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Lahore (; pnb, ; ; ur, ; ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...

Punjab
and is the country's 2nd largest city after
Karachi Karachi (; ur, ; ; : , , ) is the and the in the world. It is the capital of the Pakistani province of . Ranked as a , it is 's premier industrial and financial centre, with an estimated GDP of $164 billion () . Karachi is Pakistan's most ...

Karachi
, as well as the 26th largest city in the world. Lahore is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP ( PPP) of $84 billion as of 2019.http://finance.gov.pk It is the largest city and historic cultural centre of the wider
Punjab region Punjab (; ; ; ; also romanised Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and m ...

Punjab region
,Lahore Cantonment
globalsecurity.org
and is one of Pakistan's most socially liberal,
progressive Progressive may refer to: Politics * Progressivism is a political philosophy in support of social reform Political organizations * Congressional Progressive Caucus, members within the Democratic Party in the United States Congress dedicated to th ...
, and
cosmopolitan Cosmopolitan may refer to: Food and drink * Cosmopolitan (cocktail), also known as a "Cosmo" History * Rootless cosmopolitan, a Soviet derogatory epithet during Joseph Stalin's anti-Semitic campaign of 1949–1953 Hotels and resorts * Cosmopo ...
cities. Lahore's origins reach into antiquity. The city has been controlled by numerous empires throughout the course of its history, including the
Hindu Shahi The Hindu Shahis (also known as Hindūshāhs or Odi Shahis or Brahman Shahis) (843–1026 CE) were a dynasty that held sway over the Kabul Valley Kabul ( ps, کابل, translit=Kābəl; prs, کابل, translit=Kābol) is the capital and la ...
s,
Ghaznavids The Ghaznavid dynasty ( fa, غزنویان ''ġaznaviyān'') was a Persianate Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is fro ...
,
Ghurids The Ghurid dynasty (also spelled Ghorids; fa, سلسله غوریان; self-designation: , ''Shansabānī''), was a Persianate Muslim dynasty which ruled from the 10th-century to 1215. Of presumably eastern Iranian Tajik people, Tajik origin, th ...
, and
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
by the medieval era. Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the
Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, ge ...
between the late 16th and early 18th century and served as its capital city for many years. The city was captured by the forces of the
Afsharid The Afsharid dynasty ( fa, افشاریان) was an Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is borde ...
ruler
Nader Shah Nader Shah Afshar ( fa, نادر شاه افشار; also known as ''Nader Qoli Beyg'' or ''Tahmāsp Qoli Khan'' ) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in Iranian history, ruling as List of kings of Persia, ...

Nader Shah
in 1739, then fell into a period of decay while being contested between the Afghans and the Sikhs. Lahore eventually became the capital of the
Sikh Empire The Sikh Empire ( fa, , Sarkār-ē-Khālsā, lit=Government of the Khalsa; pa, , ਸਿੱਖ ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ ਰਾਜ , Sikkh Khālsā Rāj, lit=Sikh Khalsa rule), also known as the Punjab Empire, was a state originating in the Indian ...

Sikh Empire
in the early 19th century and regained some of its lost grandeur. Lahore was then annexed to the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
, and made capital of
British Punjab Punjab was a province of British India. Most of the Punjab region was annexed by the East India Company in 1849, and was one of the last areas of the Indian subcontinent to fall under British control. In 1858, the Punjab, along with the rest of ...
. Lahore was central to the independence movements of both India and Pakistan, with the city being the site of both the declaration of Indian Independence, and the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan. It experienced some of the worst rioting during the Partition period preceding Pakistan's independence. Following the success of the and subsequent partition of India in 1947, Lahore was declared the capital of Pakistan's Punjab province. Lahore exerts a strong cultural influence over Pakistan. It is a UNESCO
City of Literature UNESCO's City of Literature programme is part of the wider Creative Cities Network. The ''Network'' was launched in 2004, and now has member cities in seven creative fields. The other creative fields are: Crafts and Folk Art, Design A design i ...
and major center for Pakistan's publishing industry; Lahore remains the foremost center of Pakistan's literary scene. The city is also a major centre of education in Pakistan, with some of Pakistan's leading universities based in the city. For many years, Lahore was home to Pakistan's film industry,
Lollywood Lollywood (in Punjabi, ur, ''lâli vuḍ'') is the Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographic ...
, though in recent years most filming has shifted to
Karachi Karachi (; ur, ; ; : , , ) is the and the in the world. It is the capital of the Pakistani province of . Ranked as a , it is 's premier industrial and financial centre, with an estimated GDP of $164 billion () . Karachi is Pakistan's most ...

Karachi
. Lahore is a major centre of ''Qawwali'' music. The city also hosts much of Pakistan's tourist industry, with major attractions including the
Walled City A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from Lat ...
, the famous and mosques, as well as several
Sikh Sikhs ( or ; pa, ਸਿੱਖ, ', ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a Monotheism, monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The te ...

Sikh
and
Sufi Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf (), is mysticism in Islam, "characterized ... y particularvalues, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions". It is variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, ...

Sufi
shrines. Lahore is also home to the
Lahore Fort The Lahore Fort ( ur, , lit=Royal Fort, translit=Shāhī Qilā, label=Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( ...

Lahore Fort
and , both of which are
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
s.


Etymology

The origin of Lahore's name is unclear. Lahore's name had been recorded by early Muslim historians ''Luhawar'', ''Lūhār'', and ''Rahwar''. The
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
ian
Polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a substantial number of subjects, known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific prob ...

Polymath
and
Geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist or humanist whose area of study is geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, feat ...
, Abu Rayhan Al-Biruni, referred to the city as ''Luhāwar'' in his 11th century work, ''Qanun,'' while the poet
Amir Khusrow Abu'l Hasan Yamīn ud-Dīn Khusrau (1253–1325 AD) (Urdu:ابوالحسن یامین الدّین خُسرو), better known as Amīr Khusrau Dehlavī (Urdu: امیر خُسرو دہلوی), was an Indian Sufi singer, musician, poet and scholar ...
, who lived during the
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
, recorded the city's name as ''Lāhanūr''.
Yaqut al-Hamawi Yāqūt Shihāb al-Dīn ibn-'Abdullāh al-Rūmī al-Hamawī (1179–1229) ( ar, ياقوت الحموي الرومي) is famous for his great "geography", ''Mu'jam ul-Buldān'', an encyclopedia of Islam written in the late Abbāsid era and as muc ...
records the city's name as Lawhūr, mentioning that it's famously known as Lahāwar. One theory suggests that Lahore's name is a corruption of the word ''Ravāwar,'' as R to L shifts are common in languages derived from
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
. ''Ravāwar'' is the simplified pronunciation of the name ''Iravatyāwar -'' a name possibly derived from the
Ravi River The Ravi River is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is one of six rivers of the Indus System in Punjab region (Punjab means "Five Rivers"). Under the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960, the waters of the Rav ...

Ravi River
, known as the Iravati River in the ''
Vedas upright=1.2, The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the '' Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (, , ) are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the o ...

Vedas
''. Another theory suggests the city's name may derive from the word ''Lohar'', meaning "blacksmith." According to Hindu legend, Lahore's name derives from ''Lavpur'' or ''Lavapuri'' ("City of '' Lav''"), and is said to have been founded by Prince Lav, the son of
Sita Sita (; ), also spelt Seeta is a Hindu goddess Devī (Sanskrit: देवी) is the Sanskrit word for 'goddess'; the masculine form is Deva (Hinduism), ''deva''. ''Devi'' and ''deva'' mean 'heavenly, divine, anything of excellence', ...

Sita
and
Rama Rama (; , ; ), Ram, Raman or Ramar, also known as Ramachandra (; , ), is a major deity in Hinduism. He is the seventh and one of the most popular ''avatars'' of Vishnu. In Rama-centric traditions of Hinduism, he is considered the Supreme Be ...

Rama
. The same account attributes the founding of nearby
Kasur Kasur (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC ( American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing system A writing system is a method of visually repres ...
, which was actually founded by Afghans in the Mughal period, to his twin brother
Kusha Kusha was a Chandravamsha Lunar dynasty (IAST: Candravaṃśa or Somavaṃśa in Sanskrit) is a legendary principal house of the Kshatriya varna in Hinduism, varna, or warrior–ruling caste mentioned in the ancient Indian texts. This legen ...
.


History


Early

No definitive records exist to elucidate Lahore's earliest history, and Lahore's ambiguous early history has given rise to various theories about its establishment and history.
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...

Hindu
legend states that Keneksen, the founder of the Great
Suryavansha Solar dynasty or the Ikshvaku dynasty was founded by the legendary king Ikshvaku In ancient India, Ikshvaku (Sanskrit; ,) ; one of the ten sons of Shraddhadeva Manu, was the first king of the Ikshvaku dynasty In Indian epics, the Sola ...
dynasty, is believed to have migrated out from the city.Neville, p.xii Early records of Lahore are scant, but
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
's historians make no mention of any city near Lahore's location during his invasion in 326 BCE, suggesting the city had not been founded by that point or was unimportant.
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, , ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes ...
mentions in his ''
Geographia The ''Geography'' ( grc-gre, Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, ''Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis'',  "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic b ...
'' a city called ''Labokla'' situated near the
Chenab The Chenab River ( pa, چَنّھاں, translit=cannhāṉ; ur, , translit=canāb; ) is a major river that flows in and , and is one of the 5 major rivers of the region. It is formed by the union of two headwaters, Chandra and Bhaga, which ...

Chenab
and
Ravi River The Ravi River is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is one of six rivers of the Indus System in Punjab region (Punjab means "Five Rivers"). Under the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960, the waters of the Rav ...

Ravi River
s which may have been in reference to ancient Lahore, or an abandoned predecessor of the city. Chinese pilgrim
Xuanzang Xuanzang (; fl. 602 – 664), born Chen Hui / Chen Yi (), also known as Hiuen Tsang, was a 7th-century Chinese Buddhist monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classica ...

Xuanzang
gave a vivid description of a large and prosperous unnamed city when he visited the region in 630 CE that may have been Lahore. The first document that mentions Lahore by name is the ''
Hudud al-'Alam The ''Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam'' ( ar, حدود العالم "Boundaries of the World" or "Limits of the World") is a 10th-century geography book written in Persian by an unknown author from Guzgan.Clifford Edmund Bosworth, C. E. Bosworth in: Encyclop ...
'' ("The Regions of the World"), written in 982 CE in which Lahore is mentioned as a town which had "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards." Few other references to Lahore remain from before its capture by the
Ghaznavid The Ghaznavid dynasty ( fa, غزنویان ''Ġaznaviyān'') was a Persianate society, Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic peoples, Turkic ''mamluk'' origin, ruling, at its greatest extent, large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana ...
Sultan
Mahmud of Ghazni Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn ( fa, یمین‌الدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین; 2 November 971 – 30 April 1030), usually known as Mahmud of Ghazni ( fa, ) or Mahmud Ghaznavi was the fo ...

