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Mississauga ( ), historically known as Toronto Township, is a city in the Canadian
province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or sovereign state, state. The term derives from the ancient Roman ''Roman province, provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire ...
of
Ontario Ontario ( ; ) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.Ontario is located in the geographic Eastern Canada, eastern half of Canada, but it has historically and politically been considered to be part of Central Canada. Located ...
. It is situated on the shores of
Lake Ontario Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north, west, and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south and east by the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. The Canada–United ...
in the
Regional Municipality of Peel The Regional Municipality of Peel (informally Peel Region or Region of Peel, also formerly Peel County) is a regional municipality in the Greater Toronto Area, Southern Ontario, Canada. It consists of three municipalities to the west and north ...
, adjoining the western border of
Toronto Toronto ( ; or ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,794,356 in 2021, it is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, most pop ...
. With a population of 717,961 as of 2021, Mississauga is the seventh-most populous municipality in Canada, third-most in Ontario, and second-most in the
Greater Toronto Area The Greater Toronto Area, commonly referred to as the GTA, includes the Toronto, City of Toronto and the regional municipality, regional municipalities of Regional Municipality of Durham, Durham, Regional Municipality of Halton, Halton, Regional ...
after Toronto itself. However, for the first time in its history, the city's population declined according to the 2021 census, from a 2016 population of 721,599 to 717,961, a 0.5 percent decrease. The growth of Mississauga was attributed to its proximity to Toronto. During the latter half of the 20th century, the city attracted a multicultural population and built up a thriving
central business district A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business centre of a city. It contains commercial space and offices, and in larger cities will often be described as a financial district. Geographically, it often coincides with the "city ...
. Malton, a neighbourhood of the city located in its northeast end, is home to
Toronto Pearson International Airport Lester B. Pearson International Airport , commonly known as Toronto Pearson International Airport, is an international airport located in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. It is the main airport serving Toronto, its Greater Toronto Area, metropolit ...
, Canada's busiest airport, as well as the headquarters of many Canadian and multinational corporations. Mississauga is not a traditional city, but is instead an amalgamation of three former villages, two townships, and a number of rural hamlets (a general pattern common to several suburban GTA cities) that were significant population centres, with none being clearly dominant, prior to the city's incorporation that later coalesced into a single urban area. Indigenous people have lived in the area for thousands of years and Mississauga is situated on the traditional territory of the Huron-Wendat,
Haudenosaunee The Iroquois ( or ), officially the Haudenosaunee ( meaning "people of the longhouse"), are an Iroquoian-speaking confederacy of First Nations peoples in northeast North America North America is a continent in the Northern Hem ...
and
Anishinaabe The Anishinaabeg (adjectival: Anishinaabe) are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples present in the Great Lakes region of Canada and the United States. They include the Ojibwe (including Saulteaux and Oji-Cree), Odawa, Potawatomi, M ...
g people, including the namesake
Mississaugas The Mississauga are a subtribe of the Anishinaabe-speaking First Nations in Canada, First Nations peoples located in southern Ontario, Canada. They are closely related to the Ojibwe. The name "Mississauga" comes from the Anishinaabe language, An ...
. Most of present-day Mississauga was founded in 1805 as Toronto Township within York County, and became part of Peel County when new counties were formed by splitting off parts of the original county in 1851. Mississauga itself was established in 1968 as a town, and was reincorporated as a city in 1974, when Peel was restructured into a
regional municipality A regional municipality (or region) is a type of Municipal government in Canada, Canadian municipal government similar to and at the same municipality, municipal local government, government level as a county, although the specific structure an ...
.


Etymology

The name ''Mississauga'' comes from the
Anishinaabe The Anishinaabeg (adjectival: Anishinaabe) are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples present in the Great Lakes region of Canada and the United States. They include the Ojibwe (including Saulteaux and Oji-Cree), Odawa, Potawatomi, M ...
word , meaning " hose at theGreat River-mouth". Other forms such as ''Sauga'' and, in reference to the city's residents, ''Saugans'', and ''Mississaugans'', are also commonly used.


History


Palaeo-Indian period (9000–8500 BCE)

A single site in Mississauga with Hi-Lo projectile points was registered in the Ontario Ministry of Culture database of archaeological sites. Lake Ontario was much smaller at this time, and sites from this period may be 500 m into the lake.


Archaic period (8000-1000 BCE)

According to Smith, there was a growing population at this time. There are 23 known Archaic sites in Mississauga, mostly in the Credit River and Cooksville Creek drainage systems. People would congregate at rapids and the mouths of these rivers to catch fish during spawning runs. They would harvest nuts and wild rice at the wetland margins in the late summer. During late Archaic times, there were large cemeteries.


Woodland period (1000 BCE–1650 CE)

"The accelerating upward population increase continued," with 23 known sites from this period. Pottery first appears during this period in the style of the Point Peninsula complex, and near the end of the Woodland period, the first semi-permanent villages appear. Artifacts show that residents of Mississauga engaged in long-distance trade, likely as part of the
Hopewell tradition The Hopewell tradition, also called the Hopewell culture and Hopewellian exchange, describes a network of Pre-Columbian era, precontact Native Americans in the United States, Native American cultures that flourished in settlements along rivers in ...
.


Late Woodland culture (500–1650 CE)

"The band level of social organization that characterized earlier cultures gave way eventually to the tribal level of the Ontario
Iroquoian The Iroquoian languages are a language family of indigenous peoples of the Americas, indigenous peoples of North America. They are known for their general lack of labial consonants. The Iroquoian languages are polysynthetic language, polysynthet ...
Tradition," and people began cultivation of crops such as
maize Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American English, North American and Australian English), is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples of Mexico, indigenous ...
, beans, squash, sunflowers, and tobacco. This led to the development of the Wyandot or Huron,
Iroquoian The Iroquoian languages are a language family of indigenous peoples of the Americas, indigenous peoples of North America. They are known for their general lack of labial consonants. The Iroquoian languages are polysynthetic language, polysynthet ...
-speaking culture. The Lightfoot site with four to six
longhouses A longhouse or long house is a type of long, proportionately narrow, single-room building for communal dwelling. It has been built in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe, and North America. Many were built from timber Lumb ...
was located on the Credit River near Mississauga's border with Brampton. Another village with many longhouses was on the Antrex site, located on a wide ridge bounded by two small tributaries of Cooksville Creek.


