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Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs.) is a
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
in the
East Midlands The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the ITL 1 statistical regions of England, first level of International Territorial Level, ITL for Statistics, statistical purposes. It consists of Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Linc ...
of
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
, with a long coastline on the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
to the east. It borders
Norfolk Norfolk () is a rural and non-metropolitan county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambe ...

Norfolk
to the south-east,
Cambridgeshire Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chamber ...

Cambridgeshire
to the south,
Rutland Rutland () is a Counties of England, county in the East Midlands of England, bounded to the west and north by Leicestershire, to the northeast by Lincolnshire and the southeast by Northamptonshire. Its greatest length north to south is on ...

Rutland
to the south-west,
Leicestershire Leicestershire (; postal abbreviation Leics.) is a landlocked county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first publishe ...

Leicestershire
and
Nottinghamshire Nottinghamshire (; abbreviated Notts.) is a county in the East Midlands region of England, bordering South Yorkshire to the north-west, Lincolnshire to the east, Leicestershire to the south, and Derbyshire to the west. The traditional county ...

Nottinghamshire
to the west,
South Yorkshire South Yorkshire is a ceremonial county, ceremonial and metropolitan county in England. It is the southernmost county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region and had a population of 1.34 million in 2011. It has an area of and consists of four ...

South Yorkshire
to the north-west, and the
East Riding of Yorkshire The East Riding of Yorkshire, or simply East Riding or East Yorkshire, is a county in Northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the most northern area of England. There are three Regions ...
to the north. It also borders
Northamptonshire Northamptonshire (; abbreviated Northants.), archaically known as the County of Northampton, is a historic county in the East Midlands The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the ITL 1 statistical regions of England ...

Northamptonshire
in the south for just , England's shortest county boundary. The county also have maritime border with
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
,
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
and the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
. The
county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some pref ...
is the city of Lincoln, where the
county council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Pub ...
is based. The
ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenant, lord-lieutenants are appointed. Lega ...

ceremonial county
of Lincolnshire consists of the
non-metropolitan county A non-metropolitan county, or colloquially, shire county, is a county-level entity in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Sc ...
of Lincolnshire and the area covered by the
unitary authorities A unitary authority is a local authority Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized gove ...
of
North Lincolnshire North Lincolnshire is a Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority area in Lincolnshire, England, with a population of 167,446 in the 2011 census. There are six significant towns: Scunthorpe, Brigg, Haxey, Crowle, Lincolnshire, Crowle, Ep ...
and
North East Lincolnshire North East Lincolnshire is a unitary authority area in the ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are ...
. Part of the ceremonial county is in the
Yorkshire and the Humber Yorkshire and the Humber is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of ITL (UK), ITL for Office for National Statistics, statistical purposes. The population in 2011 was 5,284,000 with its largest settlements being Leeds, Shef ...
region of England The regions, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with ...
, and most is in the
East Midlands The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the ITL 1 statistical regions of England, first level of International Territorial Level, ITL for Statistics, statistical purposes. It consists of Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Linc ...
region. The county is the second-largest of the English ceremonial counties and one that is predominantly agricultural in land use. The county is fourth-largest of the two-tier counties, as the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire are not included. The county has several geographical sub-regions, including the rolling chalk hills of the
Lincolnshire Wolds The Lincolnshire Wolds are a range of low hills in the county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in ...

Lincolnshire Wolds
. In the south-east are the
Lincolnshire Fens The Fens, also known as the , is a coastal plain in eastern England. This naturally marshy region supports a rich ecology and numerous species, and helps absorb storms. Most of the fens were drained centuries ago, resulting in a flat, dry, low-l ...

Lincolnshire Fens
(south-east Lincolnshire), the Carrs (similar to the Fens but in north Lincolnshire), the industrial
Humber Estuary The Humber is a large tidal estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone betw ...
and
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
coast around
Grimsby Grimsby, also Great Grimsby, is a port town and administrative centre of North East Lincolnshire, England, on the South Bank of the Humber Estuary close to the North Sea. It was the home port for the world's largest fishing fleet by the mid- ...

Grimsby
and
Scunthorpe Scunthorpe () is a large industrial town Industrial city or industrial town refers to the kind of city in which the municipal economy and development are concentrated around industrial production and characterized by a large amount of factor ...
, and in the south-west of the county, the Kesteven Uplands, rolling limestone hills in the district of
South Kesteven South Kesteven is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district in Lincolnshire, England, forming part of the traditional Kesteven division of the county. It covers Grantham, Stamford, Lincolnshire, Stamford, Bourne, Lincolnshire, Bou ...
.


History

During pre-Roman times, most of Lincolnshire was inhabited by the
Corieltauvi The Corieltauvi (also the Coritani, and the Corieltavi) were a tribe of people living in Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom, a sovereign state in Europe comprising the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island o ...
people. The language of the area at that time would have been
Common Brittonic Common Brittonic ( ang, Brytisċ; cy, Brythoneg; kw, Brythonek; br, Predeneg), also known as Common Brythonic or Proto-Brittonic, was a Celtic language The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-C ...
, the precursor to modern Welsh. The name ''Lincoln'' was derived from
Lindum Colonia Lindum Colonia was the Latin name for the settlement which is now the City of Lincoln in Lincolnshire Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purp ...
. Large numbers of Germanic speakers from continental Europe settled in the region following the withdrawal of the Romans. Though these were later identified as
Angles The Angles ( ang, Ængle, ; la, Angli; german: Angeln) were one of the main Germanic peoples The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe and Scandinavia. Since the 19th century, they have traditional ...

Angles
, it is unlikely that they migrated as part of an organized tribal group. Thus, the main language of the region quickly became
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
. However, it is possible that Brittonic continued to be spoken in some communities as late as the eighth century. Modern-day Lincolnshire is derived from the merging of the territory of the
Kingdom of Lindsey The Kingdom of Lindsey or Linnuis ( ang, Lindesege) was a lesser Anglo-Saxon kingdom, which was absorbed into Northumbria Northumbria (; ang, Norþanhymbra Rīċe; la, Regnum Northanhymbrorum) was an early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdom in wh ...
with that controlled by the
Danelaw The Danelaw (, also known as the Danelagh; ang, Dena lagu; da, Danelagen) was the part of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west a ...
borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for ...
of Stamford. For some time the entire county was called "Lindsey", and it is recorded as such in the 11th-century ''
Domesday Book Domesday Book () – the Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. The English language underwent ...
.'' Later, the name
LindseyLindsey may refer to : Places Canada * Lindsey Lake, Nova Scotia England * Parts of Lindsey The Parts of Lindsey are a traditional division of Lincolnshire, England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part o ...
was applied to the northern core, around Lincoln. This emerged as one of the three
Parts of Lincolnshire The three parts of the English county The counties of England are areas used for different purposes, which include administrative, geographical, cultural and political demarcation. The term 'county' is defined in several ways and can apply to si ...

Parts of Lincolnshire
, along with the Parts of
Holland Holland is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (en ...
in the south-east, and the Parts of
Kesteven The Parts of Kesteven ( or ) are a traditional division of Lincolnshire, England. This division had long had a separate county administration (quarter sessions), along with the two other Parts of Lincolnshire, Lindsey (British subdivision), Lind ...
in the south-west, which each had separate
Quarter Sessions The courts of quarter sessions or quarter sessions were local courts traditionally held at four set times each year in the Kingdom of England from 1388 (extending also to Wales following the Act of Union, 1536). They were also established in Scotlan ...
as their county administrations. In 1888 when
county council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Pub ...
s were set up, Lindsey, Holland and Kesteven each received separate ones. These survived until 1974, when Holland, Kesteven, and most of Lindsey were unified into Lincolnshire. The northern part of Lindsey, including
Scunthorpe Scunthorpe () is a large industrial town Industrial city or industrial town refers to the kind of city in which the municipal economy and development are concentrated around industrial production and characterized by a large amount of factor ...
Municipal Borough and
Grimsby Grimsby, also Great Grimsby, is a port town and administrative centre of North East Lincolnshire, England, on the South Bank of the Humber Estuary close to the North Sea. It was the home port for the world's largest fishing fleet by the mid- ...