Mahmud of Ghazni
in the 11th century. Lahore appears to have served as the capital of Punjab during this time under
Anandapala Ānandapāla or Anantpala was a ruler of the Hindu Khatriya Shahi dynasty in present-day Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country a ...
of the
Kabul Shahi Kabul Shahi is a term used to denote two former non-Muslim dynasties in Kabul: *Turk Shahis The Turk Shahis or Kabul Shahis were a dynasty of Western Turk, or mixed Western Turk-Hephthalite, origin, that ruled from Kabul and Kapisa (city), Kapisa ...
empire, who had moved the capital there from ''Waihind''. The capital would later be moved to
Sialkot Sialkot (Urdu and pnb, ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan. It is the capital city of Sialkot District. It is Pakistan's List of most populous cities in Pakistan, 13th largest city by population and is located in north-east Punja ...

Sialkot
following Ghaznavid incursions.


Medieval Era


Ghaznavid

Sultan
Mahmud of Ghazni Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn ( fa, یمین‌الدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین; 2 November 971 – 30 April 1030), usually known as Mahmud of Ghazni ( fa, ) or Mahmud Ghaznavi was the fo ...

Mahmud of Ghazni
captured Lahore, somewhere in 1020–1027. Under Ghaznavid rule, Lahore emerged effectively as the empire's second capital. In 1021, Sultan Mahmud appointed Malik Ayaz to the Throne of Lahore—a governorship of the
Ghaznavid Empire The Ghaznavid dynasty ( fa, غزنویان ''ġaznaviyān'') was a Persianate Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is fro ...
. The city was captured by Nialtigin, the rebellious Governor of
Multan Multan (; ) is a city and capital of Multan Division located in Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan. Situated on the bank of the Chenab River, Multan is Pakistan's List of largest cities in Pakistan, 7th largest city and is the major cultural and ...

Multan
, in 1034, although his forces were expelled by Malik Ayaz in 1036. With the support of Sultan Ibrahim Ghaznavi, Malik Ayaz rebuilt and repopulated the city which had been devastated after the Ghaznavid invasion. Ayaz erected city walls and a masonry fort built in 1037–1040 on the ruins of the previous one, which had been demolished during the Ghaznavid invasion. A confederation of Hindu princes then unsuccessfully laid siege to Lahore in 1043-44 during Ayaz' rule. The city became a cultural and academic centre, renowned for poetry under Malik Ayaz' reign. Lahore was formally made the eastern capital of the Ghaznavid empire in 1152, under the reign of ''Khusrau Shah''. The city then became the sole capital of the Ghaznavid empire in 1163 after the fall of
Ghazni Ghazni ( prs, غزنی, ps, غزني), historically known as Ghaznin () or Ghazna () and also transliterated as Ghuznee, is a city in southeastern Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the ...

Ghazni
. The entire city of Lahore during the medieval Ghaznavid era was probably located west of the modern Shah Alami Bazaar, and north of the
Bhatti Gate Bhati Gate ( ur, , ''Bhati Darwaza'') is one of the historic thirteen gates of the Walled City of Lahore in Lahore, Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab, Pakistan. Bhati Gate also serves as a union council located in the Ravi Zone. The gate is located near ...
.


Mamluk

In 1187, the
Ghurid The Ghurid dynasty (also spelled Ghorids; fa, سلسله غوریان; self-designation: , ''Shansabānī''), was a Persianate A Persianate society is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language Persian (), ...
s invaded Lahore, ending Ghaznavid rule over Lahore. Lahore was made capital of the
Mamluk Dynasty Mamluk (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Stre ...
of the
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
following the assassination of
Muhammad of Ghor Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad ( fa, معز الدین محمد غوری), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was the Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to ...
in 1206. Under the reign of Mamluk sultan Qutbu l-Din Aibak, Lahore attracted poets and scholars from as far away as
Turkestan Turkestan, also spelled Turkistan ( fa, ترکستان, Torkestân, lit=Land of the Turks), is a historical region in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the ...

Turkestan
,
Greater Khorasan Greater KhorāsānDabeersiaghi, Commentary on Safarnâma-e Nâsir Khusraw, 6th Ed. Tehran, Zavvâr: 1375 (Solar Hijri Calendar) 235–236 or Khorāsān ( pal, Xwarāsān; fa, wikt:خراسان, خراسان ), is a historical eastern region ...
,
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
, and
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in th ...

Mesopotamia
. Lahore at this time had more poets writing in Persian than any city in Persia or Khorasan. Following the death of Aibak, Lahore came to be disputed among Ghurid officers. The city first came under the control of the Governor of
Multan Multan (; ) is a city and capital of Multan Division located in Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan. Situated on the bank of the Chenab River, Multan is Pakistan's List of largest cities in Pakistan, 7th largest city and is the major cultural and ...

Multan
,
Nasir ad-Din Qabacha Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha or Kaba-cha ( fa, ناصرالدین قباچه) was the Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from a ...
, before being briefly captured by the sultan of the Mamluks in Delhi,
Iltutmish Shams ud-Din Iltutmish, (died 30 April 1236, ) was the third of the Mamluk dynasty (Delhi), Mamluk kings who ruled the former Ghurid Empire, Ghurid territories in northern India. He was the first Muslim sovereign to rule from Delhi, and is thus ...
, in 1217. In an alliance with local
Khokhar Khokhar are a community of Punjab, Punjab region who currently reside in adjoining areas of India and Pakistan. The word Khokhar itself means "Bloodthirsty" and its origin is from Persian language, Persian Language. In India, Khokhars are Hindus, ...
s in 1223,
Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu ( full name: ), or Mangubarni ( Turkic for "God-given"), also known as (), was the last ruler of the Turkic Khwarezmian Empire from the Anushtegin dynasty. He was the eldest son of Ala ad-Din Muhammad II by his Turkmen ...
of the
Khwarazmian dynasty The Khwarazmian dynasty (English: , fa, خوارزمشاهیان) also known as the Anushtegin dynasty was a Persianate C. E. BosworthKhwarazmshahs i. Descendants of the line of Anuštigin In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: ''"Little ...
of modern-day
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi), is a landlocked country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land ...

Uzbekistan
captured Lahore after fleeing
Genghis Khan ''Chinggis Khaan'' ͡ʃʰiŋɡɪs xaːŋbr>Mongol script The classical or traditional Mongolian script, also known as the , was the first Mongolian alphabet, writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most ...

Genghis Khan
's invasion of
Khwarazm Khwarazm , or Chorasmia (Old Persian Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languagesIndo-Iranian may refer to: * Indo-Iranian languages ...

Khwarazm
. Jalal ad-Din's then fled from Lahore to capture the city of
Uch Sharif Uch ( ur, ; ''"Uuch"''), frequently referred to as Uuch Sharīf ( ur, ; ''"Noble Uch"''), is a historic city in the southern part of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of ...

Uch Sharif
after Iltutmish's armies re-captured Lahore in 1228. The threat of Mongol invasions and political instability in Lahore caused future Sultans to regard Delhi as a safer capital for medieval Islamic India, though Delhi had before been considered a forward base, while Lahore had been widely considered to be the centre of Islamic culture in the subcontinent. Lahore came under progressively weaker central rule under Iltutmish's descendants in Delhi - to the point that governors in the city acted with great autonomy. Under the rule of Kabir Khan Ayaz, Lahore was virtually independent from the Delhi Sultanate. Lahore was sacked and ruined by the Mongol army in 1241. Lahore governor Malik Ikhtyaruddin Qaraqash fled the Mongols, while the Mongols held the city for a few years under the rule of the Mongol chief
Toghrul Toghrul ( mn, Тоорил хан ''Tooril han''; ), also known as Wang Khan or Ong Khan ( ''Wan han''; ; died 1203) was a Khan (title), khan of the Keraites. He was the blood brother (anda (Mongol), anda) of the Mongol chief Yesugei and served ...

Toghrul
. In 1266, Sultan Balban reconquered Lahore, but in 1287 under the Mongol ruler
Temür Khan ); , Religion=Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the Major religious groups#Largest religions, world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of ...
, the Mongols again overran northern
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...

Punjab
. Because of Mongol invasions, Lahore region had become a city on a frontier, with the region's administrative centre shifted south to
Dipalpur Dipalpur ( pa, ; ur, ), also spelt Depalpur, is a city in Okara District of the Punjab that served as headquarters of Depalpur Tehsil. Dipalpur tehsil is the largest tehsil of pakistan. It is situated 25 kilometres from the district capit ...
. The Mongols again invaded northern Punjab in 1298, though their advance was eventually stopped by
Ulugh Khan Almas Beg (died c. 1301/02), better known by his title Ulugh Khan, was a brother and a general of the Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent f ...
, brother of Sultan
Alauddin Khalji Alaud-Dīn Khaljī (), born Ali Gurshasp, was an emperor of the Khalji dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate in the Indian subcontinent. Alauddin instituted a number of significant administrative changes, related to revenue reforms of Alauddin ...
of Delhi. The Mongols again attacked Lahore in 1305.Neville, p.xiii


Tughluq

Lahore briefly flourished again under the reign of Ghazi Malik of the
Tughluq dynasty The Tughlaq dynasty (Ṭughlāq or Arabic script: ) also referred to as Tughluq or Tughluk dynasty, was a Muslim dynasty of Turkic peoples, Turkic origin which ruled over the Delhi sultanate in medieval India. Its reign started in 1320 in Delhi ...
between 1320 and 1325, though the city was again sacked in 1329, by Tarmashirin of the Central Asian
Chagatai Khanate The Chagatai Khanate, or Chagatai Ulus ( mn, Цагаадайн улс; uz, Chigʻatoy ulusi; ; fa, خانات جغتای), was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan ...
, and then again by the Mongol chief Hülechü.
Khokhar Khokhar are a community of Punjab, Punjab region who currently reside in adjoining areas of India and Pakistan. The word Khokhar itself means "Bloodthirsty" and its origin is from Persian language, Persian Language. In India, Khokhars are Hindus, ...
s seized Lahore in 1342, but the city was retaken by Ghazi Malik's son,
Muhammad bin Tughluq Muhammad bin Tughluq (also known as Prince Fakhr Malik Jauna Khan, Ulugh Khan); ) was the Delhi Sultanate, Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351. He was the eldest son of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, Ghiyas-ud-Din-Tughlaq, the founder of the Tughluq dyn ...
. The weakened city then fell into obscurity and was captured once more by the Khokhars in 1394. By the time
Tamerlane Timur ; chg, ''Aqsaq Temür'', 'Timur the Lame') or as ''Sahib-i-Qiran'' ( 'Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction'), his epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a ...