Arrival of the Haudenosaunee, the Anishinaabe, and the Europeans

Around the end of the Woodland period, the Haudenosaunee, another Iroquoian confederacy, began to move into the area, and, as part of a long conflict known as the
Beaver wars The Beaver Wars ( moh, Tsianì kayonkwere), also known as the Iroquois Wars or the French and Iroquois Wars (french: Guerres franco-iroquoises) were a series of conflicts fought intermittently during the 17th century in North America throughout t ...
, they had dispersed the Wyandot by 1650. But by 1687, the Haudenosaunee had abandoned their new settlements along the north shore of Lake Ontario. The Algonquian-speaking
Anishinaabe The Anishinaabeg (adjectival: Anishinaabe) are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples present in the Great Lakes region of Canada and the United States. They include the Ojibwe (including Saulteaux and Oji-Cree), Odawa, Potawatomi, M ...
Ojibwe The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people in what is currently southern Canada, the northern Midwestern United States, and Northern Plains. According to the U.S. census, in the United States Ojibwe people are one of ...
people had been aligned with the Wyandot, and when they were dispersed, the Anishinaabe expanded eastward into the Credit River Valley area, clashing with the Haudenosaunee and eventually taking over when the Haudenosaunee retreated. The European traders would gather annually at the mouth of what is now known as the Credit River to give the Anishinaabe credit for the following year. "From this, the
Mississauga Mississauga ( ), historically known as Toronto Township, Ontario, Toronto Township, is a city in the Canadian Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Ontario. It is situated on the shores of Lake Ontario in the Regional Municipality ...
bands at the western end of the lake became known collectively as the Credit River Mississaugas." Toronto Township, consisting of most of present-day Mississauga, was formed on 2 August 1805 when officials from York (what is now the City of Toronto) purchased 85,000 acres (340 km2) of land from the
Mississaugas The Mississauga are a subtribe of the Anishinaabe-speaking First Nations in Canada, First Nations peoples located in southern Ontario, Canada. They are closely related to the Ojibwe. The name "Mississauga" comes from the Anishinaabe language, An ...
under Treaty 14. A second treaty was signed in 1818 that surrendered 2,622 km2 of Mississauga land to the
British Crown The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realm A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state in the Commonwealth of Nations whose monarch and head of state is shared among the other realms. Ea ...
. In total Mississauga is covered by four treaties: Treaty 14, Treaty 19, Treaty 22 and Treaty 23. The original villages (and some later incorporated towns) settled included Clarkson, Cooksville, Dixie, Erindale (called Springfield until 1890), Lakeview, Lorne Park,
Port Credit Port Credit is a neighbourhood in the south-central part of the City of Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, located at the mouth of the Credit River on the north shore of Lake Ontario. Its main intersection is Hurontario Street and Lakeshore Road, a ...
, Sheridan, and Summerville. The region became known as Toronto Township. Part of northeast Mississauga, including the Airport lands and Malton were a part of Toronto Gore Township. After the land was surveyed, the Crown gave much of it in the form of land grants to
United Empire Loyalists United Empire Loyalists (or simply Loyalists) is an honorific title which was first given by Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, the 1st Lord Dorchester, the Governor of Province of Quebec (1763–1791), Quebec, and Governor General of The Canad ...
who emigrated from the
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies, the Thirteen American Colonies, or later as the United Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British Colony, colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Fo ...
during and after the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution that occurred in British America between 1765 and 1791. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies formed independent states that defeated the British in the American Revolut ...
, as well as loyalists from New Brunswick. A group of settlers from New York City arrived in the 1830s. The government wanted to compensate the Loyalists for property lost in the colonies and encourage development of what was considered frontier. In 1820, the government purchased additional land from the Mississaugas. Additional settlements were established, including: Barbertown, Britannia, Burnhamthorpe, Churchville, Derry West, Elmbank, Malton, Meadowvale (Village), Mount Charles, and Streetsville. European-Canadian settlement led to the eventual displacement of the Mississaugas. In 1847, the government relocated them to a reserve in the Grand River Valley, near present-day Hagersville. Pre-confederation, the Township of Toronto was formed as a local government; settlements within were not legal villages until much later. Except for small villages, some
gristmill A gristmill (also: grist mill, corn mill, flour mill, feed mill or feedmill) grinds cereal grain into flour and Wheat middlings, middlings. The term can refer to either the Mill (grinding), grinding mechanism or the building that holds it. Grist i ...
s and
brickworks A brickworks, also known as a brick factory, is a factory for the manufacturing of bricks, from clay or shale. Usually a brickworks is located on a clay bedrock (the most common material from which bricks are made), often with a clay pit, quar ...
served by railway lines, most of present-day Mississauga was agricultural land, including fruit orchards, through much of the 19th and first half of the 20th century.


1900 to today

In the 1920s, cottages were constructed along the shores of
Lake Ontario Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north, west, and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south and east by the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. The Canada–United ...
as weekend getaway houses for city dwellers. In 1937, 1,410.8 acres of land was sold to build Malton Airport (later known as Pearson Airport). It became Canada's busiest airport which later put the end to the community of Elmbank. The
Queen Elizabeth Way The Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW) is a 400-series highways, 400-series highway in the Canadian province of Ontario linking Toronto with the Niagara Peninsula and Buffalo, New York, Buffalo, New York (state), New York. The Controlled-access highway ...
(QEW) highway, one of the first
controlled-access highway A controlled-access highway is a type of highway that has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow—ingress and egress—regulated. Common English terms are freeway, motorway and expressway. Other similar terms i ...
s in the world, opened from Highway 27 to Highway 10 in
Port Credit Port Credit is a neighbourhood in the south-central part of the City of Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, located at the mouth of the Credit River on the north shore of Lake Ontario. Its main intersection is Hurontario Street and Lakeshore Road, a ...
, in 1935 and later expanded to Hamilton and Niagara in 1939. The first prototypical suburban developments occurred around the same time, in the area south of the Dixie Road/QEW interchange. Development in general moved north and west from there over time and around established communities. In 1952, Toronto Township annexed the southern portion of Toronto Gore Township. Two large
new towns A planned community, planned city, planned town, or planned settlement is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed on previously undeveloped land. This contrasts with settlements that evolve ...
; Erin Mills and (New) Meadowvale, were started in 1968 and 1969, respectively. While the Township had many settlements within it, none of the hamlets were legally existent, and all residents were represented by a singular Township council (Malton had special status as a
police village A police village was a form of municipal government A municipality is usually a single administrative division having municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws ...
, allowing it partial autonomy). To reflect the community's shift away from rural to urban, council desired conversion into a town, and in 1965 a call for public input on naming it received thousands of letters offering hundreds of different suggestions. "Mississauga" was chosen by plebiscite over "Sheridan", and in 1968 the reincorporation went forward, absorbing Malton in the process. Port Credit and Streetsville remained separate, uninterested in ceding their autonomy or being taxed to the needs of a growing municipality. Political will, as well as a belief that a larger city would be a hegemony in Peel County, kept Port Credit and Streetsville as independent enclaves within the Town of Mississauga, but both were amalgamated into Mississauga when it reincorporated as a city in 1974. At this time, Mississauga annexed lands west of Winston Churchill Boulevard from Milton in the northwest, in exchange for lands in the northernmost extremity (which included Churchville) south of
Steeles Avenue Steeles Avenue is an east–west street that forms the northern city limit of Toronto and the southern limit of Regional Municipality of York, York Region in Ontario, Canada. It stretches across the western and central Greater Toronto Area from ...
which were transferred to
Brampton Brampton ( or ) is a city in the Canadian Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Ontario. Brampton is a city in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and is a List of municipalities in Ontario#Lower-tier municipalities, lower-tier municipalit ...
. That year, Square One Shopping Centre opened; it has since expanded several times. On 10 November 1979, a 106-car freight train derailed on the CP rail line while carrying explosive and poisonous chemicals just north of the intersection of Mavis Road and
Dundas Street Dundas Street is a major historic arterial road in Ontario, Canada. The road connects the city of Toronto with its western Greater Toronto Area, suburbs and several cities in southwestern Ontario. Three provincial highways—Ontario Highway 2, ...
. One of the tank cars carrying
propane Propane () is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula . It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure, but compressible to a transportable liquid. A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, it is commonly used as ...
exploded, and since other tank cars were carrying chlorine, the decision was made to evacuate nearby residents. With the possibility of a deadly cloud of chlorine gas spreading through Mississauga, 218,000 people were evacuated. Residents were allowed to return home once the site was deemed safe. At the time, it was the largest peacetime evacuation in North American history. Due to the speed and efficiency with which it was conducted, many cities later studied and modelled their own emergency plans after Mississauga's. For many years afterwards, the name "Mississauga" was, for Canadians, associated with a major rail disaster. North American telephone customers placing calls to Mississauga (and other post-1970 Ontario cities) may not recognise the charge details on their bills. The area's incumbent local exchange carrier,
Bell Canada Bell Canada (commonly referred to as Bell) is a Canadian telecommunications company headquartered at 1 Carrefour Alexander-Graham-Bell in the borough of Verdun, Quebec, Verdun in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It is an ILEC (incumbent local exchang ...
, continues to split the city into five historical rate centres–Clarkson, Cooksville, Malton, Port Credit, and Streetsville. However, they are combined as a single Mississauga listing in the phone book. The first Touch-Tone telephones in Canada were introduced in Malton on 15 June 1964. On 1 January 2010, Mississauga bought land from the Town of Milton and expanded its border by , to Highway 407, affecting 25 residents. Also in January 2010, the Mississaugas and the federal government settled a land claim, in which the band of indigenous people received $145,000,000, as
just compensation Just compensation is a right enshrined in the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (and counterpart state constitutions), which is invoked whenever private property Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property b ...
for their land and lost income.


