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Kaohsiung City (;
Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken across most of northern and southwestern China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more ...
: ;
Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken lang ...
: ''Kao¹-hsiung²'') is a special municipality in southern
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
. It ranges from the coastal urban centre to the rural
Yushan Range The Yushan Range, formerly the and also known as the JadeMountain Range, is a mountain range in the central-southern region of Taiwan Island. It spans Chiayi County, Kaohsiung City, and Nantou County. It faces the Central Mountain Range on the e ...
with an area of . Kaohsiung city has a population of approximately 2.77 million people and is Taiwan's third most populous city and largest city in
southern TaiwanThe regions of Taiwan are based on the historical administrative divisions. However, most of the definitions are not precise. Division into two regions * Eastern and Western Taiwan: the Central Mountain Range separates Taiwan into east and west. :* ...
. Since founding in the 17th century, Kaohsiung has grown from a small trading village into the political and economic centre of
southern TaiwanThe regions of Taiwan are based on the historical administrative divisions. However, most of the definitions are not precise. Division into two regions * Eastern and Western Taiwan: the Central Mountain Range separates Taiwan into east and west. :* ...
, with key industries such as manufacturing, steel-making,
oil refining An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some referenc ...
,
freight transport Freight transport is the physical process of transport Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation (used in the U.S.), is the Motion, movement of humans, animals and cargo, goods from one location to another. In other words ...

freight transport
and
shipbuilding Shipbuilding is the construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition o ...

shipbuilding
. It is classified as a "Gamma -" level
global city A global city, also called a power city, world city, alpha city or world center, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1 ...
by the
Globalization and World Cities Research Network The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for ...
, with some of the most prominent infrastructures in Taiwan. The
Port of Kaohsiung The Port of Kaohsiung (POK; ) is the largest harbor A harbor (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language n ...
is the largest and busiest harbour in Taiwan while
Kaohsiung International Airport Kaohsiung International Airport () is a medium-sized civil airport in Siaogang District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, also known as Siaogang Airport (). With nearly seven million passengers in 2018, it is the second busiest airport in Taiwan, after Tao ...
is the second busiest airport in number of passengers. The city is well-connected to other major cities by
high speed
high speed
and conventional rail, as well as several national freeways. It also hosts the
Republic of China Navy The Republic of China Navy (ROCN), also retroactively known as the Chinese Navy and commonly known as the Taiwanese Navy is the maritime branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces on Taiwan. The ROC Navy's primary mission is to defend ROC ...
fleet headquarters and its
naval academy A naval academy is a national institution that provides undergraduate-level education for prospective naval officers. Naval training commonly took place only at sea until the 19th century, even if those ships were permanently moored. For example, ...
. More recent public works such as
Pier-2 Art Center
Pier-2 Art Center
, National Kaohsiung Center for the Arts and Kaohsiung Music Center have been aimed at growing the tourism and cultural industries of the city.


Etymology

Hoklo The Hoklo people are Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-26.
immigrants to the area during the 16th and 17th centuries called the region ''Takau'' (). The surface meaning of the associated
Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system. Written language is an invention in that it ...
was "beat the dog". According to one theory, the name Takau originates from the aboriginal
Siraya language Siraya is a Formosan language spoken until the end of the 19th century by the indigenous Siraya people of Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's ...
and translates as "bamboo forest". According to another theory, the name evolved via metathesis from the name of the Makatao tribe, who inhabited the area at the time of European and Hoklo settlement. The Makatao are considered by some to be part of the
Siraya
Siraya
tribe. During the Dutch colonization of southern Taiwan, the area was known as ''Tancoia'' to Europeans for a period of about three decades. In 1662, the Dutch were expelled by the
Kingdom of Tungning The Kingdom of Tungning (), also known as Tywan by the British at the time, pp. 347–348. was a dynastic Thalassocracy, maritime state that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan) and Penghu islands between 1661 and 1683, and regarded as th ...

Kingdom of Tungning
, founded by Ming loyalists of
Koxinga Zheng Chenggong, Prince of Yanping (27 August 1624 – 23 June 1662), better known internationally as Koxinga () or Cheng Ch'eng-kung, was a Ming loyalist who resisted the Qing conquest of China The transition from Ming to Qing, Ming–Qin ...
. His son,
Zheng Jing Zheng Jing, Prince of Yanping (; 25 October 1642 – 17 March 1681), courtesy names Xianzhi () and Yuanzhi (), pseudonym A pseudonym () or alias () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes ...
, renamed the village ''Banlian-chiu'' () in 1664. The name of "Takau" was restored in the late 1670s, when the town expanded drastically with immigrants from
mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies ...

mainland China
, and was kept through Taiwan's cession to the Japanese Empire in 1895. In his 1903 general history of Taiwan, US Consul to Formosa James W. Davidson relates that "Takow" was already a well-known name in English. In 1920, the name was changed to and administered the area under
Takao Prefecture was one of the administrative divisions of Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the north ...

Takao Prefecture
. While the new name had quite a different surface meaning, its pronunciation in Japanese sounded more or less the same as the old name spoken in
Hokkien Hokkien () is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucr ...
. After Taiwan was handed to the Republic of China, the name did not change, but the official romanization became Kaohsiung (), derived from the Wade-Giles romanization of the
Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken across most of northern and southwestern China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more ...
pronunciation for . The name ''Takau'' remains the official name of the city in
Austronesian languages The Austronesian languages (, , , ) are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, based on speech and gesture (spoken language), Signed language, sign ...

Austronesian languages
of Taiwan such as Rukai, although these are not widely spoken in the city. The name also remains popular locally in the naming of businesses, associations, and events.


History

The written history of Kaohsiung can be traced back to the early 17th century, through archaeological studies have found signs of human activity in the region from as long as 7,000 years ago. Prior to the 17th century, the region was inhabited by the Makatao people of the
Siraya
Siraya
tribe, who settled on what they named Takau Isle (translated to 打狗嶼 by Ming Chinese explorers); "Takau" meaning "bamboo forest" in the aboriginal language.