Tamerlane
captured the city in 1398 from Shayka Khokhar, he did not loot it because it was no more wealthy.


Late Sultanates

Timur gave control of the Lahore region to
Khizr Khan Sayyid Khizr Khan (reigned 28 May 1414 – 20 May 1421) was the founder of the Sayyid dynasty, the ruling dynasty of the Delhi sultanate, in northern India soon after the invasion of Timur and the fall of the Tughlaq dynasty. Khan was Governor ...
, Governor of
Multan Multan (; ) is a city and capital of Multan Division located in Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan. Situated on the bank of the Chenab River, Multan is Pakistan's List of largest cities in Pakistan, 7th largest city and is the major cultural and ...

Multan
, who later established the
Sayyid dynasty The Sayyid dynasty was the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whethe ...
in 1414 – the fourth dynasty of the
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
. Lahore was briefly occupied by the
TimuridTimurid refers to those descended from Timur (Tamerlane), a 14th-century conqueror: * Timurid dynasty, a dynasty of Turco-Mongol lineage descended from Timur who established empires in Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent ** Timurid Empire of Ce ...
Governor of Kabul in 1432–33. Lahore began to be incurred upon yet again the Khokhar tribe, and so the city was granted to
Bahlul Lodi Buhlool Khan Lodi () (died 12 July 1489) was the chief of the Pashtun Pashtuns (, or ; ps, پښتانه, ; or Pathans), historically known as Afghans,, ''Afğân'' or Bactrian Abgân - αβγανο are an Iranian ethnic group An et ...
in 1441 by the Sayyid dynasty in Delhi, though Lodi would then displace the Sayyids in 1451 by establishing himself upon the throne of Delhi. Bahlul Lodi installed his cousin, Tatar Khan, to be governor of the city, though Tatar Khan died in battle with
Sikandar Lodi Sikandar Lodi (died 21 November 1517), born Nizam Khan, was an Afghan Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate between 1489 and 1517. He became the next ruler of the Lodi dynasty after the death of his father Bahlul Lodi in July 1489.The second and most s ...

Sikandar Lodi
in 1485. Governorship of Lahore was transferred by Sikandar Lodi to Umar Khan Sarwani, who quickly left the management of this city to his son Said Khan Sarwani. Said Khan was removed from power in 1500 by Sikandar Lodi, and Lahore came under the governorship of , son of Tatar Khan and former employer of
Guru Nanak Gurū Nānak (Punjabi language, Punjabi pronunciation: , ; born as Nānak on 15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539), also referred to as ('father Nānak'), was the founder of Sikhism and is the first of the ten Sikh gurus, Sikh Gurus. His birt ...

Guru Nanak
– founder of the Sikh faith.


Mughals

File:The Badshahi in all its glory during the Eid Prayers.JPG,
Badshahi Mosque The Badshahi Mosque (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanise ...

Badshahi Mosque
File:Naulakha Pavilion in Lahore Fort.jpg,
Lahore Fort The Lahore Fort ( ur, , lit=Royal Fort, translit=Shāhī Qilā, label=Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( ...

Lahore Fort
File:Tomb of Emperor Jahangir.jpg,
Tomb of Jahangir The Tomb of Jahangir ( ur, ) is a 17th-century mausoleum built for the Mughal Empire, Mughal Emperor Jahangir. The mausoleum dates from 1637, and is located in Shahdara Bagh in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan, along the banks of the R ...

Tomb of Jahangir
File:Wazir Khan's hammams (4).JPG,
Shahi Hammam The Shahi Hammam (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-prof ...

Shahi Hammam


Early Mughal

Babur Babur ( fa, , lit= tiger, translit= Bābur; 14 February 148326 December 1530), born Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the founder of the Mughal Empire and first Mughal emperors, Emperor of the Mughal dynasty () in the Indian subcontinent. He ...

Babur
, the founder of the
Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, ge ...
, captured Lahore in 1524 after being invited to invade by , the Lodi governor of Lahore. The city became a refuge to
Humayun Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad ( fa, , translit=Nasīr-ad-Dīn Muhammad; 6 March 1508 – 27 January 1556), better known by his regnal name, Humayun ( fa, , translit=Humāyūn), was the Mughal emperors, second emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled ...

Humayun
and his cousin
Kamran Mirza Kamran Mirza (1509 – 5 (or 6) October 1557) was the second son of Babur Babur ( fa, , lit= tiger, translit= Bābur; 14 February 148326 December 1530), born Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the founder of the Mughal Empire The ...

Kamran Mirza
when
Sher Shah Suri Sher Shah Suri (1472 – 22 May 1545), born Farīd Khān, was the founder of the Suri Empire The Sur Empire was an Afghan Afghan ( Pashto/Persian language, Persian: ) refers to someone or something from Afghanistan, in particular a citize ...
rose in power on the Gangetic Plains, displacing Mughal power. Sher Shah Suri continued to rise in power, and seized Lahore in 1540, though Humayun reconquered Lahore in February 1555. The establishment of Mughal rule eventually led to the most prosperous era of Lahore's history. Lahore's prosperity and central position has yielded more Mughal-era monuments in Lahore than either
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
or
Agra Agra (, ) is a city on the banks of the Yamuna The Yamuna (Hindustani Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms ...

Agra
. By the time of the rule of the Mughal empire's greatest emperors, a majority of Lahore's residents did not live within the walled city itself but instead lived in suburbs that had spread outside of the city's walls. Only 9 of the 36 urban quarters around Lahore, known as ''guzars'', were located within the city's walls during the
Akbar Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated ...

Akbar
period. During this period, Lahore was closely tied to smaller market towns known as ''qasbahs'', such as
Kasur Kasur (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC ( American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing system A writing system is a method of visually repres ...
and
Eminabad Eminabad ( ur, ) is a town located in the south east of Gujranwala Gujranwala (Punjabi language, Punjabi, ur, ; ) is a city and capital of Gujranwala Division located in Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan. It is also known as "City of Wres ...
, as well as
Amritsar Amritsar (), historically also known as ''Rāmdāspur'' and colloquially as ''Ambarsar'', is a historic and the second largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality o ...

Amritsar
, and
Batala Batala is the eighth largest city in the state of Punjab, India in terms of population after Ludhiana, Amritsar, Jalandhar, Patiala, Bathinda, Mohali and Hoshiarpur. Batala ranks as the second-oldest city after Bathinda. It is a municipal corpora ...

Batala
in modern-day India, which in turn, linked to supply chains in villages surrounding each ''qasbah''.


Akbar

Beginning in 1584, Lahore became the Mughal capital when
Akbar Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated ...

Akbar
began re-fortifying the city's ruined citadel, laying the foundations for the revival of the
Lahore Fort The Lahore Fort ( ur, , lit=Royal Fort, translit=Shāhī Qilā, label=Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( ...

Lahore Fort
. Akbar made Lahore one of his original twelve ''
subah A Subah was the term for a province (State) in the Mughal Empire. The word is derived from Arabic and Persian language, Persian. The governor/ruler of a ''Subah'' was known as a ''subahdar'' (sometimes also referred to as a "''Subeh''"), which lat ...
'' provinces, and in 1585–86 relegated governorship of the city and ''subah'' to
Bhagwant Das Bhagawant Das (1527 – 4 December 1589) was a ruler of . Life He was the eldest son of Raja and succeeded him, after his death. Raja Bhagwant was also the elder brother of , one of the wives of the . Bhagwant Das was one of the generals of ...
, brother of
Mariam-uz-Zamani Mariam-uz-Zamani (; 1542 – 19 May 1623) was one of the three chief consorts of the third Mughal Empire, Mughal emperor, Akbar. In subsequent centuries, she has been referred to with several other names, including Jodha bai, Heer Kunwari, and ...
, who was commonly known as ''Jodhabhai''. Akbar also rebuilt the city's walls, and extended their perimeter east of the Shah Alami bazaar to encompass the sparsely populated ''Rarra Maidan''. The Akbari Mandi grain market was set up during this era, and continues to function until the present-day. Akbar also established the Dharampura neighbourhood in the early 1580s, which survives today. The earliest of Lahore's many havelis date from the Akbari era. Lahore's Mughal monuments were built under Akbar's reign of several emperors, and Lahore reached its cultural zenith during this period, with dozens of mosques, tombs, shrines, and urban infrastructure developed during this period.


Jahangir

During the reign of Emperor Jahangir in the early 17th century, Lahore's bazaars were noted to be vibrant, frequented by foreigners, and stocked with a wide array of goods. In 1606, Jehangir's rebel son Khusrau Mirza laid siege to Lahore after obtaining the blessings of the Sikh Guru Arjan Dev. Jehangir quickly defeated his son at Bhairowal, and the roots of Mughal-Sikh animosity grew. Sikh Guru Arjan Dev was executed in Lahore in 1606 for his involvement in the rebellion. Emperor Jahangir chose to be buried in Lahore, and Tomb of Jahangir, his tomb was built in Lahore's Shahdara Bagh suburb in 1637 by his wife Nur Jahan, Tomb of Nur Jahan, whose tomb is also nearby.


Shah Jahan

Jahangir's son, Shah Jahan reigned between 1628 and 1658 and was born in Lahore in 1592. He renovated large portions of the
Lahore Fort The Lahore Fort ( ur, , lit=Royal Fort, translit=Shāhī Qilā, label=Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( ...

Lahore Fort
with luxurious white marble and erected the iconic Naulakha Pavilion in 1633. Shah Jahan lavished Lahore with some of its most celebrated and iconic monuments, such as the
Shahi Hammam The Shahi Hammam (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-prof ...

Shahi Hammam
in 1635, and both the and the extravagantly decorated Wazir Khan Mosque in 1641. The population of pre-modern Lahore probably reached its zenith during his reign, with suburban districts home to perhaps 6 times as many compared to within the
Walled City A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from Lat ...
.


