HOME

TheInfoList




Jupiter ( la, Iūpiter or , from
Proto-Italic The Proto-Italic language is the ancestor of the Italic languages The Italic languages form a branch of the Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by ...
"day, sky" + "father", thus " sky father"), also known as Jove ( gen. ''Iovis'' ), is the
god of the sky The sky The sky (also sometimes called celestial dome) is everything that lies above the surface of the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surf ...
and
thunder Thunder is the sound caused by lightning Lightning is a naturally occurring electrostatic discharge during which two electrically charged regions in the atmosphere or ground temporarily equalize themselves, causing the instantaneous r ...
and king of the gods in
ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Rome includes the ethnic religion of Ancient Rome that the ancient Romans, Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widel ...
and
mythology Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the ca ...
. Jupiter was the chief deity of Roman state religion throughout the
Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually associated with the rule of law. ** Republicanism, the ideology in support of republics or against ...
and
Imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, California * Imperial, Missouri * Imperial, Nebraska * Imperial, Pennsylvania * Imperial, Texas * ...

Imperial
eras, until Christianity became the dominant religion of the Empire. In Roman mythology, he negotiates with
Numa Pompilius Numa Pompilius (; 753–673 BC; reigned 715–673 BC) was the legendary second king of Rome The king of Rome ( la, rex Romae) was the chief magistrate Chief magistrate is a public official, executive or judicial, whose office is the highest ...

Numa Pompilius
, the second
king of Rome The king of Rome ( la, rex Romae) was the chief magistrate Chief magistrate is a public official, executive or judicial, whose office is the highest in its class. Historically, the two different meanings of magistrate have often overlapped and ...
, to establish principles of Roman religion such as offering, or sacrifice. Jupiter is usually thought to have originated as a sky god. His identifying implement is the
thunderbolt A thunderbolt or lightning bolt is a symbolic representation of lightning when accompanied by a loud thunderclap. In Indo-European mythology, the thunderbolt was identified with the Proto-Indo-European mythology#Sky Father, 'Sky Father'; thi ...

thunderbolt
and his primary sacred animal is the eagle, which held precedence over other birds in the taking of
auspices Augury is the practice from ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion In religious studies, an ethnic religion is a religion or Belief#Religion, belief associated with a particular ethnic group. ...
and became one of the most common symbols of the
Roman army The Roman army (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in ...

Roman army
(see Aquila). The two emblems were often combined to represent the god in the form of an eagle holding in its claws a thunderbolt, frequently seen on Greek and Roman coins. As the sky-god, he was a divine witness to oaths, the sacred trust on which justice and good government depend. Many of his functions were focused on the
Capitoline Hill The Capitolium or Capitoline Hill ( ; it, Campidoglio ; la, Mons Capitolinus ), between the Forum Forum (plural forums or fora) may refer to: Common uses * Forum (legal), designated space for public expression in the United States *For ...
, where the
citadel A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brooke ...
was located. In the
Capitoline Triad The Capitoline Triad was a group of three deities who were worshipped in Religion in ancient Rome, ancient Roman religion in an elaborate temple on Rome's Capitoline Hill (Latin ''Capitolium''). It comprised Jupiter (mythology), Jupiter, Juno (my ...
, he was the central guardian of the state with
Juno Juno commonly refers to: *Juno (mythology), the Roman goddess of marriage and queen of the gods *Juno (film), ''Juno'' (film), 2007 Juno may also refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Fictional characters *Juno, in the film ''Jenny, Juno'' *Jun ...
and
Minerva Minerva (; ett, Menrva) is the Roman goddess Roman mythology is the body of of as represented in the and . One of a wide variety of genres of , ''Roman mythology'' may also refer to the modern study of these representations, and to ...

Minerva
. His sacred tree was the oak. The Romans regarded Jupiter as the
equivalent Equivalence or Equivalent may refer to: Arts and entertainment *Album-equivalent unit, a measurement unit in the music industry *Equivalence class (music) *''Equivalent VIII'', or ''The Bricks'', a minimalist sculpture by Carl Andre *''Equivalent ...
of the Greek
Zeus Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Ling ...

Zeus
,''Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia'',
The Book People The Book People Ltd. is an online bookseller. Founded in 1988, in the UK, The Book People sells books, gifts, toys and stationery through its website. The Book People was recently acquired by Retail Ecommerce Ventures, a holding company that buys ...
, Haydock, 1995, p. 215.
and in
Latin literature Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originall ...
and
Roman art The art of Ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A his ...
, the myths and iconography of Zeus are adapted under the name ''Iuppiter''. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Jupiter was the brother of
Neptune Neptune is the eighth and farthest-known Solar planet from the Sun. In the Solar System, it is the fourth-largest planet by diameter, the third-most-massive planet, and the densest giant planet. It is 17 times the mass of Earth, slightly mo ...
and Dīs Pater, the Roman equivalents of
Poseidon Poseidon (; grc-gre, Ποσειδῶν, ) was one of the Twelve Olympians upright=1.8, Fragment of a relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The ...

Poseidon
and
Hades Hades (; grc-gre, ᾍδης, Háidēs; ), in the ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and Greek mythology, mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public ...

Hades
respectively. Each presided over one of the three realms of the universe: sky, the waters, and the underworld. The Italic Diespiter was also a sky god who manifested himself in the daylight, usually identified with Jupiter.
Tinia In Etruscan religion Etruscan religion comprises a set of stories, beliefs, and religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worl ...
is usually regarded as his
Etruscan__NOTOC__ Etruscan may refer to: Ancient civilisation *The Etruscan language, an extinct language in ancient Italy *Something derived from or related to the Etruscan civilization **Etruscan architecture **Etruscan art **Etruscan cities **Etruscan ...
counterpart.
Massimo Pallottino Massimo Pallottino (9 November 1909 in Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazi ...

Massimo Pallottino
, "Etruscan Daemonology," p. 41, and
Robert Schilling, "Rome," pp. 44 and 63,
both in (1981, 1992) ''Roman and European Mythologies'', University of Chicago Press, 1992, transl. from the 1981 French edition;
Giuliano Bonfante and
Larissa Bonfante Larissa Bonfante (March 27, 1931, Naples, Italy – August 23, 2019, New York City, New York) was an Italian-American classicist, Professor of Classics ''emerita'' at New York University and an authority on Etruscan Etruscan language, language and ...
, (1983, 2003) ''The Etruscan Language: An Introduction'', Manchester University Press rev. ed., pp. 24, 84, 85, 219, 225;
Nancy Thomson de Grummond, (2006), ''Etruscan Myth, Sacred History, and Legend'', University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, pp. 19, 53–58 ''et passim'';
Jean MacIntosh Turfa Jean MacIntosh Turfa (born 1947 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the List of United States cities by population, sixth-most populous city in th ...
, (2012), ''Divining the Etruscan World: The Brontoscopic Calendar and Religious Practice'' Cambridge University Press, p. 62.