Early history

The earliest evidence of human activity in the Kaohsiung area dates back to roughly 4,700–5,200 years ago. Most of the discovered remnants were located in the hills surrounding Kaohsiung Harbor. Artifacts were found at Shoushan, Longquan Temple, Taoziyuan, Zuoying, Houjing, Fudingjin and Fengbitou. The prehistoric Dapenkeng, Niuchouzi, Dahu, and Niaosong civilizations were known to inhabit the region. Studies of the prehistoric ruins at Longquan Temple have shown that that civilization occurred at roughly the same times as the beginnings of the aboriginal Makatao civilization, suggesting a possible origin for the latter. Unlike some other archaeological sites in the area, the Longquan Temple ruins are relatively well preserved. Prehistoric artifacts discovered have suggested that the ancient Kaohsiung Harbor was originally a lagoon, with early civilizations functioning primarily as
Hunter-gatherer A hunter-gatherer is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, language and tools. T ...
societies. Some agricultural tools have also been discovered, suggesting that some agricultural activity was also present. The first Chinese records of the region were written in 1603 by
Chen Di Chen Di / Chʻen Ti () (1541–1617), courtesy name: Jili (), was a Chinese Philology, philologist, strategist, and traveler of the Ming dynasty. A native of Lianjiang County, Fuzhou, Fujian, China, he was versed in both pen and sword. As a strategi ...
, a member of
Ming The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an eth ...

Ming
admiral Shen You-rong's expedition to rid the waters around Taiwan and
Penghu The Penghu (Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī, POJ: ''Phîⁿ-ô͘''  or ''Phêⁿ-ô͘'' ) or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait. The largest city is Magong, located on the largest island, which i ...

Penghu
of pirates. In his report on the "Eastern Barbarian Lands" (Dong Fan Ji), Chen Di referred to a Ta-kau Isle:


Dutch Formosa

Taiwan became a
Dutch colony The Dutch colonial empire ( nl, Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies—mainly the Dutch West India Company and the Dutch East India Company—an ...
in 1624, after the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
was ejected from
Penghu The Penghu (Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī, POJ: ''Phîⁿ-ô͘''  or ''Phêⁿ-ô͘'' ) or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait. The largest city is Magong, located on the largest island, which i ...

Penghu
by
Ming The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an eth ...

Ming
forces. At the time, Takau was already one of the most important fishing ports in southern Taiwan. The Dutch named the place ''Tankoya'', and the harbor ''Tancoia''. The Dutch missionary
François Valentijn François Valentijn (17 April 1666 – 6 August 1727) was a Dutch minister, naturalist and author whose ''Oud en Nieuw Oost-Indiën'' ("Old and New East-India") describes the history of the Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Com ...
named Takau Mountain "Ape Berg", a name that would find its way onto European navigational charts well into the 18th century. ''Tankoia'' was located north of Ape's Hill and a few hours south from Tayouan (modern-day
Anping, Tainan Anping District is a district of Tainan, Taiwan. In March 2012, it was named one of the ''Top 10 Small Tourist Towns'' by the Tourism Bureau of Taiwan. Name The older place name of Tayouan derives from the ethnonym of a nearby Taiwanese a ...
) by sail. At the time, a wide shallow bay existed there, sufficient for small vessels. However, constant
silting Siltation, or siltification, is water pollution Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities. Water bodies include for example lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basi ...
changed the coastline. During this time, Taiwan was divided into five administrative districts, with Takau belonging to the southernmost district. In 1630, the first large scale immigration of
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
to Taiwan began due to famine in
Fujian Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, sub ...

Fujian
, with merchants and traders from China seeking to purchase hunting licenses from the Dutch or hide out in aboriginal villages to escape authorities in China.


Qing Dynasty

In 1684, the
Qing Dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
annexed
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...
and renamed the town Fongshan County (), considering it a part of
Taiwan Prefecture Taiwan Prefecture or Taiwanfu was a fu (country subdivision), prefecture of Taiwan under Qing rule, Taiwan during the Qing dynasty. The prefecture was established by the Qing dynasty government in 1684, after the island "became an integral part of ...
. It was first opened as a port during the 1680s and subsequently prospered fairly for generations.


Japanese rule

In 1895, Taiwan was ceded to
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
as part of the
Treaty of Shimonoseki #REDIRECT Treaty of Shimonoseki #REDIRECT Treaty of Shimonoseki#REDIRECT Treaty of Shimonoseki The , also known as Treaty of Maguan () in China and in the period before and during WWII in Japan, was a treaty signed at the , Shimonoseki, Japa ...

Treaty of Shimonoseki
. Administrative control of the city was moved from New Fongshan Castle to the Fongshan Sub-District of . In November 1901, twenty ''chō'' were established in total; was established nearby. In 1909, Hōzan Chō was abolished, and Takow was merged into Tainan Chō. In 1920, during the tenure of 8th Governor-General
Den Kenjirō Baron Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary, in various European countries, either current or historical. The female equivalent is baroness. Typically, the title denotes an aristocrat who ranks higher than a lord ...

Den Kenjirō
, districts were abolished in favor of prefectures. Thus the city was administered as under
Takao Prefecture was one of the administrative divisions of Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the north ...

Takao Prefecture
. The Japanese developed Takao, especially the harbor that became the foundation of Kaohsiung to be a port city. Takao was then systematically modernized and connected to the end of North-South Railway. Forming a north–south regional economic corridor from Taipei to Kaohsiung in the 1930s, Japan's Southward Policy set Kaohsiung to become an industrial center. Kaohsiung Harbor was also developed starting from 1894. The city center was relocated several times during the period due to the government's development strategy. Development was initially centered on ''Ki-au'' () region but the government began laying railways, upgrading the harbor, and passing new urban plans. New industries such as refinery, machinery, shipbuilding and cementing were also introduced. Before and during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
it handled a growing share of Taiwan's agricultural exports to Japan, and was also a major base for Japan's campaigns in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Extremely ambitious plans for the construction of a massive modern port were drawn up. Toward the end of the war, the Japanese promoted some industrial development at Kaohsiung, establishing an aluminum industry based on the abundant
hydroelectric power Hydroelectricity, or hydroelectric power, is electricity produced from hydropower Hydropower (from el, ὕδωρ, "water"), also known as water power, is the use of falling or fast-running water Water (chemical formula H2O) is ...
produced by the
Sun Moon Lake Sun Moon Lake (; Thao: ''Zintun'') is a lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an oce ...