Grimsby
County Borough, was incorporated into the newly formed
non-metropolitan county A non-metropolitan county, or colloquially, shire county, is a county-level entity in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Sc ...
of
Humberside Humberside was a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England ...
, along with most of the
East Riding of Yorkshire The East Riding of Yorkshire, or simply East Riding or East Yorkshire, is a county in Northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the most northern area of England. There are three Regions ...
. A local government reform in 1996 abolished Humberside. The land south of the Humber Estuary was allocated to the
unitary authorities A unitary authority is a local authority Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized gove ...
of
North Lincolnshire North Lincolnshire is a Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority area in Lincolnshire, England, with a population of 167,446 in the 2011 census. There are six significant towns: Scunthorpe, Brigg, Haxey, Crowle, Lincolnshire, Crowle, Ep ...
and
North East Lincolnshire North East Lincolnshire is a unitary authority area in the ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are ...
. These two areas became part of Lincolnshire for ceremonial purposes, such as the Lord-Lieutenancy, but are not covered by the Lincolnshire police; they are in the
Yorkshire and the Humber Yorkshire and the Humber is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of ITL (UK), ITL for Office for National Statistics, statistical purposes. The population in 2011 was 5,284,000 with its largest settlements being Leeds, Shef ...
region. The remaining districts of Lincolnshire are
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...
,
East Lindsey East Lindsey is a local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguish from unofficial city districts) are a level of subnational division of England used ...
, Lincoln,
North Kesteven North Kesteven is a local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguish from unofficial city districts) are a level of subnational division of England used ...
,
South Holland South Holland ( nl, Zuid-Holland ) is a Provinces of the Netherlands, province of the Netherlands with a population of over 3.7 million as of October 2021 and a population density of about , making it the country's most populous province and on ...
,
South Kesteven South Kesteven is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district in Lincolnshire, England, forming part of the traditional Kesteven division of the county. It covers Grantham, Stamford, Lincolnshire, Stamford, Bourne, Lincolnshire, Bou ...
, and
West Lindsey West Lindsey is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district in Lincolnshire, England. Its council is based in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, Gainsborough. History The district was formed on 1 April 1974, from the Urban district (Great ...
. They are part of the
East Midlands The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the ITL 1 statistical regions of England, first level of International Territorial Level, ITL for Statistics, statistical purposes. It consists of Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Linc ...
region. The area was shaken by the 27 February
2008 Lincolnshire earthquake
2008 Lincolnshire earthquake
, reaching between 4.7 and 5.3 on the
Richter magnitude scale The Richter scale – also called the Richter magnitude scale and Richter's magnitude scale – is a measure of the strength of earthquake An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Eart ...
; it was one of the largest earthquakes to affect Britain in recent years. Lincolnshire is home to
Woolsthorpe Manor
Woolsthorpe Manor
, birthplace and home of Sir
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Isaac Newton
. He attended
The King's School, Grantham The King's School is a British grammar school with academy status for boys, in the market town A market town is a European Human settlement, settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages, the right to host mar ...
. Its library has preserved his signature, carved into a window sill when he was a youth. File: Belton House 2006 Giano.jpg,
Belton House Belton House is a Grade I listed English country house, country house in the parish of Belton, South Kesteven, Belton near Grantham in Lincolnshire, England, built between 1685 and 1688 by Sir John Brownlow, 3rd Baronet. It is surrounded by for ...

Belton House
File: Stump&Ingram.jpeg, Boston Stump File: Gainsborough Old Hall.jpg,
Gainsborough Old Hall Gainsborough Old Hall in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, Gainsborough, Lincolnshire is over five hundred years old and one of the best preserved medieval manor houses in England. The hall was built by Thomas Burgh, 1st Baron Burgh (d.1496), Sir Thomas ...

Gainsborough Old Hall
File: Harlaxton manor.jpg,
Harlaxton Manor Harlaxton is a village and civil parish in the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England. It lies on the edge of the Vale of Belvoir and just off the A607 road, A607, south-west from Grantham and north-east from Melton Mowbray. Hist ...

Harlaxton Manor
File: Normanby Hall, Lincs (geograph 56340).jpg, File: Tattershall Castle, 2006.jpg, Tattershall Castle File: Thornton Abbey Gatehouse1.jpg,
Thornton Abbey Thornton Abbey was a medieval abbey located close to the small North Lincolnshire village of Thornton Curtis, near Ulceby, North Lincolnshire, Ulceby, and directly south of Kingston upon Hull, Hull on the other side of the Humber estuary. Its ruin ...

Thornton Abbey
File:Louth Church in 2021.jpg, St James' Church, Louth


Geography and ecology

Bedrock in Lincolnshire features Jurassic
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
(near Lincoln) and Cretaceous
chalk Chalk is a soft, white, porous Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the (i.e. "empty") spaces in a , and is a of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a between 0% and 100%. Strictly speaking, some tests measure the "acce ...

chalk
(north-east). The area around
Woodhall Spa Woodhall Spa is a former spa town and civil parish in Lincolnshire Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes ...
and
Kirkby on Bain Kirkby on Bain is a village and Civil parishes in England, civil parish in the East Lindsey Non-metropolitan district, district of Lincolnshire, England. It lies on the River Bain between Horncastle, Lincolnshire, Horncastle and Coningsby, and ...
is dominated by gravel and sand. For much of prehistory, Lincolnshire was under tropical seas, and most fossils found in the county are marine invertebrates. Marine vertebrates have also been found including
ichthyosaurus ''Ichthyosaurus'' (derived from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxim ...

ichthyosaurus
and
plesiosaur The Plesiosauria (; Greek: πλησίος, ''plesios'', meaning "near to" and ''sauros'', meaning "lizard") or plesiosaurs are an order or clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic group or natural ...

plesiosaur
. The highest point in Lincolnshire is
Wolds Top
Wolds Top
(), at Normanby le Wold. Some parts of
the Fens The Fens, also known as the , is a coastal plain A coastal plain is flat, low-lying land adjacent to a sea coast. A fall line A fall line (or fall zone) is the area where an upland region and a coastal plain meet and is typically prominent ...

the Fens
may be below sea level. The nearest mountains are in Derbyshire. The biggest rivers in Lincolnshire are the
Trent
Trent
, running northwards from
Staffordshire Staffordshire (; postal abbreviation Staffs.) is a landlocked Counties of England, county in the West Midlands (region), West Midlands of England. It borders Cheshire to the northwest, Derbyshire and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to ...

Staffordshire
up the western edge of the county to the
Humber The Humber is a large tidal estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone betw ...
estuary, and the
Witham Witham () is a town in the county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), Wil ...
, which begins in Lincolnshire at
South Witham South Witham is a village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and countie ...
and runs for through the middle of the county, eventually emptying into the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
at
The Wash The Wash is a rectangular bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which cove ...

The Wash
. The Humber estuary, on Lincolnshire's northern border, is also fed by the River Ouse. The Wash is also the mouth of the
Welland Welland is a city in the Regional Municipality of Niagara in Southern Ontario, Canada. In 2016, it had a population of 52,293. The city is in the centre of Niagara and located within a half-hour driving distance to Niagara Falls, Ontario, Niag ...
, the Nene and the
Great Ouse The River Great Ouse () is a river in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest ...
. Lincolnshire's geography is fairly varied, but consists of several distinct areas: *
Lincolnshire Wolds The Lincolnshire Wolds are a range of low hills in the county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in ...

Lincolnshire Wolds
: area of rolling hills in the north-east of the county designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty *
The Fens The Fens, also known as the , is a coastal plain A coastal plain is flat, low-lying land adjacent to a sea coast. A fall line A fall line (or fall zone) is the area where an upland region and a coastal plain meet and is typically prominent ...

The Fens
: dominating the south-east quarter of the county * The Marshes: running along the coast of the county * The Lincoln Edge or Cliff: limestone escarpment running north–south along the western half of the county Lincolnshire's most well-known nature reserves include
Gibraltar Point Gibraltar Point national nature reserve is an area of about on the coast of Lincolnshire Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs.) is a Counties of England, county in the East Midlands of England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the e ...

Gibraltar Point
National Nature Reserve,
Whisby Nature Park
Whisby Nature Park
Local Nature Reserve,
Donna Nook
Donna Nook
National Nature Reserve,
RSPB Frampton Marsh
RSPB Frampton Marsh
and the Humberhead Peatlands National Nature Reserve. Although the Lincolnshire countryside is intensively farmed, there are many biodiverse wetland areas, as well as rare limewood forests. Much of the county was once wet fenland (see
The Fens The Fens, also known as the , is a coastal plain A coastal plain is flat, low-lying land adjacent to a sea coast. A fall line A fall line (or fall zone) is the area where an upland region and a coastal plain meet and is typically prominent ...