Role in the state

The Romans believed that Jupiter granted them supremacy because they had honoured him more than any other people had. Jupiter was "the fount of the
auspices Augury is the practice from ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion In religious studies, an ethnic religion is a religion or Belief#Religion, belief associated with a particular ethnic group. ...
upon which the relationship of the city with the gods rested." He personified the divine authority of Rome's highest offices, internal organization, and external relations. His image in the
Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually associated with the rule of law. ** Republicanism, the ideology in support of republics or against ...
and
Imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, California * Imperial, Missouri * Imperial, Nebraska * Imperial, Pennsylvania * Imperial, Texas * ...

Imperial
Capitol bore
regalia Regalia is a Latin plurale tantum A ''plurale tantum'' (Latin for "plural only"; ) is a noun that appears only in the plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form ...
associated with Rome's ancient kings and the highest
consular A consul is an official representative of the government of one Sovereign state, state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between th ...
and Imperial honours. The consuls swore their oath of office in Jupiter's name, and honoured him on the annual ''
feriae
feriae
'' of the Capitol in September. To thank him for his help, and to secure his continued support, they sacrificed a white ox ''(bos mas)'' with gilded horns. A similar sacrificial offering was made by triumphal generals, who surrendered the tokens of their victory at the feet of Jupiter's statue in the Capitol. Some scholars have viewed the ''triumphator'' as embodying (or impersonating) Jupiter in the triumphal procession. Jupiter's association with kingship and sovereignty was reinterpreted as Rome's form of government changed. Originally, Rome was ruled by kings; after the monarchy was abolished and the
Republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...
established, religious prerogatives were transferred to the ''patres'', the patrician ruling class. Nostalgia for the kingship ''(affectatio regni)'' was considered treasonous. Those suspected of harbouring monarchical ambitions were punished, regardless of their service to the state. In the 5th century BC, the ''triumphator'' Camillus was sent into exile after he drove a chariot with a team of four white horses ''(
quadriga A () is a car or chariot A chariot is a type of carriage A carriage is a private four-wheeled vehicle for people and is most commonly horse-drawn A horse-drawn vehicle is a mechanized piece of equipment pulled by one horse or by a t ...

quadriga
)''—an honour reserved for Jupiter himself. When
Marcus Manlius
Marcus Manlius
, whose defense of the Capitol against the invading Gauls had earned him the name ''Capitolinus'', was accused of regal pretensions, he was executed as a traitor by being cast from the
Tarpeian Rock The Tarpeian Rock (; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...

Tarpeian Rock
. His house on the Capitoline Hill was razed, and it was decreed that no patrician should ever be allowed to live there. Capitoline Jupiter represented a continuity of royal power from the Regal period, and conferred power to the
magistrates The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In ancient Rome, a ''Roman magistrate, magistratus'' was one of the highest ranking government officers, and posse ...
who paid their respects to him. During the
Conflict of the Orders The Conflict or Struggle of the Orders was a political struggle between the plebeians The plebeians, also called plebs, were, in ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the It ...
, Rome's
plebeians In ancient Rome, the plebeians (also called plebs) were the general body of free Roman citizenship, Roman citizens who were not Patrician (ancient Rome), patricians, as determined by the capite censi, census, or in other words "commoners". Both ...
demanded the right to hold political and religious office. During their first ''
secessio
secessio
'' (similar to a
general strike A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour (economics), labour force in a city, region, or country participates. General strikes are characterised by the participation of workers ...
), they withdrew from the city and threatened to found their own. When they agreed to come back to Rome they vowed the hill where they had retreated to Jupiter as symbol and guarantor of the unity of the Roman ''res publica''. Plebeians eventually became eligible for all the magistracies and most priesthoods, but the high priest of Jupiter ''(
Flamen Dialis In Religion in ancient Rome, ancient Roman religion, the Flamen Dialis was the Glossary of ancient Roman religion#sacerdos, high priest of Jupiter (god), Jupiter. The term ''Dialis'' is related to ''Diespiter'', an Old Latin form of the name ''Jupi ...
)'' remained the preserve of patricians.


Flamen and Flaminica Dialis

Jupiter was served by the patrician Flamen Dialis, the highest-ranking member of the '' flamines,'' a
college A college (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in rel ...
of fifteen priests in the official public cult of Rome, each of whom was devoted to a particular deity. His wife, the Flaminica Dialis, had her own duties, and presided over the sacrifice of a ram to Jupiter on each of the ''
nundinae The nundinae, sometimes anglicized to nundines,. were the market days of the ancient Roman calendar, forming a kind of weekend including, for a certain period, rest from work for the ruling class ( Patricians). The nundinal cycle, market week ...
'', the "market" days of a calendar cycle, comparable to a week. The couple were required to marry by the exclusive patrician ritual ''
confarreatio In ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a ...
'', which included a sacrifice of
spelt Spelt (''Triticum spelta''), also known as dinkel wheat or hulled wheat, is a species of wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the ...

spelt
bread to Jupiter Farreus (from ''far'', "wheat, grain"). The office of Flamen Dialis was circumscribed by several unique ritual prohibitions, some of which shed light on the sovereign nature of the god himself. For instance, the ''flamen'' may remove his clothes or ''
apex Apex may refer to: Arts and media Fictional entities * Apex (comics), a teenaged super villainess in the Marvel Universe * Ape-X, a super-intelligent ape in the Squadron Supreme universe *Apex, a genetically-engineered human population in the TV s ...
'' (his pointed hat) only when under a roof, in order to avoid showing himself naked to the sky—that is, "as if under the eyes of Jupiter" as god of the heavens. Every time the Flaminica saw a lightning bolt or heard a clap of thunder (Jupiter's distinctive instrument), she was prohibited from carrying on with her normal routine until she placated the god. Some privileges of the ''flamen'' of Jupiter may reflect the regal nature of Jupiter: he had the use of the
curule chair A curule seat is a design of a (usually) foldable and transportable chair One of the basic pieces of furniture Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and so ...
, and was the only priest ''( sacerdos)'' who was preceded by a
lictor A lictor (possibly from la, ligare, "to bind") was a Ancient Rome, Roman civil servant who was an attendant and bodyguard to a Roman magistrate, magistrate who held ''imperium''. Lictors are documented since the Roman Kingdom, and may have origi ...

lictor
and had a seat in the
senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...

senate
. Other regulations concern his ritual purity and his separation from the military function; he was forbidden to ride a horse or see the army outside the sacred boundary of Rome ''(
pomerium The pomerium or pomoerium was a religious boundary around the city of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan ...

pomerium
).'' Although he served the god who embodied the sanctity of the oath, it was not religiously permissible ''(
fas
fas
)'' for the Dialis to swear an oath. He could not have contacts with anything dead or connected with death: corpses, funerals, funeral fires, raw meat. This set of restrictions reflects the fulness of life and absolute freedom that are features of Jupiter.


