

* Acton, Harold (1956). ''The Bourbons of Naples (1734–1825)''. London: Methuen Publishing, Methuen. * Acton, Harold (1961). ''The Last Bourbons of Naples (1825–1861)''. London: Methuen. * * Chaney, Edward (2000). "Inigo Jones in Naples" in ''The Evolution of the Grand Tour''. London: Routledge. * De Grand, Alexander J. (2001).
The hunchback's tailor: Giovanni Giolitti and liberal Italy from the challenge of mass politics to the rise of fascism, 1882–1922
', Wesport/London: Praeger, * * Snowden, Frank M. (1995)
Naples in the Time of Cholera, 1884–1911
', Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,


External links

* {{Authority control Naples, Cities and towns in Campania Coastal towns in Campania Cumaean colonies Colonies of Magna Graecia Capitals of former nations Mediterranean port cities and towns in Italy Populated places established in the 7th century BC World Heritage Sites in Italy Burial sites of the House of Dampierre