The Fens
). From bones, we can tell that animal species formerly found in Lincolnshire include
woolly mammoth The woolly mammoth (''Mammuthus primigenius'') is a species of mammoth A mammoth is any species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a u ...

woolly mammoth
,
woolly rhinoceros The woolly rhinoceros (''Coelodonta antiquitatis'') is an extinct species of rhinoceros A rhinoceros (, , ), commonly abbreviated to rhino, is a member of any of the five Extant taxon, extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family (biol ...
,
wild horse The wild horse (''Equus ferus'') is a species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular ...

wild horse
,
wolf The wolf (''Canis lupus''), also known as the gray wolf or grey wolf, is a large canine Canine may refer to: Zoology * dog-like mammals (i.e. members of the canid subfamily Caninae) ** ''Canis'', a genus including dogs, wolves, coyotes, a ...

wolf
,
wild boar The wild boar (''Sus scrofa''), also known as the wild swine, common wild pig, Eurasian wild pig, or simply wild pig, is a suid native to much of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and ...

wild boar
and
beaver Beavers are large, semiaquatic In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interaction ...

beaver
. Species which have recently returned to Lincolnshire after
extirpation Local extinction, also known as extirpation, is the condition of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A specie ...
include
little egret The little egret (''Egretta garzetta'') is a species of small heron in the Family (biology), family Ardeidae. It is a white bird with a slender black beak, long black legs and, in the western race, yellow feet. As an aquatic bird, it feeds in sha ...

little egret
,
Eurasian spoonbill Common spoonbill in a Rostov-on-don zoo, Russia. The most adverse impact on the populations of this species are caused by the draining of waterlogged lands and environment pollution. The Eurasian spoonbill (''Platalea leucorodia''), or common ...

Eurasian spoonbill
,
European otter The Eurasian otter (''Lutra lutra''), also known as the European otter, Eurasian river otter, common otter, and Old World otter, is a semiaquatic mammal native to Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all ...

European otter
and
red kite The red kite (''Milvus milvus'') is a medium-large bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes many other Diurnality, diurnal Bird of prey, raptors such as eagles, buzzards, and harrier (bird), harriers. The species currently br ...

red kite
.


Economy

This is a chart of trend of regional
gross value added In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods an ...
of Lincolnshire at current basic prices, according to the
Office for National Statistics The Office for National Statistics (ONS; cy, Swyddfa Ystadegau Gwladol) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority cy, Y Bwrdd Ystadegau , seal = , logo = UK Statistics Authority logo.svg , formed = , jurisdiction = United Ki ...
with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. : includes hunting and forestry : includes energy and construction : includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured Notable businesses based in Lincolnshire include the
Lincs FM Group The Lincs FM Group was based in Lincolnshire Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs.) is a Counties of England, county in the East Midlands of England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the east. It borders Norfolk to the south-east, Cambr ...
, Young's Seafood, Openfield and the
Lincolnshire Co-operative The Lincolnshire Co-operative is an independent consumer co-operative which operates in Lincolnshire Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs.) is a Counties of England, county in the East Midlands of England, with a long coastline on the North Sea ...
(whose membership includes about one quarter of the population of the county).


Agriculture

Lincolnshire has long been a primarily agricultural area, and it continues to grow large amounts of
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat Common wheat (''Triticum aestivum'' ...

wheat
,
barley Barley (''Hordeum vulgare''), a member of the grass family Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recogn ...

barley
,
sugar beet A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose Sucrose is a type of sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated ...
, and
oilseed rape Rapeseed (''Brassica napus ''subsp.'' napus'') is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae Brassicaceae () or Cruciferae () is a medium-sized and economically important family In human society, family (from la, fami ...
. In south Lincolnshire, where the soil is particularly rich in nutrients, some of the most common crops include
potatoes The potato is a starch Starch or amylum is a polymeric A polymer (; Greek '' poly-'', "many" + '' -mer'', "part") is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attr ...

potatoes
,
cabbage Cabbage, comprising several cultivars of ''Brassica oleracea ''Brassica oleracea'' is a plant species that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, Savoy cabba ...

cabbage
s,
cauliflower Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species ''Brassica oleracea'' in the genus ''Brassica'', which is in the Brassicaceae (or Mustard) family. It is an annual plant that reproduces by seed. Typically, only the head is eaten – the ...

cauliflower
s, and
onion The onion (''Allium cepa'' L., from Latin ''cepa'' "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still co ...

onion
s. Lincolnshire farmers often break world records for crop yields. South Lincolnshire is also home to one of the UK's leading
agricultural experiment stationAn agricultural experiment station (AES) or agricultural research station (ARS) is a scientific research center#REDIRECT Center {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{Redirect from alternative spelling {{Redirect from ambiguous term ... that investigates ...
s, located in
Sutton Bridge Sutton Bridge is a village and civil parish in the South Holland district of Lincolnshire, England. It is situated on the A17 road (England), A17 road, north from Wisbech and west from King's Lynn. The village includes a commercial dock on ...
and operated by the Potato Council; Sutton Bridge Crop Storage Research engages in research for the British potato industry. The Lincoln sheep, Lincoln Longwool is a rare breed of sheep, named after the region, which was developed both for wool and mutton, at least 500 years ago, and has the longest fleece of any sheep breed. The Lincoln Red is an old breed of beef cattle, originating from the county. In the mid 20th century most farms in Lincolnshire moved away from mixed farming to specialise in arable cropping, partly due to cheap wool imports, partly to take advantage of efficiencies of scale and partly because the drier land on the eastern side of England is particularly suitable for arable cropping. Mechanization and Modernization Agreement 1960, Mechanization around 1900 greatly diminished the number of workers required to operate the county's relatively large farms, and the proportion of workers in the agricultural sector dropped substantially during this period. Several major engineering companies developed in Lincoln, Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, Gainsborough and Grantham to support those changes. Among these was William Foster & Co Ltd, Fosters of Lincoln, which built the first tank, and Richard Hornsby & Sons of Grantham. Most such industrial companies left during late 20th-century restructuring. Today, Immigration to Europe, immigrant workers, mainly from Enlargement of the European Union, new member states of the European Union in Central and Eastern Europe, comprise a large component of the seasonal agricultural workforce, particularly in the south of the county. Here more labour-intensive crops are produced, such as small vegetables and cut flowers. This seasonal influx of migrant labour occasionally causes tension between the migrant workforce and local people, in a county which had been relatively unaccustomed to large-scale immigration. Agricultural training is provided at Riseholme College and in 2016 the University of Lincoln opened the Lincoln Institute for Agri-Food Technology.


Politics


Elections


Westminster Parliamentary constituencies

Lincolnshire is represented by 11 Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Members of Parliament (MPs). As of the 2019 United Kingdom general election, 2019 general election, all 11 constituencies are represented by the Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party.


Lincolnshire County Council

The Conservative Party UK, Conservatives control the county council, with 58 of the 70 seats.
North Lincolnshire North Lincolnshire is a Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority area in Lincolnshire, England, with a population of 167,446 in the 2011 census. There are six significant towns: Scunthorpe, Brigg, Haxey, Crowle, Lincolnshire, Crowle, Ep ...
and
North East Lincolnshire North East Lincolnshire is a unitary authority area in the ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are ...
are Unitary authority, unitary authorities and do not form part of the
non-metropolitan county A non-metropolitan county, or colloquially, shire county, is a county-level entity in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Sc ...
of Lincolnshire.


2009 election

The Conservative Party comfortably controlled the County Council after the 2009 Lincolnshire County Council election, 2009 local elections, in which they increased their majority to 43 seats. The Labour Party lost a total of 15 seats including 7 in Lincoln, whilst the Liberal Democrats lost three. The Lincolnshire Independents gained a total of four seats, although one of their number moved to the Conservative group during 2010, increasing the number of Conservative seats to 61. The collective group of the Lincolnshire Independents, the Boston Bypass Party and other independent councillors formed the opposition for the four-year term.


2013 election

In the 2013 Lincolnshire County Council election, 2013 County Council elections, the Conservatives lost their overall majority and formed a coalition with the Liberal Democrats and independents. The UK Independence Party made significant gains from the Conservatives, particularly around the town of Boston, Lincolnshire, Boston, due to opposition to Eastern European immigration. UKIP were initially the main opposition party with 16 councillors, but six members broke away to form a separate group, UKIP Lincolnshire.