Augurs

The ''augures publici'',
augurs An augur was a priest and official in the classical Roman world. His main role was the practice of augury Augury is the practice from ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion In religiou ...
were a college of ''sacerdotes'' who were in charge of all inaugurations and of the performing of ceremonies known as ''auguria''. Their creation was traditionally ascribed to
Romulus Romulus () was the legendary founder Founder or Founders may refer to: Places *Founders Park, a stadium in South Carolina, formerly known as Carolina Stadium * Founders Park, a waterside park in Islamorada, Florida#In popular culture, Islamora ...
. They were considered the only official interpreters of Jupiter's will, thence they were essential to the very existence of the Roman State as Romans saw in Jupiter the only source of state authority.


Fetials

The fetials were a college of 20 men devoted to the religious administration of international affairs of state. Their task was to preserve and apply the fetial law ''(ius fetiale)'', a complex set of procedures aimed at ensuring the protection of the gods in Rome's relations with foreign states.
Iuppiter Lapis In the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Ro ...
is the god under whose protection they act, and whom the chief fetial ''(pater patratus)'' invokes in the rite concluding a treaty. If a
declaration of war A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (n ...
ensues, the fetial calls upon Jupiter and
Quirinus In Roman mythology Roman mythology is the body of myths Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or ...

Quirinus
, the heavenly, earthly and
chthonic The word chthonic is derived from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speaker ...

chthonic
gods as witnesses of any potential violation of the ''ius''. He can then declare war within 33 days. The action of the fetials falls under Jupiter's jurisdiction as the divine defender of good faith. Several emblems of the fetial office pertain to Jupiter. The ''silex'' was the stone used for the fetial sacrifice, housed in the Temple of Iuppiter Feretrius, as was their sceptre. Sacred herbs ''(sagmina)'', sometimes identified as
vervain ''Verbena'' (, vervain) is a genus in the family (biology), family Verbenaceae. It contains about 250 species of annual plant, annual and perennial plant, perennial herbaceous plant, herbaceous or semi-woody flowering plants. The majority of the ...
, had to be taken from the nearby citadel ''(arx)'' for their ritual use.


Jupiter and religion in the secessions of the plebs

The role of Jupiter in the
conflict of the orders The Conflict or Struggle of the Orders was a political struggle between the plebeians The plebeians, also called plebs, were, in ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the It ...
is a reflection of the religiosity of the Romans. On one side, the patricians were able to naturally claim the support of the supreme god as they held the
auspices Augury is the practice from ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion In religious studies, an ethnic religion is a religion or Belief#Religion, belief associated with a particular ethnic group. ...
of the State. On the other side, the
pleb The plebeians, also called plebs, were, in ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in ...

pleb
s (plebeians) argued that, as Jupiter was the source of justice, they had his favor because their cause was just. The first secession was caused by the excessive debt burden on the plebs. The legal institute of the ''
nexum ''Nexum'' was a debt bondage contract in the early Roman Republic. The debtor pledged his person as collateral (finance), collateral if he defaulted on his loan. ''Nexum'' was abolished by the ''Lex Poetelia Papiria'' in 326 BC. Contract Nexum wa ...
'' permitted a debtor to become a slave of his creditor. The plebs argued the debts had become unsustainable because of the expenses of the wars wanted by the patricians. As the senate did not accede to the proposal of a total debt remission advanced by dictator and augur
Manius Valerius Maximus Manius Valerius Maximus was Roman dictator in 494 BC during the First secessio plebis in 494 BC, first secession of the plebs. His brothers were Publius Valerius Publicola and Marcus Valerius Volusus. They were said to be the sons of Valerius Vo ...
the plebs retired on the Mount Sacer, a hill located three Roman miles to the North-northeast of Rome, past the Nomentan bridge on river
Anio The Aniene (; la, Anio), formerly known as the Teverone, is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and bec ...
. The place is windy and was usually the site of rites of divination performed by haruspices. The senate in the end sent a delegation composed of ten members with full powers of making a deal with the plebs, of which were part
Menenius Agrippa Agrippa Menenius Lanatus (died 493 BC) was a consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin plural ''consules'') was the title of one of the two chief Roman magistrate, magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently also an important title under th ...
and Manius Valerius. It was Valerius, according to the inscription found at Arezzo in 1688 and written on the order of Augustus as well as other literary sources, that brought the plebs down from the Mount, after the secessionists had consecrated it to ''Jupiter Territor'' and built an altar (''ara'') on its summit. The fear of the wrath of Jupiter was an important element in the solution of the crisis. The consecration of the Mount probably referred to its summit only. The ritual requested the participation of both an augur (presumably Manius Valerius himself) and a pontifex. The second secession was caused by the autocratic and arrogant behaviour of the ''
decemviri The decemviri or decemvirs (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the powe ...
'', who had been charged by the Roman people with writing down the laws in use till then kept secret by the patrician magistrates and the ''sacerdotes''. All magistracies and the tribunes of the plebs had resigned in advance. The task resulted in the XII Tables, which though concerned only private law. The plebs once again retreated to the Sacer Mons: this act besides recalling the first secession was meant to seek the protection of the supreme god. The secession ended with the resignation of the ''decemviri'' and an amnesty for the rebellious soldiers who had deserted from their camp near Mount Algidus while warring against the Volscians, abandoning the commanders. The amnesty was granted by the senate and guaranteed by the ''pontifex maximus'' Quintus Furius (in Livy's version) (or Marcus Papirius) who also supervised the nomination of the new tribunes of the plebs, then gathered on the Aventine Hill. The role played by the ''pontifex maximus'' in a situation of vacation of powers is a significant element underlining the religious basis and character of the ''tribunicia potestas''.


