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Ljubljana (also known by other historical names) is the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and largest city of
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
. It is the cultural, educational, economic, political and administrative centre of the country. During antiquity, a Roman city called
Emona Emona (early gkm, Ἤμονα) or Aemona (short for ) was a Ancient Rome, Roman castrum, located in the area where the navigable Ljubljanica river came closest to Ljubljana Castle, Castle Hill,
Emona
stood in the area. Ljubljana itself was first mentioned in the first half of the 12th century. Situated at the middle of a trade route between the northern
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the from the . The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the , extending from the (where it connects to the ) to the northwest and the . The countries with coasts on the Adriatic are , , , , and ...

Adriatic Sea
and the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the in Europe, after the in . It flows through much of and , from the into the . Its longest headstream rises in , while the river carries its name from its source confluence in onwards. The Danube was once a long-s ...

Danube
region, it was the historical capital of
Carniola Carniola (Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly li ...

Carniola
, one of the
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
-inhabited parts of the
Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy (german: Donaumonarchie), or Habsburg Empire (german: Habsburgerreich) is a modern umbrella term In linguistics, hyponymy (from Greek language, Greek ὑπό, ''hupó'', "u ...

Habsburg Monarchy
. It was under
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...
rule from the Middle Ages until the dissolution of the
Austro-Hungarian Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises authority in accordance with a writte ...

Austro-Hungarian
Empire in 1918. After
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
, Ljubljana became the capital of the
Socialist Republic of Slovenia The Socialist Republic of Slovenia ( sl, Socialistična republika Slovenija, sh, Socijalistička Republika Slovenija / Социјалистичка Република Словенија), commonly referred to as Socialist Slovenia or simply Slove ...
, part of the
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a in and that existed from its foundation in the until in 1992 amid the . Covering an area of 255,804 km2 (98,766 sq mi), ...
. It retained this status until Slovenia became independent in 1991 and Ljubljana became the capital of the newly formed state.


Name and symbol

The origin of the name of the city, Ljubljana, is unclear. In the Middle Ages, both the river and the town were also known by the German name Laibach. This name was in official use as an
endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 milli ...
until 1918, and it remains frequent as a German exonym, both in common speech and official use. The city is called '' Lubiana'' in Italian, in la, Labacum and anciently ''Aemona''. For most scholars, the problem has been in how to connect the Slovene and the German names. The origin from the ''ljub''- "to love, like" was in 2007 supported as the most probable by the linguist Tijmen Pronk, a specialist in comparative
Indo-European linguistics Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional are ...
and Slovene dialectology, from the
University of Leiden Leiden University (commonly abbreviated as LEI; nl, Universiteit Leiden) is a public university, public research university in Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands. Founded in 1575 by William the Silent, William, Prince of Orange as a reward to the town of ...
. He supported the thesis that the name of the river derived from the name of the settlement. The linguist , who specialises in Slovene personal and place names, argued for the thesis that the name ''Ljubljana'' derives from ''Ljubija'', the original name of the flowing through it, itself derived from the Old Slavic male name ''Ljubovid'', "the one of a lovely appearance". The name ''Laibach'', he claimed, was actually a hybrid of German and Slovene and derived from the same personal name. The symbol of the city is the Ljubljana Dragon. It is depicted on the top of the tower of
Ljubljana Castle Ljubljana Castle ( sl, Ljubljanski grad, german: Laibacher Schloss) is a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Br ...
in the Ljubljana coat of arms and on the Ljubljanica-crossing Dragon Bridge (). It symbolises power, courage, and greatness. There are several explanations on the origin of the Ljubljana Dragon. According to a Slavic myth, the slaying of a dragon releases the waters and ensures the fertility of the earth, and it is thought that the myth is tied to the
Ljubljana Marshes The Ljubljana Marshes ( sl, Ljubljansko barje), located south of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, is the largest marsh in the country. It covers or 0.8% of the Slovene territory. It is administered by the municipalities of Borovnica, Munici ...
, the expansive marshy area that periodically threatens Ljubljana with flooding.Exhibition catalogue Emona: myth and reality
; Museum and Galleries of Ljubljana 2010
According to the celebrated
Greek legend Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of the world, the lives ...
, the
Argonauts The Argonauts (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ) ...

Argonauts
on their return home after having taken the
Golden Fleece#REDIRECT Golden Fleece n red-figure calyx krater, c. 340–330 BC In Greek mythology, the Golden Fleece ( el, Χρυσόμαλλο δέρας, ''Chrysómallo déras'') is the wool, fleece of the golden-woolled,, ''Khrusómallos''. winged Sheep, ...

Golden Fleece
found a large lake surrounded by a marsh between the present-day towns of
Vrhnika Vrhnika (; german: Oberlaibach;''Leksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru,'' vol. 6: ''Kranjsko''. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 120. la, Nauportus) is a town A town is a human settleme ...

Vrhnika
and Ljubljana. It was there that
Jason Jason ( ; ) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...

Jason
struck down a monster. This monster has evolved into the
dragon A dragon is a large, serpent Serpent or The Serpent may refer to: * Snake Snakes are elongated, limbless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes . Like all other squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote Amniotes (fro ...

dragon
that today is present in the city coat of arms and flag. It is historically more believable that the dragon was adopted from
Saint George Saint George (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...

Saint George
, the patron of the Ljubljana Castle chapel built in the 15th century. In the legend of Saint George, the dragon represents the old ancestral
paganism Paganism (from classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, includ ...
overcome by
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
. According to another explanation, related to the second, the dragon was at first only a decoration above the city coat of arms. In the
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashi ...

Baroque
, it became part of the coat of arms, and in the 19th and especially the 20th century, it outstripped the tower and other elements in importance.


History


Prehistory

Around 2000 BC, the
Ljubljana Marshes The Ljubljana Marshes ( sl, Ljubljansko barje), located south of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, is the largest marsh in the country. It covers or 0.8% of the Slovene territory. It is administered by the municipalities of Borovnica, Munici ...
in the immediate vicinity of Ljubljana were settled by people living in
pile dwellings Stilt houses (also called pile dwellings or lake dwellings) are houses raised on stilts Stilts are poles, posts or pillars that allow a person or structure to stand at a height above the ground. In flood plains, and on beach A summe ...
. Prehistoric pile dwellings and the oldest wooden wheel in the world are among the most notable archeological findings from the marshland. These lake-dwelling people lived through hunting, fishing and primitive agriculture. To get around the marshes, they used
dugout canoe A dugout canoe or simply dugout is a boat made from a hollowed tree. Other names for this type of boat are logboat and monoxylon. ''Monoxylon'' (''μονόξυλον'') (pl: ''monoxyla'') is Greek -- ''mono-'' (single) + ''wikt:ξύλον, ξύλο ...

dugout canoe
s made by cutting out the inside of tree trunks. Their archaeological remains, nowadays in the
Municipality of Ig The Municipality of Ig (; sl, Občina Ig) is a municipality in central Slovenia. Its seat is the settlement of Ig, Ig, Ig. It was formed in 1995 from parts of the Municipality of Rudnik, Ljubljana, Vič–Rudnik, until then one of the five munici ...
, have been designated a
UNESCO World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNES ...
since June 2011, in the common nomination of six Alpine states. Later, the area remained a transit point for numerous tribes and peoples, among them the
Illyrians The Illyrians ( grc, Ἰλλυριοί, ''Illyrioi''; la, Illyrii) were a group of Indo-European languages, Indo-European speaking peoples, who inhabited the western Balkan Peninsula in ancient times. They constituted one of the three main Paleo ...

Illyrians
, followed by a mixed nation of the
Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European peoples The Indo-European languages ar ...

Celts
and the Illyrians called the
Iapydes The Iapydes (or Iapodes, Japodes; el, Ἰάποδες) were an ancient people who dwelt north of and inland from the Liburnians The Liburnians or Liburni ( grc, Λιβυρνοὶ) were an ancient tribe inhabiting the district called Liburnia, ...
, and then in the 3rd century BC a Celtic tribe, the
Taurisci The Taurisci were a federation of Celts, Celtic tribes who dwelt in today's Carinthia and northern Slovenia (Carniola) before the coming of the Ancient Rome, Romans (c. 200 BC). According to Pliny the Elder, they are the same as the people known a ...
.


Antiquity

Around 50 BC, the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
built a military encampment that later became a permanent settlement called . This entrenched fort was occupied by the ''
Legio XV Apollinaris Legio XV Apollinaris ("Apollo's Fifteenth Legion") was a Roman legion, legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was recruited by Augustus, Octavian in 41/40 BC. The emblem of this legion was probably a picture of Apollo, or of one of his holy anim ...

Legio XV Apollinaris
''. Hildegard Temporini and Wolfgang Haase, ''Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt''. de Gruyter, 1988.
Google Books, p.343
/ref> In 452, it was destroyed by the
Huns The Huns were a nomadic people A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral ...