Geography

Mississauga covers of land, fronting of shoreline on
Lake Ontario Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north, west, and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south and east by the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. The Canada–United ...
. Mississauga is bounded by Oakville and Milton to the west/southwest,
Brampton Brampton ( or ) is a city in the Canadian Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Ontario. Brampton is a city in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and is a List of municipalities in Ontario#Lower-tier municipalities, lower-tier municipalit ...
to the north, Toronto to the east, and Lake Ontario to the south/south-east.
Halton Hills ) , image_map = , mapsize = 200px , map_caption = , pushpin_map = CAN ON Halton#Canada Southern Ontario , pushpin_map_caption = , coordinates = , subdivision_type ...
borders Mississauga's north-west corner. With the exception of the southeast border with Toronto (Etobicoke Creek), Mississauga shares a land border with all previously mentioned municipalities. Two major river valleys feed into the lake. The Credit River is by far the longest with the heaviest flow, it divides the western side of Mississauga from the central/eastern portions and enters the lake at the
Port Credit Port Credit is a neighbourhood in the south-central part of the City of Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, located at the mouth of the Credit River on the north shore of Lake Ontario. Its main intersection is Hurontario Street and Lakeshore Road, a ...
harbour. The indented, mostly forested valley was inhabited by first nation peoples long before European exploration of the area. The valley is protected and maintained by the Credit Valley Conservation Authority (CVCA).
Etobicoke Creek Etobicoke Creek is a river in the Greater Toronto Area of Ontario, Canada. It is a tributary of Lake Ontario and runs from Caledon, Ontario, Caledon to southern Etobicoke, part of the City of Toronto. The creek is within the jurisdiction of the ...
forms part of the eastern border of Mississauga with the city of Toronto. North of there it passes through the western limits of
Pearson Airport Lester B. Pearson International Airport , commonly known as Toronto Pearson International Airport, is an international airport located in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. It is the main airport serving Toronto, its Greater Toronto Area, metropolit ...
. There have been two aviation accidents, in 1978 and 2005 where aircraft overshot the runway and slid into the Etobicoke creek banks. In 1954, heavy flooding resulted in some homes along the riverbank being swept into the lake after heavy rains from Hurricane Hazel. Since that storm, houses are no longer constructed along the floodplain. The creek and its tributaries are administered by the
Toronto and Region Conservation Authority The Toronto and Region Conservation Authority (TRCA) is a conservation authority in southern Ontario, Canada. It owns about of land in the Toronto Toronto ( ; or ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Cana ...
(TRCA). Most land in Mississauga drains to either of the two main river systems, with the exception of the smaller Mary Fix and Cooksville Creeks which run roughly through the centre of Mississauga entering the lake near Port Credit. Some small streams and reservoirs are part of the Sixteen Mile Creek system in the far north-west corner of the city, but these drain toward the lake in neighbouring Milton and Oakville. The shoreline of former
Glacial Lake Iroquois Glacial Lake Iroquois was a prehistoric proglacial lake that existed at the end of the last ice age approximately 13,000 years ago. The lake was essentially an enlargement of the present Lake Ontario that formed because the St. Lawrence River down ...
roughly follows the Dundas Street alignment, although it is not noticeable in some places but is more prominent in others, such as the site of the former brickyard (Shoreline Dr. near Mavis Rd.), the ancient shoreline promenteau affords a clear view of downtown Toronto and Lake Ontario on clear days. The land in Mississauga in ranges from a maximum elevation of 214 m (699 ft) ASL in the far western corner, near the Hwy. 407/401 junction, to a minimum elevation at the Lake Ontario shore of 76 m (249 ft) above sea level. Apart from the embankments of Credit River valley, it tributaries and the Iroquois shoreline, the only noticeable hills in Mississauga are actually part of the former Britannia Landfill, now a golf course on Terry Fox Way.


Neighbourhoods/areas

There are 24 neighbourhoods in Mississauga: * Applewood * Central Erin Mills * Churchill Meadows * Clarkson * Cooksville * Creditview * East Credit * Erin Mills * Erindale * Fairview * Hurontario * Lakeview * Lisgar * Lorne Park * Malton * Meadowvale * Meadowvale Village * Mineola * Mississauga Valleys *
Port Credit Port Credit is a neighbourhood in the south-central part of the City of Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, located at the mouth of the Credit River on the north shore of Lake Ontario. Its main intersection is Hurontario Street and Lakeshore Road, a ...
* Rathwood * Rockwood Village * Sheridan * Streetsville


Climate

Mississauga's climate is similar to that of Toronto and is considered to be moderate, located in plant hardiness zone 6b. Under the
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, nota ...
, Mississauga has a
humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climate, climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by four distinct seasons and large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and ...
(''Dfa/Dfb''). Summers can bring periods of high temperatures accompanied with high humidity. While the average daily high temperature in July and August is , temperatures can rise above . In an average summer, there are an average of 15.8 days where the temperature rises above . Winters can be cold with temperatures that are frequently below freezing. In January and February, the mean temperature is although it is common for temperatures to fall to . In an average winter, there are an average of 3.9 days on which the temperature falls below . Occasionally, there can be brief periods of warmer weather during the winter season. Compared to the rest of Canada and Ontario, the amount of snowfall received during the season is relatively low. On average, Mississauga receives of snow per year and there are 44.4 days with measurable snowfall. The climate of Mississauga is officially represented by
Pearson International Airport Lester B. Pearson International Airport , commonly known as Toronto Pearson International Airport, is an international airport located in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. It is the main airport serving Toronto, its Greater Toronto Area, metropolit ...
but because of its topography and large surface area conditions can differ depending on location: fog tends to be more common along the lakeshore and in the Credit River Valley at certain times of year, particularly during the spring and autumn. During snowfalls when temperatures hover close to freezing, northern parts of the city, such as around Derry Road, including Pearson Airport away from warmer Lake Ontario usually get more snow that sticks to the ground because of the lower temperatures. The reverse occurs when a strong storm approaches from the south kicking up lake effect snow, bringing higher snowfall totals to south Mississauga. The city usually experiences at least six months of snow-free weather; however, there is the odd occurrence where snow does fall either in October or May, none which sticks to the ground. The Port Credit and Lakeview areas have a micro-climate more affected by the proximity of the open lake, warming winter temperatures as a result but it can be sharply cooler on spring and summer afternoons, this can also be the case in Clarkson, but with much less consistency. Most thunderstorms are not severe but can occasionally bring violent winds. The last known tornado to cause significant damage touched down on 7 July 1985, when an F1-rated tornado struck an industrial park in the Meadowvale area (Argentia Road), heavily damaging some buildings and some parked tractor trailers. A relatively strong tornado tore a path across Mississauga (then part of Toronto Township) on 24 June 1923, cutting a swath from present-day Meadowvale to near Cooksville, killing four people and causing massive property damage in a time when most of Mississauga was still rural farmland dotted with fruit orchards.


Demographics

In the 2021 Census of Population conducted by
Statistics Canada Statistics Canada (StatCan; french: Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the government agency, agency of the Government of Canada commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, Economy of ...
, Mississauga had a population of living in of its total private dwellings, a change of from its 2016 population of . With a land area of , it had a population density of in 2021. In 2021, 15.2% of the population was under 15 years of age, and 16.6% was 65 years and over. The median age in Mississauga was 40.8. The 2021 census found the most reported religion in the city to be
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's ...
(49.9%), with
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptized Catholics Catholic Church by country, worldwide . It is am ...
(30.4%) making up the largest denomination, followed by Orthodox (3.6%),
Anglicanism Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation, in the context of the Protestant Reformation in Euro ...
(2.0%), United Church (1.5%),
Pentecostal Pentecostalism or classical Pentecostalism is a Protestantism, Protestant Charismatic Christianity, Charismatic Christian movementCharismatic churches (1.2%), and other denominations. The next most reported religions were
Islam Islam (; ar, ۘالِإسلَام, , ) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God in Islam, God (or ''Allah'') as it was revealed to Muh ...
(17.0%),
Hindu Hindus (; ) are people who religiously adhere to Hinduism.Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 Historically, the term has also been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for ...
ism (8.8%)
Sikh Sikhs ( or ; pa, ਸਿੱਖ, ' ) are people who adhere to Sikhism (Sikhi), a monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The ter ...
ism (3.4%),
Buddhism Buddhism ( , ), also known as Buddha Dharma and Dharmavinaya (), is an Indian religions, Indian religion or Indian philosophy#Buddhist philosophy, philosophical tradition based on Pre-sectarian Buddhism, teachings attributed to the Buddha. ...
(2.0%), and
Judaism Judaism ( he, ''Yahăḏūṯ'') is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, monotheism, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people. It has its roots ...
(0.2%). Those who claimed no religious affiliation made up 18.1% of the population.