2017 election

The 2017 Lincolnshire County Council election took place on 4 May 2017 and saw a local landslide victory for the Conservatives, who won 58 out of the 70 seats. UKIP was left without a single seat. Labour lost four seats, reducing their number of seats to six, the Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats were reduced to one seat, and the Lincolnshire Independents were also reduced to a single seat after losing eight seats. Four other independents were elected.


Referendums


1975 EC membership referendum

The 1975 United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum, 1975 EC membership referendum was the first major referendum to be held in the county, and saw one of the largest majority votes in favour of continued membership of the then European Union, European Communities (which would later become the European Union) within non-metropolitan Lincolnshire and also
Humberside Humberside was a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England ...
, which then included northern parts of historic Lincolnshire. The referendum was held on 5 June 1975 with votes within the county being centrally counted under the provisions of the Referendum Act 1975 where voters were asked to decide on the question “Do you think that the United Kingdom should stay in the European Community (the Common Market)?” by voting for either “Yes” or “No”. The result was declared on the following day. *The result above only includes non-Metropolitan Lincolnshire County Council, Lincolnshire as parts of historic northern Lincolnshire made up part of
Humberside Humberside was a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England ...
at the time.


2011 AV referendum

The 2011 United Kingdom Alternative Vote referendum was the first to be held in Lincolnshire since the 1975 United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum, 1975 EC membership referendum and was only the second time that the people of Lincolnshire have been asked to vote in a referendum. The referendum asked voters whether to replace the present "Plurality voting system, first-past-the-post" (simple plurality) system with the "Instant-runoff voting, alternative vote" (AV) method for electing MPs to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Commons in future general elections. The proposal to introduce AV was overwhelmingly rejected by voters with all eight counting areas within Lincolnshire returning significant "no" votes. *The result above includes all areas within historic Lincolnshire The seven Districts of England, shire-districts and two unitary authorities in Lincolnshire were used as the voting areas.


2016 EU membership referendum

On 23 June 2016, in the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, EU referendum, the people of Lincolnshire voted for the second time on the issue of the UK's continued membership of what is now known as the European Union under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act 2015 where voters were asked to decide on the question “Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union or leave the European Union” by voting for either “Remain a member of the European Union” or “Leave the European Union”. Of the ten MPs which represented the historic county at the time six MPs Andrew Percy, Martin Vickers, Edward Leigh, Karl McCartney, Stephen Phillips (British politician), Stephen Phillips and John Hayes (British politician), John Hayes supported a "Leave" vote with five MPs Matt Warman, Nick Boles, Victoria Atkins, Melanie Onn and Nic Dakin supported a "Remain" vote. *The result above includes all areas within historic Lincolnshire The seven shire-districts and two unitary authorities in Lincolnshire were used as the voting areas.


Police and Crime Commissioners

The most recent elections for Police and Crime Commissioners within the Lincolnshire and Humberside police force areas took place on 5 May 2016.


Lincolnshire Police


Humberside Police


Services and retail

According to an Intra-governmental Group on Geographic Information (IGGI) study in 2000, the town centres were ranked by area thus (including North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire areas): *Lincoln, England, Lincoln *Grantham *
Grimsby Grimsby, also Great Grimsby, is a port town and administrative centre of North East Lincolnshire, England, on the South Bank of the Humber Estuary close to the North Sea. It was the home port for the world's largest fishing fleet by the mid- ...

Grimsby
*Boston, Lincolnshire, Boston and
Scunthorpe Scunthorpe () is a large industrial town Industrial city or industrial town refers to the kind of city in which the municipal economy and development are concentrated around industrial production and characterized by a large amount of factor ...
(equal) *Spalding, Lincolnshire, Spalding * Stamford *Skegness *Louth, Lincolnshire, Louth *Sleaford *Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, Gainsborough *Brigg *Cleethorpes *Bourne, Lincolnshire, Bourne *Horncastle, Lincolnshire, Horncastle and Mablethorpe (equal)


Public services


Education

Lincolnshire is one of the few counties in the UK that still uses the 11-plus to decide who may attend grammar schools in the United Kingdom, grammar school. As a result, many towns in Lincolnshire have both a grammar school and a secondary modern school. Lincolnshire's rural character means that some larger villages also have primary schools and are served by buses to nearby high schools. Lincoln itself, however, is primarily non-selective, as is the area within a radius of about seven miles. In this area, almost all children attend comprehensive schools, though it is still possible to opt into the 11-plus system. This gives rise to the unusual result that those who pass the Eleven plus can attend a Grammar School outside the Lincoln Comprehensive area, but those who do not pass still attend a (partly non-selective) Comprehensive school.


Transport

Being on the economic periphery of England, Lincolnshire's transport links are poorly developed compared with many other parts of the United Kingdom. The road network in the county is dominated by single carriageway Great Britain road numbering scheme, A roads and local roads (B roads) as opposed to Controlled-access highway, motorways and dual carriageways – the administrative county of Lincolnshire is one of the few UK counties without a motorway, and until several years ago, it was said that there was only about of dual carriageway in the whole of Lincolnshire. The M180 motorway passes through North Lincolnshire, splitting into two dual carriageway trunk roads to the Humber Bridge and
Grimsby Grimsby, also Great Grimsby, is a port town and administrative centre of North East Lincolnshire, England, on the South Bank of the Humber Estuary close to the North Sea. It was the home port for the world's largest fishing fleet by the mid- ...

Grimsby
, and the A46 road, A46 is now dual carriageway between Newark-on-Trent and Lincoln. The low population density of the county means that the number of railway stations and train services is very low considering the county's large area. Many of the county's railway stations were permanently closed following the Beeching cuts, Beeching Report of 1963. The most notable reopening has been the line and two stations between Lincoln and Sleaford, which reopened within months of the Beeching closure. Most other closed lines in the county were long ago lifted and much of the trackbed has returned to agricultural use. Prior to 1970, a through train service operated between Cleethorpes railway station, Cleethorpes and London King's Cross railway station, London King's Cross via Louth railway station, Louth, Boston railway station, Boston and Peterborough railway station, Peterborough. The part of this line in Grimsby is now the A16 road (England), A16 road, preventing reinstatement as a railway line, and a small section of the line is now the Lincolnshire Wolds Railway, with an extension towards Louth in progress. A daily through train service operated between Cleethorpes and London King's Cross via Grimsby railway station, Grimsby, Market Rasen railway station, Market Rasen and Lincoln railway station, Lincoln Central until the late 1980s. The ''Humberlincs Executive'', as the service was known, was operated by an InterCity 125, but was discontinued following the electrification of the East Coast Main Line. Passengers now have to change trains at Newark North Gate railway station, Newark North Gate when travelling to and from London. However, the East Coast Main Line passes through the western edge of the county and one can catch direct trains to London from Grantham railway station, Grantham. Most rail services are currently operated by East Midlands Railway and Northern Trains. London North Eastern Railway and CrossCountry have services which pass through the county, with London North Eastern Railway frequently passing and stopping at Grantham on the East Coast Main Line and a serviceevery other our to Lincoln railway station, Lincoln, while CrossCountry trains stop at Stamford on their way between Birmingham New Street railway station, Birmingham and Stansted Airport railway station, Stansted Airport. Stations along the Humber are served by TransPennine Express services between Manchester Airport railway station, Manchester Airport and Cleethorpes. One of the most infrequent services in the UK is in Lincolnshire: the Sheffield railway station, Sheffield-Gainsborough Central railway station, Gainsborough Central-Cleethorpes line has passenger trains only on a Saturday, with three trains in both directions. This line is, however, used for freight. On 22 May 2011 East Coast (train operating company), East Coast started a Lincoln-London service, initially one train a day each way, and there is a northbound service on a Sunday. This was increased in 2019 to a service every two hours. East Midlands Railway also run a daily (Mon-Sat) service each way between Lincoln and St Pancras railway station, London St Pancras, though this is a stopping service which takes around three hours via Nottingham railway station, Nottingham, compared to London North Eastern Railway's service to London King's Cross which takes around 1 hour 50 minutes. The only airport in Lincolnshire is Humberside Airport, near Brigg. East Midlands Airport the main airport servicing the East Midlands is within travelling distance of the county. Doncaster Sheffield Airport near Doncaster is within travelling distance of much of Lincolnshire. The county's biggest bus companies are Stagecoach Grimsby-Cleethorpes (formerly Grimsby-Cleethorpes Transport) and Stagecoach in Lincolnshire, (formerly Lincolnshire Road Car). There are several smaller bus companies, including Brylaine of Boston, Delaine Buses and Hornsby's of Scunthorpe. A Sustrans cycle route runs from Lincoln to Boston in the south of the county.