Huns
under
Attila Attila (; ), frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns The Huns were a nomadic people A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly ...
's orders, and later by the
Ostrogoths The Ostrogoths ( la, Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a Roman-era Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mention ...
and the
Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on ...
.Daniel Mallinus, ''La Yougoslavie'', Éd. Artis-Historia, Brussels, 1988, D/1988/0832/27, p. 37-39. Emona housed 5,000 to 6,000 inhabitants and played an important role during numerous battles. Its plastered brick houses, painted in different colours, were already connected to a drainage system. In the 6th century, the ancestors of the
Slovenes The Slovenes, also known as Slovenians ( sl, Slovenci ), are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), cust ...
moved in. In the 9th century, they fell under
Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman author ...

Frankish
domination, while experiencing frequent Magyar raids. Not much is known about the area during the settlement of
Slavs Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central Europe, ...

Slavs
in the period between the downfall of Emona and the Early Middle Ages.


Middle Ages

The parchment sheet ''Nomina defunctorum'' ("Names of the Dead"), most probably written in the second half of 1161, mentions the nobleman Rudolf of Tarcento, a lawyer of the
Patriarchate of Aquileia The Patriarchate of Aquileia was an episcopal see in northeastern Italy, centred on the ancient city of Aquileia situated at the head of the Adriatic, on what is now the Italian seacoast. For many centuries it played an important part in history ...
, who had bestowed a canon with 20 farmsteads beside the castle of Ljubljana (''castrum Leibach'') to the Patriarchate. According to the historian Peter Štih's deduction, this happened between 1112 and 1125, thus representing the earliest mention of Ljubljana. Originally owned by a number of possessors, until the first half of the 12th century, the territory south of the
Sava The Sava (; , ; sr-cyr, Сава, Hungarian: Száva) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and become ...

Sava
where the town of Ljubljana developed gradually became property of the Carinthian family of the Dukes of Sponheim. Urban settlement in Ljubljana started in the second half of the 12th century. At around 1200,
market rights A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the late 15th century. It began with the fall o ...
were granted to
Old Square Old Square is a public square and Junction (road), road junction in the City Centre Core, Core area of Birmingham City Centre, England. Prior to construction The site of the square was formerly occupied the Priory of St Thomas of Canterbury, Bir ...
(), which at the time was one of the three districts that Ljubljana originated from. The other two districts were an area called "Town" (), built around the predecessor of the present-day Ljubljana Cathedral at one side of the
Ljubljanica The Ljubljanica (), known in the Middle Ages as the ''Sava'', is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and bec ...

Ljubljanica
River, and New Square () at the other side. The Franciscan Bridge, a predecessor of the present-day
Triple Bridge:''For a St. Petersburg bridge, see Tripartite Bridge'' The Triple Bridge ( sl, Tromostovje, in older sources also ''Tromostje'') is a group of three bridges across the Ljubljanica River. It connects the Ljubljana's historical, medieval, town on on ...
, and the connected the walled areas with wood-made buildings. Ljubljana acquired the
town privileges File:Square of Spisska Sobota 6.jpg, 250px, Medieval square in Spišská Sobota, Slovakia (Now Poprad). The former name of the town literally means "Saturday in Spiš" and it is derived from a day of week in which the town was granted a right ...
at some time between 1220 and 1243. Seven fires erupted in the town during the Middle Ages. Artisans organised themselves into
guild A guild is an association of artisan Wood carver in Bali An artisan (from french: artisan, it, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates material objects partly or entirely by hand. These objects may be functiona ...
s. The
Teutonic Knights The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: la, Ordo domus Sanctae Mariae Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum; german: Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly known ...
, the
Conventual Franciscans The Order of Friars Minor Conventual (OFM Conv), commonly known as the Conventual Franciscans, or Minorites, is a Catholic branch of the Franciscans , image = FrancescoCoA PioM.svg , image_size = 250px , caption ...
, and the
Franciscans , image = FrancescoCoA PioM.svg , image_size = 250px , caption = A cross, Christ's arm and Saint Francis's arm, a universal symbol of the Franciscans , abbreviation = OFM , predecessor = , ...
settled in the town. In 1256, when the Carinthian duke Ulrich III of Spanheim became lord of Carniola, the provincial capital was moved from
Kamnik Kamnik (; german: Stein''Leksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru,'' vol. 6: ''Kranjsko''. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, pp. 26–27. or ''Stein in Oberkrain'') is a town in northern Slovenia Sl ...

Kamnik
to Ljubljana. In the late 1270s, Ljubljana was conquered by King
Ottokar II of Bohemia Ottokar II ( cs, Přemysl Otakar II; , in Městec Králové, Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical ...

Ottokar II of Bohemia
. (includes timeline) In 1278, after Ottokar's defeat, it became—together with the rest of
Carniola Carniola (Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly li ...

Carniola
—property of
Rudolph of Habsburg Rudolf I (1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291) was the first king of Germany from the House of Habsburg. The first of the count-kings of Kingdom of Germany, Germany, he reigned from 1273 until his death. Rudolf's imperial election of 1273, election m ...
. It was administered by the
Counts of Gorizia The County of Gorizia ( it, Contea di Gorizia, german: Grafschaft Görz, sl, Goriška grofija, fur, Contee di Gurize), from 1365 Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, Princely County of Gorizia, was a Imperial State, State of the Holy Roman Empire. O ...
from 1279 until 1335, when it became the capital town of Carniola. Renamed ''Laibach'', it would be owned by the
House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...
until 1797. In 1327, the Ljubljana's "Jewish Quarter"—now only "Jewish Street" () remains—was established with a synagogue, and lasted until Emperor
Maximilian IMaximilian I may refer to: *Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, reigned 1486/93–1519 *Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, reigned 1597–1651 *Maximilian I, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1636-1689) *Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, reigned 1795– ...

Maximilian I
in 1515 succumbed to
medieval antisemitism Antisemitism in the history of the Jews in the Middle Ages became increasingly prevalent in the Late Middle Ages. Johannes, Fried (2015) p. 287-289 The Middle Ages. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Early instances of pogroms agai ...
and expelled Jews from Ljubljana, for which he demanded a certain payment from the town. In 1382, in front of St. Bartholomew's Church in Šiška, at the time a nearby village, now part of Ljubljana, a peace treaty was signed between the
Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic Most Serene Republic ( ...
and Leopold III of
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...

Habsburg
.


Early modern

In the 15th century, Ljubljana became recognised for its art, particularly painting and sculpture. The Roman Rite Catholic Diocese of Ljubljana was established in 1461 and the Church of St. Nicholas became the diocesan cathedral. After the
1511 Idrija earthquake The 1511 Idrija earthquake ( sl, Idrijski potres) occurred on March 26 with a maximum Mercalli intensity scale, Mercalli intensity of X (''Extreme''). The epicenter was around the town of Idrija in present-day Slovenia, although some place it some ...
, the city was rebuilt in the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...
style and a new wall was built around it. Wooden buildings were forbidden after a large fire at New Square in 1524. In the 16th century, the population of Ljubljana numbered 5,000, 70% of whom spoke
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
as their
first language A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) ...
, with most of the rest using German. The first
secondary school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education (ages 11 to 14) and upper secondary educat ...
, public library and printing house opened in Ljubljana. Ljubljana became an important educational centre. From 1529, Ljubljana had an active Slovene Protestant community. After they were expelled in 1598, marking the beginning of the
Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation (), also called the Catholic Reformation () or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic Church, Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revo ...
, Catholic Bishop
Thomas Chrön Thomas Chrön ( sl, Tomaž Hren or ''Kren''; November 13, 1560 – February 10, 1630) was a Carniolan Roman Catholic priest, bishop of Ljubljana, and patron of the arts.Rajhman, Jože, & Emilijan Cevc. 1990. Tomaž Hren. ''Enciklopedija Slov ...
ordered the public burning of eight cartloads of Protestant books.Rajhman, Jože, & Emilijan Cevc. 1990. Tomaž Hren. ''Enciklopedija Slovenije'', vol. 4, pp. 50–51. Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga. In 1597, the
Jesuits The Society of Jesus ( la, Societas Iesu; abbreviated SJ), also known as the Jesuits (; la, Iesuitæ), is a religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome. It was founded by Ignatius of Loyola and six co ...
arrived in the city, followed in 1606 by the
Capuchins Capuchin can refer to: *Order of Friars Minor Capuchin Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness, a desire for organization * Categorization Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similar ...
, to eradicate Protestantism. Only 5% of all the residents of Ljubljana at the time were Catholic, and so it took quite a while to re-Catholicize the town. The Jesuits staged the first theatre productions in the town, fostered the development of
Baroque music Baroque music ( or ) is a period or style of Western classical music Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both Religious music, liturgical (Religion, religious) and secular music, sec ...
, and established Catholic schools. In the middle and the second half of the 17th century, foreign architects built and renovated numerous monasteries, churches, and palaces in Ljubljana and introduced
Baroque architecture Baroque architecture is a highly decorative and theatrical style which appeared in Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsul ...
. In 1702, the
Ursulines The Ursulines, also known as the Order of Saint Ursula ( Post-nominals: OSU), is an enclosed religious order of consecrated women that branched off from the Angelines, also known as the Company of Saint Ursula, in 1572. Like the Angelines, they ...
settled in the town, and the following year they opened the first public school for girls in the Slovene Lands. Some years later, the construction of the Ursuline Church of the Holy Trinity started. In 1779, St. Christopher's Cemetery replaced the cemetery at St. Peter's Parish Church (Ljubljana), St. Peter's Church as Ljubljana's main cemetery.