Aurangzeb

Shah Jahan's son, and last of the great Mughal Emperors, Aurangzeb, further contributed to the development of Lahore. Aurangzeb built the ''Alamgiri Bund'' embankment along the
Ravi River The Ravi River is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is one of six rivers of the Indus System in Punjab region (Punjab means "Five Rivers"). Under the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960, the waters of the Rav ...

Ravi River
in 1662 in order to prevent its shifting course from threatening the city's walls. The area near the embankment grew into a fashionable locality, with several pleasure gardens laid near the ''band'' by Lahore's gentry. The largest of Lahore's Mughal monuments was raised during his reign, the
Badshahi Mosque The Badshahi Mosque (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanise ...

Badshahi Mosque
in 1673, as well as the iconic ''Alamgiri'' gate of the
Lahore Fort The Lahore Fort ( ur, , lit=Royal Fort, translit=Shāhī Qilā, label=Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( ...

Lahore Fort
in 1674.


Late Mughal

Civil wars regarding succession to the Mughal throne following Aurangzeb's death in 1707 lead to weakening control over Lahore from
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
, and a prolonged period of decline in Lahore. Mughal preoccupation with the Marathas in the Deccan eventually resulted in Lahore being governed by a series of governors who pledged nominal allegiance to the ever weaker Mughal emperors in Delhi. Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah I died en route to Lahore as part of a campaign in 1711 to subdue Sikh rebels under the leadership of Banda Singh Bahadur. His sons fought a battle outside Lahore in 1712 for succession to the Mughal crown, with Jahandar Shah, Jahandar winning the throne. Sikh rebels were defeated during the reign of Farrukhsiyar when Abd as-Samad and Zakariyya Khan suppressed them.
Nader Shah Nader Shah Afshar ( fa, نادر شاه افشار; also known as ''Nader Qoli Beyg'' or ''Tahmāsp Qoli Khan'' ) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in Iranian history, ruling as List of kings of Persia, ...

Nader Shah
's brief Nader Shah's invasion of the Mughal Empire, invasion of the Mughal Empire in early 1739 wrested control away from Zakariya Khan Bahadur. Though Khan was able to win back control after the Persian armies had left, Nader Shah's invasion shifted trade routes away from Lahore, and south towards Kandahar instead. Indus ports near the Arabian Sea that served Lahore also silted up during this time, reducing the city's importance even further. Struggles between Zakariyya Khan's sons following his death in 1745 further weakened Muslim control over Lahore, thus leaving the city in a power vacuum, and vulnerable to foreign marauders.


Durrani Empire

Ahmad Shah Durrani, the founder of the Afghan Durrani Empire, captured Lahore in January 1748, Following Ahmed Shah Durrani's quick retreat, the Mughals entrusted Lahore to Mir Mannu, Mu’īn al-Mulk Mir Mannu. Ahmad Shah Durrani again invaded in 1751, forcing Mir Mannu into signing a treaty that submitted Lahore to Afghan rule. The Mughal Wazīr Ghazi Din Imad al-Mulk would seize Lahore in 1756, provoking Ahmad Shah Durrani to again invade in 1757, after which he placed the city under the rule of his son, Timur Shah Durrani. Durrani rule was interrupted when Lahore was briefly captured by Maratha Empire, Marathas in 1758 during their Maratha conquest of North-west India, campaigns against the Afghans, under Raghunathrao, who drove out the Afghans, while a combined Sikh-Maratha defeated an Afghan assault in the 1759 Battle of Lahore (1759), Battle of Lahore. Following the Third Battle of Panipat, Ahmad Shah Durrani crushed the Marathas and recaptured Lahore, Sikh forces quickly occupied the city after the Durranis withdrew from the city. The Durranis invaded two more times, while the Sikhs would re-occupy the city after both invasions.


Sikh

File:Samadhi of Ranjit Singh 123.jpg, Samadhi of Ranjit Singh File:Samadhi of Ranjit Singh Golden Dome.jpg, Gurdwara Dera Sahib File:Nau Nihal Singh's haveli, now Victoria Girls High School, Lahore.jpg, Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh File:Hazuri Bagh Baradari & Ground.JPG, Hazuri Bagh File:Gurudwara Arjun Ram (WCLA).jpg, Gurdwara Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das


Early

Expanding Sikh ''Misls'' secured control over Lahore in 1767, when the Bhangi Misl state captured the city. In 1780, The city was divided among three rulers, Gujjar Singh Banghi, Gujjar Singh, Lehna Singh Majithia, Lahna Singh, and Sobha Singh. Instability resulting from this arrangement allowed nearby
Amritsar Amritsar (), historically also known as ''Rāmdāspur'' and colloquially as ''Ambarsar'', is a historic and the second largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality o ...

Amritsar
to establish itself as the area's primary commercial centre in place of Lahore. Ahmad Shah Durrani's grandson, Zaman Shah invaded Lahore in 1796, and again in 1798–9. Ranjit Singh negotiated with the Afghans for the post of ''subahdar'' to control Lahore following the second invasion. By the end of the 18th century, the city's population drastically declined, with its remaining resident's living within the city walls, while the extramural suburbs lay abandoned, forcing travellers to pass through abandoned and ruined suburbs for a few miles before reaching the city's gates.


Sikh Empire

Following Zaman Shah Durrani, Zaman Shah’s 1799 invasion of Punjab, Ranjit Singh of nearby Gujranwala to consolidate his position in the aftermath of the invasion. Singh was able to seize control of the region after a series of battles with the Sikh ''Bhangi Misl'' chiefs who had seized Lahore in 1780. His army marched to Anarkali, where according to legend, the gatekeeper of the Lohari Gate, Lahore, Lohari Gate, Mukham Din Chaudhry, opened the gates allowing Ranjit Singh's army to enter Lahore. After capturing the Lahore,
Sikh Sikhs ( or ; pa, ਸਿੱਖ, ', ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a Monotheism, monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The te ...

Sikh
soldiers immediately began plundering Muslim areas of the city until their actions were reined in by Ranjit Singh. Ranjit Singh's rule restored some of Lahore's lost grandeur, but at the expense of destroying the remaining Mughal architecture for its building materials. He established a mint in the city in 1800, and moved into the Mughal palace at the
Lahore Fort The Lahore Fort ( ur, , lit=Royal Fort, translit=Shāhī Qilā, label=Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( ...

Lahore Fort
after repurposing it for his own use in governing the Sikh Empire. In 1801, he established the Gurdwara Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das to mark the site where Guru Ram Das was born in 1534. Lahore became the empire's administrative capital, though the nearby economic centre of Amritsar had also been established as the empire's spiritual capital by 1802. By 1812 Singh had mostly refurbished the city's defences by adding a second circuit of outer walls surrounding Akbar's original walls, with the two separated by a moat. Singh also partially restored Shah Jahan's decaying Shalimar Gardens. Ranjit Singh also built the Hazuri Bagh Baradari in 1818 to celebrate his capture of the ''Koh-i-Noor'' diamond from Shuja Shah Durrani in 1813. He also erected the Gurdwara Dera Sahib to mark the site of Guru Arjan Dev's 1606 death. The Sikh royal court also endowed religious architecture in the city, including a number of Sikh gurdwaras, Hindu temples, and havelis. While much of Lahore's Mughal era fabric lay in ruins by the time of his arrival, Ranjit Singh's rule saw the re-establishment of Lahore's glory – though Mughal monuments suffered during the Sikh period. Singh's armies plundered most of Lahore's most precious Mughal monuments, and stripped the white marble from several monuments to send to different parts of the Sikh Empire during his reign. Monuments plundered for decorative materials include the Tomb of Asif Khan, the Tomb of Nur Jahan, and the . Ranjit Singh's army also desecrated the
Badshahi Mosque The Badshahi Mosque (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanise ...

Badshahi Mosque
by converting it into an ammunition depot and a stable for horses. The Sunehri Masjid, Lahore, Sunehri Mosque in the Walled City of Lahore was also converted to a gurdwara, while the Mosque of Mariyam Zamani Begum was repurposed into a gunpowder factory.


Late

The Sikh royal court, or the ''Lahore Durbar'', underwent a quick succession of rulers after the death of Ranjit Singh. His son Kharak Singh quickly died after taking the throne on 6 November 1840, while the next appointed successor Nau Nihal Singh to the throne died in an accident at Lahore's Hazuri Bagh also on 6 November 1840 - the very same day of Kharak Singh's death. Maharaja Sher Singh was then selected as Maharajah, though his claim to the throne was quickly challenged by Chand Kaur, widow of Kharak Singh and mother of Nau Nihal Singh, who quickly seized the throne. Sher Singh raised an army that attacked Chand Kaur's forces in Lahore on 14 January 1841. His soldiers mounted weaponry on the minarets of the
Badshahi Mosque The Badshahi Mosque (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanise ...

Badshahi Mosque
in order to target Chand Kaur's forces in the
Lahore Fort The Lahore Fort ( ur, , lit=Royal Fort, translit=Shāhī Qilā, label=Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( ...

Lahore Fort
, destroying the fort's historic ''Diwan-e-Aam''. Kaur quickly ceded the throne, but Sher Sing was then assassinated in 1843 in Lahore's ''Chah Miran'' neighbourhood along with his ''Wazir'' Dhiyan Singh. Dhyan Singh's son, Hira Singh, sought to avenge his father's death by laying siege to Lahore in order to capture his father's assassins. The siege resulted in the capture of his father's murderer, Ajit Singh. Duleep Singh was then crowned Maharajah, with Hira Singh as his ''Wazir'', but his power would be weakened by the continued infighting among Sikh nobles, as well as confrontations against the British during the two Anglo-Sikh War (disambiguation), Anglo-Sikh Wars After the conclusion of the two Anglo-Sikh wars, the Sikh Empire fell into disarray, resulting in the fall of the ''Lahore Durbar'', and commencement of British rule after they captured Lahore and the wider Punjab Region.