Health care

The United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust is one of the largest trusts in the country, employing almost 4,000 staff and with an annual budget of over £200 million. The north of the county is served by th
Northern Lincolnshire and Goole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
Some of the larger hospitals in the county include: *Diana Princess of Wales Hospital, Grimsby *Scunthorpe General Hospital *Pilgrim Hospital, Boston Pilgrim Hospital *Lincoln County Hospital Since April 1994, Lincolnshire has had an Air Air ambulances in the United Kingdom, Ambulance service. The air ambulance is stationed at RAF Waddington near Lincoln and can reach emergencies in Lincolnshire within 25 minutes. An A&E hospital is only 10 minutes away by helicopter from any accident in Lincolnshire.


Drainage

Separately to the commercial water companies the low-lying parts of the county are drained by various internal drainage boards, such as th
Black Sluice Internal Drainage BoardWitham 4th District IDBLindsey Marsh Drainage Board
, or th
Welland and Deepings Internal Drainage Board


Housing

Lincolnshire is now the second fastest growing county in the UK with thousands of people moving there every year. Over the next two decades, Lincolnshire is set to grow both in population and economy with the help of the Government's Growth Points strategy. Lincolnshire has been awarded £13 million in funding to deliver sustainable development and intensive growth through sites of key regional significance. In essence, the target for Lincoln is 14,000 new homes and 12,000 new jobs by 2026 whilst the target for Grantham is an additional 3,200 homes by 2016 and at least 6,200 by 2026. This housing growth will be supported by the provision for 4,800 jobs by 2016.


Towns and villages

The non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire has no major urban areas, apart from the areas in and around Lincoln, Grantham, Boston, Lincolnshire, Boston, Spalding, Lincolnshire, Spalding, Skegness, Mablethorpe and Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, Gainsborough. The coastal villages around Skegness (Chapel St Leonards & Ingoldmells) form a built up area. Mablethorpe, Sandilands, Lincolnshire, Sandilands and Sutton-on-Sea form a built up area as well. These coastal towns and villages along the Lincolnshire coast are popular with people going on holiday at the large caravan sites during the summer months around the towns A small part of the Thorne and Hatfield Moors#Location, Thorne Waste area of the town of Thorne, South Yorkshire, Thorne in South Yorkshire, known as the Yorkshire Triangle, currently falls under North Lincolnshire. ''For a more detailed list of the largest populated towns see the List of settlements in Lincolnshire by population page.'' ''For a full list of Lincolnshire towns and villages see the List of places in Lincolnshire page.''


Tourism

The majority of tourism in Lincolnshire relies on the coastal resorts and towns to the east of the
Lincolnshire Wolds The Lincolnshire Wolds are a range of low hills in the county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in ...

Lincolnshire Wolds
. The county has some of the best-known seaside resorts in the United Kingdom, which are a major attraction to visitors from across England, especially the
East Midlands The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the ITL 1 statistical regions of England, first level of International Territorial Level, ITL for Statistics, statistical purposes. It consists of Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Linc ...
and parts of Yorkshire. There are three main coastal resorts in Lincolnshire and several smaller village resorts. The main county seaside resort of Skegness with its famous The Jolly Fisherman, Jolly Fisherman mascot and famous slogan "Skegness is so bracing", together with its neighbouring large village coastal resorts of Ingoldmells and Chapel St Leonards, provides the biggest concentration of resorts along the Lincolnshire Coast, with many large caravan and holiday sites. The resort offers many amusements, beaches, leisure activities and shops, as well as Butlins Skegness, Fantasy Island (UK amusement park), Fantasy Island, Church Farm Museum, Natureland Seal Sanctuary, Skegness Stadium, Skegness Pier#Pier, Skegness Pier and several well-known local golf courses. There are good road, bus and rail links to the rest of the county. The second largest group of resorts along the coast is the small seaside town of Mablethorpe, famous for its golden sands, and the neighbouring village resorts of Trusthorpe and Sutton-on-Sea. This area also offers leisure activities and has large caravan and holiday sites. But the area is less developed, with fewer amusement arcades and nightclubs, and poorer road links to the rest of the county; but the area offers a more traditional seaside setting. The rail service to these towns was axed in the Beeching cuts. The third group of resorts includes the seaside town of Cleethorpes and the large village resort of Humberston within North East Lincolnshire. It has the Cleethorpes Coast Light Railway and Cleethorpes Pier along with its local golf courses and caravan and holiday sites, whilst it is also the former site of Pleasure Island Family Theme Park. Cleethorpes is well-served by road and rail; it is easily accessible from the M180 motorway, M180 and the TransPennine Express route to Manchester. Nature is an attraction for many tourists: the south-east of the county is mainly fenland that attracts many species of birds, as do the national nature reserve (United Kingdom), national nature reserves at
Gibraltar Point Gibraltar Point national nature reserve is an area of about on the coast of Lincolnshire Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs.) is a Counties of England, county in the East Midlands of England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the e ...

Gibraltar Point
, Saltfleetby-Theddlethorpe Dunes National Nature Reserve, Saltfleetby-Theddlethorpe and , which also contains a large grey seal colony which is popular with visitors. The market towns of the Lincolnshire Wolds (Louth, Lincolnshire, Louth, Alford, Lincolnshire, Alford, Horncastle, Lincolnshire, Horncastle, Caistor and Spilsby) are also attractive, with several having historically important buildings, such as Alford Manor House and Bolingbroke Castle. The Wolds are popular for cycling and walking, with regular events such as the Lincolnshire Wolds Walking Festival.


Culture

Lincolnshire is a rural area where the pace of life is generally much slower than in much of the United Kingdom. Due to the large distances between the towns, many villages have remained very self-contained, with many still having shops, pubs, local halls and local chapels and churches, offering a variety of social activities for residents. Fishing (in the extensive river and drainage system in the fens) and shooting are popular activities. A lot of the culture in Lincoln itself is based upon its history. The Collection (Lincolnshire), The Collection is an archaeological museum and art gallery in Lincoln. Lincoln Cathedral also plays a large part in Lincoln's culture, playing host to many events throughout the year, from concert recitals to indoor food markets. A Lincolnshire tradition was that front doors were used for only three things: a new baby, a bride, and a coffin.


People

Those born in Lincolnshire are sometimes given the nickname of Yellowbelly (Lincolnshire), Yellowbellies (often spelt "Yeller Bellies", to reflect the pronunciation of the phrase by the typical Lincolnshire farmer). The origin of this term is debated, but is most commonly believed to derive from the uniform of the 10th Regiment of Foot (later the Lincolnshire Regiment) which featured yellow facings. For this reason, the coat of arms of Lincolnshire County Council is supported by two officers of the regiment.


Notable people

The following list of notable people associated with Lincolnshire is arranged chronologically by date of birth.