Late modern

From 1809 to 1813, during the Napoleon I of France, Napoleonic interlude, Ljubljana (under the name ''Laybach'') was the capital of the Illyrian Provinces. In 1813, the city became Austrian again and from 1815 to 1849 was the administrative centre of the Kingdom of Illyria (1816–1849), Kingdom of Illyria in the Austrian Empire. In 1821, it hosted the Congress of Laibach, which fixed European political borders for years to come. The first train arrived in 1849 from Vienna and in 1857 the line was extended to Trieste. In 1895, Ljubljana, then a city of 31,000, suffered 1895 Ljubljana earthquake, a serious earthquake measuring 6.1 degrees Richter magnitude scale, Richter and 8–9 degrees Mercalli intensity scale, MCS. Some 10% of its 1,400 buildings were destroyed, although casualties were light. During the reconstruction that followed, a number of districts were rebuilt in the Vienna Secession style. Public Incandescent light bulb, electric lighting appeared in the city in 1898. The rebuilding period between 1896 and 1910 is referred to as the "revival of Ljubljana" because of architectural changes from which a great deal of the city dates back to today and for reform of urban administration, health, education and tourism that followed. The rebuilding and quick modernisation of the city were led by the mayor Ivan Hribar. In 1918, following the end of World War I and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, the region joined the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In 1929, Ljubljana became the capital of the Drava Banovina, a Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav province. In 1941, during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
, Kingdom of Italy#Fascist regime (1922–1943), Fascist Italy occupied the city, and on 3 May 1941 made ''Lubiana'' the capital of Italy's Province of Ljubljana with the former Yugoslav general Leon Rupnik as mayor. After the Italian capitulation, Nazi Germany with SS-general Erwin Rösener and Friedrich Rainer took control in 1943, but formally the city remained the capital of an Italian province until 9 May 1945. In Ljubljana, the occupying forces established strongholds and command centres of Quisling organisations, the Anti-Communist Volunteer Militia under Italy and the Slovene Home Guard, Home Guard under German occupation. Since February 1942, Trail of Remembrance and Comradeship, the city was surrounded by barbed wire, later fortified by bunkers, to prevent co-operation between the Liberation Front of the Slovene Nation, resistance movement that operated within and outside the fence. Since 1985, the Trail of Remembrance and Comradeship, commemorative trail has ringed the city where this iron fence once stood. Postwar reprisals resulted in a number of mass graves in Ljubljana.Booker, Christopher. 1997. ''A Looking-Glass Tragedy. The Controversy over the Repatriations From Austria In 1945.'' London: Gerald Duckworth & Co Ltd., p. 214.Grahek Ravančić, Martina. 2009. "Izručenja i sudbine zarobljenika smještenih u savezničkim logorima u svibnju 1945. Journal of Contemporary History 41(2): 391–416.
/ref>Ferenc, Tone. 1999. "Šentvid." ''Enciklopedija Slovenije'', vol. 13 (Š–T). Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, p. 28. After World War II, Ljubljana became the capital of the
Socialist Republic of Slovenia The Socialist Republic of Slovenia ( sl, Socialistična republika Slovenija, sh, Socijalistička Republika Slovenija / Социјалистичка Република Словенија), commonly referred to as Socialist Slovenia or simply Slove ...
, part of the
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a in and that existed from its foundation in the until in 1992 amid the . Covering an area of 255,804 km2 (98,766 sq mi), ...
. It retained this status until Slovenia became independent in 1991.


Contemporary situation

Ljubljana remains the capital of independent
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
, which joined the European Union in 2004.


Geography

The city, with an area of , is situated in the Ljubljana Basin in Central Slovenia Statistical Region, Central Slovenia, between the Southern Limestone Alps, Alps and the Karst#Slovenia, Karst. Ljubljana is located some south of Munich, east of Zürich, east of Venice, southwest of Vienna, south of Salzburg and southwest of Budapest. The extent of Ljubljana has changed considerably in the past 40 years, mainly because some of the nearby settlements have merged with Ljubljana.


Geology

The city stretches out on an alluvium, alluvial plain dating to the Quaternary Geologic time scale, era. The mountainous regions nearby are older, dating from the Mesozoic (Triassic) or Paleozoic. A number of earthquakes have devastated Ljubljana, including in 1511 Idrija earthquake, 1511 and 1895 Ljubljana earthquake, 1895.


Topography

Ljubljana has an elevation of The city centre, located along the Ljubljanica River, has an elevation of .
Ljubljana Castle Ljubljana Castle ( sl, Ljubljanski grad, german: Laibacher Schloss) is a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Br ...
, which sits atop Castle Hill (Ljubljana), Castle Hill () south of the city centre, has an elevation of . The highest point of the city, called Grmada (Ljubljana), Grmada, reaches , more than the nearby Mount Saint Mary () peak, a popular hiking destination. These are located in the northern part of the city.


Bodies of water

The main watercourses in Ljubljana are the
Ljubljanica The Ljubljanica (), known in the Middle Ages as the ''Sava'', is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and bec ...

Ljubljanica
, the
Sava The Sava (; , ; sr-cyr, Сава, Hungarian: Száva) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and become ...

Sava
, the Gradaščica, the Mali Graben, the Iška and the Iščica rivers. From the Trnovo District to the Moste District, around Castle Hill, the Ljubljanica partly flows through the Gruber Canal, built according to plans by Gabriel Gruber from 1772 until 1780. Next to the eastern border of the city, the rivers Ljubljanica, Sava, and Kamnik Bistrica flow together. The lowest point of Ljubljana, with an elevation of , is located at the confluence. Through its history, Ljubljana has been struck by floods. 2010 Slovenia floods, The latest was in 2010. Southern and western parts of the city are more flood-endangered than northern parts. The Gruber Canal has partly diminished the danger of floods in the
Ljubljana Marshes The Ljubljana Marshes ( sl, Ljubljansko barje), located south of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, is the largest marsh in the country. It covers or 0.8% of the Slovene territory. It is administered by the municipalities of Borovnica, Munici ...
, the largest marshes in Slovenia, south of Ljubljana. There are two major ponds in Ljubljana. Koseze Pond is located in the Šiška District and Tivoli Pond is in the southern part of Tivoli City Park. Koseze Pond has rare plant and animal species and is a place of meeting and recreation. Tivoli Pond is a shallow pond with a small volume that was originally used for boating and ice skating, but has been abandoned over the years and is now used only for fishing.


Climate

Ljubljana's climate is an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb), bordering on a humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen climate classification: Cfa), with continental climate, continental characteristics such as warm summers and moderately cold winters. July and August are the warmest months with daily highs generally between , and January is the coldest month with temperatures mostly around . The city experiences 90 days of frost per year, and 11 days with temperatures above . The precipitation is relatively evenly distributed throughout the seasons, although winter and spring tend to be somewhat drier than summer and autumn. Yearly precipitation is about , making Ljubljana one of the wettest European capitals. Thunderstorms are common from May to September and can occasionally be heavy. Snow is common from December to February; on average, there are 48 days with snow cover recorded each winter season. The city is known for its fog, which is recorded on average on 64 days per year, mostly in autumn and winter, and can be particularly persistent in conditions of inversion (meteorology), temperature inversion.


Cityscape

The city's architecture is a mix of architectural styles. Despite the appearance of large buildings, especially at the city's edge, Ljubljana's historic centre remains intact. Although the oldest architecture has been preserved from the Roman period, Ljubljana's downtown got its outline in the Middle Ages. After the 1511 Western Slovenia earthquake, 1511 earthquake, it was rebuilt in the Baroque, Baroque style following Italian, particularly Venetian, models. After the earthquake in 1895, it was once again rebuilt, this time in the Vienna Secession style, which today is juxtaposed against the earlier Baroque style buildings that remain. Large sectors built in the inter-war period often include a personal touch by the architects Jože Plečnik and Ivan Vurnik. In the second half of the 20th century, parts of Ljubljana were redesigned by Edvard Ravnikar.