Myths and legends

A dominant line of scholarship has held that Rome lacked a body of myths in its earliest period, or that this original mythology has been irrecoverably obscured by the influence of the Greek narrative tradition. After the influence of Greek culture on Roman culture, Latin literature and iconography reinterpreted the myths of Zeus in depictions and narratives of Jupiter. In the legendary history of Rome, Jupiter is often connected to kings and kingship.


Birth

Jupiter is depicted as the twin of Juno in a statue at
Praeneste Palestrina (ancient ''Praeneste''; grc, Πραίνεστος, ''Prainestos'') is a modern Italian city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or mun ...
that showed them nursed by
Fortuna Primigenia Palestrina (ancient ''Praeneste''; grc, Πραίνεστος, ''Prainestos'') is a modern Italian city and ''comune'' (municipality) with a population of about 22,000, in Lazio, about east of Rome. It is connected to the latter by the Via Prenest ...
. An inscription that is also from Praeneste, however, says that Fortuna Primigenia was Jupiter's first-born child. Jacqueline Champeaux sees this contradiction as the result of successive different cultural and religious phases, in which a wave of influence coming from the Hellenic world made Fortuna the daughter of Jupiter. The childhood of Zeus is an important theme in Greek religion, art and literature, but there are only rare (or dubious) depictions of Jupiter as a child.


Numa

Faced by a period of bad weather endangering the harvest during one early spring, King
Numa#REDIRECT Numa Numa or NUMA may refer to: * Non-uniform memory access (NUMA), in computing Places * Numa Falls, a waterfall in Kootenay National Park, Canada * 15854 Numa, a main-belt asteroid United States * Numa, Indiana * Numa, Iowa * Numa, Okl ...

Numa
resorted to the scheme of asking the advice of the god by evoking his presence. He succeeded through the help of Picus and Faunus, whom he had imprisoned by making them drunk. The two gods (with a charm) evoked Jupiter, who was forced to come down to earth at the Aventine (hence named ''Iuppiter Elicius'', according to Ovid). After Numa skilfully avoided the requests of the god for human sacrifices, Jupiter agreed to his request to know how lightning bolts are averted, asking only for the substitutions Numa had mentioned: an onion bulb, hairs and a fish. Moreover, Jupiter promised that at the sunrise of the following day he would give to Numa and the Roman people pawns of the ''imperium''. The following day, after throwing three lightning bolts across a clear sky, Jupiter sent down from heaven a shield. Since this shield had no angles, Numa named it ''ancile''; because in it resided the fate of the ''imperium'', he had many copies made of it to disguise the real one. He asked the smith
Mamurius Veturius In Religion in ancient Rome, ancient Roman religion, the Mamuralia or ''Sacrum Mamurio'' ("Rite for Mamurius") was a Roman festivals, festival held on March 14 or 15, named only in sources from late antiquity. According to Joannes Lydus, an old man ...
to make the copies, and gave them to the
Salii In , the Salii ( , ) were the "leaping priests" (from the verb ''saliō'' "leap, jump") of supposed to have been introduced by King . They were twelve youths, dressed as archaic warriors: an embroidered , a , a short red cloak ('')'', a sword, ...
. As his only reward, Mamurius expressed the wish that his name be sung in the last of their ''carmina''. Plutarch gives a slightly different version of the story, writing that the cause of the miraculous drop of the shield was a plague and not linking it with the Roman ''imperium''.


Tullus Hostilius

Throughout his reign, King Tullus had a scornful attitude towards religion. His temperament was warlike, and he disregarded religious rites and piety. After conquering the Albans with the duel between the
Horatii and Curiatii In the ancient Roman In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing th ...
, Tullus destroyed
Alba Longa Alba Longa (occasionally written Albalonga in Italian sources) was an ancient Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication ...
and deported its inhabitants to Rome. As
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a Ancient Rome, Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, titled , covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditiona ...
tells the story, omens ''( prodigia)'' in the form of a rain of stones occurred on the
Alban Mount Monte Cavo, or less occasionally, "Monte Albano," is the second highest mountain of the complex of the Alban Hills, near Rome, Italy. An old volcano extinguished around 10,000 years ago, it lies about from the sea, in the territory of the ''comu ...
because the deported Albans had disregarded their ancestral rites linked to the sanctuary of Jupiter. In addition to the omens, a voice was heard requesting that the Albans perform the rites. A plague followed and at last the king himself fell ill. As a consequence, the warlike character of Tullus broke down; he resorted to religion and petty, superstitious practices. At last, he found a book by Numa recording a secret rite on how to evoke ''Iuppiter Elicius''. The king attempted to perform it, but since he executed the rite improperly the god threw a lightning bolt which burned down the king's house and killed Tullus.


Tarquin the Elder

When approaching Rome (where Tarquin was heading to try his luck in politics after unsuccessful attempts in his native
Tarquinii Tarquinia (), formerly Corneto, is an old city in the province of Viterbo Viterbo ( it, provincia di Viterbo) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancie ...
), an eagle swooped down, removed his hat, flew screaming in circles, replaced the hat on his head and flew away. Tarquin's wife
Tanaquil Tanaquil ( Etruscan ''Thanchvil'') was the queen of Rome by marriage to Tarquinius Priscus Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, or Tarquin the Elder, was the legendary fifth king of Rome and first of its Etruscan dynasty. He reigned from 616 to 579 BC. Tar ...

Tanaquil
interpreted
interpreted
this as a sign that he would become king based on the bird, the quadrant of the sky from which it came, the god who had sent it and the fact it touched his hat (an item of clothing placed on a man's most noble part, the head). The Elder Tarquin is credited with introducing the Capitoline Triad to Rome, by building the so-called Capitolium Vetus. Macrobius writes this issued from his Samothracian mystery beliefs.