Sun Moon Lake
project in the mountains. The city was heavily bombed by
Task Force 38 The Fast Carrier Task Force (TF 38 when assigned to Third Fleet, TF 58 when assigned to Fifth Fleet), was the main striking force of the United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") ...
and FEAF during World War II between 1944 and 1945.


Republic of China

After control of Taiwan was handed over from Japan to the government of the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...

Republic of China
on 25 October 1945, Kaohsiung City and
Kaohsiung County Kaohsiung County was a County (Taiwan), county in southern Taiwan between 1945 and 2010. The county seat was located in Fengshan District, Fongshan City. History Kaohsiung County was established on 6 December 1945 on the territory of Takao Prefe ...

Kaohsiung County
were established as a provincial city and a
county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ...
of
Taiwan Province Taiwan Province (; PFS: ''Thòi-vàn-sén'' or ''Thòi-vân-sén'') is a nominal administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-lev ...
respectively on 25 December 1945. The official romanization of the name came to be "Kaohsiung", based on the
Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken lang ...
romanization of the
Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
reading of the
kanji are a set of logographic In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gest ...

kanji
name. Kaohsiung City then consisted of 10
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic ...
, which were Gushan, Lianya (renamed "Lingya" in 1952), Nanzih, Cianjin, Cianjhen, Cijin,
Sanmin Sanmin District () is a District (Taiwan), district of Kaohsiung, Taiwan. History During the Ming dynasty, the Wang, Tsai, and Cheng families built houses in the area to farm the land. The area was thus named ''Sankuaicu'' (). After the Retroce ...
, Sinsing,
Yancheng Yancheng () is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Jiangsu province of China, province, People's Republic of China. As the city with the largest jurisdictional area in Jiangsu, Yancheng borders Lianyungang to the north, Huai'an to the west, ...
, and Zuoying. During this time, Kaohsiung developed rapidly. The port, badly damaged in
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, was restored. It also became a fishing port for boats sailing to Filipino and Indonesian waters. Largely because of its climate, Kaohsiung overtook
Keelung Keelung (; Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī, POJ: '), officially known as Keelung City, is a major port Provincial city (Taiwan), city situated in the northeastern part of Taiwan. It borders New Taipei with which it forms the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan ...
as Taiwan's major port. Kaohsiung also surpassed Tainan to become the second largest city of Taiwan in the late 1970s and Kaohsiung City was upgraded from a provincial city to special municipality on 1 July 1979, by the
Executive Yuan The Executive Yuan is the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. The executive executes and enforce ...
with a total of 11 districts. The additional district is
Siaogang District Siaogang District, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency () is the southernmost district of Kaohsiung City Kaohsiung City (; Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken ...
, which was annexed from Siaogang Township of
Kaohsiung County Kaohsiung County was a County (Taiwan), county in southern Taiwan between 1945 and 2010. The county seat was located in Fengshan District, Fongshan City. History Kaohsiung County was established on 6 December 1945 on the territory of Takao Prefe ...

Kaohsiung County
. The
Kaohsiung Incident The Kaohsiung Incident, also known as the Formosa Incident, the Meilidao Incident, or the ''Formosa Magazine'' incident,tang was a crackdown on pro-democracy Demonstration (people), demonstrations that occurred in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, on 10 Decemb ...
, where the government suppressed a commemoration of International
Human Rights Day Human Rights Day is list of minor secular observances#December, celebrated annually around the world on 10 December every year. The date was chosen to honor the United Nations General Assembly's adoption and proclamation, on 10 December 1948, ...
, occurred on 10 December 1979. Since then, Kaohsiung gradually grew into a political center of the Pan-Green population of Taiwan, in opposition to
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the Capital city, capital and a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality of the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of t ...

Taipei
where the majority population is
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT), also referred to as the Guomindang (GMD) or the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Taiwan, Republic of China, initially Republic of China (1912–1949), on the Mainland China, Chinese mainland and ...
supporters. On 25 December 2010, Kaohsiung City merged with
Kaohsiung County Kaohsiung County was a County (Taiwan), county in southern Taiwan between 1945 and 2010. The county seat was located in Fengshan District, Fongshan City. History Kaohsiung County was established on 6 December 1945 on the territory of Takao Prefe ...

Kaohsiung County
to form a larger special municipality with administrative centers in
Lingya District Lingya District () is a District (Taiwan), district of Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The 85 Sky Tower and the Kaohsiung City Government, Kaohsiung City Hall are located here. Lingya District is the administrative center of Kaohsiung City along with Fongs ...
and
Fongshan District Fongshan District Office Fongshan District, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency () is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, are ...
. On 31 July 2014, a series of
gas explosions A gas explosion is an explosion An explosion is a rapid expansion in volume Volume is a expressing the of enclosed by a . For example, the space that a substance (, , , or ) or occupies or contains. Volume is often quantified numer ...
occurred in the Cianjhen and
Lingya District Lingya District () is a District (Taiwan), district of Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The 85 Sky Tower and the Kaohsiung City Government, Kaohsiung City Hall are located here. Lingya District is the administrative center of Kaohsiung City along with Fongs ...
s of the city, killing 31 and injuring more than 300. Five roads were destroyed in an area of nearly near the city center. It was the largest gas explosion in Taiwan's modern history.