Main sights

The central square in Ljubljana is Prešeren Square () where the Franciscan Church of the Annunciation () is located. Built between 1646 and 1660 (the belltowers following later), it replaced an older Gothic church on the same site. The layout takes the form of an early-Baroque basilica with one nave and two rows of lateral chapels. The Baroque main altar was executed by the sculptor Francesco Robba. Much of the original frescos were ruined by the cracks in the ceiling caused by the 1895 Ljubljana earthquake, Ljubljana earthquake in 1895. The new frescos were painted by the Slovene impressionist painter Matej Sternen.
Ljubljana Castle Ljubljana Castle ( sl, Ljubljanski grad, german: Laibacher Schloss) is a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Br ...
(''Ljubljanski grad'') is a medieval castle with Romanesque architecture, Romanesque, Gothic architecture, Gothic, and
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...
architectural elements, located on the summit of Castle Hill (Ljubljana), Castle Hill, which dominates the city centre. The area surrounding today's castle has been continuously inhabited since 1200 BC. The castle was built in the 12th century and was a residence of the Margraves, later the Duchy of Carniola, Dukes of Carniola. The castle's Viewing Tower dates to 1848; this was manned by a guard whose duty it was to fire cannons warning the city in case of fire or announcing important visitors or events, a function the castle still holds today. Cultural events and weddings also take place there. Since 2006, a Ljubljana Castle funicular, funicular has linked the city centre to the castle atop the hill. Ljubljana Town Hall, Town Hall (, ), located at Town Square (Ljubljana), Town Square, is the seat of the City Municipality of Ljubljana. The original building was built in a Gothic style in 1484. Between 1717 and 1719, the building underwent a Baroque renovation with a Venetian inspiration by the architect Gregor Maček Sr.. Near Town Hall, at Town Square (Ljubljana), Town Square, stands a replica of the Baroque Robba Fountain. The original has been moved into the National Gallery of Slovenia, National Gallery in 2006. The Robba Fountain is decorated with an obelisk at the foot of which there are three figures in white marble symbolising the three chief rivers of Carniola. It is work of Francesco Robba, who designed numerous other Baroque statues in the city. Ljubljana Cathedral (), or St. Nicholas's Cathedral (), serves the Archdiocese of Ljubljana. Easily identifiable due to its green dome and twin towers, it is located at Cyril and Methodius Square (, named for Saints Cyril and Methodius) by the nearby Ljubljana Central Market and Town Hall. The Diocese of Ljubljana was set up in 1461. Between 1701 and 1706, the Jesuit architect Andrea Pozzo designed the Baroque church with two side chapels shaped in the form of a Christian cross, Latin cross. The dome was built in the centre in 1841. The interior is decorated with Baroque frescos painted by Giulio Quaglio the Younger, Giulio Quaglio between 1703–1706 and 1721–1723. Nebotičnik (pronounced , "Skyscraper") is a thirteen-story building that rises to a height of . It combines elements of the Neoclassical architecture, Neoclassical and the Art-Deco architecture. Predominantly a place of business, Nebotičnik is home to shops on the ground floor and first story, and offices are located on floors two to five. The sixth to ninth floors are private residences. Located on the top three floors are a café, bar and observation deck.
Ljubljana.si – Skyscraper
'. Retrieved 3 December 2007.
It was designed by the Slovenian architect Vladimir Šubic. Construction began in July 1930 and the building opened on 21 February 1933. It was for some time the tallest residential building in Europe.
Government Communication Office – Ljubljana's Neboticnik Is 70 Years Old
'. Retrieved 3 December 2007.
File:Ljubljana Prešeren Square.jpg, Prešeren Square in downtown Ljubljana File:Río Ljubljanica, Liubliana, Eslovenia, 2017-04-14, DD 06.jpg, Ljubljanica River, downtown Ljubljana File:Ljubljana BW 2014-10-09 11-34-41.jpg, Ljubljana Town Hall, Town Hall File:Robbafountain.jpg,
Town Square (Ljubljana), Town Square File:Ljubljana BW 2014-10-09 12-19-48.jpg,
Prešeren Square File:Ljubljana BW 2014-10-09 13-57-30.jpg, Slovenian Philharmonic, Slovenian Philharmonic Building File:Neboticnik Tower 1.jpg, Nebotičnik


Public green spaces

Tivoli City Park () is the largest park in Ljubljana. It was designed in 1813 by the French engineer Jean Blanchard and now covers approximately . The park was laid out during the French First Empire, French imperial administration of Ljubljana in 1813 and named after the Parisian Jardin de Tivoli, Paris, Jardins de Tivoli. Between 1921 and 1939, it was renovated by the
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
architect Jože Plečnik, who unveiled his statue of Napoleon in 1929 in Republic Square and designed a broad central promenade, called the Jakopič Promenade () after the leading Slovene impressionism, impressionist painter Rihard Jakopič. Within the park, there are trees, flower gardens, several statues, and fountains. Several notable buildings stand in the park, among them Tivoli Castle, the National Museum of Contemporary History and the Tivoli Hall, Tivoli Sports Hall. Tivoli–Rožnik Hill–Šiška Hill Landscape Park is located in the western part of the city. The Ljubljana Botanical Garden () covers next to the junction of the Gruber Canal and the Ljubljanica, south of the Old Town. It is the central Slovenian botanical garden and the oldest cultural, scientific, and educational organisation in the country. It started operating under the leadership of Franc Hladnik in 1810. Of over 4,500 plant species and subspecies, roughly a third is endemism, endemic to Slovenia, whereas the rest originate from other European places and other continents. The institution is a member of the international network Botanic Gardens Conservation International and cooperates with more than 270 botanical gardens all across the world. In 2014, Ljubljana won the European Green Capital Award for 2016 for their environmental achievements.


Bridges, streets and squares

Ljubljana's best-known bridges, listed from northern to southern ones, include the Dragon Bridge (), the Butchers' Bridge (), the
Triple Bridge:''For a St. Petersburg bridge, see Tripartite Bridge'' The Triple Bridge ( sl, Tromostovje, in older sources also ''Tromostje'') is a group of three bridges across the Ljubljanica River. It connects the Ljubljana's historical, medieval, town on on ...
(), the Fish Footbridge ( sl, Ribja brv), the Cobblers' Bridge ( sl, Šuštarski most), the Hradecky Bridge ( sl, Hradeckega most), and the Trnovo Bridge (). The last mentioned crosses the Gradaščica, whereas all other bridges cross the Ljubljanica River.


The Dragon Bridge

The 1901 Dragon Bridge, decorated with dragon statues on pedestals at four corners of the bridgeDragon Bridge
''Eccenet.org''
has become a symbol of the city and is regarded as one of the most beautiful examples of a bridge made in Vienna Secession style.The Dragon Bridge
Ljubljana – A lively city, safe under the wings of a dragon
''International Associations of Business Communicators (IABC)''
It has a span of and its arch was at the time the third largest in Europe. It is protected as a technical monument.


The Butchers' Bridge

Decorated with mythological bronze sculptures, created by Jakov Brdar, from Ancient Greek mythology and Biblical stories, the Butchers' Bridge connects the Ljubljana Central Market, Ljubljana Open Market area and the restaurants-filled Petkovšek Embankment (). It is also known as the love padlocks-decorated bridge in Ljubljana.


The Triple Bridge

The
Triple Bridge:''For a St. Petersburg bridge, see Tripartite Bridge'' The Triple Bridge ( sl, Tromostovje, in older sources also ''Tromostje'') is a group of three bridges across the Ljubljanica River. It connects the Ljubljana's historical, medieval, town on on ...
is decorated with stone balusters and stone lamps on all of the three bridges and leads to the terraces looking on the river and poplar trees. It occupies a central point on the east–west axis, connecting the Tivoli City Park with Rožnik Hill, on one side, and the
Ljubljana Castle Ljubljana Castle ( sl, Ljubljanski grad, german: Laibacher Schloss) is a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Br ...
on the other, and the north–south axis through the city, represented by the river. It was enlarged in order to prevent the historically single bridge from being a Bottleneck (traffic), bottleneck by adding two side pedestrian bridges to the middle one.


The Fish Footbridge

The Fish Footbridge offers a view of the neighbouring Triple Bridge to the north and the Cobbler's Bridge to the South. It is a transparent glass-made bridge, illuminated at night by in-built LEDs. From 1991 to 2014 the bridge was a wooden one and decorated with flowers, while since its reconstruction in 2014, it is made of glass. It was planned already in 1895 by Max Fabiani to build a bridge on the location, in 1913 Alfred Keller planned a staircase, later Jože Plečnik incorporated both into his own plans which, however, were not realised.


The Cobbler's Bridge

The 1930 'Cobblers' Bridge' (, from German – Shoemaker) is another Plečnik's creation, connecting two major areas of medieval Ljubljana. It is decorated by two kinds of pillars, the Corinthian pillars which delineate the shape of the bridge itself and the Ionic order, Ionic pillars as lamp-bearers.


The Trnovo Bridge

The Trnovo Bridge is the most prominent object of Plečnik's renovation of the banks of the Gradaščica. It is located in the front of the Trnovo Church to the south of the city centre. It connects the neighbourhoods of Krakovo and Trnovo, Ljubljana, Trnovo, the oldest Ljubljana suburbs, known for their market gardens and cultural events. It was built between 1929 and 1932. It is distinguished by its width and two rows of birches that it bears, because it was meant to serve as a public space in front of the church. Each corner of the bridge is capped with a small pyramid, a signature motif of Plečnik's, whereas the mid-span features a pair of Art-Deco male sculptures. There is also a statue of John the Baptist, Saint John the Baptist on the bridge, the patron of the Trnovo Church. It was designed by .


