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Organisation Of Islamic Cooperation
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; ar|منظمة التعاون الإسلامي|Munaẓẓama at-Taʿāwun al-ʾIslāmiyy; french: Organisation de la coopération islamique), formerly the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.8 billion as of 2015 with 49 countries being Muslim-majority countries. The organisation states that it is "the collective voice of the Muslim world" and works to "safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony". The OIC has permanent delegations to the United Nations and the European Union. The official languages of the OIC are Arabic, English, and French. History Al-Aqsa fire On 21 August 1969 a fire was started in the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. Amin al-Husseini, the former Mufti of Jerusalem, called the arson a "Jewish crime" and called for all Mus ...
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Member States Of The Organisation Of Islamic Cooperation
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation founded in 1969 has 57 members, 56 of which are also member states of the United Nations with 42 countries being Muslim majority countries. Some, especially in West Africa, are – though with large Muslim populations – not necessarily Muslim majority countries. A few countries with significant Muslim populations, such as Russia and Thailand, sit as Observer States, while others, such as India and Ethiopia, are not members because they have a low population of Muslims. The collective population of OIC member states is over 1.8+ billion as of 2011. The green country’s (see above) they have majority Muslim population like Saudi Arabia or Sudan. Member states Observer states Withdrawn Observer organisations and communities Observer Islamic institutions Observer international organisations Membership attempts * - Requested observer status in 2010. * - Requested observer status in 2011. * - Requested full membership in 2002. ...
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Muslims
Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic word meaning "submitter (to God)". Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad. The majority of Muslims also follow their own versions of compilations claimed to be the teachings and practices of Muhammad (''sunnah'') as recorded in traditional accounts (''hadith''). The beliefs of Muslims include: that God ( ar|الله ''Allah'') is eternal, transcendent and absolutely one (''tawhid''); that God is incomparable, self-sustaining and neither begets nor was begotten; that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that has been revealed before through many prophets including Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Moses, and Jesus; that these previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time (''tahrif'') and that the Q ...
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Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan ( or ; tk|Türkmenistan, ;), also known as Turkmenia, is a sovereign country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north, east and northeast, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest and the Caspian Sea to the west. Ashgabat is the capital and largest city of the country. The population of the country is 6 million, the lowest of the Central Asian republics. Turkmenistan is one of the most sparsely populated nations in Asia. Citizens of Turkmenistan are known as Turkmenistanis, Turkmenians or Turkmens. Turkmenistan has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries; Merv is one of the oldest oasis-cities in Central Asia and was once the biggest city in the world. In medieval times, Merv was also one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road. Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1881, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement in Central Asi ...
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Ashgabat
Ashgabat ( tk|Aşgabat; Ашгабат, , fa|عشق آباد; russian: Ашхабад), formerly named Poltoratsk ( rus|Полтора́цк|p=pəltɐˈratsk) between 1919 and 1927, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan. It is situated between the Karakum Desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range in Central Asia. It is also near the Iran-Turkmenistan border. The city was founded in 1881 on the basis of an Ahal Teke tribal village, and made the capital of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924. Much of the city was destroyed by the 1948 Ashgabat earthquake but has since been extensively rebuilt under the rule of Saparmurat Niyazov’s "White City" urban renewal project, resulting in monumental projects sheathed in costly white marble. The Soviet-era Karakum Canal runs through the city, carrying waters from the Amu Darya from east to west. Since 2019, the city has been recognized as having one of the highest costs of living in the world largely due to Turkmeni ...
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Syrian Uprising (2011–present)
The Syrian civil war ( ar|الْحَرْبُ الْأَهْلِيَّةُ السُّورِيَّةُ, ''al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah as-sūrīyah'') is an ongoing multi-sided civil war in Syria fought between the Syrian Arab Republic led by Syrian president Bashar al-Assad, along with domestic and foreign allies, and various domestic and foreign forces opposing both the Syrian government and each other in varying combinations. The unrest in Syria, which began on 15 March 2011 as part of the wider 2011 Arab Spring protests, grew out of discontent with the Syrian government and escalated to an armed conflict after protests calling for Assad's removal were violently suppressed. The war is being fought by several factions: the Syrian Armed Forces and its domestic and international allies, a loose alliance of mostly Sunni opposition rebel groups (such as the Free Syrian Army), Salafi jihadist groups (including al-Nusra Front and Tahrir al-Sham), the mixed Kurdish-Arab Syrian Democratic For ...
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UNHCR
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is a UN agency mandated to aid and protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities, and stateless people, and to assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, with over 17,300 staff working in 135 countries. UNHCR was created in 1950 to address the refugee crisis that resulted from World War II. The 1951 Refugee Convention established the scope and legal framework of the agency's work, which initially focused on Europeans uprooted by the war. Beginning in the late 1950s, displacement caused by other conflicts, from the Hungarian Uprising to the decolonization of Africa and Asia, broadened the scope of UNHCR's operations. Commensurate with the 1967 Protocol to the Refugee Convention, which expanded the geographic and temporal scope of refugee assistance, UNHCR operated across the world, with the bulk of its activities in developing ...
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Universal Declaration Of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly that enshrines the rights and freedoms of all human beings. It was accepted by the General Assembly as Resolution 217 during its third session on 10 December 1948 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France. Of the 58 members of the United Nations at the time, 48 voted in favour, none against, eight abstained, and two did not vote. Considered a foundational text in the history of human and civil rights, the Declaration consists of 30 articles detailing an individual's "basic rights and fundamental freedoms" and affirming their universal character as inherent, inalienable, and applicable to all human beings. Adopted as a "common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations", the UDHR commits nations to recognize all humans as being "born free and equal in dignity and rights" regardless of "nationality, place of residence, gender, national or ethn ...