Geography

The city sits on the southwestern coast of Taiwan facing the
Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait is a -wide strait separating the Taiwan (island), island of Taiwan and mainland, continental Asia. The strait is part of the South China Sea and connects to the East China Sea to the north. The narrowest part is wide. Names ...

Taiwan Strait
, bordering
Tainan City Tainan, officially Tainan City, is a special municipality in southern Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and ...

Tainan City
to the north,
Chiayi Chiayi ( Taigi POJ: ''Ka-gī''; ), officially known as Chiayi City, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The So ...

Chiayi
and
Nantou County Nantou County (; Hokkien Hokkien () is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior govern ...
to the northwest,
Taitung County Taitung County (; Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and c ...

Taitung County
to its northeast and
Pingtung County Pingtung County is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William ...
to the south and southeast. The downtown areas are centered on Kaohsiung Harbor with Cijin Island on the other side of the harbor acting as a natural breakwater. The
Love River The Love River or Ai River () is a river (canal) in southern Taiwan. It originates in Renwu District, Kaohsiung City, and flows through Kaohsiung to Kaohsiung Harbor. Love River is the spine of Kaohsiung, playing a similar role to the River Thames ...

Love River
(Ai River) flows into the harbor through the Old City and downtown. Zuoying Military Harbor lies to the north of Kaohsiung Harbor and the city center. Kaohsiung's natural landmarks include Ape Hill and Mount Banping.


Climate

Located about a degree south of the
Tropic of Cancer The Tropic of Cancer, which is also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted ...

Tropic of Cancer
, Kaohsiung has a
tropical savanna climate Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meanin ...
( Köppen ''Aw''), with monthly mean temperatures between and relative humidity ranging between 71 and 81%. Kaohsiung's warm climate is very much dictated by its low latitude and its exposure to warm sea temperatures year-round, with the
Kuroshio Current The , also known as the Black or or the is a north-flowing, warm ocean current An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of sea water generated by a number of forces acting upon the water, including wind, the Coriolis effect, ...
passing by the coast of southern Taiwan, and the
Central Mountain Range The Central Mountain Range is the principal mountain range on Taiwan Island , t2 = , s2 = , l2 = beautiful island , bpmf2 = ㄈㄨˊ ㄦˇ ㄇㄛˊ ㄕㄚ , w2 = Fu²-êr³-mo²-sha¹ , p2 = Fúĕrmóshā , tp2 = Fúĕrmósha , mps2 = Fú ...
on the northeast blocking out the cool northeastern winds during the winter. The city, therefore, has a noticeably warmer climate than nearby cities located at similar latitudes such as Hong Kong,
Guangzhou Guangzhou (, ; ; or ; ), also known as Canton and alternatively romanized as Kwongchow or Kwangchow, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the ...

Guangzhou
as well as various cities further south in northern
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
, such as
Hanoi , population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , population_demonym = Hanoian , population_density_km2 = auto , population_urban = 3,962,310 , population_density_urban_km2 = 14708.8 , popula ...

Hanoi
. Although the climate is classified as tropical, Kaohsiung has a defined cooler season unlike most other cities in Asia classified with this climate but located closer to the equator such as Singapore or
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are ...

Manila
. Daily maximum temperature typically exceeds during the warmer season (April to November) and during the cooler season (December to March), with the exception when cold fronts strikes during the winter months, when the daily mean temperature of the city can drop between 10~12 °C depending on the strength of the cold front. Also, besides the high temperatures occurring during the usual summer months, daytime temperatures of inland districts of the city can often exceed from mid-March to late April before the onset of the
monsoon season The wet season (sometimes called the rainy season) is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs. Generally, the season lasts at least a month. The term ''green season'' is also sometimes used as a euphemism by touris ...

monsoon season
, with clear skies and southwesterly airflows. Average annual rainfall is around , focused primarily from June to August. At more than 2,210 hours of bright sunshine, the city is one of the sunniest areas in Taiwan. The sea temperature of Kaohsiung Harbor remains above year-round, the second highest of Southern Taiwan after
Liuqiu Island Liuqiu, also known by several other names, is a coral island A coral island is a type of island formed from coral detritus and associated organic material. It occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas, typically as part of a coral reef w ...
. According to recent records, the average temperature of the city has risen around 1 degree Celsius over the past 3 decades, from about in 1983 to around by 2012.


Cityscape


Demographics

As of December 2018, Kaohsiung city has a population of 2,773,533 people, making it the third-largest city after
New Taipei New Taipei City (known as Taipei County until 2010) is a special municipality in Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's ...
and
Taichung Taichung (, Wade–Giles: ''Tʻai²-chung¹''), officially Taichung City, is a special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality located in central Taiwan. Taichung has a population of approximately 2.82 million people and is Taiwan's second ...

Taichung
, and a population density of 939.59 people per square kilometer. Within the city,
Fongshan District Fongshan District Office Fongshan District, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency () is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, are ...
is the most populated district with a population of 359,519 people, while
Sinsing District Sinsing District, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency () is a downtown District (Taiwan), district of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Name Sinsing means ''new prosperity'' in Mandarin Chinese. Hi ...
is the most densely populated district with a population density of 25,820 people per square kilometer.


Ethnic composition


Han Chinese

As in most Taiwanese cities or counties, the majority of the population are
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
. The Chinese are divided into 3 subgroups:
Hoklo The Hoklo people are Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-26.
,
Hakka The Hakka (), sometimes also referred to as Hakka Han, or Hakka Chinese, are a Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The fou ...
, and
Waishengren ''Waishengren'' (), sometimes called mainlanders, are a group of migrants who arrived in Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Eart ...
. The Hoklo and Waishengren mostly live in flatland townships and the city centre, while the majority of the Hakka population lives in the suburbs or rural townships of the northeastern hills.