Languages

The 2021 census found that English was the
mother tongue A first language, native tongue, native language, mother tongue or L1 is the first language Language is a structured system of communication. The structure of a language is its grammar and the free components are its vocabulary. Language ...
of 44.9% of the population. The next most common mother tongues were Urdu (5.0%), Arabic (4.7%), Mandarin (3.2%), Polish (3.1%), and Punjabi (2.9%). Of the official languages, 96.5% of the population knew English and 6.8% knew French.


Economy

Over 60 of the Fortune 500 companies base their global or Canadian head offices in Mississauga. Some of the strongest industries are pharmaceuticals, banking and finance, electronics and computers, aerospace, transportation parts and equipment industries. TD Bank also has Corporate IT development centres in the city along with
Royal Bank of Canada Royal Bank of Canada (RBC; french: Banque royale du Canada) is a Canadian multinational Financial institution, financial services company and the Big Five (banks), largest bank in Canada by market capitalization. The bank serves over 17 mi ...
. Laura Secord Chocolates is headquartered in the city, and
Walmart Walmart Inc. (; formerly Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets (also called supercenters), discount department stores, and grocery stores from the United States, headquarter ...
,
Kellogg's The Kellogg Company, doing business as Kellogg's, is an American multinational food manufacturing company headquartered in Battle Creek, Michigan, United States. Kellogg's produces cereal and convenience foods, including crackers and to ...
,
Panasonic formerly between 1935 and 2008 and the first incarnation of between 2008 and 2022, is a major Japanese multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate corporation, headquartered in Kadoma, Osaka, Kadoma, Osaka P ...
,
Hewlett Packard The Hewlett-Packard Company, commonly shortened to Hewlett-Packard ( ) or HP, was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. HP developed and provided a wide variety of hardware components ...
, and
Oracle An oracle is a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions, most notably including precognition of the future, inspired by deities. As such, it is a form of divination. Description The wor ...
's Canadian headquarters are also in Mississauga. Regional airline
Jazz Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African Americans, African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime. Since the 1920s Jazz Age, it has been recog ...
operates a regional office in Mississauga and Kam Air has its North American office in Mississauga. Mississauga is also an aircraft development hub with Canadian headquarters of Aerospace companies such as
Magellan Aerospace Magellan Aerospace Corporation is a Canadians, Canadian manufacturer of aerospace systems and components. Magellan also repairs and overhauls, tests, and provides aftermarket support services for engines, and engine structural components. The comp ...
and
Honeywell Aerospace Honeywell Aerospace is a manufacturer of aircraft engines and avionics, as well as a producer of auxiliary power units (APUs) and other aviation Aviation includes the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. ...
.


Arts and culture

Mississauga has a vibrant arts community, promoted by the Mississauga Arts Council, which holds an annual awards ceremony, called the MARTYs, to celebrate the city's entertainers, artists, filmmakers, writers, and musicians. Mississauga's largest festivities such as
Canada Day Canada Day (french: Fête du Canada), formerly known as Dominion Day (french: Fête du Dominion), is the national day of Canada. A Public holidays in Canada, federal statutory holiday, it celebrates the anniversary of Canadian Confederation whi ...
Celebration, Mississauga Rotary Ribfest, Tree Lighting Ceremony, and
New Year's Eve In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve, also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries, is the evening or the entire day of the December 31, last day of the year, on 31 December. The last day of the year is commonly ...
Bash generally occur in Celebration Square. The Canada Day celebration was attended by 130,000 people in 2012, the Ribfest has recorded 120,000 visitors in 2012, and the inaugural New Year's Eve in 2011 has attracted 30,000 spectators. One of the most anticipated events in the city is Carassauga, a festival of cultures that occurs annually during mid-May. It is the second largest cultural festival in Canada. During 2013, 4014 performances took place and 300,000 people attended. Carassauga attempts to display the different cultures around the world by setting up pavilions for countries around Mississauga. Visitors get free public transportation with their ticket to tour the city and explore the different pavilions. Various countries showcase their culture through food stalls, dance performances and small vendors. The event largely takes place in the Hershey Centre. There are also culture-specific festivals held in Celebration Square, including Fiesta Ng Kalayaan for the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...
, Viet Summerfest for
Vietnam Vietnam or Viet Nam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,., group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia, at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia, with an area of and population of 96 million, making it ...
, Muslimfest for the city's
Muslim Muslims ( ar, المسلمون, , ) are people who adhere to Islam Islam (; ar, ۘالِإسلَام, , ) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text considered by Muslims to be the ...
community, Indian festival Diwali and Mosaic Festival, which is the largest South Asian multi-disciplinary arts festival in North America. The annual Bread and Honey Festival is held in Streetsville, a district that was once an independent rural village. It is held every first weekend of June at Streetsville Memorial Park to commemorate the founding of the village. The festival was inaugurated in 1974, in response to amalgamation with the City of Mississauga. Activities include the Bread and Honey Race, which raises money for charities and local hospitals. It also has its own annual Canada Day celebrations, which are also held at Streetsville Memorial Park.
Port Credit Port Credit is a neighbourhood in the south-central part of the City of Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, located at the mouth of the Credit River on the north shore of Lake Ontario. Its main intersection is Hurontario Street and Lakeshore Road, a ...
, another neighbourhood that was formerly a town, holds multiple festivals throughout the year. During the summer, there are street performances on multiple venues scattered throughout the district during Buskerfest. The neighbourhood also holds a grand parade named "Paint the Town Red" during Canada Day. Finally, during August, it holds the Mississauga Waterfront Festival, which includes concerts as well as family activities. During September, the
Tim Hortons Tim Hortons Inc., commonly nicknamed Tim's, or Timmie's is a Canadian multinational coffeehouse and restaurant chain. Based in Toronto, Tim Hortons serves coffee, doughnuts, and other fast-food items. It is Canada's largest quick-service resta ...
Southside Shuffle is being held to celebrate the neighbourhood's Blues and Jazz Festival, which includes musical performances from local blues and jazz artists. The community of Malton, which contains a significant number of
Sikhs Sikhs ( or ; pa, ਸਿੱਖ, ' ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, Sikhism (Sikhi), a Monotheism, monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Gu ...
, holds its annual Khalsa Day parade, marching between Sri Guru Singh Sabha ( Malton
Gurdwara A gurdwara (sometimes written as gurudwara) (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ ''guradu'ārā'', meaning "Door to the Sikh gurus, Guru") is a place of assembly and place of worship, worship for Sikhs. Sikhs also refer to gurdwaras as ''Gurdwara Sa ...
) and Sikh Spiritual Centre (Rexdale Gurdwara Sahib) in Toronto. This parade is attended by 100,000 people. Mississauga has a significant
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים, , ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a combination of shared features such as language, history, ethnicity, culture and/or ...
population, with active community classes, cultural activities and holiday celebrations.


Library

The Mississauga Library System is a municipally owned network of 18 libraries.