Cult


Sacrifices

Sacrificial victims ('' hostiae'') offered to Jupiter were the ox (castrated bull), the lamb (on the Ides, the ''ovis idulis'') and the
wether Wether may refer to: *A castrated male goat *A castrated male Domestic sheep, sheep *A misspelling of weather *A misspelling of wikt:whether, whether *Wether Down, a hill in Hampshire *Wether Hill (Lake District), a hill in Cumbria *Wether Holm (di ...
(castrated male goat or ram) (on the Ides of January). The animals were required to be white. The question of the lamb's gender is unresolved; while a lamb is generally male, for the vintage-opening festival the flamen Dialis sacrificed a
ewe
ewe
. This rule seems to have had many exceptions, as the sacrifice of a ram on the
Nundinae The nundinae, sometimes anglicized to nundines,. were the market days of the ancient Roman calendar, forming a kind of weekend including, for a certain period, rest from work for the ruling class ( Patricians). The nundinal cycle, market week ...
by the ''flaminica Dialis'' demonstrates. During one of the crises of the
Punic Wars The Punic Wars were a series of wars (taking place between 264 and 146BC) that were fought between the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public ...

Punic Wars
, Jupiter was offered every animal born that year.


Temples


Temple of Capitoline Jupiter

The temple to
Jupiter Optimus Maximus , the supreme Roman god of the sky. The Capitoline Triad was a group of three deities who were worshipped in Religion in ancient Rome, ancient Roman religion in an elaborate temple on Rome , established_title = Founded , established_dat ...
stood on the
Capitoline Hill The Capitolium or Capitoline Hill ( ; it, Campidoglio ; la, Mons Capitolinus ), between the Forum Forum (plural forums or fora) may refer to: Common uses * Forum (legal), designated space for public expression in the United States *For ...
in Rome. Jupiter was worshiped there as an individual deity, and with
Juno Juno commonly refers to: *Juno (mythology), the Roman goddess of marriage and queen of the gods *Juno (film), ''Juno'' (film), 2007 Juno may also refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Fictional characters *Juno, in the film ''Jenny, Juno'' *Jun ...
and
Minerva Minerva (; ett, Menrva) is the Roman goddess Roman mythology is the body of of as represented in the and . One of a wide variety of genres of , ''Roman mythology'' may also refer to the modern study of these representations, and to ...

Minerva
as part of the
Capitoline Triad The Capitoline Triad was a group of three deities who were worshipped in Religion in ancient Rome, ancient Roman religion in an elaborate temple on Rome's Capitoline Hill (Latin ''Capitolium''). It comprised Jupiter (mythology), Jupiter, Juno (my ...
. The building was supposedly begun by king
Tarquinius Priscus Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, or Tarquin the Elder, was the legendary Kings of Rome, fifth king of Roman Kingdom, Rome and first of its Etruscan civilization, Etruscan dynasty. He reigned from 616 to 579 BC. Tarquinius expanded Roman power through mi ...
, completed by the last king (
Tarquinius Superbus Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (died 495 BC) was the legendary seventh and final king of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 BC that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic. He is commonly known as Tarquin the Proud, fr ...
) and inaugurated in the early days of the Roman Republic (September 13, 509 BC). It was topped with the statues of four horses drawing a
quadriga A () is a car or chariot A chariot is a type of carriage A carriage is a private four-wheeled vehicle for people and is most commonly horse-drawn A horse-drawn vehicle is a mechanized piece of equipment pulled by one horse or by a t ...

quadriga
, with Jupiter as charioteer. A large statue of Jupiter stood within; on festival days, its face was painted red. In (or near) this temple was the ''Iuppiter Lapis'': the Jupiter Stone, on which oaths could be sworn. Jupiter's Capitoline Temple probably served as the architectural model for his provincial temples. When Hadrian built
Aelia Capitolina Aelia Capitolina (Traditional English Pronunciation: ; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Thr ...
on the site of
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
, a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus was erected in the place of the destroyed
Temple in Jerusalem Two ancient Israelite The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during th ...
.


Other temples in Rome

There were two temples in Rome dedicated to ''Iuppiter Stator''; the first one was built and dedicated in 294 BC by
Marcus Atilius Regulus :''This is about the Roman general and consul. for other Romans of that name, see Marcus Atilius Regulus (disambiguation).'' Marcus Atilius Regulus (probably lived between 307 BC – 250 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman and general who was ...
after the third Samnite War. It was located on the ''Via Nova'', below the ''Porta Mugonia'', ancient entrance to the Palatine. Legend attributed its founding to Romulus. There may have been an earlier shrine ''(
fanum The vocabulary of ancient Roman religion was highly specialized. Its study affords important information about the religion, traditions and beliefs of the ancient Romans. This legacy is conspicuous in European cultural history in its influence on ...
)'', since the Jupiter cult is attested epigraphically.
Ovid Pūblius Ovidius Nāsō (; 20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known in English as Ovid ( ), was a Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a contemporary of the older Virgil and Horace, with whom ...

Ovid
places the temple's dedication on June 27, but it is unclear whether this was the original date, or the rededication after the restoration by Augustus. A second temple of ''Iuppiter Stator'' was built and dedicated by Quintus Caecilus Metellus Macedonicus after his triumph in 146 BC near the
Circus Flaminius The Circus Flaminius was a large, circular area in ancient Rome, located in the southern end of the Campus Martius near the Tiber River. It contained a small race-track used for obscure games, and various other buildings and monuments. It was "buil ...
. It was connected to the restored temple of ''Iuno Regina'' with a
portico A portico is a porch A porch (from Old French ''porche'', from Latin ''porticus'' "colonnade", from ''porta'' "passage") is a room or gallery located in front of an entrance of a building. A porch is placed in front of the facade of a bu ...

portico
('' porticus Metelli''). ''Iuppiter Victor'' had a temple dedicated by Quintus Fabius Maximus Gurges during the third Samnite War in 295 BC. Its location is unknown, but it may be on the Quirinal, on which an inscription reading ''Diovei Victore'' has been found, or on the Palatine according to the ''Notitia'' in the ''Liber Regionum'' (regio X), which reads: ''aedes Iovis Victoris''. Either might have been dedicated on April 13 or June 13 (days of ''Iuppiter Victor'' and of ''Iuppiter Invictus'', respectively, in Ovid's ''
Fasti In ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian i ...
''). Inscriptions from the imperial age have revealed the existence of an otherwise-unknown temple of ''Iuppiter Propugnator'' on the Palatine.