Indigenous peoples

The
indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or autochthonous peoples, are culturally distinct e ...
of Kaohsiung, who belong to various ethnic groups that speak languages belonging to the
Austronesian Austronesian may refer to: *The Austronesian languages *The historical Austronesian peoples who carried Austronesian languages on their migrations {{disambiguation ...
language family, live mostly in the mountain indigenous district such as Taoyuan District, Kaohsiung, Taoyuan or Namasia. The main indigenous groups in the city include the Bunun people, Bunun, Rukai people, Rukai, Saaroa people, Saaroa and the Kanakanavu people, Kanakanavu.


Other ethnicities

As of December 2010, Kaohsiung hosts around 21,000 foreign spouses. Around 12,353 are Mainland Chinese, 4,244 are Vietnamese, around 800 are Japanese and Indonesians and around 4,000 are other Asians or foreigners from Europe or America. As of April 2013, Kaohsiung hosts 35,074 foreign workers who mainly work as factory workers or foreign maids (not including foreign specialists such as teachers and other professionals). About half of them are Overseas Indonesian, Indonesians, with the other half being workers from other Southeast Asian countries, mainly from
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
, the Philippines or Thailand.


Economy

Kaohsiung is a major international port and industrial city in the southwest of Taiwan. As an exporting center, Kaohsiung serves the agricultural interior of southern Taiwan, as well as the mountains of the southeast. Major raw material exports include rice, sugar, bananas, pineapples, peanuts (groundnuts) and citrus fruits. The Linhai Industrial Park, on the waterfront, was completed in the mid-1970s and includes a steel mill, shipyard, petrochemical complex, and other industries. The city has an oil refinery, aluminum and cement works, fertilizer factories, sugar refineries, brick and tile works, canning factories, salt-manufacturing factories, and papermaking plants. Designated an export-processing zone in the late 1970s, Kaohsiung also attracted foreign investment to process locally purchased raw materials for export. The ongoing Nansing Project is a plan to Land reclamation, reclaim of land along the coast by 2011. The Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau plans to buy 49 hectares of the reclaimed land to establish a solar energy industrial district that would be in the harbor's free trade zone. The gross domestic product (GDP) in nominal terms of Kaohsiung City is estimated to be around US$45 billion, and US$90 billion for the metropolitan region. , the GDP per capita in nominal terms was approximately US$24,000. Despite early success and heavy governmental investment, the city suffers from the economic North–South divide in Taiwan, which continues to be the centre of political debate. There has been public aims to shift the local economy towards tourism and cultural industry, cultural industries, with projects such as , National Kaohsiung Center for the Arts and Kaohsiung Music Center.


Agriculture

The main agricultural produce in Kaohsiung are vegetables, fruits and rice with a total arable land of 473 km2, which accounts to 16% of the total area of the municipality. Kaohsiung has the highest production of guava, jujube and lychee in Taiwan. The main animal husbandry are chicken, dairy cattle, deer, duck, goose, pigs and sheep. The total annual agricultural outcome in Kaohsiung is NT$24.15 billion.


Future investment


Culture


Tourism

Main landmarks of Kaohsiung city include the 85 Sky Tower, the ferris wheel of the Kaohsiung Dream Mall, the Kaohsiung Arena and
Port of Kaohsiung The Port of Kaohsiung (POK; ) is the largest harbor A harbor (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language n ...
. The newly developed city is also known for having a large number of shopping streets, organized night markets and newly developed leisure parks such as the , E-DA Theme Park, Kaohsiung Metropolitan Park, Metropolitan Park, the Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts and Taroko Park. Natural attractions of the city include Shoushan (Monkey mountain), the
Love River The Love River or Ai River () is a river (canal) in southern Taiwan. It originates in Renwu District, Kaohsiung City, and flows through Kaohsiung to Kaohsiung Harbor. Love River is the spine of Kaohsiung, playing a similar role to the River Thames ...

Love River
, Cijin Island, Sizihwan, the Dapingding Tropical Botanical Garden and Yushan National Park at the northeastern tip of the city. The city also features various historical attractions such as the Old City of Zuoying, a historical town built during the early 17th century, the Former British Consulate at Takao built during the late 19th century, and various sugar and crop factories built under Taiwan under Japanese rule, Japanese rule.


Natural attractions

Kaohsiung city includes a wide range of different natural attractions due to its large size and geographical variation, as it is bordered by the
Central Mountain Range The Central Mountain Range is the principal mountain range on Taiwan Island , t2 = , s2 = , l2 = beautiful island , bpmf2 = ㄈㄨˊ ㄦˇ ㄇㄛˊ ㄕㄚ , w2 = Fu²-êr³-mo²-sha¹ , p2 = Fúĕrmóshā , tp2 = Fúĕrmósha , mps2 = Fú ...
in the northeast and the warm South China Sea to the west and southwest. The year-round warm climate allows coral reefs to grow along the coasts around Kaohsiung Harbor, with Shoushan (Kaohsiung), Shoushan Mountain being a small mountain completely made up of coral reefs and calcium carbonate, while the mountainous districts in the northeast include Taiwan's highest mountain, Yushan (mountain), Yushan. Other notable natural attractions include the Mount Banping, Lotus Pond, Kaohsiung, Lotus Pond, and Dongsha Atoll National Park, which is currently inaccessible by the public due to military occupation.


Historical sites

A large number of historical sites and monuments were left in the city after the colonization of the Dutch in the 17th century, the Qing dynasty during the 18th and 19th century and the Japanese empire from the late 19th century to the mid 20th century. The city government has protected various sites and monuments from further damage and many have been opened to the public since the early 1980s. Notable historical sites include the Cemetery of Zhenghaijun, Fengshan Longshan Temple, Former British Consulate at Takao, Former Dinglinzihbian Police Station, Meinong Cultural and Creative Center, Former Sanhe Bank, and the Kaohsiung Lighthouse, one of the oldest lighthouses of the city.