British colonial period

File:Punjab university Art & Design Dept.jpg, University of the Punjab File:Government College University Tower in Lahore.jpg, Government College University (Lahore), Government College University File:Front View of Lahore Museum.jpg, Lahore Museum File:Lahore High Court Building.jpg, Lahore High Court File:King Edward Medical University.jpg, King Edward Medical University The British East India Company seized control of Lahore in February 1846 from the collapsing Sikh state and occupied the rest of Punjab in 1848. Following the defeat of the Sikhs at the Battle of Gujrat, British troops formally deposed Maharaja Duleep Singh in Lahore that same year. Punjab was then annexed to the British Indian Empire in 1849. At the commencement of British rule, Lahore was estimated to have a population of 120,000. Prior to annexation by the British, Lahore's environs consisted mostly of the
Walled City A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from Lat ...
surrounded by plains interrupted by settlements to the south and east, such as Mozang Chungi, Mozang and Qila Gujar Singh, which have since been engulfed by modern Lahore. The plains between the settlements also contained the remains of Mughal gardens, tombs, and Sikh-era military structures. The British viewed Lahore's Walled City as a bed of potential social discontent and disease epidemics, and so largely left the inner city alone, while focusing development efforts in Lahore's suburban areas, and Punjab's fertile countryside. The British instead laid out their capital city in an area south of the Walled City that would first come to be known as "Donald's Town" before being renamed "Civil Station." Under early British rule, formerly prominent Mughal-era monuments that were scattered throughout Civil Station were also re-purposed and sometimes desecrated – including the Tomb of Anarkali, which the British had initially converted to clerical offices before re-purposing it as an Anglican church in 1851. The 17th century Dai Anga Mosque was converted into railway administration offices during this time, the tomb of Nawab Bahadur Khan was converted into a storehouse, and the tomb of Mir Mannu was used as a wine shop. The British also used older structures to house municipal offices, such as the Civil Secretariat, Public Works Department, and Accountant General's Office. The British built the Lahore Junction railway station, Lahore Railway Station just outside the Walled City shortly after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Mutiny of 1857, and so built the station in the style of a medieval castle to ward off any potential future uprisings, with thick walls, turrets, and holes to direct gun and cannon fire for the defence of the structure. Lahore's most prominent government institutions and commercial enterprises came to be concentrated in Civil Station in a half-mile wide area flanking The Mall, Lahore, The Mall, where unlike in Lahore's military zone, the British and locals were allowed to mix. The Mall continues to serve as the epicentre of Lahore's civil administration, as well as one of its most fashionable commercial areas. The British also laid the spacious Lahore Cantonment to the southeast of the Walled City at the former village of Mian Mir, where unlike around The Mall, laws did exist against the mixing of different races. Lahore was visited on 9 February 1870 by Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh – a visit in which he received delegations from the Dogra dynasty, Dogras of Jammu, Maharajas of Patiala, the Nawab of Bahawalpur, and other rulers from various Punjabi states. During the visit, he visited several of Lahore's major sights. British authorities built several important structures around the time of the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria in 1887 in the distinct Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, Indo-Saracenic style. The Lahore Museum and National College of Arts, Mayo School of Industrial Arts were both established around this in this style. The British carried out a census of Lahore in 1901, and counted 20,691 houses in the Walled City. An estimated 200,000 people lived in Lahore at this time. Lahore's posh Model Town, Lahore, Model Town was established as a "garden town" suburb in 1921, while Krishan Nagar locality was laid in the 1930s near The Mall and Walled City. Lahore played an important role in the independence movements of both India and Pakistan. The Declaration of the Independence of India was moved by Jawaharlal Nehru and passed unanimously at midnight on 31 December 1929 at Lahore's Bradlaugh Hall. The Indian ''Swaraj flag'' was adopted this time as well. Lahore's jail was used by the British to imprison independence activists such as Jatin Das, and was also where Bhagat Singh was hanged in 1931. Under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah The All India Muslim League passed the Lahore Resolution in 1940, demanding the creation of Pakistan as a separate homeland for the Muslims of India.


Partition

The 1941 census showed that city of Lahore had a population of 671,659, of which was 64.5% Muslim, with the remainder 35% being Hindu and Sikh, alongside a small Christian community. The population figure was disputed by Hindus and Sikhs before the Boundary Commission that would draw the Radcliffe Line to demarcate the border of the two new states based on religious demography. In a bid to have Lahore awarded to India, they argued that the city was only 54% Muslim, and that Hindu and Sikh domination of the city's economy and educational institutions should trump Muslim demography. Two-thirds of shops, and 80% of Lahore's factories belonged to the Hindu and Sikh community. Kuldip Nayyar reported that Cyril Radcliffe in 1971 had told him that he originally had planned to give Lahore to the new Dominion of India, but decided to place it within the Dominion of Pakistan, which he saw as lacking a major city as he had already awarded Calcutta to India. As tensions grew over the city's uncertain fate, Lahore experienced Partition's worst riots. Carnage ensued in which all three religious groups were both victims and perpetrators. Early riots in March and April 1947 destroyed 6,000 of Lahore 82,000 homes. Violence continued to rise throughout the summer, despite the presence of armoured British personnel. Hindus and Sikhs began to leave the city ''en masse'' as their hopes that the Boundary Commission to award the city to India came to be regarded as increasingly unlikely. By late August 1947, 66% of Hindus and Sikhs had left the city. The Shah Alami Bazaar, once a largely Hindu quarter of the
Walled City A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from Lat ...
, was entirely burnt down during subsequent rioting. When Pakistan's independence was declared on 14 August 1947, the Radcliffe Line had not yet been announced, and so cries of ''Long live Pakistan'' and ''God is greatest'' were heard intermittently with ''Long live Hindustan'' throughout the night. On 17 August 1947, Lahore was awarded to Pakistan on the basis of its Muslim majority in the 1941 census and was made capital of the
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...

Punjab
province in the new state of Pakistan. The city's location near the Indian border meant that it received large numbers of refugees fleeing eastern Punjab and northern India, though it was able to accommodate them given the large stock of abandoned Hindu and Sikh properties that could be re-distributed to newly arrived refugees.


Modern

File:Islamic Summit Minar.JPG, Islamic Summit Minar File:The Minar-e-Pakistan.jpg, Minar-e-Pakistan File:Behria Town Mosque build by Malik Riaz.jpg, Grand Jamia Mosque, Lahore, Grand Jamia Mosque File:Punjab Assembly as more then one decade before by Usman Ghani.jpg, Provincial Assembly of the Punjab File:'Pakistan'-Islamic Summit Minar-Lahore- By @ibneazhar- Sep 2016 (72).jpg, WAPDA House File:Arfa Karim Tower Lahore.jpg, Arfa Karim tower in Lahore Partition left Lahore with a much-weakened economy, and a stymied social and cultural scene that had previously been invigorated by the city's Hindus and Sikhs. Industrial production dropped to one-third of pre-Partition levels by end of the 1940s, and only 27% of its manufacturing units were operating by 1950, and usually well-below capacity. Capital flight further weakened the city's economy while
Karachi Karachi (; ur, ; ; : , , ) is the and the in the world. It is the capital of the Pakistani province of . Ranked as a , it is 's premier industrial and financial centre, with an estimated GDP of $164 billion () . Karachi is Pakistan's most ...

Karachi
industrialized and became more prosperous. The city's weakened economy, and proximity to the Indian border, meant that the city was deemed unsuitable to be the Pakistani capital after independence.
Karachi Karachi (; ur, ; ; : , , ) is the and the in the world. It is the capital of the Pakistani province of . Ranked as a , it is 's premier industrial and financial centre, with an estimated GDP of $164 billion () . Karachi is Pakistan's most ...

Karachi
was therefore chosen to be capital on account of its relative tranquillity during the Partition period, stronger economy, and better infrastructure. After independence, Lahore slowly regained its significance as an economic and cultural centre of western Punjab. Reconstruction began in 1949 of the Shah Alami Bazaar, the former commercial heart of the Walled City until it was destroyed in the 1947 riots. The Tomb of Allama Iqbal was built in 1951 to honour the philosopher-poet who provided the spiritual inspiration for the Pakistan movement. In 1955, Lahore was selected to be the capital of all West Pakistan during the single-unit period that lasted until 1970. Shortly afterwards, Lahore's iconic Minar-e-Pakistan was completed in 1968 to mark the spot where the Pakistan Resolution was passed. With support from the United Nations, the Government of Pakistan, government was able to rebuild Lahore, and most scars from the communal violence of Partition were ameliorated. The second Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Islamic Summit Conference was held in the city in 1974. In retaliation for the destruction of the Babri Masjid in India by Hindu fanatics, riots erupted in 1992 in which several non-Muslim monuments were targeted, including the tomb of Maharaja Sher Singh, and the former Jain temple near the Mall. In 1996, the International Cricket Council 1996 Cricket World Cup, Cricket World Cup final match was held at the Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore. The Walled City of Lahore restoration project began in 2009, when the Punjab government restored the Royal Trail from Akbari Gate to the
Lahore Fort The Lahore Fort ( ur, , lit=Royal Fort, translit=Shāhī Qilā, label=Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( ...

Lahore Fort
with money from the World Bank.


Geography

Lying between 31°15′—31°45′ N and 74°01′—74°39′ E, Lahore is bounded on the north and west by the Sheikhupura District, on the east by Wagah, and on the south by Kasur District. The
Ravi River The Ravi River is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is one of six rivers of the Indus System in Punjab region (Punjab means "Five Rivers"). Under the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960, the waters of the Rav ...

Ravi River
flows on the northern side of Lahore. Lahore city covers a total land area of . Lahore is in the north-eastern portion of the country.


Climate

Lahore has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification ''BSh''), not receiving enough rainfall to feature the humid subtropical climate. The hottest month is June where temperatures routinely exceed 45C (107F). The monsoon season starts in late July, and the wettest months are July and August, with heavy rainfalls and evening thunderstorms with the possibility of cloudbursts and flash floods. The coolest month is January with dense fog. The city's record high temperature was 50.4C (122F), recorded on 5 June 2003. was recorded on 10 June 2007. At the time the meteorological office recorded this official temperature in the shade, it reported a heat index in direct sunlight of . The highest rainfall in a 24-hour period is , recorded on 13 August 2008.


Demographics


Population

The results of the 2017 Census of Pakistan, 2017 Census determined the population to be at 11,126,285, with an annual growth rate of 4.07% since 1998 Pakistan Census, 1998. Gender-wise, 52.35% of the population is male, while 47.64% is female, and transgender people make only 0.01% of the population. Lahore is a young city with over 40% of its inhabitants below the age of 15.


Religion

The city has a Muslim majority (95.2%), Christians, Christian (2.9%) minority population,
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...

Hindu
(1.2%) and
Sikh Sikhs ( or ; pa, ਸਿੱਖ, ', ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a Monotheism, monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The te ...