The Hradecky Bridge

] The Hradecky Bridge is one of the first hinged bridges in the world, the first the only preserved cast iron bridge in Slovenia, and one of its most highly valued technical achievements. It has been situated on an extension of Hren Street (Ljubljana), Hren Street (), between the Krakovo Embankment () and the Gruden Embankment (), connecting the Trnovo District and the Prule neighbourhood in the Center District, Ljubljana, Center District. The Hradecky Bridge was manufactured according to the plans of the senior engineer Johann Hermann (engineer), Johann Hermann from Vienna in the Auersperg iron foundry, Dvor, Auersperg iron foundry in Dvor, Žužemberk, Dvor near Žužemberk, and installed in Ljubljana in 1867, at the location of today's Cobblers' Bridge.


Streets and squares

Having already existed in the 18th century, Ljubljana's central square, Prešeren Square (Ljubljana), Prešeren Square's modern appearance has developed since the end of the 19th century. After the 1895 earthquake, Max Fabiani designed the square as the hub of four streets and four banks, and in the 1980s Edvard Ravnikar proposed the circular design and the granite block pavement. A statue of the Slovene List of national poets, national poet France Prešeren with a muse stands in the middle of the square. The Prešeren Monument (Ljubljana), Prešeren Monument was created by Ivan Zajec in 1905, whereas the pedestal was designed by Max Fabiani. The square and surroundings have been closed to traffic since 1 September 2007. Only a tourist train leaves Prešeren Square every day, transporting tourists to
Ljubljana Castle Ljubljana Castle ( sl, Ljubljanski grad, german: Laibacher Schloss) is a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Br ...
. Republic Square (Ljubljana), Republic Square, originally named Revolution Square, is the largest square in Ljubljana. It was designed in the second half of the 20th century by Edvard Ravnikar. On 26 June 1991, the independence of Slovenia was declared here. The National Assembly Building of Slovenia, National Assembly Building stands at its northern side, and Cankar Hall, the largest Slovenian cultural and congress centre, at the southern side. At its eastern side stands the two-storey building of Maximarket, also the work of Ravnikar. It houses one of the oldest department stores in Ljubljana and a cafe, which is a popular meeting place and a place for political talks and negotiations. Congress Square () is one of the important centres of the city. It was built in 1821 for ceremonial purposes such as Congress of Laibach, Congress of Ljubljana after which it was named. Since then it has been a centre for political ceremonies, demonstrations, and protests, such as the ceremony for the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, ceremony of the liberation of Belgrade, and protests against JBTZ trial, Yugoslav authority in 1988. The square also houses several important buildings, such as the University of Ljubljana, University of Ljubljana Palace, Slovenian Philharmonic, Philharmonic Hall, Ursuline Church of the Holy Trinity, and the Slovene Society, Slovene Society Building. Star Park () is located in the centre of the square. In 2010 and 2011, the square was renovated and is now mostly closed to road traffic on ground area, however, there are five floors for commercial purposes and a parking lot located underground. Čop Street () is a major thoroughfare in the centre of Ljubljana. The street is named after Matija Čop, an early 19th-century literary figure and close friend of the Slovene Romantic poetry, Romantic poet France Prešeren. It leads from the Main Post Office Palace (Ljubljana), Main Post Office () at Slovene Street (Ljubljana), Slovene Street () downward to Prešeren Square and is lined with bars and stores, including the oldest McDonald's, McDonald's restaurant in Slovenia. It is a pedestrian zone and regarded as the capital's central promenade.


Culture


Accent

The Ljubljana accent and/or dialect ( sl, ljubljanščina ) is considered a border dialect, since Ljubljana is situated where the Upper Carniolan dialect group, Upper dialect and Lower Carniolan dialect group meet. Historically, the Ljubljana dialect in the past displayed features more similar with the Lower Carniolan dialect group, but it gradually grew closer to the Upper dialect group, as a direct consequence of mass migration from Upper Carniola into Ljubljana in the 19th and 20th century. Ljubljana as a city grew mostly to the north, and gradually incorporated many villages that were historically part of Upper Carniola and so its dialect shifted away and closer to the Upper Carniolan dialect group, Upper dialects. The Ljubljana dialect has also been used as a literary means in novels, such as in the novel ''Nekdo drug'' by Branko Gradišnik, or in poems, such as ''Pika Nogavička'' (Slovene for Pippi Longstocking) by Andrej Rozman - Roza. The central position of Ljubljana and its dialect had crucial impact on the development of the Slovenian language. It was the speech of 16th century Ljubljana that Primož Trubar a Slovenian Protestant Reformers, Protestant Reformer took as a foundation of what later became standard Slovenian language, with a small addition of his native speech, the Lower Carniolan dialect. While in Ljubljana, he lived in a house, on today's Ribji trg, in the oldest part of the city. Living in Ljubljana had a profound impact on his work; he considered Ljubljana the capital of all
Slovenes The Slovenes, also known as Slovenians ( sl, Slovenci ), are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), cust ...
, not only because of its central position in the heart of the Slovene lands, but also because it always had an essentially Slovene character. Most of its inhabitants spoke Slovene as their mother tongue, unlike other cites in today's
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
. It is estimated that in Trubar's time around 70% of Ljubljana's 4000 inhabitants attended mass in Slovene. Trubar considered Ljubljana's speech most suitable, since it sounded much more noble, than his own simple dialect of his hometown Rašica, Velike Lašče, Rašica. Trubar's choice was later adopted also by other Protestant writers in the 16th century, and ultimately led to a formation of a more standard language.


In literary fiction

Ljubljana appears in the 2005 ''The Historian'', written by Elisabeth Kostova, and is called by its Roman name (Emona). Ljubljana is also the setting of Paulo Coelho's 1998 novel ''Veronika Decides to Die''.


Festivals

Each year, over 10,000 cultural events take place in the city, including ten international theatre, music, and art festivals. The Ljubljana Festival is one of the two oldest festivals in former Yugoslavia (the Dubrovnik Summer Festival was established in 1950, and the Ljubljana Festival one in 1953). Guests have included Dubravka Tomšič, Marjana Lipovšek, Tomaž Pandur, Katia Ricciarelli, Grace Bumbry, Yehudi Menuhin, Mstislav Rostropovich, José Carreras, Slid Hampton, Zubin Mehta, Vadim Repin, Valerij Gergijev, Andrew Davis (conductor), Sir Andrew Davis, Danjulo Išizaka, Midori, Jurij Bašmet, Ennio Morricone, and The Manhattan Transfer, Manhattan Transfer. Orchestras have included the New York Philharmonic, Israel Philharmonic, Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Orchestras of the Bolshoi Theatre from Moscow, La Scala from Milan, and Mariinsky Theatre from Saint Petersburg. In recent years there have been 80 kinds of events and some 80,000 visitors from Slovenia and abroad. Other cultural venues include Križanke, Cankar Hall and the Exhibition and Convention Centre (Ljubljana), Exhibition and Convention Centre. During Book Week, starting each year on World Book Day, events and book sales take place at Congress Square. A flea market is held every Sunday in the old city. On the evening of International Workers' Day, a celebration with a bonfire takes place on Rožnik Hill.


Museums and art galleries

Ljubljana has numerous art museum, art galleries and museums. The first purpose-built art gallery in Ljubljana was the Jakopič Pavilion, which was in the first half of the 20th century the central exhibition venue of Slovene artists. In the early 1960s, it was succeeded by the Ljubljana City Art Gallery, which has presented a number of modern Slovene and foreign artists. In 2010, there were 14 museums and 56 art galleries in Ljubljana. There is for example an architecture museum, Slovenian Railway Museum, a railway museum, a school museum, a sports museum, a museum of modern art, a museum of contemporary art, a Pivovarna Union, brewery museum, the Slovenian Museum of Natural History and the Slovene Ethnographic Museum. The National Gallery of Slovenia, National Gallery (), founded in 1918, and the Museum of Modern Art (Ljubljana), Museum of Modern Art () exhibit the List of Slovenian artists, most influential Slovenian artists. In 2006, the museums received 264,470 visitors, the galleries 403,890 and the theatres 396,440. The Metelkova Museum of Contemporary Art (), opened in 2011, hosts simultaneous exhibitions, a research library, archives, and a bookshop.


Entertainment and performing arts

Cankar Hall is the largest Slovenian cultural and congress center with multiple halls and a large foyer in which art film festivals, artistic performances, book fairs, and other cultural events are held.


Cinema

The cinema in Ljubljana appeared for the first time at the turn of the 20th century, and quickly gained popularity among the residents. After World War II, the Cinema Company Ljubljana, later named ''Ljubljana Cinematographers'', was established and managed a number of already functioning movie theatres in Ljubljana, including the only Yugoslav children's theatre. Cinema festivals took place in the 1960s, and a cinematheque opened its doors in 1963. With the advent of television, video, and recently the Internet, most cinema theatres in Ljubljana closed, and the cinema mainly moved to Kolosej, a multiplex (movie theater), multiplex in the BTC City. It features twelve screens, including an IMAX 3D screen. The remaining theatres are Kino Komuna, Kinodvor, where art movies are accompanied by events, and the Slovenian Cinematheque. The Slovenian Cinematheque hosts the international Ljubljana LGBT Film Festival which showcases LGBT-themed films. Founded in 1984, it is the oldest film festival of its sort in Europe.