Attractions


Mississauga Celebration Square

In 2006, with the help of
Project for Public Spaces Project for Public Spaces (PPS) is a nonprofit organization based in New York City, New York dedicated to creating and sustaining public places that build community, communities, in an effort often termed placemaking. Planning and design rooted i ...
, the city started hosting "My Mississauga" summer festivities at its Civic Square. Mississauga planned over 60 free events to bring more people to the city square. The square was transformed and included a movable stage, a snack bar, extra seating, and sports and gaming facilities (basketball nets, hockey arena, chess and checker boards) including a skate park. Some of the events included Senior's day on Tuesday, Family day on Wednesday, Vintage car Thursdays, with the main events being the
Canada Day Canada Day (french: Fête du Canada), formerly known as Dominion Day (french: Fête du Dominion), is the national day of Canada. A Public holidays in Canada, federal statutory holiday, it celebrates the anniversary of Canadian Confederation whi ...
celebration, Rotary Ribfest, Tree Lighting Ceremony, and Beachfest. Civic Square has completed its restructuring project using federal stimulus money, which features a permanent stage, a larger ice rink (which also serves as a fountain and wading pool during the summer season), media screens, and a permanent restaurant. It officially reopened at 22 June 2011 and has since been renamed as Mississauga Celebration Square. More events have been added such as holding free outdoor live concerts, and live telecast of
UEFA European Football Championship The UEFA European Football Championship, less formally the European Championship and informally the Euro, is the primary association football Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between ...
. The square also holds weekly programming such as fitness classes, amphitheatre performances and movie nights during the summer, children's activities during spring and fall, and skate parties during the winter. The opening of the square has also allowed the city to hold its first annual
New Year's Eve In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve, also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries, is the evening or the entire day of the December 31, last day of the year, on 31 December. The last day of the year is commonly ...
celebration in 2011. The upper and lower parts of the square used to be separated by a segment of City Centre Drive. However, pedestrian safety issues, a desire to unify the two sections, and a commitment to building a vibrant downtown led the city council to permanently close this segment, uniting the upper and lower parts of the square. In October 2012, the square had attracted its one millionth visitor. Celebration Square hosted public viewing parties when the
Toronto Raptors The Toronto Raptors are a Canadian professional basketball team based in Toronto. The Raptors compete in the National Basketball Association (NBA) as a member of the league's Eastern Conference (NBA), Eastern Conference Atlantic Division (NBA) ...
played in the
2019 NBA Finals The 2019 NBA Finals was the NBA Finals, championship series of the National Basketball Association's (NBA) 2018–19 NBA season, 2018–19 season and conclusion of the 2019 NBA playoffs, season's playoffs. In the best-of-seven playoff series held ...
, adopting the name "Jurassic Park West" in reference to the main "Jurassic Park" at downtown Toronto's Maple Leaf Square.


Art Gallery of Mississauga

The Art Gallery of Mississauga (AGM) is a public, not-for-profit art gallery located in the
Mississauga Civic Centre The Mississauga Civic Centre is the seat of local government of Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. The 37,280 square metre complex is a prominent example of postmodern architecture in Canada, finished in 1987 by Jones and Kirkland. It stands at 92 metr ...
right on Celebration Square across from the Living Arts Centre and Square One Shopping Centre. AGM is sponsored by the City of Mississauga,
Canada Council for the Arts The Canada Council for the Arts (french: Conseil des arts du Canada), commonly called the Canada Council, is a Crown corporations of Canada, Crown corporation established in 1957 as an arts council of the Government of Canada. It acts as the fede ...
, Ontario Trillium Foundation and the Ontario Arts Council. The art gallery offers free admission and tours and is open every day. AGM has over 500 copies and is working on creating a digital gallery led by gallery assistant Aaron Guravich.


Shopping

Mississauga also boasts one of the largest shopping malls in Canada called Square One Shopping Centre, located at the City Centre. It has 350+ retail stores and services and attracts 24 million annual visits and over $1 billion in annual retail sales. It operates on most holidays (the exceptions being
Good Friday Good Friday is a Christian holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary. It is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum. It is also known as Holy Friday, Great Friday, Great and Holy Friday (also Holy ...
,
Easter Sunday Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer''; "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher''The Whole Works of the Most Rev. James Ussher, Volume 4'') and Samuel Pepys''The Diary of Samuel P ...
and Christmas Day), making it the only shopping mall in the city and one of the few in the
Greater Toronto Area The Greater Toronto Area, commonly referred to as the GTA, includes the Toronto, City of Toronto and the regional municipality, regional municipalities of Regional Municipality of Durham, Durham, Regional Municipality of Halton, Halton, Regional ...
that does so. The mall is surrounded by several bars and restaurants, as well as the City Hall, the Central Library, and a movie theatre. Erin Mills Town Centre, the second largest mall in Mississauga. It is located at the western edge of the city, near
Eglinton Avenue Eglinton Avenue is a major east–west Arterial road, arterial thoroughfare in Toronto and Mississauga in the Canadian province of Ontario. The street begins at Ontario Highway 407, Highway 407 (but does not interchange with the tollway) at the w ...
at Erin Mills Parkway. The mall used to be notable by a clock tower placed in the centre of the building. As its successor, the clock has been replaced with an iconic glass sphere (283 feet in circumference), as a part of the mall's $100 million redevelopment project. The mall also used to have a movie theatre, a mini-golf course, and a daycare centre, all of which were converted to retail space. Located at the southeastern corner of the city is the Dixie Outlet Mall, which is Canada's largest enclosed outlet mall. It opened in 1956 when the city was still known as Toronto Township, and is Mississauga's first shopping mall. Many factory outlets of premium brands are located in this mall. As a supporter of Bullfrog Power, it operates using
100% renewable energy 100% renewable energy means getting all energy from renewable resources. The endeavor to use 100% renewable energy for electricity, heating, cooling and transport is motivated by climate change, pollution and other environmental issues, ...
. Heartland Town Centre is an unenclosed outlet mall with 180 stores and restaurants. A flea market, the Fantastic Flea Market, is Mississauga's oldest flea market, which opened in 1976. Erin Mills Town Centre and Dixie Outlet Mall are both closed for most holidays, except for Civic Holiday.


Recreation

Recreational clubs include the Mississauga Figure Skating Club, Mississauga Synchronized Swimming Association, Mississauga Canoe Club, Mississauga Scrabble Club, Don Rowing Club at Port Credit, International Soccer Club Mississauga, and the Mississauga Aquatic Club. There are over 481 parks and woodlands areas in Mississauga, with nearly 100 km of trails that users can traverse. Mississauga is home to many indoor playgrounds including Playdium, Kids Time Family Fun Centre, KidSports indoor playground, and Laser Quest Centre. There are over 26 major indoor playgrounds in the city of Mississauga. Kariya Park in city centre is a Japanese garden opened in 1992, it named after Mississauga’s sister city,
Kariya is a Cities of Japan, city in central Aichi Prefecture, Japan. , the city had an estimated population of 153,162 in 66,751 households, and a population density of 3,040 persons per km2. The total area of the city is . Geography Kariya is situat ...
, Japan.


Sports

Mississauga's Paramount Fine Foods Centre (formerly the Hershey Centre) is the city's main sports venue. It is the home arena for Mississauga's minor league teams, the
Raptors 905 The Raptors 905 are a Canadian professional basketball team in the NBA G League based in Mississauga, Mississauga, Ontario, and are affiliated with the Toronto Raptors. Raptors 905 began play in the 2015–16 season and play their home games at ...
of the
NBA G League The NBA G League, or simply the G League, is the National Basketball Association's (NBA) official List of developmental and minor sports leagues, minor league basketball organization. The league was known as the National Basketball Development ...
and the Mississauga Steelheads of the
Ontario Hockey League The Ontario Hockey League (OHL; french: Ligue de hockey de l'Ontario (LHO)) is one of the three major junior ice hockey leagues which constitute the Canadian Hockey League. The league is for players aged 16–19. There are exceptions for overage ...
. The arena was originally built for Mississauga's first OHL team, the Mississauga Icedogs, before they moved to St. Catharines and became the
Niagara IceDogs The Niagara IceDogs are a Canadian Hockey League, major junior ice hockey team in the Ontario Hockey League based in St. Catharines, Ontario, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada. The franchise was originally known as the Mississauga IceDogs and found ...
. The Steelheads are the rebranded Mississauga St. Michael's Majors who had moved from Toronto in 2007. The arena was formerly the home of the Mississauga MetroStars of the MASL. It formerly was the home arena for the Mississauga Power of the
National Basketball League of Canada The National Basketball League of Canada (NBL Canada; french: Ligue nationale de basketball du Canada) is a Canadian professional men's minor league basketball organization. The NBL Canada was founded in 2011, when three existing Premier Basket ...
before the team dissolved in 2015 after the announcement of the Raptors 905. In 2018, Mississauga's City Council approved a motion to study the feasibility and business case for construction of a new stadium in Mississauga with the hope of gaining a new CPL Team. Other hockey teams in Mississauga include the Mississauga Chiefs of the
Canadian Women's Hockey League The Canadian Women's Hockey League (CWHL; french: Ligue canadienne de hockey féminin ‒ LCHF) was a women's ice hockey league. Established in 2007 as a Canadian women's Senior ice hockey, senior league in the Greater Toronto Area, Montreal, and ...
(who play at Iceland Mississauga), the Mississauga Chargers of the Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League (who play at Port Credit Arena), and the many teams in the
Greater Toronto Hockey League The Greater Toronto Hockey League (GTHL), formerly known as the Metro Toronto Hockey League, is a minor level ice hockey Ice hockey (or simply hockey) is a team sport played on ice skates, usually on an Ice rink, ice skating rink with ...
, Mississauga Hockey League, and Mississauga Girls Hockey League that play in the city's 13 arenas. In addition, there is a roller hockey team, the Mississauga Rattlers of the Great Lakes Inline Junior "A" Roller Hockey League Mississauga also has teams for
box lacrosse Box lacrosse, also known as boxla, box, or indoor lacrosse, is an indoor version of lacrosse played mostly in North America. The game originated in Canada in the 1930s, where it is more popular than field lacrosse. Lacrosse is Canada's official ...
( Mississauga Tomahawks of the OLA Junior A Lacrosse League),
cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail (cricket), bails b ...
(Mississauga Ramblers of the Toronto and District Cricket League, Mississauga Titans of the Etobicoke District Cricket League), and
Canadian football Canadian football () is a team sport, sport played in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play long and wide attempting to advance a pointed oval-shaped ball into the opposing team's sco ...
. The Mississauga Football League (MFL) is a youth football program that is for players aged 7–17, founded in 1971. The city also has other amateur football teams in Ontario leagues: the Mississauga Warriors of the Ontario Varsity Football League and the Mississauga Demons of the Ontario Australian Football League. Mississauga's rugby players are now served by the Mississauga Blues through u7 - u17 Youth And Junior Programs as well as hosting one or more Senior Men's and Senior Women's Teams.
Ringette Ringette is a contact sport, non-contact winter team sport played on ice hockey rinks using Ice skates#Ice hockey skates, ice hockey skates, straight sticks with drag-tips, and a #Equipment, blue, rubber, pneumatic ring designed for use on ice ...
is one of the affiliated youth groups that are allocated ice time by the City of Mississauga (Recreation and Parks Division, Community Services Department) on an allocated priority basis. The Ringette program is administered by the Mississauga Ringette Association. Mississauga Marathon, a qualifier race for the
Boston Marathon The Boston Marathon is an annual marathon race hosted by several cities and towns in greater Boston in eastern Massachusetts, United States. It is traditionally held on Patriots' Day, the third Monday of April. Begun in 1897, the event was i ...
, is held in Mississauga annually. Mississauga is also the host for the 2022 Ontario Summer Games, and the Ontario ParaSport Games.