Iuppiter Latiaris and Feriae Latinae

The cult of ''Iuppiter Latiaris'' was the most ancient known cult of the god: it was practised since very remote times near the top of the ''Mons Albanus'' on which the god was venerated as the high protector of the Latin League under the hegemony of
Alba Longa Alba Longa (occasionally written Albalonga in Italian sources) was an ancient Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication ...
. After the destruction of Alba by king Tullus Hostilius the cult was forsaken. The god manifested his discontent through the prodigy of a rain of stones: the commission sent by the Roman senate to inquire was also greeted by a rain of stones and heard a loud voice from the grove on the summit of the mount requesting the Albans perform the religious service to the god according to the rites of their country. In consequence of this event the Romans instituted a festival of nine days (''nundinae''). Nonetheless a plague ensued: in the end Tullus Hostilius himself was affected and lastly killed by the god with a lightning bolt. The festival was reestablished on its primitive site by the last Roman king Tarquin the Proud under the leadership of Rome. The ''
feriae Latinae The ''Feriae Latinae'' or Latin Festival was an ancient Roman religious festival held in April on the Alban Mount. The date varied, and was determined and announced by the consuls A consul is an official representative of the government of on ...
'', or '' Latiar'' as they were known originally, were the common festival (''panegyris'') of the so-called Priscan Latins and of the Albans. Their restoration aimed at grounding Roman hegemony in this ancestral religious tradition of the Latins. The original cult was reinstated unchanged as is testified by some archaic features of the ritual: the exclusion of wine from the sacrifice the offers of milk and cheese and the ritual use of rocking among the games. Rocking is one of the most ancient rites mimicking ascent to Heaven and is very widespread. At the ''Latiar'' the rocking took place on a tree and the winner was of course the one who had swung the highest. This rite was said to have been instituted by the Albans to commemorate the disappearance of king
Latinus Latinus ( la, Latinus; grc, Λατῖνος) was a figure in both Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...

Latinus
, in the battle against
Mezentius In Roman mythology Roman mythology is the body of myths of ancient Rome as represented in the Latin literature, literature and Roman art, visual arts of the Romans. One of a wide variety of genres of Roman folklore, ''Roman mythology'' may al ...
king of
Caere : Caere (also Caisra and Cisra) is the Latin name given by the Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = ...
: the rite symbolised a search for him both on earth and in heaven. The rocking as well as the customary drinking of milk was also considered to commemorate and ritually reinstate infancy. The Romans in the last form of the rite brought the sacrificial ox from Rome and every participant was bestowed a portion of the meat, rite known as ''carnem petere''. Other games were held in every participant borough. In Rome a race of chariots (''quadrigae'') was held starting from the Capitol: the winner drank a liquor made with absynth. This competition has been compared to the Vedic rite of the vajapeya: in it seventeen chariots run a phoney race which must be won by the king in order to allow him to drink a cup of ''madhu'', i. e. ''soma''. The feasting lasted for at least four days, possibly six according to
Niebuhr
Niebuhr
, one day for each of the six Latin and Alban ''decuriae''. According to different records 47 or 53 boroughs took part in the festival (the listed names too differ in Pliny NH III 69 and Dionysius of Halicarnassus AR V 61). The ''Latiar'' became an important feature of Roman political life as they were ''
feriae conceptivae Festivals in ancient Rome were a very important part of religion in ancient Rome, Roman religious life during both the Roman Republic, Republican and Roman Empire, Imperial eras, and one of the primary features of the Roman calendar. ''Feriae ...
'', i. e. their date varied each year: the consuls and the highest magistrates were required to attend shortly after the beginning of the administration, originally on the Ides of March: the Feriae usually took place in early April. They could not start campaigning before its end and if any part of the games had been neglected or performed unritually the ''Latiar'' had to be wholly repeated. The inscriptions from the imperial age record the festival back to the time of the decemvirs. Wissowa remarks the inner linkage of the temple of the Mons Albanus with that of the Capitol apparent in the common association with the rite of the triumph: since 231 BC some triumphing commanders had triumphed there first with the same legal features as in Rome.


Religious calendar


Ides

The Ides (the midpoint of the month, with a full moon) was sacred to Jupiter, because on that day heavenly light shone day and night. Some (or all) Ides were ''
Feriae
Feriae
Iovis'', sacred to Jupiter. On the Ides, a white lamb (''ovis idulis'') was led along Rome's
Sacred Way The Sacred Way ( grc, Ἱερὰ Ὁδός, ''Hierá Hodós''), in ancient Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. Its population is ap ...

Sacred Way
to the Capitoline Citadel and sacrificed to him. Jupiter's two '' epula Iovis'' festivals fell on the Ides, as did his temple foundation rites as ''Optimus Maximus'', ''Victor'', ''Invictus'' and (possibly) ''Stator''.


Nundinae

The ''
nundinae The nundinae, sometimes anglicized to nundines,. were the market days of the ancient Roman calendar, forming a kind of weekend including, for a certain period, rest from work for the ruling class ( Patricians). The nundinal cycle, market week ...
'' recurred every ninth day, dividing the calendar into a market cycle analogous to a week. Market days gave rural people ''( pagi)'' the opportunity to sell in town and to be informed of religious and political edicts, which were posted publicly for three days. According to tradition, these festival days were instituted by the king
Servius Tullius Servius Tullius was the legendary sixth king of Rome The king of Rome ( la, rex Romae) was the chief magistrate Chief magistrate is a public official, executive or judicial, whose office is the highest in its class. Historically, the two d ...
. The high priestess of Jupiter ''(
Flaminica Dialis In ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion In religious studies, an ethnic religion is a religion or Belief#Religion, belief associated with a particular ethnic group. Ethnic religions are ofte ...
)'' sanctified the days by sacrificing a ram to Jupiter.


Festivals

During the Republican era, more
fixed holidays
fixed holidays
on the Roman calendar were devoted to Jupiter than to any other deity.