Born before 1701

* Guthlac of Crowland (674–715), Christian saint * Æthelhard (8th century-805), Archbishop of Canterbury * Hereward the Wake (c.1035-c.1072), Anglo-Saxon nobleman * Lucy of Bolingbroke (1074–1136), countess of Chester * Gilbert of Sempringham (c.1085–1190), Saint and Founder of the Gilbertine Order * Aaron of Lincoln (c.1125–1186), financier * Hugh of Lincoln (1135/40-1200), Bishop of Lincoln * Stephen Langton (c.1150–1228), Archbishop of Canterbury * Nicolaa de la Haye (c.1150–1230), landowner and administrator * Robert Grosseteste (c.1175–1253), Bishop of Lincoln * Berechiah de Nicole (c.1210-c.1270), Tosafist * Eleanor of Castile (1241–1290), wife of Edward I of England, Edward I * Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln (1246–1255), blood libel victim * Katherine Swynford (c.1350–1403), third wife of John of Gaunt * Henry IV of England (1367–1413), King of England * Richard Foxe (1458–1528), bishop and founder of Corpus Christi College, Oxford * John Taverner (c1490-1545), composer and organist * John Whitgift (c.1503–1604), Archbishop of Canterbury * John Foxe (c.1516–1587), author of ''Foxe's Book of Martyrs'' * William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (1520–1598), Chief Advisor to Queen Elizabeth I * Anne Askew (1521–1546), Protestant martyr * William Byrd (1539–1623), composer * John Smyth (Baptist minister), John Smyth (c.1554-c.1612), founder of the Baptist denomination * Robert Tighe (1562–1620), cleric and linguist * Francis Meres (1565/1566-1647), churchman and author * Captain John Smith (1580–1631), leader of the settlement of Jamestown, Virginia * John Cotton (minister), John Cotton (1585–1652), clergyman * Anne Bradstreet (1612–1672), poet * John Leverett (1616-1678/79), penultimate governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony * Simon Patrick (1626–1707), English theologian and bishop * Isaac Newton, Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1726), mathematician and physicist * John Harrison (1693–1776), Marine chronometer, chronometer innovator * William Stukeley (1687–1765), antiquarian


Born 1701–1850

* John Wesley, John (1703–1791) and Charles Wesley (1707–1788), founders of the Methodist movement * Benjamin Huntsman (1704–1776), inventor of crucible steel * Thomas Paine (1737–1809), political activist and philosopher * Joseph Banks (1743–1820), botanist and naturalist * Samuel Eyles Pierce (1746–1829), preacher and theologian * Thomas Scott (commentator), Thomas Scott (1747–1821), Bible commentator and co-founder of the Church Missionary Society * George Bass (1771-c.1803), explorer of Australia * Matthew Flinders (1774–1814), navigator and cartographer * Richard Watson (Methodist), Richard Watson (1781–1833), theologian and Methodist writer * George Davenport (1783–1845), sailor and frontiersman * Peter De Wint (1784–1849), landscape painter * Pishey Thompson (1784–1862), publisher and antiquarian writer * Sir John Franklin (1786–1847), Arctic explorer * Andreas Kalvos (1792–1869), poet * Christopher Wordsworth (1807–1885), Bishop of Lincoln * Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809–1892), poet * Herbert Ingram (1811–1860), journalist * Lady Charlotte Guest (1812–1895), businesswoman and Welsh language translator * George Boole (1815–1864), mathematician * William Marwood (1818–1883), hangman * Jean Ingelow (1820–1897), poet * Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895), fashion designer * Edward King (bishop of Lincoln), Edward King (1829–1910), Bishop of Lincoln * Charlotte Alington Barnard (1830–1869), ballad composer and hymn writer * Joseph Ruston (1835–1897), engineer and manufacturer *Arnold Rylott (1839–1914), cricketer for Marylebone Cricket Club * George Green (Medal of Honor) (1840–1898), Medal of Honor recipient * Gonville Bromhead (1845–1891), Victoria Cross recipient * Madge Kendal (1848–1935), actress


Born 1851–1950

* Ethel Rudkin (1893–1985), folklorist and archaeologist *Sarah Swift (1854–1937), Royal College of Nursing founder * Frank Bramley (1857–1915), artist * Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock (1858–1922), clergyman and ecologist * William Robertson (British Army officer), William Robertson (1860–1933), Field Marshal * Halford Mackinder (1861–1947), geographer * Thomas Colclough Watson (1867–1917), Victoria Cross recipient * Cyril Bland (1872–1950), cricketer * William Tritton (1875–1946), tank developer * Frank Pick (1878–1941), railway administrator * Sybil Thorndike (1882–1976), actress * Alfred Piccaver (1884–1958), tenor * Arthur Lucan (1885–1954), part of the music hall act Old Mother Riley * Frank Airey (1887–?), footballer * Harold Jackson (VC) (1892–1918), Victoria Cross recipient * Charles Richard Sharpe (1889–1963), Victoria Cross recipient * Francis Hill (1899–1980), historian * Frank Whittle (1907–1996), RAF officer * John George Haigh (1909–1949), serial killer * Douglas Bader (1910–1982), RAF flying ace * James Cobban (1910–1999), educator and headmaster * Chad Varah (1911–2007), priest and "The Samaritans" founder * Ted Savage (footballer), Ted Savage (1912–1964), footballer * Guy Gibson (1918–1944), bomber pilot and Victoria Cross recipient * Steve Race (1921–2009), musician and broadcaster * Liz Smith (actress), Liz Smith (1921–2016), actress * Leslie Manser (1922–1942), bomber pilot and Victoria Cross recipient * Brian Tierney (medievalist), Brian Tierney (1922–2019), historian * Nicholas Parsons (1923–2020), radio and TV presenter * Neville Marriner (1924–2016), violinist and conductor * Margaret Thatcher (1925–2013), former Prime Minister * Elizabeth Jennings (1926–2001), poet * Brenda Fisher (born 1927), swimmer * Joan Plowright (born 1929), actress * Jeff Hall (footballer), Jeff Hall (1929–1959), footballer * Colin Dexter (1930–2017), crime writer * Bill Podmore (1931–1994), television producer * Neil McCarthy (actor), Neil McCarthy (1932–1985), actor * Frank Sargeant (bishop), Frank Sargeant (born 1932), retired Anglican bishop * Mervyn Winfield (1932–2014), cricketer * Bernard Codd (1934–2013), motorcycle road racer * Victor Emery (1934–2002), physicist * Mike Pinner (born 1934), football goalkeeper * Bruce Barrymore Halpenny (born 1937), military historian and author * Roy Axe (1937–2010), car designer * Barry Spikings (born 1939), Hollywood producer * Ted Lewis (writer), Ted Lewis (1940–1982), crime writer * John Alderton (born 1940), actor * Alec Brader () (born 1942) professional footballer, schoolteacher and youth athletics coach * Graham Oates (footballer, born 1943), Graham Oates (born 1943), footballer * John Hargreaves (cricketer), John Hargreaves (born 1944), cricketer * Tony Jacklin (born 1944), golfer * Roger Scruton (1944–2020), philosopher * Robert Wyatt (born 1945), musician * Patricia Hodge (born 1946), actress * Iain Matthews (born 1946), singer-songwriter and musician * Philip Priestley (born 1946), former British diplomat * Richard Budge (1947–2016), coal mining entrepreneur * Ray Clemence (born 1948), football goalkeeper * Jim Broadbent (born 1949), actor * Geoff Capes (born 1949), shotputter * Rod Temperton (1949–2016), songwriter


Born 1951 onwards

* Bernie Taupin (born 1950), songwriter * Brian Bolland (born 1951), comics artist * David Ward (British politician), David Ward (born 1953), former Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament (MP) * Michael Foale (born 1957), astronaut * Jennifer Saunders (born 1958), actress and comedian * Chris Woods (born 1959), football goalkeeper * Lee Chapman (born 1959), footballer * Simon Garner (born 1959), footballer * John Cridland (born 1961), former Director-General of the Confederation of British Industry (CBI); Chair of Transport for the North (TfN) * Bill Dunham (born 1961), former Deputy Commandant General of the Royal Marines * Jonathan Van-Tam (born 1964), specialist in influenza, currently Deputy Chief Medical Officer for England * Helen Fospero (born 1966), newsreader and journalist * Antonio Berardi (born 1968), fashion designer * Beverley Allitt (born 1968), serial killer * Samantha Cameron (born 1971), businesswoman and wife of the former Prime Minister David Cameron * Rae Earl (born 1971), author * Jane Taylor (musician), Jane Taylor (born 1972), singer and musician * Robert Webb (actor), Robert Webb (born 1972), actor, comedian and writer * Jonathan Kerrigan (born 1972), actor * Paul Palmer (swimmer), Paul Palmer (born 1974), swimmer * Abi Titmuss (born 1976), poker player and glamour model * Steve Housham (born 1976), footballer and manager * Danny Butterfield (born 1979), footballer * Colin Furze (born 1979), inventor and YouTube personality * Kelly Adams (born 1979), actress * Sheridan Smith (born 1981), actress * Paul Mayo (born 1981), footballer * Guy Martin (born 1981), motorcycle racer and television presenter * Carl Hudson (born 1983), musician * Oliver Ryan (born 1985), footballer * Luke Wright (born 1985), cricketer * Lee Frecklington (born 1985), footballer * Kate Haywood (born 1987), swimmer * Sam Clucas (born 1990), footballer * Scott Williams (darts player), Scott Williams (born 1990), darts player * Thomas Turgoose (born 1992), actor * Eliza Butterworth (born 1993), actress * Patrick Bamford (born 1993), footballer * Ella Henderson (born 1996), singer and songwriter * Holly Humberstone (born 1999), singer and songwriter * Ellis Chapman (born 2001), footballer