Classical music, opera and ballet

The Slovenian Philharmonics is the central music institution in Ljubljana and Slovenia. It holds classical music concerts of domestic and foreign performers as well as educates youth. It was established in 1701 as part of Academia operosorum Labacensis and is among the oldest such institutions in Europe. The Slovene National Opera and Ballet Theatre also resides in Ljubljana, presenting a wide variety of domestic and foreign, modern and classic, opera, ballet and concert works. It serves as the national opera and ballet house. Music festivals are held in Ljubljana, chiefly in Classical music, European classical music and jazz, for instance the Ljubljana Summer Festival (), and Trnfest.


Theatre

In addition to the main houses, with the Slovene National Theatre, Ljubljana, SNT Drama Ljubljana as the most important among them, a number of small producers are active in Ljubljana, involved primarily in physical theatre (e.g. Betontanc), street theatre (e.g. Ana Monró Theatre), theatresports championship Impro League, and improvisational theatre (e.g. IGLU Theatre). A popular form is puppetry, mainly performed in the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre. Theatre has a rich tradition in Ljubljana, starting with the 1867 first ever Slovene-language drama performance.


Modern dance

The modern dance was presented in Ljubljana for the first time at the end of the 19th century and developed rapidly since the end of the 1920s. Since the 1930s when in Ljubljana was founded a Mary Wigman dance school, the first one for modern dance in Slovenia, the field has been intimately linked to the development in Europe and the United States. Ljubljana Dance Theatre is today the only venue in Ljubljana dedicated to contemporary dance. Despite this, there's a vivid happening in the field.


Folk dance

Several folk dance groups are active in Ljubljana.


Jazz

In July 2015, over four days, the 56th Ljubljana Jazz Festival took place. A member of the European Jazz Network, the festival presented 19 concerts featuring artists from 19 countries, including a celebration of the 75th birthday of James "Blood" Ulmer.


Popular urban culture and alternative scene

In the 1980s with the emergence of subcultures in Ljubljana, an alternative culture begun to develop in Ljubljana organised around two student organisations. This caused an influx of young people to the city centre, caused political and social changes, and led to the establishment of alternative art centres. ;Metelkova and Rog A Ljubljana equivalent of the Copenhagen's Freetown Christiania, a self-proclaimed autonomous Metelkova neighbourhood, was set up in a former Austro-Hungarian barracks that were built in 1882 (completed in 1911). In 1993, the seven buildings and 12,500 m2 of space were turned into art galleries, artist studios, and seven nightclubs, including two LGBTQ+ venues, playing host to all range of music from hardcore to jazz to dub to techno. Adjacent to the Metelkova are located the Celica Hostel with rooms all artistically decorated by the Metelkova artists, and a new part of the Museum of Modern Art, Museum of Contemporary Art, Ljubljana, Museum of Contemporary Art. Another alternative culture centre is located in the former Rog (factory), Rog factory. Both Metelkova and the Rog (factory), Rog factory complex located in the Tabor, Ljubljana, Tabor neighbourhood are walking distance from the city centre, and visited by tours. ;Šiška Cultural Quarter The Šiška Cultural Quarter hosts art groups and cultural organisations dedicated to contemporary and avant-garde arts. Part of it is also Kino Šiška Centre for Urban Culture, a venue where music concerts of indie, punk, and rock bands as well as exhibitions take place. Museum of Transitory Art (MoTA) is a museum without a permanent collection or a fixed space. Instead, its programs are realised in different locations and contexts in temporary physical and virtual spaces dedicated to advancing the research, production and presentation of transitory, experimental, and live art forms. Yearly MoTA organises Sonica Festival. Ljudmila (hackerspace), Ljudmila (since 1994) strives to connect research practices, technologies, science, and art.


Sports


Clubs

A tension between German and Slovene residents dominated the development of sport of Ljubljana in the 19th century. The first sport club in Ljubljana was the South Sokol Gymnastic Club (), established in 1863 and succeeded in 1868 by the Ljubljana Sokol (). It was the parent club of all Slovene Sokol clubs as well as an encouragement for the establishment of the Croatian Sokol club in Zagreb. Members were also active in culture and politics, striving for greater integration of the Slovenes from different Crown lands of Austria-Hungary and for their cultural, political, and economic independence. In 1885, German residents established the first sports club in the territory of nowadays Slovenia, (''Ljubljana Cycling Club''). In 1887, Slovene cyclists established the Slovene Cyclists Club (). In 1893 followed the first Slovene Alpine club, named Slovene Alpine Club (), later succeeded by the Alpine Association of Slovenia (). Several of its branches operate in Ljubljana, the largest of them being the Ljubljana Matica Alpine Club (). In 1900, the sports club (English: ''Ljubljana Sports Club'') was established by the city's German residents and functioned until 1909. In 1906, Slovenes organised themselves in its Slovene counterpart, the Ljubljana Sports Club (). Its members were primarily interested in rowing (sport), rowing, but also swimming and football. In 1911, the first Slovenian football club, ND Ilirija, Ilirija, started operating in the city. Winter sports already started to develop in the area of the nowadays Ljubljana before World War II. In 1929, the first ice hockey club in Slovenia (then Yugoslavia), HDD Olimpija Ljubljana, SK Ilirija, was established. Nowadays, the city's Association football, football teams which play in the Slovenian PrvaLiga are NK Olimpija Ljubljana and NK Bravo. ND Ilirija 1911 currently competes in Slovenian Second League. Ljubljana's ice hockey clubs are HK Slavija Ljubljana, HK Slavija and HK Olimpija. They both compete in the Slovenian Ice Hockey League, Slovenian Hockey League. The basketball teams are KD Slovan, KD Ilirija and KK Cedevita Olimpija. The latter, which has a green dragon as its mascot, hosts its matches at the 12,480-seat Arena Stožice. ŽKD Ježica, Ježica is women's basketball that competes in Slovenian Women's Basketball League, Slovenian League. Handball is popular in female section. RK Krim is one of the best women handball teams in Europe. They won the EHF Champions League twice, in 2001 and 2003. RD Slovan is male handball club from Ljubljana that currently competes in Slovenian First League (men's handball), Slovenian First League. AMTK Ljubljana is the most successful motorcycle speedway, speedway club in Slovenia. The Ljubljana Sports Club has been succeeded by the Livada Canoe and Kayak Club.


Mass sport activities

Each year since 1957, on 8–10 May, the recreational ''Trail of Remembrance and Comradeship, Walk Along the Wire'' has taken place to mark the liberation of Ljubljana on 9 May 1945. At the same occasion, a triples competition is run on the trail, and a few days later, a student run from Prešeren Square to Ljubljana Castle is held. The last Sunday in October, the Ljubljana Marathon and a few minor competition runs take place on the city streets. The event attracts several thousand runners each year.


Sport venues

The Stožice Stadium, opened since August 2010 and located in Stožice Sports Park in the Bežigrad District, is the biggest football stadium in the country and the home of the NK Olimpija Ljubljana. It is one of the two main venues of the Slovenia national football team. The park also has an indoor arena, used for indoor sports such as basketball, team handball, handball and volleyball and is the home venue of KK Olimpija, RK Krim and ACH Volley Bled among others. Beside football, the stadium is designed to host cultural events as well. Another stadium in the Bežigrad district, Bežigrad Stadium, is closed since 2008 and is deteriorating. It was built according to the plans of Jože Plečnik and was the home of the NK Olimpija Ljubljana (1911–2004), NK Olimpija Ljubljana, dissolved in 2004. Joc Pečečnik, a Slovenian multimillionaire, plans to renovate it. Ljubljana Sports Park is located in Spodnja Šiška, part of the Šiška District. It has a football stadium with five courts, an athletic hall, outdoor athletic areas, tennis courts, a Boules court, and a sand volleyball court. The majority of competitions are in athletics (sport), athletics. Another sports park in Spodnja Šiška is Ilirija Sports Park, known primarily for its stadium with a speedway track. At the northern end of Tivoli Park stands the Ilirija Swimming Pool Complex, which was built as part of a swimming and athletics venue following plans by Bloudek in the 1930s and has been nearly abandoned since then, but there are plans to renovate it. A number of sport venues are located in Tivoli Park. An outdoor swimming pool in Tivoli, constructed by Bloudek in 1929, was the first Olympic-size swimming pool in Yugoslavia. The Tivoli Recreational Centre in Tivoli is Ljubljana's largest recreational centre and has three swimming pools, saunas, a Boules court, a health club, and other facilities. There are two skating rinks, a basketball court, a winter ice rink, and ten tennis courts in its outdoor area. The Tivoli Hall consists of two halls. The smaller one accepts 4,050 spectators and is used for basketball matches. The larger one can accommodate 6,000 spectators and is primarily used for hockey, but also for basketball matches. The halls are also used for concerts and other cultural events. The Slovenian Olympic Committee has its office in the building. The Tacen Whitewater Course, located on a course on the Sava, northwest of the city centre, hosts a major international canoe/kayak slalom competition almost every year, examples being the ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships in 1955 ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships, 1955, 1991 ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships, 1991, and 2010 ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships, 2010. Since the 1940s, a ski slope has been in use in Gunclje, in the northwestern part of the city. It is long and has two ski lifts, its maximum incline is 60° and the difference in height from the top to the bottom is . Five ski jumping hills stand near the ski slope. Several Slovenian Olympic and World Cup medalists trained and competed there. In addition, the Arena Triglav complex of six jumping hills is located in the Šiška District. A ski jumping hill, build in 1954 upon the plans by Stanko Bloudek, was located in Šiška near Vodnik Street () until 1976. International competitions for the Kongsberg Cup were held there, attended by thousands of spectators. The ice rinks in Ljubljana include Koseze Pond and Tivoli Hall. In addition, in the 19th century and the early 20th century, Tivoli Pond and a marshy meadow in Trnovo, Ljubljana, Trnovo, named Kern, were used for ice skating.