Government

Mississauga City Council Mississauga City Council is the governing body of the city of Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. The City council, council consists of the mayor and 11 councillors elected to serve a four-year term. The last municipal election was held 2022 Peel Regio ...
consists of the mayor and eleven city councillors, each representing one of the city's eleven numbered wards. The former mayor,
Hazel McCallion Hazel McCallion, (; born February 14, 1921) is a Canadian businesswoman and retired politician who served as the fifth mayor of Mississauga, Ontario, from 1978 until 2014. She is the first and current chancellor (education), chancellor of Sher ...
, at one time the longest-serving mayor in Canada, was succeeded by
Bonnie Crombie Bonnie Crombie ( Stack, born February 5, 1960) is a Canadians, Canadian politician who has served as the 6th and current List of mayors of Mississauga, Mayor of Mississauga, Ontario since December 1, 2014. From 2008 to 2011, she was a Liberal Par ...
in November 2014.


Wards and councillors

Council elected in the 2018 municipal election: The City of Mississauga has had only four mayors in its history. Martin Dobkin was the city's first mayor in 1974. He was then followed by Ron A. Searle. Searle was defeated in 1978 by then-city councillor and former mayor of Streetsville, McCallion. McCallion won 12 consecutive terms as mayor, but she chose to retire prior to the November 2014 election and was succeeded by Bonnie Crombie, who won the election. McCallion is regarded as a force in provincial politics and often referred to as ''Hurricane Hazel'', after the devastating 1954 storm that struck the Toronto area. McCallion won or was acclaimed in every mayoral election from 1978 to 2010, in some later elections without even campaigning. In October 2010, McCallion won her twelfth term in office with over 76% of the votes. McCallion was the nation's longest-serving mayor and was runner-up in World Mayor 2005. In 2014 McCallion did not run again, but endorsed Crombie, the eventual winner who became mayor in November 2014.


Provincial electoral districts

* Mississauga Centre (provincial electoral district) * Mississauga East—Cooksville (provincial electoral district) * Mississauga—Erin Mills (provincial electoral district) * Mississauga—Lakeshore (provincial electoral district) * Mississauga—Malton (provincial electoral district) * Mississauga—Streetsville (provincial electoral district)


Federal electoral districts

* Mississauga Centre * Mississauga East—Cooksville * Mississauga—Erin Mills * Mississauga-Lakeshore * Mississauga—Malton * Mississauga—Streetsville


Infrastructure


Transportation


Rail

Mississauga is on three major railway lines (one each owned by the
Canadian National Railway The Canadian National Railway Company (french: Compagnie des chemins de fer nationaux du Canada) is a Canadian Class I railroad, Class I freight railway headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, which serves Canada and the Midwestern United States, M ...
, the
Canadian Pacific Railway The Canadian Pacific Railway (french: Chemin de fer Canadien Pacifique) , also known simply as CPR or Canadian Pacific and formerly as CP Rail (1968–1996), is a Canadian Class I railway incorporated in 1881. The railway is owned by Canadi ...
, and
Metrolinx Metrolinx is a Crown agency of the Government of Ontario The government of Ontario (french: Gouvernement de l'Ontario) is the body responsible for the administration of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontari ...
). Toronto–Sarnia
Via Rail Via Rail Canada Inc. (), Trade name, operating as Via Rail or Via, is a Canadian Crown corporations of Canada, Crown corporation that is mandated to operate intercity passenger rail service in Canada. It receives an annual subsidy from Transpo ...
trains on the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor pass through Mississauga and make
request stop In public transport, a request stop, flag stop, or whistle stop is a bus stop, stop or train station, station at which buses or trains, respectively, stop only on request; that is, only if there are passengers or freight to be picked up or drop ...
s at Malton GO Station in the northeast of the city. Other Via Rail services stop in the neighbouring cities of
Brampton Brampton ( or ) is a city in the Canadian Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Ontario. Brampton is a city in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and is a List of municipalities in Ontario#Lower-tier municipalities, lower-tier municipalit ...
, Oakville, and
Toronto Toronto ( ; or ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,794,356 in 2021, it is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, most pop ...
.


Commuter rail

Commuter rail service is provided by
GO Transit GO Transit is a regional public transport, public transit system serving the Greater Golden Horseshoe region of Ontario, Canada. With its hub at Union Station (Toronto), Union Station in Toronto, GO Transit's green-and-white GO Transit rail ser ...
, a division of Metrolinx, on the Lakeshore West, Kitchener, and Milton lines. All-day service is provided along the Lakeshore West line, while the Kitchener and Milton lines serve commuters going to and from Toronto's
Union Station A union station (also known as a union terminal, a joint station in Europe, and a joint-use station in Japan) is a railway station at which the tracks and facilities are shared by two or more separate railway company, railway companies, allowi ...
during rush hours.


Bus

The city's public transit service, MiWay (formerly Mississauga Transit), provides bus service along more than 90 routes across the city, and connects to commuter rail with GO Transit as well as with Brampton Transit, Oakville Transit, and the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC). MiWay operates routes for both local service (branded as "MiLocal") and
limited-stop In public transit Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of transport for passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public unlike privat ...
service (branded as "MiExpress"). Intercity buses operated by GO Transit stop at GO Train stations throughout the city and the
Square One Bus Terminal Square One Bus Terminal is a GO Transit intercity bus terminal located in Mississauga City Centre, central Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. It is situated directly across Rathburn Road West from the Mississauga City Centre Transit Terminal (the main ...
.


Mississauga Transitway

A 12-station busway similar to
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian French: ) is the capital city A capital city or capital is the municipality holding primary status in a country, state, province, Department (country subdivision), department, or other subnational entity, usually as i ...
's
Transitway Bus rapid transit (BRT), also called a busway or transitway, is a Public transport bus service, bus-based public transport system designed to have much more Route capacity, capacity, On-time performance, reliability and other quality features t ...
was built parallel to Highway 403 from Winston Churchill Boulevard to Renforth Avenue, via the Mississauga City Centre Transit Terminal. Opened in stages, the Mississauga Transitway was completed on 22 November 2017 with the opening of the final station: Renforth. The service also connects to Kipling Subway Station in Toronto, via mixed lane traffic after Renforth station.