Museums

Kaohsiung is home to many museums, including the Chung Li-he Museum, Cijin Shell Museum, Fo Guang Shan Buddha Museum, Jiasian Petrified Fossil Museum, Kaohsiung Astronomical Museum, Kaohsiung Hakka Cultural Museum, Kaohsiung Harbor Museum, Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts, Kaohsiung Museum of History, Kaohsiung Museum of Labor, Kaohsiung Vision Museum, Meinong Hakka Culture Museum, National Science and Technology Museum, Republic of China Air Force Museum, Soya-Mixed Meat Museum, Taiwan Pineapple Museum, Taiwan Sugar Museum (Kaohsiung), Taiwan Sugar Museum, Takao Railway Museum, Xiaolin Pingpu Cultural Museum and YM Museum of Marine Exploration Kaohsiung.


Parks and Zoos

As the largest municipality in Taiwan, Kaohsiung has a number of newly built leisure areas and parks. Notable parks or pavilions in the city include the Central Park (Kaohsiung), Central Park, Siaogangshan Skywalk Park, Fo Guang Shan Monastery, the Dragon and Tiger Pagodas, Spring and Autumn Pavilions, the Love Pier, Singuang Ferry Wharf and Kaohsiung Fisherman's Wharf. Notable zoo in the city includes the Kaohsiung City Shousan Zoo.


Other

Kaohsiung is home to many Night markets in Taiwan, night markets, such as Jin-Zuan Night Market, Liuhe Night Market Ruifeng Night Market and Zhonghua Street Night Market, and the Kaisyuan Night Market. Other attractions include the Cijin Tianhou Temple, Formosa Boulevard metro station, Dome of Light of Kaohsiung MRT's Formosa Boulevard Station, the Kaohsiung Mosque and the Tower of Light of Sanmin District. Wet market, Traditional "wet" markets have long been the source of meat, fish, and produce for many residents. With the arrival of Western-style supermarkets in the 1980s and 1990s, such markets have encountered fierce competition. In 1989, the global leader in hypermarkets, Carrefour, entered Asia, opening its first store in Kaohsiung. Due to the success of its Taiwan operation, the French retailer expanded throughout the country and Asia. Jean-Luc Chéreau, the general manager in Taiwan from 1993 to 1999, used this newfound understanding of Chinese culture and ways of doing business with Chinese customers to lead its China expansion starting in 1999. As of February 2020, Carrefour has opened 137 hypermarkets and supermarkets in Taiwan. Despite the fierce competition from "Westernized" supermarkets, Taiwan's traditional markets and mom-and-pop stores remain "one of the most popular retail formats for many Asian families when they purchase daily food items and basic household goods."


Languages

The majority of those living in Kaohsiung can communicate in both Taiwanese Hokkien and Standard Chinese. Some of the elderly who grew up during the Japanese colonization of Taiwan can communicate in Japanese, while most of the younger population has basic English skills. Since the spread of Standard Chinese after the Chinese Civil War, Nationalist Government retreated to Taiwan in 1949, Hakka Chinese and various Formosan languages are gradually no longer spoken with the new generation and many Formosan languages are therefore classified as Moribund language, moribund or endangered languages by the United Nations. Nowadays, only elder Hakka people mostly living in Meinong District, Meinong, Liouguei District, Liouguei, Shanlin District, Shanlin and Jiasian District, Jiasian districts can communicate in Hakka and elder Taiwanese aborigines living mostly in the rural districts of Namasia District, Namasia and Taoyuan District, Kaohsiung, Taoyuan can communicate with the aboriginal languages. The Taiwanese government has established special affairs committees for both the Aboriginals and the Hakkas to protect their language, culture, and minority rights.


Arts

Kaohsiung has rich resources of ocean, mountains and forests which shape a unique and active multi-faceted art and cultural aesthetic in public infrastructure and transport, public art, and city architecture, from MRT stations and city space to art galleries. The "Dome light" in the concourse of Formosa Boulevard Station of Kaohsiung MRT is one of the world's largest public glass works of art. The city also has the Urban Spotlight Arcade spanning along the street in Cianjin District. In October 2018, Weiwuying (the National Kaohsiung Centre for the Arts), designed by Mecanoo, opened.


Religion

The religious population of Kaohsiung is mainly divided into five main religious groups: Buddhists, Taoists, Muslim and Christians (Catholics and Protestants). , Kaohsiung City has 1,481 temples, the second highest in Taiwan after Tainan. Kaohsiung also has 306 churches.


Buddhism

Buddhism is one of the major religions in Taiwan, with over 35% of Taiwan's population identifying as Buddhists. The same applies to Kaohsiung city. Kaohsiung also hosts the largest Buddhist temple in Taiwan, the Fo Guang Shan Monastery with its Fo Guang Shan Buddha Museum. There are also other famous Buddhist temples such as Fengshan Longshan Temple and Hong Fa Temple.


Taoism

Around 33% of the Taiwanese population are Taoists, making it the second largest religion of Taiwan. Most people who believe in Taoism also ascribe to Buddhism at the same time, as the differences and boundaries between the two religions are not always clear. Many residents of the area also worship the sea goddess known as Tian Shang Sheng Mu () or Mazu, who is variously syncretized as a Taoist immortal or embodiment of the bodhisattva Guanyin. Her temple on Cijin Island, Chi Jin Mazu Temple, is the oldest in the city, with its original bamboo-and-thatch structure first opened in 1673. The area surrounding it formed the center of the city's early settlement.. & There are also other prominent Taoist temples such as Fengshan Tiangong Temple, dedicated to the Jade Emperor, Cih Ji Palace, dedicated to Baosheng Dadi, Bao Sheng Da Di, Zhouzi Qingshui Temple, Qing Shui Temple, dedicated to Qingshui (monk), Qing Shui Zu Shi and Gushan Daitian Temple dedicated to Wang Ye worship.


Christianity

Christianity is a minority religion in Taiwan. It was first brought onto the island when the Dutch and Spanish colonized Taiwan during the 17th century, mostly to the aboriginals. Kaohsiung currently hosts around 56,000 Christians.