Viniculture and wine

Festivals of
viniculture Viticulture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
and wine were devoted to Jupiter, since grapes were particularly susceptible to adverse weather. Dumézil describes wine as a "kingly" drink with the power to inebriate and exhilarate, analogous to the Vedic
Soma South of Market (SoMa) is a neighborhood in San Francisco, California San Francisco (/Help:IPA/English, ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Fr ...
. Three Roman festivals were connected with viniculture and wine. The rustic ''
Vinalia The Vinalia were Roman festivals of the wine harvest, wine vintage and gardens, held in honour of Jupiter (god), Jupiter and Venus (mythology), Venus. The ''Vinalia prima'' ("first Vinalia"), also known as the ''Vinalia urbana'' ("Urban Vinalia") ...
altera'' on August 19 asked for good weather for ripening the grapes before harvest. When the grapes were ripe, a sheep was sacrificed to Jupiter and the ''flamen Dialis'' cut the first of the grape harvest. The
Meditrinalia The Meditrinalia was a festival A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures. It is often marked as a local or national holiday, mela, o ...
on October 11 marked the end of the grape harvest; the new wine was pressed, tasted and mixed with old wine to control fermentation. In the ''Fasti Amiternini'', this festival is assigned to Jupiter. Later Roman sources invented a goddess ''Meditrina'', probably to explain the name of the festival. At the ''
Vinalia The Vinalia were Roman festivals of the wine harvest, wine vintage and gardens, held in honour of Jupiter (god), Jupiter and Venus (mythology), Venus. The ''Vinalia prima'' ("first Vinalia"), also known as the ''Vinalia urbana'' ("Urban Vinalia") ...
urbana'' on April 23, new wine was offered to Jupiter. Large quantities of it were poured into a ditch near the temple of
Venus Erycina Venus (, Classical Latin: ; genitive ''Veneris'' ) , Modern Italianate: , is a Roman goddess, whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility Fertility is the quality of being able to produce children. As a measure, the fe ...
, which was located on the Capitol.


Regifugium and Poplifugium

The ''
RegifugiumThe Regifugium ("Flight of the King") or Fugalia ("Festival of the Flight") was an annual religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worl ...
'' ("King's Flight") on February 24 has often been discussed in connection with the ''
PoplifugiaThe poplifugia or populifugia (Latin: ''the day of the people's flight''), was a festival of ancient Rome celebrated on July 5, according to Varro, in commemoration of the flight of the Romans, when the inhabitants of Ficulea (ancient Latin town), Fi ...
'' on July 5, a day holy to Jupiter. The ''Regifugium'' followed the festival of ''Iuppiter
Terminus Terminus may refer to: Places *Terminus, the unofficial original name of Atlanta, Georgia, United States **Terminus (office complex), an office complex in Atlanta *Lagos Terminus railway station, the main railway station of Lagos, Nigeria Art, en ...
'' (Jupiter of Boundaries) on February 23. Later Roman
antiquarian An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Thro ...
s misinterpreted the ''Regifugium'' as marking the expulsion of the monarchy, but the "king" of this festival may have been the priest known as the ''
rex sacrorum In ancient Roman religion, the ''rex sacrorum'' ("king of the sacred", also sometimes ''rex sacrificulus'') was a senatorial priesthood reserved for patricians. Although in the historical era, the ''pontifex maximus The (Latin Latin (, ...
'' who ritually enacted the waning and renewal of power associated with the
New Year New Year is the time Time is the continued of and that occurs in an apparently succession from the , through the , into the . It is a component quantity of various s used to events, to compare the duration of events or the interva ...

New Year
(March 1 in the old Roman calendar). A temporary vacancy of power (construed as a yearly "
interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order. Archetypally, it was the period of time between the reign of one monarch and the next (coming from Latin ''i ...

interregnum
") occurred between the ''Regifugium'' on February 24 and the New Year on March 1 (when the lunar cycle was thought to coincide again with the solar cycle), and the uncertainty and change during the two winter months were over. Some scholars emphasize the traditional political significance of the day. The ''Poplifugia'' ("Routing of Armies"), a day sacred to Jupiter, may similarly mark the second half of the year; before the Julian calendar reform, the months were named numerically, ''
Quintilis In the ancient Roman calendar The Roman calendar was the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the d ...
'' (the fifth month) to ''December'' (the tenth month). The ''Poplifugia'' was a "primitive military ritual" for which the adult male population assembled for purification rites, after which they ritually dispelled foreign invaders from Rome.


Epula Iovis

There were two festivals called ''epulum Iovis'' ("Feast of Jove"). One was held on September 13, the anniversary of the foundation of Jupiter's Capitoline temple. The other (and probably older) festival was part of the Plebeian Games ''(Ludi Plebei)'', and was held on November 13. In the 3rd century BC, the ''epulum Iovis'' became similar to a
lectisternium The lectisternium was an ancient Roman In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. ...
.


Ludi

The most ancient Roman games followed after one day (considered a ''dies ater'', or "black day", i. e. a day which was traditionally considered unfortunate even though it was not ''nefas'', see also article
Glossary of ancient Roman religion The vocabulary of ancient Roman religion was highly specialized. Its study affords important information about the religion, traditions and beliefs of the ancient Romans. This legacy is conspicuous in European cultural history in its influence on ...
) the two ''Epula Iovis'' of September and November. The games of September were named ''Ludi Magni''; originally they were not held every year, but later became the annual ''Ludi Romani'' and were held in the
Circus Maximus The Circus Maximus (Latin for "largest circus"; Italian language, Italian: ''Circo Massimo'') is an ancient Rome, ancient Roman chariot racing, chariot-racing stadium and mass entertainment venue in Rome, Italy. In the valley between the Aventin ...

Circus Maximus
after a procession from the Capitol. The games were attributed to Tarquinius Priscus, and linked to the cult of Jupiter on the Capitol. Romans themselves acknowledged analogies with the triumph, which Dumézil thinks can be explained by their common Etruscan origin; the magistrate in charge of the games dressed as the ''triumphator'' and the ''
pompa circensis In ancient Rome, the ''pompa circensis'' ("circus parade") was the procession that preceded the official games ''(ludi)'' held in the circus (building), circus as part of Roman festivals, religious festivals and other occasions. Description The mo ...
'' resembled a triumphal procession. Wissowa and Mommsen argue that they were a detached part of the triumph on the above grounds (a conclusion which Dumézil rejects). The ''Ludi Plebei'' took place in November in the
Circus Flaminius The Circus Flaminius was a large, circular area in ancient Rome, located in the southern end of the Campus Martius near the Tiber River. It contained a small race-track used for obscure games, and various other buildings and monuments. It was "buil ...
.
Mommsen Mommsen is a surname, and may refer to one of a family of German historians, see Mommsen family: * Theodor Mommsen (1817–1903), classical scholar, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature * Hans Mommsen (1930–2015), historian known for arguing ...

Mommsen
argued that the ''epulum'' of the Ludi Plebei was the model of the Ludi Romani, but Wissowa finds the evidence for this assumption insufficient. The ''Ludi Plebei'' were probably established in 534 BC. Their association with the cult of Jupiter is attested by Cicero.