Hurontario LRT

There are plans for the construction of an LRT line along
Hurontario Street Hurontario Street is a roadway running in Ontario, Canada between Lake Ontario at Mississauga and Lake Huron's Georgian Bay at Collingwood, Ontario, Collingwood. Within Regional Municipality of Peel, Peel Region, it is a major urban thoroughfar ...
stretching from Port Credit to southern Brampton, and possibly to Brampton's downtown. The project went through the Transit Project Assessment Process (TPAP) which includes environmental assessment. The line will be fully funded by the provincial government, with construction set to begin in 2018. Rapid transit lines could possibly be built on some other main thoroughfares, namely Dundas Street and Lakeshore Road, but no definite dates have been set.


Toronto Subway

In addition to the 19 km light rail line, there are plans to extend Line 5 Eglinton to Renforth Gateway and
Toronto Pearson International Airport Lester B. Pearson International Airport , commonly known as Toronto Pearson International Airport, is an international airport located in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. It is the main airport serving Toronto, its Greater Toronto Area, metropolit ...
though eastern Mississauga by 2030-2031 bringing the
Toronto Subway The Toronto subway is a rapid transit system serving Toronto and the neighbouring city of Vaughan in Ontario, Canada, operated by the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC). It is a multimodal transport, multimodal rail network consisting of three Pa ...
into Mississauga. There will be 4 stops in the city at Renforth Gateway connecting with the Mississauga Transitway and serving the Airport Corporate Centre, Convair serving the GTAA headquarters and airfield and aircraft maintenance areas, Silver Dart serving rental car facilities and airport hotels, and Pearson Airport serving the airport at a future transit hub.


Highways

Highway 401 King's Highway 401, commonly referred to as Highway 401 and also known by its official name as the Macdonald–Cartier Freeway or colloquially referred to as the four-oh-one, is a controlled-access 400-series highway in the Canadian prov ...
(or the Macdonald-Cartier Freeway, connecting Windsor to the
Quebec Quebec ( ; )According to the Government of Canada, Canadian government, ''Québec'' (with the acute accent) is the official name in Canadian French and ''Quebec'' (without the accent) is the province's official name in Canadian English is ...
border) passes through the city's north end. The eastern part uses the collector/express lane system and feeds into Highway 403, the main freeway in the city, which runs through the City Centre and Erin Mills areas. The
Queen Elizabeth Way The Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW) is a 400-series highways, 400-series highway in the Canadian province of Ontario linking Toronto with the Niagara Peninsula and Buffalo, New York, Buffalo, New York (state), New York. The Controlled-access highway ...
, the city's first freeway, runs through the southern half of the city. These three freeways each run east–west, with the exception of the 403 from the 401 to Cawthra Road, and from the 407 to QEW. North of the 401, the collector lanes of the 403 become Highway 410, which goes to Brampton. Part of Highway 409 is within the city of Mississauga, and it provides access to
Pearson Airport Lester B. Pearson International Airport , commonly known as Toronto Pearson International Airport, is an international airport located in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. It is the main airport serving Toronto, its Greater Toronto Area, metropolit ...
. Two other freeways run along or close to Mississauga's municipal borders. Highway 407 runs metres from the northern city limits in a power transmission corridor and forms the city's boundary with Milton between highways 401 and 403. Highway 427 forms the Toronto-Mississauga boundary in the northeast, and is always within 2 kilometres of the boundary further south, with the exception of the area around Centennial Park.


Air

Lester B. Pearson International Airport (YYZ), operated by the
Greater Toronto Airports Authority The Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA; french: Autorité aéroportuaire du Grand Toronto) operates Toronto Pearson International Airport in Mississauga, Ontario, west of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Toronto Pearson is Canada's largest airport ...
in the northeastern part of the city, is the largest and busiest airport in Canada. In 2015, it handled 41,036,847 passengers and 443,958 aircraft movements. It is a major North American global gateway, handling more international passengers than any airport in North America other than John F. Kennedy International Airport. Pearson is the main hub for
Air Canada Air Canada is the flag carrier and the largest airline of Canada Canada is a country in North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean ...
, and a hub for passenger airline
WestJet WestJet Airlines Ltd. is a Canadian airline headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, near Calgary International Airport. It is the second-largest Canadian airline, behind Air Canada, operating an average of 777 flights and carrying more than 66,130 ...
and cargo airline
FedEx Express FedEx Express, a subsidiary of FedEx Corporation, is a major American cargo airline based in Memphis, Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee, United States. As of 2020, it is one of the world's List of largest airlines, largest airlines in terms of flee ...
. It is served by over 75 airlines, having over 180 destinations.


Bicycle

In 2010, the City of Mississauga approved a Cycling Master Plan outlining a strategy to develop over of on and off-road cycling routes in the city over the next 20 years. Over 1,000 Mississauga citizens and stakeholders contributed their thoughts and ideas to help develop this plan. The plan focuses on fostering cycling as a way of life in the city, building an integrated network of cycling routes and aims to adopt a safety first approach to cycling.


Emergency services

Peel Regional Police The Peel Regional Police (PRP) provide policing services for Peel Region (excluding Caledon) in Ontario Ontario ( ; ) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.Ontario is located in the geographic Eastern Canada, eastern ha ...
provide policing within the city of Mississauga and airport. In addition, the
Ontario Provincial Police The Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) is the State police, provincial police service of Ontario, Canada. Under its provincial mandate, the OPP patrols Provincial highways in Ontario, provincial highways and waterways, protects Government of Ontar ...
have a Port Credit detachment in the city for patrolling provincial highways.
Mississauga Fire and Emergency Services Mississauga Fire and Emergency Services (MFES) provides fire protection, technical rescue services, hazardous materials response, and first responder emergency medical assistance to the city of Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. The Fire Service was ...
provide
fire fighting Firefighting is the act of extinguishing or preventing the spread of unwanted fires from threatening human lives and destroying property and the environment. A person who engages in firefighting is known as a firefighter. Firefighters typically ...
services and Peel Regional Paramedic Services provides emergency medical services. Toronto Pearson also has its own fire department with two halls that service calls within the airport grounds.


Healthcare

The city's two main hospitals— Credit Valley Hospital and Mississauga Hospital—were amalgamated into the Trillium Health Partners hospital group in December 2011. The health system and the administration for students in Mississauga was the property of the Peel District School Board Health Centre and the health support for citizens in Mississauga was the property of Peel Health Centre. The eastern part of Mississauga was the property of Pearson Health (Greater Toronto Area Health Department).