Local dialect

In common with most other English English#Northern England, Northern and English English#Midlands, Midlands dialects in England, "flat" ''a'' is preferred, i.e. over , and also traditionally in words like water, pronounced ''watter'' (though such a pronunciation is rarely heard nowadays). Similarly, is usually replaced by . Features rather more confined to Lincolnshire include: *Elaboration of Received Pronunciation, standard English or into a complex triphthong approximating, and often Transcription (linguistics), transcribed ''-air-'' or ''-yair-''. For example: "mate" ; "beast" ; "tates" (potatoes) . *An equivalent elaboration of standard English – commonly in Northern England – into ''-ooa-''. For example, "boat" . *Insertion of an extra schwa into the standard English diphthong . *Vocabulary: "duck" as a term of endearment or informal address, "mardy" meaning upset or angry, "mowt" (pronounced like mout) for ''might'', "while" as a substitute for standard English "until", "frit" meaning frightened, "grufty" meaning dirty or disgusting, and the inimitable salutation (greeting), salutation "now then!?" (hello), sometimes written ''nairn'' to reflect pronunciation. *In the north-east of the county, around Grimsby and Immingham, the Phonological history of English vowels, nurse-square merger can be heard, as is also the case along the east coast of Yorkshire and also in Liverpool. Words that take in Received pronunciation, RP take in these areas. Lincolnshire has its own dialect "champion", a farmer from the village of Minting called Farmer Wink (real name Robert Carlton), who has produced videos about rural life, narrated in his broad Lincolnshire accent. A resident of
Woodhall Spa Woodhall Spa is a former spa town and civil parish in Lincolnshire Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes ...
has published a dictionary of words once prevalent in parts of the county.


Music

Lincolnshire was historically associated with the Lincolnshire bagpipe, an instrument derided as a coarse and unpleasant instrument in contemporary literature, but noted as very popular in the county. The last player, John Hunsley of Middle Manton, died in 1851, and since then the instrument has been extinct. In 1937, Percy Grainger wrote his ''Lincolnshire Posy'' for wind band. The piece is a compilation of folk songs "musical wildflowers" collected by the composer in and around the county of Lincolnshire.


Food

Lincolnshire has a number of local dishes: *Stuffed chine – this is salted neck-chine of a pig taken from between the shoulder blades, salted for up to ten months and stuffed with parsley (other ingredients are normally kept secret), and served cold. *Haslet – a type of pork loaf, also flavoured with sage (pronounced HAYSS-let or AYSS-let in Lincolnshire but HAZ-let in many other parts of the country). *Lincolnshire sausages – most butchers in Lincolnshire have their own secret recipe for these and a competition is held each year to judge the best sausages in the county. Traditional Lincolnshire sausages are made entirely from minced pork, stale bread crumb (rusk is used nowadays) pepper, sage and salt. The skins should be natural casings which are made from the intestines of either sheep or pig. *Pork pies – the same pork butchers will take a pride in their unique recipe for pork pies. *Giblets, Giblet pie. *Lamb and mutton, Mutton stuffed with oysters. *Plum bread – as with Christmas pudding, plum pudding, plum refers to dried fruit, namely currants, raisins and sultanas, sometimes soaked in tea. *Grantham Gingerbread – a hard white ginger biscuit. *Lincolnshire Poacher cheese – a cheddar-style cheese produced in Alford, Lincolnshire, Alford. Lincolnshire Poacher has won numerous awards over the years including Supreme Champion at the 1996/7 British Cheese Awards and Best British Cheese at the World Cheese awards in 2001/2. *Batemans Brewery, Batemans ales – a beer brewed in Wainfleet, Lincolnshire, Wainfleet and served in many pubs in the county and further afield. *There are several small breweries. *Grimsby is renowned for its fishing industry, and historically ''Grimsby Fish'' has carried a premium price. Since the decline of the fishing industry following entry to the European Economic Community in the 1970s this is no longer the case, with the majority of fish sold at the town's fish market being brought overland from other ports. However, ''Grimsby Fish'' is still a recognised ''product'', one associated with a particular area that specialises in and has expertise in a particular trade (cf ''Sheffield steel''). In 2009 Traditional Grimsby smoked fish, smoked fish from the town was granted Protected Geographical Indication by the European Union, reflecting the unique smoking methods used by certain local fish companies. Craft Chocolatiers can be found throughout the county, such as Hansens in Folkingham. In 2013 Redstar Chocolate's ''Duffy's Venezuela Ocumare Milk'' won a gold medal as best bean-to-bar. The factory is in Cleethorpes.


Events

Every year the Lincolnshire Agricultural Society, founded in 1869, stages the Lincolnshire Agricultural Show. It is held on the Wednesday and Thursday of the last whole week of June at its showground at Grange de Lings, a few miles north of Lincoln on the A15 road (Great Britain), A15. The show was first held here in 1958. First held around the year 1884, it is one of the largest agricultural shows in the country, and is attended by around 100,000 people over its two days. The showground is in regular use throughout the year for a wide range of other events and functions. Smaller local agricultural shows, such as the Heckington Show can still be found. Corby Glen sheep fair has been held since 1238. Each year RAF Waddington is the home to the RAF International Waddington Air Show. The two-day event attracts around 150,000 people and usually takes place during the first weekend of July. Since its inception over 35 countries have participated, with aircraft from around the globe attending the Lincolnshire Base. Beginning 2017, the event will be held at nearby RAF Scampton. On the Monday before Easter, an unusual auction takes place in Bourne, Lincolnshire, Bourne to let the grazing rights of the Whitebread Meadow. Bidding takes place while two boys race toward the Queen's Bridge in Eastgate, the end of which dash is equivalent to the falling of the gavel. The whole affair dates back to the 1742 will of William Clay. The Haxey Hood village competition takes place every January, as it has for over 700 years. Stamford's Mid-Lent fair sees showmen converge on the town the week after Mothering Sunday, with rides and sideshows filling Broad Street, the Sheepmarket and the Meadows for a week. Stalls selling Grantham gingerbread and nougat are a traditional feature. The following week sees them in Grantham, on the way north for the Summer
Roger Tuby
brings a small funfair to Bourne and then to Spalding in Spring and returns in Autumn at the end of the season. The villages of Tetford and Salmonby hold an annual Scarecrow Festival in May every year. The Belchford Downhill Challenge which is held every two years: soapbox racers race down the hill at up to 30 km/h. The turnout has been up to 1,000. In recent years Lincoln Christmas Market, a street market throughout the historic area of the city, has been held at the start of December. Around the same time, Christmas lights are turned on in Bourne, Sleaford, Skegness, and other towns. Throughout the summer the Stamford Shakespeare Company presents the Bard's plays in the open-air theatre at Tolethorpe Hall, which is actually in
Rutland Rutland () is a Counties of England, county in the East Midlands of England, bounded to the west and north by Leicestershire, to the northeast by Lincolnshire and the southeast by Northamptonshire. Its greatest length north to south is on ...

Rutland
. The Spalding, Lincolnshire, Spalding Flower Parade was held in late spring every year between 1959 and 2013. Colourful floats decorated with tulip heads competed for a cup.


Sport

The main sports played in the county are Association football, football, cricket and rugby union. Lincolnshire does not have a high sporting profile, mainly due to the lack of facilities and high-profile football teams. Probably the most well-known sporting venues in Lincolnshire are Cadwell Park near Louth, where a round of the British Motorbike Championship is held on the last Monday of August every year and the racecourse at Market Rasen *Three teams from Lincolnshire play in the Football League: Lincoln City F.C., Lincoln City play in Football League One, While Scunthorpe United F.C., Scunthorpe United and Grimsby Town FC, Grimsby Town play in Football League Two. In non-league football Boston United F.C., Boston United and Gainsborough Trinity F.C., Gainsborough Trinity play in the Football Conference North. *In cricket Lincolnshire County Cricket Club, Lincolnshire are a minor county and play in the Minor Counties Championship. *In field hockey, hockey Lindum Hockey Club play in the north of Lincoln. *Scunthorpe Rugby Club are the most notable rugby union team from Lincolnshire, and will play in the fifth level of the English league system in the 2017–18 season. Other notable teams include Market Rasen and Louth RUFC, Lincoln RFC, and Boston Rugby Club. *Lincolnshire is home to one racecourse, at Market Rasen Racecourse, Market Rasen. *Cadwell Park is the only motor-racing course in Lincolnshire. There is a speedway track in Scunthorpe, home of the Scunthorpe Scorpions, and stock-car racing at a stadium at Orby, near Skegness. *Lincolnshire has an American Football club, the Lincolnshire Bombers, which has existed in its current guise since 2005. *Lincolnshire is home to the UK roller derby team, the Lincolnshire Bombers Roller Girls, which is sponsored by Motörhead.