Sikh
(0.6%). There is also a small but longstanding Zoroastrianism, Zoroastrian community. Additionally, Lahore contains some of Sikhism's holiest sites, and is a major Sikh pilgrimage site. According to the 1998 census, 94% of Lahore's population is Muslim, up from 60% in 1941. Other religions include Christians (5.80% of the total population, though they form around 9.0% of the rural population) and small numbers of Ahmadiyya, Ahmadis, Baháʼí Faith, Baháʼís, Hindus, Parsis and Sikhs. Lahore's first church was built during the reign of Emperor
Akbar Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated ...

Akbar
in the late 16th century, which was then leveled by Shah Jahan in 1632. There is a small number of Hindus living in Lahore. The Krishna Mandir, Lahore, Shri Krishna mandir and the Valmiki Mandir are the only two functional temples in Lahore.


Languages

The Punjabi language is the most-widely spoken native language in Lahore with 87% of Lahore counting it as their first language according to the 1998 Census, Lahore is the largest Punjabi-speaking city in the world. Urdu and English are used as official languages and as mediums of instruction and media administration. However, Punjabi is also taught at graduation level and used in theaters, films and newspapers from Lahore. Several Lahore-based prominent educational leaders, researchers and social commentators have demanded that the Punjabi language should be declared as the medium of instruction at the primary level and official use in Provincial Assembly of the Punjab, Punjab assembly, Lahore.


Cityscape


Old City

Lahore's modern cityscape consists of the historic Walled City of Lahore in the northern part of the city, which contains several World Heritage Site, world and national heritage sites. Lahore's urban planning was not based on geometric design but was instead built piecemeal, with small cul-de-sacs, ''katrahs'' and ''galis'' developed in the context of neighbouring buildings. Though certain neighbourhoods were named for particular religious or ethnic communities, the neighbourhoods themselves typically were diverse and were not dominated by the namesake group. By the end of the Sikh rule, most of Lahore's massive haveli compounds had been occupied by settlers. New neighbourhoods occasionally grew up entirely within the confines of an old Mughal haveli, such as the Mohallah Pathan Wali, which grew within the ruins of a haveli of the same name that was built by Mian Khan. By 1831, all Mughal Havelis in the Walled City had been encroached upon by the surrounding neighbourhood, leading to the modern-day absence of any Mughal Havelis in Lahore. A total of thirteen gates once surrounded the historic walled city. Some of the remaining gates include the Raushnai Gate, Masti Gate, Yakki Gate, Kashmiri Gate, Khizri Gate, Shah Burj Gate, Akbari Gate and Lahori Gate. Southeast of the walled city is the spacious British-era Lahore Cantonment.


Architecture

Lahore is home to numerous monuments from the Mughal Dynasty,
Sikh Empire The Sikh Empire ( fa, , Sarkār-ē-Khālsā, lit=Government of the Khalsa; pa, , ਸਿੱਖ ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ ਰਾਜ , Sikkh Khālsā Rāj, lit=Sikh Khalsa rule), also known as the Punjab Empire, was a state originating in the Indian ...

Sikh Empire
, and British Raj. The architectural style of the Walled City of Lahore has traditionally been influenced by Mughal and Sikh styles. The leafy suburbs to the south of the Old City, as well as the Cantonment southwest of the Old City, were largely developed under British colonial rule, and feature colonial-era buildings built alongside leafy avenues.


Sikh period

By the arrival of the Sikh Empire, Lahore had decayed from its former glory as the Mughal capital. Rebuilding efforts under Ranjit Singh and his successors were influenced by Mughal practices, and Lahore was known as the 'City of Gardens' during the Ranjit Singh period. Later British maps of the area surrounding Lahore dating from the mid-19th century show many walled private gardens which were confiscated from the Muslim noble families bearing the names of prominent Sikh nobles – a pattern of patronage which was inherited from the Mughals. While much of Lahore's Mughal era fabric lay in ruins by the time of his arrival, Ranjit Singh's army's plundered most of Lahore's most precious Mughal monuments, and stripped the white marble from several monuments to send to different parts of the Sikh Empire. Monuments plundered of their marble include the Tomb of Asif Khan, Tomb of Nur Jahan, the were plundered of much of its marble and costly agate. The Sikh state also demolished a number of shrines and monuments laying outside the city's walls. Sikh rule left Lahore with several monuments, and a heavily altered Lahore Fort. Ranjit Singh's rule had restored Lahore to much of its last grandeur, and the city was left with a large number of religious monuments from this period. Several havelis were built during this era, though only a few still remain.


British period

As capital of British Punjab, British colonialists made a lasting architectural impression on the city. Structures were built predominantly in the Indo-Gothic style – a syncretic architectural style that blends elements of Victorian architecture, Victorian and Islamic architecture, or in the distinct Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, Indo-Saracenic style. The British also built Neoclassical architecture, neoclassical Montgomery Hall, which today serves as the Quaid-e-Azam Library. Bagh-e-Jinnah, Lahore, Lawrence Gardens were also laid near Civil Station, and were paid for by donations solicited from both Lahore's European community, as well as from wealthy locals. The gardens featured over 600 species of plants, and were tended to by a horticulturist sent from London's Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The British authorities built several important structures around the time of the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria in 1887 in the distinct Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, Indo-Saracenic style. The Lahore Museum and National College of Arts, Mayo School of Industrial Arts were both established around this in this style. Other prominent examples of the Indo-Saracenic style in Lahore include Lahore's prestigious Aitchison College, the Punjab Chief Court (today the Lahore High Court), Lahore Museum and University of the Punjab. Many of Lahore's most important buildings were designed by Sir Ganga Ram, who is sometimes called the "Father of modern Lahore."


Parks and gardens

The Shalimar Gardens (Lahore), Shalimar Gardens were laid out during the reign of Shah Jahan and were designed to mimic the Islamic paradise of the afterlife described in the Qur'an. The gardens follow the familiar charbagh layout of four squares, with three descending terraces. The Bagh-e-Jinnah (Lahore), Lawrence Garden was established in 1862 and was originally named after Sir John Lawrence, late 19th-century British Viceroy to India. The Circular Garden, which surrounds on the Walled City on three sides, was established by 1892. The many other gardens and parks in the city include Hazuri Bagh, Iqbal Park, Mochi Bagh, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Park, Model Town Park, Jilani Park, Race Course Park, Nasir Bagh Lahore, Jallo Park, Lahore Zoo Safari, Lahore Zoo Safari Park, and Changa Manga, a man-made forest near Lahore in the
Kasur Kasur (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC ( American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing system A writing system is a method of visually repres ...
district. Another example is the Bagh-e-Jinnah, Lahore, Bagh-e-Jinnah, a botanical garden that houses entertainment and sports facilities as well as a library.


Economy

File:Lahore Expo Centre.jpg, Expo Centre Lahore File:PIA Head Office, Lahore.jpg, Pakistan International Airline, PIA Head Office File:Emporium Mall.jpg, Emporium Mall , the city's gross domestic product (GDP) by purchasing power parity (PPP) was estimated at $40 billion with a projected average growth rate of 5.6 percent. This is at par with Pakistan's economic hub, Karachi, with Lahore (having half the population) fostering an economy that is 51% of the size of Karachi's ($78 billion in 2008). The contribution of Lahore to the national economy is estimated to be 11.5% and 19% to the provincial economy of Punjab. As a whole Punjab has $115 billion economy making it first and to date only Pakistani Subdivision of economy more than $100 billion at the rank 144. Lahore's GDP is projected to be $102 billion by the year 2025, with a slightly higher growth rate of 5.6% per annum, as compared to Karachi's 5.5%. A major industrial agglomeration with about 9,000 industrial units, Lahore has shifted in recent decades from manufacturing to service industries. Some 42% of its work force is employed in finance, banking, real estate, community, cultural, and social services. The city is Pakistan's largest software & hardware producing centre, and hosts a growing computer-assembly industry. The city has always been a centre for publications where 80% of Pakistan's books are published, and it remains the foremost centre of literary, educational and cultural activity in Pakistan. The Expo Centre Lahore, Lahore Expo Centre is one of the biggest projects in the history of the city and was inaugurated on 22 May 2010. Defense Raya Golf Resort, also under construction, will be Pakistan's and Asia's largest golf course. The project is the result of a partnership between DHA Lahore and BRDB Malaysia. The rapid development of large projects such as these in the city is expected to boost the economy of the country. Ferozepur Road of the Central business districts of Lahore contains high-rises and skyscrapers including Kayre International Hotel and Arfa Software Technology Park.


Transport


Public transportation

Lahore's main public transportation system is operated by the Lahore Transport Company (LTC) and Punjab Mass Transit Authority (PMTA). The backbone of its public transport network is the PMTA's Lahore Metrobus and the Orange Line (Lahore Metro), Orange Line of the Lahore Metro train. LTC and PMTA also operates an extensive network of buses, providing bus service to many parts of the city and acting as a feeder system for the Metrobus. The Orange Line metro spans 27.1 km around the city, and operates at a speed of 80 km/h (50 mph).


Metro Bus

The Lahore Metrobus, is a bus rapid transit service operating in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Lahore Metrobus service is integrated with Lahore Transport Company's local bus service to operate as one urban transport system, providing a connected transit service across Lahore District with connections to neighboring suburban communities.


Metro Train


Orange Line

The Orange Line (Lahore Metro), Orange Line Metro Train is an automated rapid transit system in Lahore. The Orange line is the first of the three proposed rail lines proposed for the Lahore Metro. As of 2020, it is the primary metro rail line in the city. The line spans with elevated and underground and has a cost of 251.06 billion Rupees($1.6 billion). The line consists of 26 subway stations (Ali Town Station to Dera Gujran Station) and is designed to carry over 250,000 passengers daily. CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive rolled out the first of 27 trains for the metro on 16 May 2017. The train has speed up to 80 km/hour. For improved durability, its bogies are heat-resistant, can manage unstable voltage, and feature energy saving air-conditioning. Successful initial test trials were run in mid 2018, and commercial operations began on 25 October 2020.


Blue Line

The ''Blue Line'' is a proposed line from Chauburji to College Road, Township. Along the way, it will connect places like Mozang Chungi, Shadman Chowk, Jail Road, Mian Boulevard Gulberg, Mian Boulevard Garden Town and Faisal Town.


Purple Line

The ''Purple Line'' is a proposed 19 km long train. It will connect Bhaati Chowk with the Allama Iqbal International Airport. Along the way it will connect places like Brandreth Road, Railway Station, Allama Iqbal Road, Dharampura and Ghazi Road.