Economy

Industry is the most important employer, notably in the pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals and food industry, food processing. Other fields include banking, finance, transport, construction, skilled trades and services and tourism. The public sector provides jobs in education, culture, health care and local administration. The Ljubljana Stock Exchange (), purchased in 2008 by the Wiener Börse, Vienna Stock Exchange, deals with large Slovenian companies. Some of these have their headquarters in the capital: for example, the chain store, retail chain Mercator (retail), Mercator, the Petroleum industry, oil company Petrol d.d. and the telecommunications concern Telekom Slovenije. Over 15,000 enterprises operate in the city, most of them in the tertiary sector of the economy, tertiary sector. Numerous companies and over 450 shops are located in the BTC City, the largest business, shopping, recreational, entertainment and cultural centre in Slovenia. It is visited each year by 21 million people. It occupies an area of in the Moste, Ljubljana, Moste District in the eastern part of Ljubljana. About 74% of Ljubljana households use district heating from the Ljubljana Power Station.


Government

The city of Ljubljana is governed by the City Municipality of Ljubljana ( sl, Mestna občina Ljubljana; MOL), which is led by the city council. The president of the city council is called the mayor. Members of the city council and the mayor are elected in the local election, held every four years. Among other roles, the city council drafts the municipal budget, and is assisted by various boards active in the fields of health, sports, finances, education, environmental movement, environmental protection and tourism. The municipality is subdivided into 17 districts represented by district councils. They work with the municipality council to make known residents' suggestions and prepare activities in their territories. Between 2002 and 2006, Danica Simšič was mayor of the municipality. Since the municipal elections of 22 October 2006 until his confirmation as a deputy in the National Assembly (Slovenia), National Assembly of Slovenian in December 2011, Zoran Janković (politician), Zoran Janković, previously the managing director of the Mercator (retail), Mercator retail chain, was the mayor of Ljubljana. In 2006, he won 62.99% of the popular vote. On 10 October 2010, Janković was re-elected for another four-year term with 64.79% of the vote. From 2006 until October 2010, the majority on the city council (the Zoran Janković List) held 23 of 45 seats. On 10 October 2010, Janković's list won 25 out of 45 seats in the city council. From December 2011 onwards, when Janković's list won the Slovenian parliamentary election, 2011, early parliamentary election, the deputy mayor Aleš Čerin was decided by him to lead the municipality. Čerin did not hold the post of mayor. After Janković had failed to be elected as the Prime Minister in the National Assembly (Slovenia), National Assembly, he participated at the mayoral by-election on 25 March 2012 and was elected for the third time with 61% of the vote. He retook the leadership of the city council on 11 April 2012. Public order in Ljubljana is enforced by the Ljubljana Police Directorate (). There are five areal police stations and four sectoral police stations in Ljubljana. Public order and municipal traffic regulations are also supervised by the Traffic wardens (Ljubljana), city traffic wardens (). Ljubljana has a quiet and secure reputation.


Demographics

In 1869, Ljubljana had about 22,600 inhabitants, a figure that grew to almost 60,000 by 1931. At the 2002 census, 39% of Ljubljana inhabitants were Catholic; 30% had no religion, an unknown religion or did not reply; 19% atheist; 6% Eastern Orthodox; 5% Islam, Muslim; and the remaining 0.7% Protestant or another religion. Approximately 91% of the population speaks Slovene as their primary native language. The second most-spoken language is Bosnian language, Bosnian, with Serbo-Croatian being the third most-spoken language.


Education


Primary education

In Ljubljana today there are over 50 public elementary schools with over 20,000 pupils. This also includes an international school, international elementary school for foreign pupils. There are two private elementary schools: a Waldorf education, Waldorf elementary school and a Catholic school, Catholic elementary school. In addition, there are several elementary music schools. Historically the first school in Ljubljana belonged to
Teutonic Knights The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: la, Ordo domus Sanctae Mariae Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum; german: Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly known ...
and was established in the 13th century. It originally accepted only boys; girls were accepted from the beginning of the 16th century. Parochial schools are attested in the 13th century, at St. Peter's Parish Church (Ljubljana), St. Peter's Church and at Saint Nicholas's Church, the later Ljubljana Cathedral. Since 1291, there were also trade-oriented private schools in Ljubljana. In the beginning of the 17th century, there were six schools in Ljubljana and later three. A girls' school was established by Poor Clares, followed in 1703 by the
Ursulines The Ursulines, also known as the Order of Saint Ursula ( Post-nominals: OSU), is an enclosed religious order of consecrated women that branched off from the Angelines, also known as the Company of Saint Ursula, in 1572. Like the Angelines, they ...
. Their school was for about 170 years the only public girls' school in
Carniola Carniola (Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly li ...

Carniola
. These schools were mainly private or established by the city. In 1775, the Austrian Empress Maria Theresa proclaimed elementary education obligatory and Ljubljana got its normal school#Europe, normal school, intended as a learning place for teachers. In 1805, the first state music school was established in Ljubljana. In the time of Illyrian Provinces, "''école primaire''", a unified four-year elementary school program with a greater emphasis on Slovene, was introduced. The first public schools, unrelated to religious education, appeared in 1868.


Secondary education

In Ljubljana there are ten public and three private grammar schools. The public schools divide into general gymnasium (school), gymnasiums and Classical gymnasium, classical gymnasiums, the latter offering Latin and Greek as foreign languages. Some general schools offer internationally oriented European departments, and some offer sport departments, allowing students to more easily adjust their sport and school obligations. All state schools are free, but the number of students they can accept is limited. The private secondary schools include a Catholic grammar school and a Waldorf grammar school. There are also professional grammar schools in Ljubljana, offering economical, technical, or artistic subjects (visual arts, music). All grammar schools last four years and conclude with the ''matura'' exam. Historically, upon a proposal by Primož Trubar, the Carniolan Estates' School (1563–1598) was established in 1563 in the period of Slovene Reformation. Its teaching languages were mainly Latin and Greek language, Greek, but also German language, German and
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
, and it was open for both sexes and all social strata. In 1597, Jesuits established the Laibach Jesuit College, Jesuit College (1597–1773), intended to transmit general education. In 1773, secondary education came under the control of the state. A number of reforms were implemented in the 19th century; there was more emphasis on general knowledge and religious education was removed from state secondary schools. In 1910, there were 29 secondary schools in Ljubljana, among them classical and real gymnasiums and Realschules (technical secondary schools).


Tertiary education

In 2011, the University had 23 faculties and three academies, located around Ljubljana. They offer Slovene-language courses in medicine, applied sciences, arts, law, administration, natural sciences, and other subjects. The university has more than 63,000 students and some 4,000 teaching faculty. Students make up one-seventh of Ljubljana's population, giving the city a youthful character. Historically, higher schools offering the study of general medicine, surgery, architecture, law and theology, started to operate in Ljubljana during the French occupation of the Slovene Lands, in 1810–11. Austro-Hungarian Empire never allowed Slovenes to establish their own university in Ljubljana and the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia's most important university, was founded in 1919 after Slovenes joined the first Yugoslavia. When it was founded, the university comprised five faculties: law, philosophy, technology, theology and medicine. From the beginning, the seat of the university has been at Congress Square in a building that served as the State Mansion of Carniola from 1902 to 1918.