Islam

Besides the majority population of Buddhists and Taoists, Kaohsiung also includes a rather tiny population of Muslims. During the Chinese Civil War, some 20,000 Muslims, mostly soldiers and civil servants, fled
mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies ...

mainland China
with the
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT), also referred to as the Guomindang (GMD) or the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Taiwan, Republic of China, initially Republic of China (1912–1949), on the Mainland China, Chinese mainland and ...
government to Taiwan. During the 1980s, another few thousand Muslims from Myanmar and Thailand, whom are mostly descendants of Nationalist Chinese, Nationalist soldiers who fled Yunnan as a result of the communist takeover, migrated to Taiwan in search of a better life, resulting in an increase of Muslim population within the country. More recently, with the rise of Indonesian workers working in Taiwan, an estimated number of 88,000 Indonesian Muslims currently live in the country, in addition to the existing 53,000 Taiwanese Muslims. Combining all demographics, Taiwan hosts around 140,000 Muslims, with around 25,000 living in Kaohsiung. Kaohsiung Mosque is the largest mosque in Kaohsiung and the main gathering site of Muslims within the city. File:Fo Guang Shan.jpg, Foguangshan Temple File:旗後天后宮.jpg, Cijing Tianhou Temple File:玫瑰聖母主教座堂.JPG, Holy Rosary Cathedral, Kaohsiung, Holy Rosary Cathedral File:Kaohsiung Mosque.JPG, Kaohsiung Mosque


Politics


Government

Sometimes Kaohsiung used to be seen as the political opposite of Taipei. While northern Taiwan leans towards the Pan-Blue Coalition in the state-level elections, southern Taiwan, including Kaohsiung, leaned towards the Pan-Green Coalition since the late 1990s. Frank Hsieh of the Democratic Progressive Party was reelected twice as Mayor of Kaohsiung, where he was widely credited for transforming the city from an industrial sprawl into an attractive modern metropolis. Hsieh resigned from the office of mayor to take up the office of Premier of the Republic of China in 2005. The 2005–06 Taiwanese local elections, municipal election, held on 9 December 2006, resulted in a victory for the Democratic Progressive Party's candidate Chen Chu, the first elected female mayor of Special municipality of Taiwan, special municipality in Taiwan, defeating her
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT), also referred to as the Guomindang (GMD) or the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Taiwan, Republic of China, initially Republic of China (1912–1949), on the Mainland China, Chinese mainland and ...
rival and former deputy mayor, Huang Chun-ying. The current mayor of Kaohsiung City is Chen Chi-mai]


Subdivisions

Kaohsiung is divided into 38
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic ...
, three of which are mountain indigenous districts. There are a total of 651 Village (Taiwan), villages in which each village is subdivided into neighborhoods (鄰). There are 18,584 neighborhoods in Kaohsiung City. Lingya District, Lingya and Fongshan District, Fongshan districts are the administrative centers of the city while Lingya and Sinsing Districts are the two most densely populated districts of the city. Kaohsiung has the most numbers of districts among other Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipalities in Taiwan. :Note: There are several Romanization of Chinese in Taiwan, romanization systems used in Taiwan. This table contains both Hanyu Pinyin (the official standard of the Government of the Republic of China, central government), and Tongyong Pinyin (the official standard of the Kaohsiung City Government). The major order of districts referred to the code of administrative area

/small>


Notable people

*Wu Kuo-chu (1970-2006), Taiwanese choreographer


Transportation


Port of Kaohsiung

A major port, through which pass most of Taiwan's marine imports and exports, is located in the city but is not managed by the city government. Instead, it is administrated by Kaohsiung Port Authority, under the Ministry of Transportation. There is a push for Kaohsiung City to annex the Port of Kaohsiung to facilitate better regional planning. Also known as the "Harbour Capital" of Taiwan, Kaohsiung has always had a strong link with the ocean and maritime transportation. Ferries play a key role in everyday transportation, especially for transportation across the harbor. With five terminals and 23 berths, the ''Port of Kaohsiung'' is Taiwan's largest container port and the 13th largest in the world. In 2007 the port reached its handling capacity with a record trade volume of . A new container terminal is under construction, increasing future handling capacity by by 2013. Kaohsiung is one of the biggest ports in the world for importing Shark finning, shark fins, sold at high prices in the restaurants and shops of Taiwan and China. They are brought in from overseas and are placed out to dry in the sun on residential rooftops near the port.


Kaohsiung International Airport

Kaohsiung City is also home to Taiwan's second-largest international airport, the
Kaohsiung International Airport Kaohsiung International Airport () is a medium-sized civil airport in Siaogang District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, also known as Siaogang Airport (). With nearly seven million passengers in 2018, it is the second busiest airport in Taiwan, after Tao ...
, located in
Siaogang District Siaogang District, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency () is the southernmost district of Kaohsiung City Kaohsiung City (; Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken ...
near the city's center. It is one of the three major international airports of Taiwan, serving passengers of the entire southern and southeastern part of the country. However, the size of the airport is relatively small, with short runways compared to other major airports of Taiwan due to its age and its location near the city center, making it impossible for large aircraft such as the Airbus A380 to land at the airport. As a result, plans for runway expansion or building a new airport in replacement have been proposed.


Rapid transit

Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit opened for service in March 2008. The MRT is made up of two lines with 37 stations covering a distance of . Notably, two of Kaohsiung's MRT stations, Formosa Boulevard Station and Central Park metro station (Taiwan), Central Park Station, were ranked among the top 50 most beautiful subway systems in the world by Metrobits.org in 2011. In 2012, the two stations respectively are ranked as the 2nd and the 4th among the top 15 most beautiful subway stops in the world by BootsnAll.


Circular Light Rail

The Circular Line (KMRT), Circular Light Rail Line (also known as the Kaohsiung LRT, Kaohsiung Tram) for Kaohsiung City is a planned light rail line. Construction of Phase 1, known as the Waterside Light Rail began in June 2013 and is in full operation since September 2017. To combat air pollution, usage of the light rail, was well as buses, was made free of charge for electronic ticket holders from December to February, when air pollution is at its peak.