Taxi and Rickshaw

Ride sharing services such as Uber and Careem are available in the city. They need to be booked in advance by apps or by calling their number. Motorcycle rides are also available in the city which have been introduced by private companies. These motorcycles also need to be booked in advance by apps or by calling their number. Auto rickshaws play an important role of public transport in Lahore. There are 246,458 auto rickshaws, often simply called ''autos'', in the city. Motorcycle rickshaws, usually called "chand gari" (moon car) or "chingchi" (after the Chinese company Jinan Qingqi Motorcycle Co. Ltd who first introduced these to the market) are also a very common means of domestic travel, though they are less common and cheaper than auto rickshaws. Chingchi rickshaw's provide a shared ride experience for multiple passengers and fares, whereas Autorick shaws cater to only one passenger or group for a fare. Since 2002, all auto rickshaws have been required to use CNG as fuel.


Urban (LOV) Wagon / Mini Bus

Medium-sized vans/wagons or LOVs (Low Occupancy Vehicle) run on routes throughout the city. They function like buses, and operate on many routes throughout the city.


Intercity transportation


Railways

Lahore Junction railway station, Lahore Junction Station serves as the main railway station for Lahore, and serves as a major hub for all Pakistan Railways services in northern Pakistan. It includes services to Peshawar and national capital Islamabad-Rawalpindi, and long-distance services to
Karachi Karachi (; ur, ; ; : , , ) is the and the in the world. It is the capital of the Pakistani province of . Ranked as a , it is 's premier industrial and financial centre, with an estimated GDP of $164 billion () . Karachi is Pakistan's most ...

Karachi
and Quetta. Lahore Cantonment railway station, Lahore Cantonment Station also operates a few trains.


Buses

Lahore Badami Bagh Bus Terminal serves as a hub for intercity bus services in Lahore, served by multiple bus companies providing a comprehensive network of services in Punjab and neighboring provinces. Lahore Jinnah Bus Terminal is also a major bus stand.


Airports

Pakistan's third busiest airport, Allama Iqbal International Airport (International Air Transport Association airport code, IATA: LHE), straddles the city's eastern boundary. The new passenger terminal was opened in 2003, replacing the old terminal which now serves as a VIP and Hajj lounge. The airport was named after the national poet-philosopher, Muhammad Iqbal. and is a secondary hub for the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines. Walton Airport in Askari provides general aviation facilities. In addition, Sialkot International Airport (IATA: SKT) and Faisalabad International Airport (IATA: LYP) also serve as alternate airports for the Lahore area in addition to serving their respective cities. Allama Iqbal International Airport connects Lahore with many cities worldwide (including domestic destinations) by both passenger and cargo flight including Ras Al Khaimah International Airport, Ras al Khaimah, Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport, Guangzhou (begins 28 August 2018), Ürümqi Diwopu International Airport, Ürümqi, Abu Dhabi International Airport, Abu Dhabi, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, Barcelona, Beijing Capital International Airport, Beijing–Capital, Copenhagen Airport, Copenhagen, King Fahd International Airport, Dammam, Indira Gandhi International Airport, Delhi, Dera Ghazi Khan International Airport, Dera Ghazi Khan, Hamad International Airport, Doha, Dubai International Airport, Dubai–International, Islamabad International Airport, Islamabad, King Abdulaziz International Airport, Jeddah, Jinnah International Airport, Karachi, Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Kuala Lumpur–International, Heathrow Airport, London–Heathrow, Manchester Airport, Manchester, Prince Mohammad bin Abdulaziz Airport, Medina, Milan–Malpensa Airport, Milan–Malpensa, Multan Airport, Multan, Muscat International Airport, Muscat, Oslo Airport, Gardermoen, Oslo–Gardermoen, Charles de Gaulle Airport, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Bacha Khan International Airport, Peshawar, Quetta Airport, Quetta, Shaikh Zayed International Airport (Rahim Yar Khan), Rahim Yar Khan, King Khalid International Airport, Riyadh, Salalah International Airport, Salalah, Tokyo–Narita, Toronto Pearson International Airport, Toronto–Pearson, Mashhad International Airport, Mashhad, Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, and Tashkent International Airport, Tashkent.


Roads

There are a number of municipal, provincial and federal Roads in Pakistan, roads that serve Lahore. *Municipal roads **Canal Road, Lahore, Canal Road (''serves as the major north–south artery'') *Provincial Highways of Punjab, Provincial highways **Lahore Ring Road **Lahore–Kasur Road (Ferozepur Road) **Lahore–Raiwind Road (Raiwind Road) **Lahore–Sharaqpur Road (Sagianwala Bypass Road) **Lahore–Wagah Road **Grand Trunk Road (G.T Road ) *Roads in Pakistan#Federal roads, Federal highways **M-2 motorway (Pakistan), M-2 motorway **M3 motorway (Pakistan), M-3 motorway **M11 motorway (Pakistan), M-11 motorway **N-5 National Highway (Multan Road) **N-60 National Highway (Sargodha–Lahore road)


Government


Metropolitan Corporation

Under Punjab Local Government Act 2013, Lahore is a metropolitan area and under the authority of the Metropolitan Corporation Lahore. The district is divided into 9 zones, each with its own elected Deputy Mayor. The Metropolitan Corporation Lahore is a body of those 9 deputies, as well as the city's mayor – all of whom are elected in popular elections. The Metropolitan Corporation approves zoning and land use, urban design and planning, environmental protection laws, as well as provide municipal services.


Mayor

As per the Punjab Local Government Act 2013, the Mayor of Lahore is the elected head of the Metropolitan Corporation of Lahore. The mayor is directly elected in municipal elections every four years alongside 9 deputy List of towns in Lahore, town mayors. Mubashir Javed of the Pakistan Muslim League (N) was elected mayor of Lahore in 2016. The mayor is responsible for the administration of government services, the composition of councils and committees overseeing Lahore District, Lahore City District departments and serves as the chairperson for the meeting of the Lahore Council. The mayor also functions to help devise long-term development plans in consultation with other stakeholders and bodies to improve the condition, livability, and sustainability of urban areas.


Neighbourhoods

Lahore District is a subdivision of the Punjab, and is further divided into 9 administrative zones. Each town in turn consists of a group of union councils, which total to 274.


Politics

The 2015 Local Government elections for Union councils of Pakistan, Union Councils in Lahore yielded the following results:


Festivals

The people of Lahore celebrate many festivals and events throughout the year, including Islamic, traditional Punjabi, Christian, and national holidays and festivals. Many people decorate their houses and light candles to illuminate the streets and houses during public holidays; roads and businesses may be lit for days. Many of Lahore's dozens of Sufi shrines hold annual festivals called urs to honour their respective saints. For example, the mausoleum of Ali Hujwiri at the Data Darbar shrine has an annual ''urs'' that attracts up to one million visitors per year. The popular Mela Chiraghan festival in Lahore takes place at the shrine of Madho Lal Hussain, while other large urs take place at the shrines of Bibi Pak Daman, and at the Shrine of Mian Mir. Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha are celebrated in the city with public buildings and shopping centers decorated in lights. Lahoris also commemorate the martyrdom of Imam Husain at Karbala during massive processions that take place during the first ten days of the month of Muharram. Basant (season), Basant is a traditional Punjabi culture, Punjabi festival that marks the coming of spring. Basant celebrations in Pakistan are centred in Lahore, and people from all over the country and from abroad come to the city for the annual festivities. Kite-flying competitions traditionally take place on city rooftops during Basant, while the Lahore Canal is decorated with floating lanterns. Courts have banned kite-flying because of casualties and power installation losses. The ban was lifted for two days in 2007, then immediately reimposed when 11 people were killed by celebratory gunfire, sharp kite-strings, electrocution, and falls related to the competition. Lahore's churches are elaborately decorated for Christmas and Easter celebrations. Shopping centers and public buildings also install Christmas installations to celebrate the holiday, even though Christians only constitute 3% of the total population of Lahore in 2016.


Tourism

File:Wazir Khan Mosque by Moiz.jpg, Wazir Khan Mosque File:Night View of Badshahi Mosque (King’s Mosque).jpg,
Badshahi Mosque The Badshahi Mosque (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanise ...

Badshahi Mosque
File:Lahore Fort.jpg,
Lahore Fort The Lahore Fort ( ur, , lit=Royal Fort, translit=Shāhī Qilā, label=Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( ...

Lahore Fort
(Shahi Qila) File:Minar e Pakistan night image.jpg, Minar-e-Pakistan at night File:Reflection of Farah Baksh Terrace (Upper Terrace) main building.jpg,
Lahore remains a major tourist destination in Pakistan. The Walled City of Lahore was renovated in 2014 and is popular due to the presence of
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
s. Among the most popular sights are the
Lahore Fort The Lahore Fort ( ur, , lit=Royal Fort, translit=Shāhī Qilā, label=Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( ...

Lahore Fort
, adjacent to the Walled City, and home to the Sheesh Mahal (Lahore), Sheesh Mahal, the Alamgiri Gate, the Naulakha pavilion, and the Moti Masjid (Lahore), Moti Masjid. The fort along with the adjoining has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1981. The city is home to several ancient religious sites including prominent Hindu temples, the Krishna Mandir demolition reports, Krishna Temple and Valmiki Mandir, Lahore, Valmiki Mandir. The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh, also located near the Walled City, houses the Urn, funerary urns of the
Sikh Sikhs ( or ; pa, ਸਿੱਖ, ', ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a Monotheism, monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The te ...

Sikh
ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjab), Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The most prominent religious building is the
Badshahi Mosque The Badshahi Mosque (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanise ...

Badshahi Mosque
, constructed in 1673; it was the largest mosque in the world upon construction. Another popular sight is the Wazir Khan Mosque, known for its extensive ''faience'' tile work and constructed in 1635.


Cuisine


Religious sites

Other well-known religious sites in the city are: *
Badshahi Mosque The Badshahi Mosque (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanise ...