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Charter Of The United Nations
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization. It establishes the purposes, governing structure, and overall framework of the UN system, including its six principal organs: the Secretariat, the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the International Court of Justice, and the Trusteeship Council. The UN Charter mandates the UN and its member states to maintain international peace and security, uphold international law, achieve "higher standards of living" for their citizens, address "economic, social, health, and related problems", and promote "universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion." As a charter and constituent treaty, its rules and obligations are binding on all members and supersede those of other treaties. During the Second World War ...
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Sharia
Sharia (, ar| ), Islamic law, or Sharia law, is a religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition. It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, derived from the hadith. In Arabic, the term ''sharīʿah'' refers to God's immutable divine law and is contrasted with ''fiqh'', which refers to its human scholarly interpretations. The manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim fundamentalists and modernists. Traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence recognizes four sources of Sharia: the Quran, ''sunnah'' (authentic hadith), ''qiyas'' (analogical reasoning), and ''ijma'' (juridical consensus).John L. Esposito, Natana J. DeLong-Bas (2001), Women in Muslim family law'', p. 2. Syracuse University Press, . Quote: ".. by the ninth century, the classical theory of law fixed the sources of Islamic law at four: the ''Quran'', the ''Sunnah'' of the Prophet, ''qiyas'' (analogical reasoning), and ''ijma'' (consensus)." Different legal s ...
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Cairo Declaration On Human Rights In Islam
The Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) adopted in Cairo, Egypt, on 5 August 1990, (Conference of Foreign Ministers, 9–14 Muharram 1411H in the Islamic calendar) which provides an overview on the Islamic perspective on human rights, and affirms Islamic sharia as its sole source. CDHRI declares its purpose to be "general guidance for Member States f the OICin the field of human rights". This declaration is widely acknowledged as an Islamic response to the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), adopted in 1948. It guarantees some, but not all, of the UDHR and serves as a living document of human rights guidelines prescribed for all members of the OIC to follow, but restricts them explicitly to the limits set by the sharia. Because of this limit, the CDHRI has been criticized as an attempt to shield OIC member states from international criticism for human right ...
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Kaaba
The ''Kaaba'' (, ), also spelled Ka'bah or Kabah, sometimes referred to as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah ( ar|ٱلْكَعْبَة ٱلْمُشَرَّفَة|lit=Honored Ka'bah|links=no|translit=al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, the ''Masjid al-Haram'' in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is the most sacred site in Islam.Wensinck, A. J; Kaʿba. Encyclopaedia of Islam IV p. 317 It is considered by Muslims to be the ''Bayt Allah'' ( ar|بَيْت ٱللَّٰه|lit=House of God) and is the ''qibla'' ( ar|قِبْلَة|links=no, direction of prayer) for Muslims around the world when performing ''salah''. Muslims used to, in the early days of Islam, face in the general direction of Jerusalem in their prayers before Kabah. After the Al-Qibla verse revelation to Muhammad, the direction was changed to face the Kaaba. The ''Kaaba'' is believed by Muslims to have been rebuilt several times throughout history, most famously by Ibrahim (Abraham) ...
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World War I
World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It also was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated 8.5 million combatant deaths and 13 million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the related 1918 Spanish flu pandemic caused another 17–100 million deaths worldwide, including an estimated 2.64 million Spanish flu deaths in Europe and as many as 675,000 Spanish flu deaths in the United States. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist and member of the Serbian Black Hand military society, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian h ...
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Caliphate
A caliphate ( ar|خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (; ar|خَلِيفَة ', ), a person considered a politico-religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire Muslim world (ummah). Historically, the caliphates were polities based on Islam which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires. During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750), and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1517). In the fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, the rulers of the Ottoman Empire claimed caliphal authority from 1517. Throughout the history of Islam, a few other Muslim states, almost all hereditary monarchies such as the Abbasid caliphs under protection of Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) and Ayyubid Caliphate,Natho, Kadir I. ''Circassian History''. Pages 150 have claimed to be caliphates. The first ...
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (; ota|دولت عليه عثمانيه ', literally "The Sublime Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: ' or '; french: Empire ottoman) (''Osmanean Têrut´iwn'', meaning "Ottoman Authority/Governance/Rule"), Օսմանյան պետութիւն (''Osmanean Petut‘iwn'', meaning "Ottoman State"), and Օսմանյան կայսրություն (''Osmanean Kaysrut'', meaning "Ottoman Empire") * bg|Османска империя (Otomanskata Imperiya), and Отоманска империя is an archaic version. Definite article forms: Османската империя and Османска империя were synonymous * el|Оθωμανική Επικράτεια (Othōmanikē Epikrateia) and Оθωμανική Αυτοκρατορία (Othōmanikē Avtokratoria) * lad|Imperio otomano |group=noteinfo page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was a state that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Afric ...
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Ummah
' ( ar|أمة ) is an Arabic word meaning "community". It is distinguished from ' ( ), which means a nation with common ancestry or geography. Thus, it can be said to be a supra-national community with a common history. It is a synonym for ' (, 'the Islamic community'); it is commonly used to mean the collective community of Islamic people. In the Quran the ummah typically refers to a single group that shares common religious beliefs, specifically those that are the objects of a divine plan of salvation. In the context of pan-Islamism and politics, the word ' can be used to mean the concept of a ''Commonwealth of the Believers'' ( '). General usage The word ''ummah'' (pl. ''umam'') means nation in Arabic. For example, the Arabic term for the United Nations is ''الأمم المتحدة Al-Umam Al-Mutahedah'', and the term ''الأمة العربية Al-Ummah Al-Arabeyah'' is used to refer to "the Arab Nation". The word ''ummah'' differs from the concept of a country or people. I ...
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