Symbols

The unofficial anthem of the county is the traditional folk song, "Lincolnshire Poacher (folk song), The Lincolnshire Poacher", which dates from around 1776. A version of the song was the theme for BBC Radio Lincolnshire for many years. According to a 2002 marketing campaign by the charity Plantlife, the County flowers of the United Kingdom, county flower of Lincolnshire is the common dog-violet. In August 2005, BBC Radio Lincolnshire and ''Lincolnshire Life'' magazine launched a vote for a flag of Lincolnshire to represent the county. Six competing designs were voted upon by locals and the winning submission was unveiled in October 2005. Lincoln has its own flag – St George's flag with a Fleur-de-Lys. The Lincoln Imp has symbolised cathedral, city and county for many years. In 2006 it was replaced as the brand of Lincolnshire County Council by the stylised version seen on the header her

which has lost even the unique pose of the carving.


Media


Press

The county is home to one daily newspaper, the ''Grimsby Telegraph'' which as the name suggests, is published in the town and whose circulation area ostensibly covers North East Lincolnshire, although it reaches as far south as Louth and Alford and as west as Brigg. There are two further weekly papers which used to be published daily until 2011; the ''Lincolnshire Echo'' is published weekly from Lincoln and covers the majority of the county reaching as far north as Louth, and the ''Scunthorpe Telegraph'' which covers northern Lincolnshire. All three are ultimately owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust. There are also a number of weekly papers serving individual towns published in the county by Johnston Press. One of these, the ''Stamford Mercury'' claims to be Britain's oldest newspaper, although it is now a typical local weekly and no longer covers stories from the whole East Midlands as the archived copies did.


Television

With the exception of a small area to the south-west of the county, Lincolnshire is served from the Belmont transmitting station, Belmont transmitter, receiving programmes from ITV Yorkshire and BBC One BBC Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire regions. The BBC has, since 2003, provided the area with its twelfth regional service: BBC Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, carrying a local "BBC Look North (East Yorkshire and Lincolnshire), Look North" news programme from the main studio in Kingston upon Hull, Hull, with input from other studios in Lincoln and Grimsby. ITV Yorkshire provides coverage through its evening news programme "Calendar (News), Calendar". Until late 2008 the station provided a separate edition for the Belmont transmitter (although it was still broadcast from Leeds). From January 2009 the area is now covered by a programme that covers the entire ITV Yorkshire region. From 1959 to July 1974 ITV (TV network), ITV programmes were provided by Anglia Television (although some coverage could be received from the Manchester-based Granada Television, Granada and Associated British Corporation, ABC Weekend). Based in Norwich the company had news offices in Grimsby. Following a transmitter change ITV services were provided by Yorkshire Television. This company kept open the offices in Grimsby and opened further facilities in Lincoln, although both of these closed in the mid-1990s. South-west Lincolnshire receives BBC East Midlands and ITV Central which are broadcast from the Waltham transmitting station, Waltham-on-the-Wolds Transmitting Station. Although subject to co-channel interference from the Waltham transmitter, a small number of households in the southern tip of the county are able to receive regional programming from BBC East and ITV Anglia. Many villages just west of the Lincoln Cliff, Lincoln Edge cannot get a signal from Belmont due to Fading, shadowing and instead get their TV from Emley Moor transmitting station, Emley Moor near Huddersfield.


Radio

The area is covered by several local radio stations including: *Lincoln City Radio The only radio station dedicated to the over-50's in the City of Lincoln and the surrounding villages. *BBC Lincolnshire Can be heard throughout historic Lincolnshire although its broadcast remit is the present county of Lincolnshire *BBC Radio Humberside The counties of northern Lincolnshire that were formerly known as South Humberside *Boundary Sound Newark (closed 2011) *Compass FM Grimsby, Cleethorpes and Immingham *Hereward FM, Heart Peterborough and South Lincolnshire *Lincs FM Historic Lincolnshire
Gravity FM
Grantham *Siren FM Lincoln
Endeavour FM (formerly Stump Radio)
Boston
Endeavour Radio
Boston *Tulip Radio Spalding and South Holland *Viking FM Northern Lincolnshire and the East Riding of Yorkshire, East Yorkshire, formerly the constituent areas of
Humberside Humberside was a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England ...


Military


Air

Because of its flat geography and low population density, Lincolnshire is an ideal place for airfields, and the Air Ministry built prolifically with the county hosting nearly seventy separate air bases. It became known as "bomber county". Since the end of the Second World War most of these airfields or stations were decommissioned, but the RAF retains a significant footprint in Lincolnshire for the air defence of the United Kingdom and aircrew training. For more information on former bases, see List of former RAF stations. Two major front-line bases located in Lincolnshire are RAF Coningsby, which is one of only two RAF Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) Stations in the United Kingdom and home to the Eurofighter Typhoon jet fighters, and RAF Waddington, where most of the RAF's Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance aircraft are based. Other stations in Lincolnshire include RAF Cranwell, home to all Air Force Basic Officer Training for the Royal Air Force; RAF Scampton, home base to the Red Arrows Aerobatic Team and former base of the Avro Vulcan nuclear strike V bomber-force; RAF Barkston Heath, a training airfield; and minor bases such as RAF Kirton in Lindsey, RAF Donna Nook and RAF Digby. Lincolnshire is also home to two active RAF and NATO-allied air weapons training bombing ranges, located along
The Wash The Wash is a rectangular bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which cove ...

The Wash
and north Lincolnshire coastline—RAF Holbeach active since 1926 (originally part of the former RAF Sutton Bridge station) and RAF Donna Nook, Donna Nook. The RAF Wainfleet range was decommissioned in 2010.


Army

The Army runs Sobraon Barracks, home of 160 (Lincoln) Squadron, Royal Logistic Corps (RLC), as well as Prince William of Gloucester Barracks, Grantham, home to the national specialist logistics units. In November 2016 the Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Ministry of Defence announced that the Grantham site would close in 2020.


Places of interest


See also

*''Outline of England'' *Custos Rotulorum of Lincolnshire – List of Keepers of the Rolls for Lincolnshire *Earl of Lincoln is a title that has been created eight times in the Peerage of England and is currently represented. *High Sheriff of Lincolnshire *Lincolnshire (UK Parliament constituency) List of MPs for the Lincolnshire constituency *Lincs Wind Farm *Lists **List of bridges and viaducts in Lincolnshire **List of churches in Lincolnshire **List of civil parishes in Lincolnshire **List of companies in Lincolnshire – Both current and former **List of forests and woodland in Lincolnshire **List of monastic houses in Lincolnshire **List of museums in Lincolnshire **List of Parliamentary constituencies in Lincolnshire **List of places in Lincolnshire **List of public art in Lincolnshire **List of Roman Sites in Lincolnshire, List of Roman sites in Lincolnshire **List of schools in Lincolnshire **List of watermills in Lincolnshire **List of Waterways in Lincolnshire, List of waterways in Lincolnshire **List of windmills in Lincolnshire *Lord Lieutenant of Lincolnshire *Stamford Senior Youth Theatre *1185 East Midlands earthquake


References

*


External links


Lincolnshire County Council websiteLincs FM websiteVisitlincolnshire.com

Lindcolne Skipfierde
Lincolnshire'
Anglo-Saxon, Viking and Norman
re-enactment and living history group
Lincolnshire Show official websitePathe newsreel of motor tractors at 1919 agricultural show, thought to be Lincoln show

Images of Lincolnshire
at the English Heritage Archive {{Authority control Lincolnshire, Non-metropolitan counties East Midlands NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union Counties of England established in antiquity