Education

Mississauga is the home to the
University of Toronto Mississauga The University of Toronto Mississauga (UTM), also known as U of T Mississauga, is one of the three campuses that make up the tri-campus system of the University of Toronto. Located in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, the campus opened in 1967 as Eri ...
, one of three campuses of the
University of Toronto The University of Toronto (UToronto or U of T) is a public university, public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park (Toronto), Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 ...
. UTM has an enrollment of approximately 13,200 students. It is growing at a rate of about 1,000 students per year since 2002, following a major expansion. U of T Mississauga has 15 academic departments, 143 programs and 87 areas of study, and includes Institutes for Management and Innovation, and Communication, Culture, Information and Technology. The Mississauga Academy of Medicine is located on campus in the Terrence Donnelly Health Sciences Complex. The campus employs over 2,000 full- and part-time employees (including 800 permanent faculty and staff), and has more than 47,000 alumni, including astronaut Dr. Roberta Bondar, filmmaker Richie Mehta, actor Zaib Shaikh and writer/poet
Dionne Brand Dionne Brand (born 7 January 1953) is a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of thes ...
. The $35-million Innovation Complex, which opened in September 2014, houses the Institute for Management and Innovation, a new model for business education combining management studies with key industry sectors, and the first phase of the multi-phase North Building reconstruction, known as Deerfield Hall, opened in September 2014.
Sheridan College Sheridan College Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning (formerly Sheridan College of Applied Arts and Technology) is a public polytechnic institute of technology located in the west-Greater Toronto Area in Ontario, Canada. Founded in ...
opened a new $46 million facility in Mississauga in 2011. The school has two main concentrations: business education, and programs to accelerate the movement of new Canadians into the workforce. The campus will be located on an parcel of land in City Centre just north of the Living Arts Centre. The campus accommodated 1,700 students upon completion of phase one of construction in Fall 2011. Phase two of construction after 2011 increased capacity by 3,740 students to a combined total of 5,000; it also included construction of a 10-level municipal parking garage. Mississauga is served by the
Peel District School Board The Peel District School Board (PDSB; known as English-Language Public District School Board No. 19 prior to 1999) is a school district that serves approximately 153,000 kindergarten to grade 12 students at more than 259 schools in the Region ...
, which operates the secular Anglophone public schools, the Dufferin-Peel Catholic District School Board, which operates Catholic Anglophone public schools, the '' Conseil scolaire Viamonde'', which operates secular Francophone schools, and the '' Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud'', which operates Catholic Francophone schools. Within the city, the four boards run a total of more than 150 schools. Multiple schools in Mississauga also offer specialized programs: *
French immersion French immersion is a form of bilingual education In bilingual education, students are taught in two (or more) languages. It is distinct from learning a second language as a subject because both languages are used for instruction in differe ...
schools in multiple locations across the city such as Applewood Heights Secondary School, Clarkson Secondary School and Streetsville Secondary School * Extended French Program at St. Thomas More School,
Lorne Park Secondary School Lorne Park Secondary School (often abbreviated as LP or LPSS) is a state school, public high school located in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. It serves the Lorne Park neighbourhood, as well as a larger catchment area for the Extended French program ...
, Philip Pocock Catholic Secondary School and St. Aloysius Gonzaga Secondary School * Regional Arts Program at Queen Elizabeth Senior Public School, Cawthra Park Secondary School and
Iona Catholic Secondary School Iona Catholic Secondary School is a Catholic school, Catholic secondary school in the Dufferin-Peel Catholic District School Board. It provides education to students from the Clarkson, Mississauga, Clarkson and Lorne Park areas of Mississauga, Ont ...
* International Business and Technology Program at Allan A. Martin Senior Public School and Gordon Graydon Memorial Secondary School *
International Baccalaureate The International Baccalaureate (IB), formerly known as the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO), is a Nonprofit organization, nonprofit foundation headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and founded in 1968. It offers four educationa ...
Program at St. Francis Xavier Secondary School, Glenforest Secondary School, Bronte College and
Erindale Secondary School Erindale Secondary School is a secondary School of the Peel District School Board serving the Erindale community of Western Mississauga, Ontario. Special programs Erindale offers the International Baccalaureate The International Baccalaur ...
. * Sci Tech Program at Tomken Road Middle School and Port Credit Secondary School * Regional Enhanced Program at Glenforest Secondary School, The Woodlands School and
Lorne Park Secondary School Lorne Park Secondary School (often abbreviated as LP or LPSS) is a state school, public high school located in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. It serves the Lorne Park neighbourhood, as well as a larger catchment area for the Extended French program ...
. * Regional Sports Program at Applewood Heights Secondary School * International and Executive Leadership Academy at TL Kennedy Secondary School


Media

Mississauga is part of the Toronto media market and is served by media based in Toronto, with markets in the
Greater Toronto Area The Greater Toronto Area, commonly referred to as the GTA, includes the Toronto, City of Toronto and the regional municipality, regional municipalities of Regional Municipality of Durham, Durham, Regional Municipality of Halton, Halton, Regional ...
(GTA) that cover most of the news in the GTA. Examples of this being the majority of radio stations transmitting from the nearby
CN Tower The CN Tower (french: Tour CN) is a concrete Concrete is a composite material composed of fine and coarse construction aggregate, aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens (cures) over time. Concrete ...
in Toronto. However, Mississauga also has '' The Mississauga News'', a regional newspaper that is published two days a week in print and daily online. There is also the ''Sunday Times'', a community newspaper for the South Asian community that is published weekly in print and also available online, as well as ''Modern Mississauga'', a bi-monthly general-interest print and digital magazine. The city also has three local radio stations: * AM 960 CKNT, local
news News is information about current events. This may be provided through many different Media (communication), media: word of mouth, printing, Mail, postal systems, broadcasting, Telecommunications, electronic communication, or through the tes ...
/
talk radio Talk radio is a radio format containing discussion about topical issues and consisting entirely or almost entirely of original spoken word content rather than outside music. Most shows are regularly hosted by a single individual, and often featur ...
* AM 1650 CINA, multicultural station mainly targeted to Indian and Pakistani audiences. * FM 91.9 CFRE, the
campus radio Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of radio station that is run by the students of a college, university or other educational institution. Programming may be exclusively created or produced ...
station of the
University of Toronto Mississauga The University of Toronto Mississauga (UTM), also known as U of T Mississauga, is one of the three campuses that make up the tri-campus system of the University of Toronto. Located in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, the campus opened in 1967 as Eri ...
. The following national cable television stations also broadcast from Mississauga: * Rogers Television, community channel * The Shopping Channel, broadcasts nationally from Mississauga *
The Weather Network The Weather Network (TWN) is a Television in Canada, Canadian English language, English-language weather information specialty channel available in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom. It delivers weather information on television, ...
, broadcast nationally from Mississauga 1998–2005 * Bite TV, Canada's first interactive television station.


Sister cities

Mississauga has one
sister city A sister city or a twin town relationship is a form of legal or social agreement between two geographically and politically distinct localities for the purpose of promoting cultural and commercial ties. While there are early examples of inter ...
: *
Kariya is a Cities of Japan, city in central Aichi Prefecture, Japan. , the city had an estimated population of 153,162 in 66,751 households, and a population density of 3,040 persons per km2. The total area of the city is . Geography Kariya is situat ...
,
Aichi is a Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region of Honshū. Aichi Prefecture has a population of 7,552,873 () and a geographic area of with a population density of . Aichi Prefecture borders Mie Prefecture to the we ...
,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally , ''Nihonkoku'') is an island country in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, while extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north ...
(1981)


Notable people


Freedom of the City

The
Freedom of the City The Freedom of the City (or Borough in some parts of the UK) is an honour bestowed by a municipality upon a valued member of the community, or upon a visiting celebrity or dignitary. Arising from the medieval practice of granting respected ...
is the highest honour that a Canadian municipality can bestow on an individual or military unit. The following people and military units have received the
Freedom of the City The Freedom of the City (or Borough in some parts of the UK) is an honour bestowed by a municipality upon a valued member of the community, or upon a visiting celebrity or dignitary. Arising from the medieval practice of granting respected ...
of Mississauga.


Individuals

*
Hazel McCallion Hazel McCallion, (; born February 14, 1921) is a Canadian businesswoman and retired politician who served as the fifth mayor of Mississauga, Ontario, from 1978 until 2014. She is the first and current chancellor (education), chancellor of Sher ...
: 12 April 2017. *
Bianca Andreescu Bianca Vanessa Andreescu (; born June 16, 2000) is a Canadian professional tennis player. She has a career-high ranking of No. 4 in the world, and is the highest-ranked Canadian in the history of the Women's Tennis Association (WTA). Andreescu ...
: 15 September 2019. * Dr. Mohamad Fakih: 15 November 2019. * Members of the Band Triumph ( Rik Emmett, Mike Levine and Gil Moore): 25 November 2019.


Military units

* The Lorne Scots Regiment : 2 July 2014. * The Toronto Scottish Regiment: 20 September 2014.


See also

* List of tallest buildings in Mississauga *
List of cities in Ontario A city is a subtype of List of municipalities in Ontario, municipalities in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. A city can have the municipal status of either a List of municipalities in Ontario#Unitary authority ( ...
* List of tallest buildings in Ontario *
Greater Toronto Area The Greater Toronto Area, commonly referred to as the GTA, includes the Toronto, City of Toronto and the regional municipality, regional municipalities of Regional Municipality of Durham, Durham, Regional Municipality of Halton, Halton, Regional ...
*
Regional Municipality of Peel The Regional Municipality of Peel (informally Peel Region or Region of Peel, also formerly Peel County) is a regional municipality in the Greater Toronto Area, Southern Ontario, Canada. It consists of three municipalities to the west and north ...


References


External links

* * {{authority control Cities in Ontario Lower-tier municipalities in Ontario Populated places established in 1805 1805 establishments in Upper Canada Populated places on Lake Ontario in Canada Anishinaabe lands