Badshahi Mosque
* Dai Anga Mosque * Madho Lal Hussain, Darbar Madho Lal Hussain * Data Durbar Complex, Data Darbar Complex * Grand Jamia Mosque, Lahore * Gurdwara Dera Sahib * Gurdwara Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das * Krishna Mandir, Lahore * Lava Temple * Lohari Gate Mosque * Masjid of Mariyam Zamani * Masjid Shuhada * Moti Masjid (Lahore Fort) * Saleh Kamboh Mosque, Muhammad Saleh Kamboh Mosque * Neevin Mosque * Oonchi Mosque * Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore * Shab Bhar Mosque * Shaheed Ganj Mosque * St. Andrew's Church, Lahore, St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church * Suneri Mosque * Valmiki Temple * Wazir Khan Mosquee


Museums

*Army Museum Lahore *Fakir Khana *Islamic Summit Minar *Javed Manzil *Lahore Museum *National History Museum *National Museum of Science and Technology, Lahore, National Museum of Science and Technology *Shakir Ali Museum *Tollinton Market-Lahore City Heritage Museum


Tombs

* Tomb of Ali Mardan Khan * Tomb of Allama Iqbal * Tomb of Anarkali * Tomb of Asif Khan * Tomb of Dai Anga * Tomb of Jani Khan *
Tomb of Jahangir The Tomb of Jahangir ( ur, ) is a 17th-century mausoleum built for the Mughal Empire, Mughal Emperor Jahangir. The mausoleum dates from 1637, and is located in Shahdara Bagh in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan, along the banks of the R ...

Tomb of Jahangir
* Tomb of Nadira Begum * Tomb of Nur Jahan *Tomb of Dai Anga * Buddhu's Tomb * Cypress Tomb or Sarowala Maqbara * Tomb of Zeb-un-Nissa Begum * Tomb of Gul Begum * Tomb of Malik Ayaz * Kuri Bagh * Mai Dai * Mian Khan * Nusrat Khan * Prince Pervez * Qutb-ud-din Aibak * Saleh Kamboh * Mir Niamat Khan * Rasul Shahyun * Zafar Jang Kokaltash


Shrines

* Bibi Pak Daman * Ali Hujwiri * Mian Mir * Madho Lal Hussain * Khawaja Tahir Bandgi * Ghazi Ilm Din Shaheed * Sheikh Musa Ahangar * Khawaja Mehmud * Nizam-ud-Din * Siraj-ud-Din Gilani * peer makki * Baba Shah Jamal


Samadhis

* Bhai Vasti Ram * Samadhi of Ranjit Singh, Ranjit Singh * Samadhi of Bhai Mani Singh * Ganga Ram, Sir Ganga Ram * Bhai Taru Singh


Havelis

There are many havelis inside the Walled City of Lahore, some in good condition while others need urgent attention. Many of these havelis are fine examples of Mughal architecture, Mughal and
Sikh Sikhs ( or ; pa, ਸਿੱਖ, ', ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a Monotheism, monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The te ...

Sikh
Architecture. Some of the havelis inside the Walled City include: * Chuna Mandi Havelis * Dina Nath Ki Haveli * Haveli Barood Khana * Haveli Mian Khan (Rang Mehal) * Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh * Haveli Shergharian (near Lal Khou) * Haveli Sir Wajid Ali Shah (near Nisar Haveli) * Lal Haveli beside Mochi Bagh * Mubarak Begum Haveli Bhatti Gate * Mubarak Haveli – Chowk Nawab Sahib, Mochi/Akbari Gate * Mughal Haveli (residence of Maharaja Ranjeet Singh) * Nisar Haveli * Salman Sirhindi ki Haveli


Other landmarks

*
Shahi Hammam The Shahi Hammam (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-prof ...

Shahi Hammam


Historic neighbourhoods

*Anarkali *Badami Bagh *Baghbanpura *Begampura *Mughalpura *Shahdara Bagh *Walled City of Lahore


Education

Lahore is known as Pakistan's educational capital, with more colleges and universities than any other city in Pakistan. Lahore is Pakistan's largest producer of professionals in the fields of science, technology, IT, law, engineering, medicine, nuclear sciences, pharmacology, telecommunication, biotechnology and microelectronics, nanotechnology and the only future hyper high-tech center of Pakistan. Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities. It has the only Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, AACSB accredited business school in Pakistan, namely, Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS). The literacy rate of Lahore is 74%. Lahore hosts some of Pakistan's oldest and best educational institutes: * Aitchison College, established in 1886 * Beaconhouse National University, established in 2003 * Central Model School, Lahore, Central Model School, established in 1883 * Crescent Model Higher Secondary School, established in 1968 * University of Home Economics Lahore, College of Home Economics, established in 1955 * College of Statistical and Actuarial Sciences, established in 1950 * Convent of Jesus and Mary, Lahore, Convent of Jesus and Mary, established in 1867 * Dayal Singh College (Lahore), Dayal Singh College, established in1910 * De'Montmorency College of Dentistry, established in 1929 * Don Bosco High School (Lahore), Don Bosco High School, established in 1956 * Fatima Jinnah Medical University, established in 1948 * Forman Christian College, established n 1864 * Garrison College for Boys, established in 2014 * GC University, Lahore, Government College University, Lahore, established in 1864 * Hailey College of Commerce, established in 1927 * Islamia College (Lahore), Islamia College, established in 1892 * Jamia Ashrafia, established in 1947 * King Edward Medical University, established in 1860 * Kinnaird College for Women University, established in 1913 * University of Education, Lady Maclagan Training College, established in 1933 * Lady Willingdon Hospital, Lady Willingdon Nursing School, established in 1933 * Lahore College for Women University, established in 1922 * Lahore Garrison University * Lahore Grammar School, established in 1979 * Lahore Medical and Dental College, established in 1997 * Lahore School of Economics, established in 1993 * Lahore University of Management Sciences, established in 1986 * Govt. M.A.O College Lahore, M.A.O College, established in 1933 * Muslim Model High School, Lahore, Muslim Model High School, established in 1890 * National College of Arts, established in 1875 * Oriental College, established in 1876 * Pakistan Institute of Fashion and Design, established in 1994 * PakTurk International Schools and Colleges, established in 2006 * Queen Mary College, Lahore, Queen Mary College, established in 1908 * Sacred Heart High School for Girls, Sacred Heart High School, established in 1906 * St. Anthony's High School (Lahore), St. Anthony's High School, established in 1892 * St Francis High School, Lahore, St. Francis High School, established in 1842 * University College Lahore, established in 1994 * University College of Pharmacy, established in 1944 * University of the Punjab, University Law College, established in 1868 * University of Central Punjab, established in 2002 * University of Education, established in 2002 * University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, established in 1921 * University of Health Sciences, Lahore, established in 2002 * University of Lahore, established in 1999 * University of Management and Technology (Lahore), established in 2002 * University of the Punjab, established in 1882 * University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, established in 1882


Sports

File:HOCKEY ARGENTINA PAKISTAN.jpg, Pakistan playing against Argentina in 2005. File:Gaddafi stadium lahore.jpg, Gaddafi Stadium is one of the largest List of stadiums in Pakistan, stadiums of Pakistan with a capacity of 27,000 spectators. File:Gymkhana Club, Lahore.jpg, Lahore Gymkhana Club, Gymkhana Club Lahore has successfully hosted many international sports events including the finals of the 1990 Men's Hockey World Cup and the 1996 Cricket World Cup. The headquarters of all major sports governing bodies are located here in Lahore including Cricket, Hockey, Rugby, Football etc. and also has the head office of Pakistan Olympic Association. Gaddafi Stadium is a List of Test cricket grounds, Test cricket ground in Lahore. It was completed in 1959 and later in the 1990s, renovations were carried out by Pakistani architect Nayyar Ali Dada. Lahore is home to several golf courses. The Lahore Gymkhana Club, Lahore Gymkhana Golf Course, the Lahore Garrison Golf and Country Club, the Royal Palm Golf Club and newly built Defence Raya Golf & Country Club are well maintained Golf Courses in Lahore. In nearby Raiwind Road, a 9 holes course, Lake City, opened in 2011. The newly opened Oasis Golf and Aqua Resort is another addition to the city. It is a state-of-the-art facility featuring golf, water parks, and leisure activities such as horse riding, archery and more. The Lahore Marathon is part of an annual package of six international marathons being sponsored by Standard Chartered Bank across Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. More than 20,000 athletes from Pakistan and all over the world participate in this event. It was first held on 30 January 2005, and again on 29 January 2006. More than 22,000 people participated in the 2006 race. The third marathon was held on 14 January 2007. Plans exist to build Pakistan's first sports city in Lahore, on the bank of the
Ravi River The Ravi River is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is one of six rivers of the Indus System in Punjab region (Punjab means "Five Rivers"). Under the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960, the waters of the Rav ...

Ravi River
. ;Professional sports teams from Lahore


Twin towns and sister cities

The following international cities have been declared twin towns and sister cities of Lahore. * Istanbul, Turkey (1975) * Sariwon, North Korea (1988) * Xi'an, Shaanxi, China (1992) * Kortrijk, Belgium (1993) * Fes, Morocco, Fez, Morocco (1994) * Bukhara, Uzbekistan * Samarkand, Uzbekistan (1995) * Amol, Iran (2010) * Isfahan, Iran (2004) * Mashad, Iran (2006–2012) * London, England * Glasgow, Scotland (2006) * Chicago, Illinois, United States (2007) * Belgrade, Serbia (2007) * Kraków, Poland (2007) * Coimbra, Portugal (2007) * Dushanbe, Tajikistan * Córdoba, Spain, Córdoba, Spain (1994) * Bogotá, Colombia * Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2015)


Awards

In 1966, the Government of Pakistan awarded a special flag, the Hilal-i-istaqlal to Lahore (also to Sargodha and
Sialkot Sialkot (Urdu and pnb, ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan. It is the capital city of Sialkot District. It is Pakistan's List of most populous cities in Pakistan, 13th largest city by population and is located in north-east Punja ...

Sialkot
) for showing severe resistance to the enemy during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 as these cities were targets of the Indian aggression. Every year on Defence Day (6 September), this flag is hoisted in these cities in recognition of the will, courage and perseverance of their people.


See also

* * Lahore Fashion Week * Lahore Knowledge Park * Lahore Literary Festival * Lahore Railway Station * Lahori cuisine * List of cemeteries in Lahore * List of cities proper by population * List of films set in Lahore * List of hospitals in Lahore * List of largest cities in Organisation of Islamic Cooperation member countries * List of metropolitan areas in Asia * List of people from Lahore * List of streets in Lahore * List of tallest buildings in Lahore * List of towns in Lahore * List of urban areas by population *Lahori chaddar * Sikh period in Lahore * Transport in Lahore * Walled City of Lahore


References


Bibliography

* *


External links

*
Lahore historical architecture


{{Authority control Lahore, Cities in Punjab (Pakistan) Populated places in Lahore District Capitals of Pakistan Metropolitan areas of Pakistan Populated places with period of establishment missing