Railway

The city is served by the Taiwan Railways Administration's West Coast line (Taiwan), Western Line and Pingtung Line. Kaohsiung Main Station is an underground station, replacing the old ground level station. Taiwan High Speed Rail also serves Kaohsiung City at Zuoying HSR station, Zuoying Station in northern Kaohsiung City.


Sports

Kaohsiung is home to Taiwan's largest stadium, the National Stadium (Kaohsiung), National Stadium, and Kaohsiung Arena. National Stadium is Taiwan's largest international-class stadium with a maximum capacity of 55,000 seats. Kaohsiung hosted the 2009 World Games at the National Stadium. Nearly 6,000 athletes, officials, coaches, referees and others from 103 countries participated in the 2009 Kaohsiung World Games. Kaohsiung was also home to the Kaohsiung Truth of the ASEAN Basketball League. They were the first team in the history of the league that was based outside Southeast Asia. The team folded in 2017.


Education

Kaohsiung has a number of colleges and junior colleges offering training in commerce, education, maritime technology, medicine, modern languages, nursing, and technology, as well as various international schools and eight national military schools, including the three major military academies of the country, the Republic of China Military Academy, Republic of China Naval Academy and Republic of China Air Force Academy. Universities *Cheng Shiu University *Kaohsiung Medical University *National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology *National Kaohsiung Normal University *National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism *National University of Kaohsiung *National Sun Yat-sen University *I-Shou University *Wenzao Ursuline University of Languages *Fooyin University High Schools and Junior High Schools *Kaohsiung Municipal Kaohsiung Girls' Senior High School *Kaohsiung Municipal Sinsing Senior High School *Kaohsiung Municipal Kaohsiung Vocational High School of Commerce *Sansin High School of Commerce And Home Economics Kaohsiung *Kaohsiung Municipal Jhong-Jheng Senior High School, Kaohsiung Municipal Jhongjheng Senior High School *The Affiliated Senior High School of National Kaohsiung Normal University *FUHWA Senior High School *Saint Dominic's Catholic High School *Kaohsiung Dah Yung Senior High School *Chung-Hwa School of Arts *Taiwan Kaohsiung St. Paul's High School *Kaohsiung Municipal Gushan Senior High School *Kaohsiung Municipal Chung-Cheng Industrial High School *Kaohsiung Municipal Cianjhen Senior High School *Kaohsiung Municipal Rueisiang High School *Kaohsiung Municipal Sanmin Senior High School *Lichih Senior High School *Kaohsiung Municipal Kaohsiung Senior High School *Kaohsiung Municipal Kaohsiung Industrial High School *Shu-Te Home economics&Commercial High School *Kaohsiung Municipal Chungshan Senior High School *Guoguang Laboratory School, National Sun Yat-sen University *Kaohsiung Municipal Nanzih Comprehensive Senior High School *Kaohsiung Municipal Siaogang Senior High School *Kao-Feng Vocational High School *The Affiliated Hospitality Senior High School of National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism *Kaohsiung Municipal Sanmin Home Economics & Commerce Vocational High School *Kaohsiung Municipal Tsoying Senior High School *Kaohsiung Municipal Haiching Vocational High School of Technology and Commerce *Kaohsiung Municipal Renwu Senior High School *Kaohsiung MunicipalHsin Chuang Senior High School *National Kangshan Senior High School *National Kangshan Agricultural & Industrial Vocational Senior High School *Kaohsiung Municipal Lujhu Senior High School *Chung Cheng Armed Forces Preparatory School *Cheng Yi Senior High School *National Fengshan Senior High School, National Feng-Shan Senior High School *National FongShan Senior Commercial & Industrial Vocational School *National FengHsin Senior High School, National Feng-Hsin Senior High School *Kaohsiung Municipal Fu Cheng High School *Chung Shan Industrial & Commercial School *Sin-Guang Senior High School International Schools *Dominican International School Kaohsiung *I-Shou International School *Kaohsiung American School *Kivam Junior High School *Morrison Academy Kaohsiung Military Schools * *Republic of China Air Force Academy * * * *Republic of China Military Academy *Republic of China Naval Academy (Note: The lists above are not comprehensive.)


Conferences and events

The Kaohsiung Exhibition Center, built by the Kaohsiung City Government, was opened on 14 April 2014. It includes an exhibition space for 1,500 booths, and a convention hall for 2,000 pax. The center hosted the Taiwan International Boat Show in May 2014. Another conference and event-related venue is the newly renovated International Convention Center Kaohsiung in 2013.


Sister cities and twin towns

Kaohsiung is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with the following locations. * Barranquilla, Colombia * Belize City, Belize * Brisbane, Queensland, Australia * Blantyre, Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi * Busan, South Korea * Cartago, Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica * Cebu City, Cebu, Central Visayas, Philippines * Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States * Da Nang, Vietnam * Dipolog, Zamboanga Peninsula, Philippines * Durban, South Africa * George Town, Penang, Malaysia * Hachiōji, Tokyo, Japan * Honolulu, Hawaii, United States * Istanbul, Turkey * Knoxville, Tennessee, United States * Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan * Little Rock, Arkansas, United States * Macon, Georgia, United States * Malé, Maldives * Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan * Miami, Florida, United States * Mobile, Alabama, United States * Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico * Mumbai, Maharashtra, India * Panama City, Panama * Pensacola, Florida, United States * Plains, Georgia, United States * Portland, Oregon, United States * Rio de Janeiro, Brazil * Saint Petersburg, Russia * San Antonio, Texas, United States * San Diego, California, United States * Seattle, Washington (state), Washington, United States * Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia * Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico * Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States


Relative location


See also

* Administrative divisions of Taiwan * List of cities in Taiwan


Notes


Words in native languages


References


External links

* * {{Authority control Kaohsiung, Populated coastal places in Taiwan Port cities and towns in Taiwan Populated places established by the Dutch East India Company 1620s establishments in the Dutch Empire Populated places established in 1662 Municipalities of Taiwan 1662 establishments in Asia