Libraries

;National and University Library of Slovenia The National and University Library of Slovenia is the Slovene national library, national and university library. In 2011, it held about 1,307,000 books, 8,700 manuscripts, and numerous other textual, visual and multimedia resources, altogether 2,657,000 volumes. ;Central Technological Library The second largest university library in Ljubljana is the Central Technological Library, the national library and information hub for natural sciences and technology. ;Municipal Library and other libraries The Municipal City Library of Ljubljana, established in 2008, is the central regional library and the largest Slovenian general public library. In 2011, it held 1,657,000 volumes, among these 1,432,000 books and a multitude of other resources in 36 branches. Altogether, there are 5 general public libraries and over 140 specialised libraries in Ljubljana. Besides the two largest university libraries there are libraries at individual faculties, departments and institutes of the University of Ljubljana. The largest among them are the Central Humanist Library of the Faculty of Arts, Central Humanist Library in the field of humanities, the Central Social Sciences Library of the Faculty of Social Sciences, Ljubljana, Central Social Sciences Library, the Central Economic Library in the field of economics, the Central Medical Library in the field of medical sciences, and the Libraries of the Biotechnical Faculty in the field of biology and biotechnology. ;History The first libraries in Ljubljana were located in monastery, monasteries. The first public library was the Carniolan Estates' Library, established in 1569 by Primož Trubar. In the 17th century, the Jesuit library, Ljubljana, Jesuit Library collected numerous works, particularly about mathematics. In 1707, the Seminary Library, Ljubljana, Seminary Library was established; it is the first and oldest public scientific library in Slovenia. Around 1774, after the dissolution of Jesuits, the Lyceum Library, Ljubljana, Lyceum Library was formed from the remains of the Jesuit Library as well as several monastery libraries.


Science

The first society of the leading scientists and public workers in Carniola was the Dismas Fraternity (Latin: ), formed in Ljubljana in 1688. In 1693, the ''Academia Operosorum Labacensium'' was founded and lasted with an interruption until the end of the 18th century. The next academy in Ljubljana, the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, was not established until 1938.


Transport


Air transport

Ljubljana Jože Pučnik Airport (ICAO airport code, ICAO code LJLJ; IATA code LJU), located northwest of the city, has flights to numerous European destinations. Among the companies that fly from there are Air France, Air Serbia, Brussels Airlines, easyJet, Finnair, Lufthansa, Swiss International Air Lines, Swiss, Wizz Air, Transavia and Turkish Airlines. The destinations are mainly European. This airport has superseded the Polje Airport, original Ljubljana airport, in operation from 1933 until 1963. It was located in the Municipality of Polje (nowadays the Moste, Ljubljana, Moste District), on a plain between Ljubljanica and Sava next to the railroad in Moste. There was a military airport in Šiška from 1918 until 1929.


Rail transport

In the Ljubljana Rail Hub, the Pan-European corridors, Pan-European railway corridors Pan-European Corridor V, V (the fastest link between the North Adriatic, and Central and Eastern Europe) and Pan-European Corridor X, X (linking Central Europe with the Balkans) and the main line (railway), main European lines (E 65, E 69, E 70) intersect. All international transit trains in Slovenia drive through the Ljubljana hub, and all international passenger trains stop there. The area of Ljubljana has six passenger railway station, stations and nine stops. For passengers, the Slovenian Railways company offers the possibility to buy a daily or monthly city pass that can be used to travel between them. The Ljubljana railway station is the central station of the hub. The Ljubljana Moste Railway Station is the largest Slovenian railway dispatch. The Ljubljana Zalog Railway Station is the central Slovenian rail yard. There are a number of industrial railway, industrial rails in Ljubljana. At the end of 2006, the Ljubljana Castle funicular started to operate. The rail goes from Krek Square (''Krekov trg'') near the Ljubljana Central Market to
Ljubljana Castle Ljubljana Castle ( sl, Ljubljanski grad, german: Laibacher Schloss) is a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Br ...
. It is especially popular among tourists. The full trip lasts 60 s.


Roads

Ljubljana is located where Slovenia's two main freeways intersect, connecting the freeway route from east to west, in line with Pan-European Corridor V, and the freeway in the north–south direction, in line with Pan-European Corridor X. The city is linked to the southwest by European route E70, A1-E70 to the Italian cities of Trieste and Venice and the Croatian port of Rijeka.Michelin, ''Slovénie, Croatie, Bosnie-Herzégovine, Serbie, Monténégro, Macédoine'', Cartes et guides n°736, Michelin, Zellik, Belgium, 2007, To the north, European route E57, A1-E57 leads to Maribor, Graz and Vienna. To the east, European route E70, A2-E70 links it with the Croatian capital Zagreb, from where one can go to Hungary or important cities of the former Yugoslavia, such as Belgrade. To the northwest, European route E61, A2-E61 goes to the Austrian towns of Klagenfurt and Salzburg, making it an important entry point for northern European tourists. A vignette (road tax), toll sticker system has been in use on the Ljubljana Ring Road since 1 July 2008. The centre of the city is more difficult to access especially in the peak hours due to long arteries with traffic lights and a large number of daily commuters. The core city centre has been closed for motor traffic since September 2007 (except for residents with permissions), creating a pedestrian zone around Prešeren Square.


Public transport

The historical Ljubljana tram system was completed in 1901 and was replaced by buses in 1928, which were in turn abolished and replaced by trams in 1931 with its final length of in 1940. In 1959, it was abolished in favor of automobiles; the tracks were dismantled and tram cars were transferred to Osijek#Transport, Osijek and Subotica. Reintroduction of an actual tram system to Ljubljana has been proposed repeatedly in the 2000s. There are numerous taxi companies in the city. The Ljubljana Bus Station, the Ljubljana central bus hub, is located next to the Ljubljana railway station. The city bus network, run by the Ljubljana Passenger Transport (''LPP'') company, is Ljubljana's most widely used means of public transport. The fleet is relatively modern. The number of dedicated bus lanes is limited, which can cause problems in peak hours when traffic becomes congested. Bus rides may be paid with the Urbana (payment card), Urbana payment card (also used for the funicular) or with a mobile payment, mobile phone. Sometimes the buses are called ''trole'' (referring to trolley poles), harking back to the 1951–1971 days when Ljubljana had trolleybus (''trolejbus'') service. There were five Ljubljana trolleybus system, trolleybus lines in Ljubljana, until 1958 alongside the tram. Another means of public road transport in the city centre is the Cavalier (), an electric shuttle bus vehicle operated by LPP since May 2009. There are three such vehicles in Ljubljana. The ride is free and there are no stations because it can be stopped anywhere. It can carry up to five passengers; most of them are elderly people and tourists. The Cavalier drives in the car-free zone in the Ljubljana downtown. The first line links Čop Street, Wolf Street and the Hribar Embankment, whereas the second links Town Square (Ljubljana), Town Square, Upper Square (Ljubljana), Upper Square, and
Old Square Old Square is a public square and Junction (road), road junction in the City Centre Core, Core area of Birmingham City Centre, England. Prior to construction The site of the square was formerly occupied the Priory of St Thomas of Canterbury, Bir ...
. There is also a trackless train (tractor with wagons decorated to look like a train) for tourists in Ljubljana, linking Cyril and Methodius Square in the city centre with Ljubljana Castle.


Bicycles

There is a considerable amount of bicycle traffic in Ljubljana, especially in the warmer months of the year. It is also possible to rent a bike. Since May 2011, the BicikeLJ, a self-service Bicycle sharing system, bicycle rental system offers the residents and visitors of Ljubljana 600 bicycles and more than 600 parking spots at 60 stations in the wider city centre area. The daily number of rentals is around 2,500. There was an option to rent a bike even before the establishment of BicikeLJ. There are still some conditions for cyclists in Ljubljana that have been criticised, including cycle lanes in poor condition and constructed in a way that motorised traffic is privileged. There are also many one-way streets which therefore cannot be used as alternate routes so it is difficult to legally travel by bicycle through the city centre. Through years, some prohibitions have been partially abolished by marking cycle lanes on the pavement. Nevertheless, the situation has been steadily improving; in 2015, Ljubljana placed 13th in a ranking of the world's most bicycle-friendly cities. In 2016, Ljubljana was 8th on the Copenhagenize list.


Water transport

The river transport on the Ljubljanica and the Sava was the main means of cargo transport to and from the city until the mid-19th century, when railroads were built. Today, the Ljubljanica is used by a number of tourist boats, with wharves under the Butchers' Bridge, at Fish Square, Ljubljana, Fish Square, at Court Square, Ljubljana, Court Square, at Breg, Ljubljana, Breg, at the Poljane Embankment, and elsewhere.


Healthcare

Ljubljana has a rich history of discoveries in medicine and innovations in medical technology. The majority of secondary care, secondary and tertiary care in Slovenia takes place in Ljubljana. The Ljubljana University Medical Centre is the largest hospital centre in Slovenia. The Faculty of Medicine, Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine (University of Ljubljana) and the Ljubljana Institute of Oncology are other two central medical institutions in Slovenia. The Ljubljana Community Health Centre is the largest health centre in Slovenia. It has seven units at 11 locations. Since 1986, Ljubljana is part of the Healthy city, WHO European Healthy Cities Network.


International relations


Twin towns and sister cities

Ljubljana is twin towns and sister cities, twinned with:


See also

*List of people from Ljubljana


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * * Velušček, Anton (ed.) (2009)
''Stare Gmajne Pile-Dwelling Settlement and its Era''
(bilingual English and Slovenian edition). Založba ZRC. .


External links


City of Ljubljana official siteOfficial Ljubljana tourism site
Retrieved 28 February 2011. Burger.si.
Ljubljana on Google Maps
{{Authority control Ljubljana, Articles containing video clips Capitals in Europe Cities and towns in Lower Carniola Populated places in the City Municipality of Ljubljana Populated places on the Sava