Larentalia

The ''feriae'' of December 23 were devoted to a major ceremony in honour of
Acca Larentia Acca Larentia or Acca Larentina was a mythical woman, later goddess of fertility, in Roman mythology whose festival, the Larentalia, was celebrated on December 23. Myths Foster mother In one mythological tradition (that of L ...
(or ''Larentina''), in which some of the highest religious authorities participated (probably including the
Flamen Quirinalis In Religion in ancient Rome, ancient Roman religion, the Flamen Quirinalis was the flamen or high priest of the god Quirinus. He was one of the three ''flamines maiores'', third in order of importance after the Flamen Dialis and the Flamen Martiali ...
and the
pontiff A pontiff (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman R ...
s). The
Fasti Praenestini In ancient Rome, the ''fasti'' (Latin plural) were chronology, chronological or calendar-based lists, or other wikt:diachronic, diachronic records or plans of official and religiously sanctioned events. After Decline of the Roman Empire, Rome's de ...
marks the day as ''feriae Iovis'', as does Macrobius. It is unclear whether the rite of ''parentatio'' was itself the reason for the festival of Jupiter, or if this was another festival which happened to fall on the same day. Wissowa denies their association, since Jupiter and his ''flamen'' would not be involved with the
underworld The underworld also known as the netherworld is the supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the Scientific law, laws of nature. This term is attributed to non-physical entity, no ...
or the deities of death (or be present at a funeral rite held at a gravesite).


Name and epithets

The Latin name ''Iuppiter'' originated as a vocative compound of the
Old Latin Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin ( la, prīsca Latīnitās, lit=the Latinity of the ancients) was the Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a ...
vocative *''Iou'' and ''pater'' ("father") and came to replace the Old Latin
nominative case In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
*''Ious''. Jove is a less common
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
formation based on ''Iov-'', the stem of oblique cases of the Latin name.
Linguistic Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...

Linguistic
studies identify the form *''Iou-pater'' as deriving from the
Proto-Italic The Proto-Italic language is the ancestor of the Italic languages The Italic languages form a branch of the Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by ...
vocable *''Djous Patēr'', and ultimately the
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation ...
vocative compound *''Dyēu-pəter'' (meaning "O Father Sky-god"; nominative: *''
Dyēus ''*Dyḗus'' (Literal translation, lit. "daylight-sky-god"), also ''*Dyḗus ph₂tḗr'' (lit. "father daylight-sky-god"), is the reconstructed name of the daylight-sky god in Proto-Indo-European mythology. ''*Dyēus'' was conceived as a divine pe ...
-pətēr''). Older forms of the deity's name in Rome were ''Dieus-pater'' ("day/sky-father"), then ''Diéspiter''. The 19th-century philologist
Georg Wissowa Georg Otto August Wissowa (17 June 1859 – 11 May 1931) was a German classical philology, classical philologist born in Neudorf, near Breslau. Education and career Wissowa studied classical philology under August Reifferscheid at the Un ...

Georg Wissowa
asserted these names are conceptually- and linguistically-connected to ''Diovis'' and ''Diovis Pater''; he compares the analogous formations ''Vedius''-''Veiove'' and ''fulgur Dium'', as opposed to ''fulgur Summanum'' (nocturnal lightning bolt) and ''flamen Dialis'' (based on ''Dius'', ''dies''). The Ancient later viewed them as entities separate from Jupiter. The terms are similar in etymology and semantics (''dies'', "daylight" and ''Dius'', "daytime sky"), but differ linguistically. Wissowa considers the epithet ''Dianus'' noteworthy. ''Dieus'' is the etymological equivalent of
ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era wa ...
's ''
Zeus Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Ling ...

Zeus
'' and of the '' Ziu'' (genitive ''Ziewes''). The Indo-European deity is the god from which the names and partially the theology of Jupiter, Zeus and the
Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also

*Aryan invasion theory (disambiguation) *Indo-Aryan tribes (disambigua ...
Vedic upright=1.2, The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (, , ) are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the ol ...
Dyaus Pita Dyaus ( ), or Dyauspitar (Devanagari द्यौष्पितृ, ), is the Ṛgvedic sky deity. His consort is Prithvi, the earth goddess, and together they are the archetypal parents in the Ṛg·veda. Name stems from Proto-Indo-Ira ...
derive or have developed. The Roman practice of swearing by Jove to witness an oath in law courts is the origin of the expression "by Jove!"—archaic, but still in use. The name of the god was also adopted as the name of the planet
Jupiter Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the List of Solar System objects by size, largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant with a mass more than two and a half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined, but ...

Jupiter
; the
adjective In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
"
jovial Jovial may refer to: * Brice Jovial Brice Jovial (born 25 January 1984) is a French– Guadeloupean international footballer A football player or footballer is a sportsperson, sport person who plays one of the different types of football. Th ...
" originally described those born under the planet of
Jupiter Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the List of Solar System objects by size, largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant with a mass more than two and a half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined, but ...

Jupiter
(reputed to be jolly, optimistic, and buoyant in temperament). Jove was the original namesake of Latin forms of the Week-day names, weekday now known in English as Thursday#Origins of the name, Thursday (originally called ''Iovis Dies'' in Latin language, Latin). These became ''jeudi'' in French language, French, ''jueves'' in Spanish language, Spanish, ''joi'' in Romanian language, Romanian, ''giovedì'' in Italian language, Italian, ''dijous'' in Catalan language, Catalan, ''Xoves'' in Galician language, Galician, ''Joibe'' in Friulian language, Friulian and ''Dijóu'' in Franco-Provençal language, Provençal.


Major epithets

The epithets of a Roman god indicate his theological qualities. The study of these epithets must consider their origins (the historical context of an epithet's source). Jupiter's most ancient attested forms of cult belong to the State cult: these include the mount cult (see section above note n. 22). In Rome this cult entailed the existence of particular sanctuaries the most important of which were located on ''Mons Capitolinus'' (earlier ''Tarpeius''). The mount had two tops that were both destined to the discharge of acts of cult related to Jupiter. The northern and higher top was the ''Arx (Roman), arx'' and on it was located the observation place of the
augurs An augur was a priest and official in the classical Roman world. His main role was the practice of augury Augury is the practice from ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion In religiou ...
''(Glossary of ancient Roman religion#auguraculum, auguraculum)'' and to it headed the monthly procession of the ''sacra Idulia''. On the southern top was to be found the most ancient sanctuary of the god: the shrine of ''Iuppiter Feretrius'' allegedly built by Romulus, restored by Augustus. The god here had no image and was represented by the sacred flintstone (''silex''). The most ancient known rites, those of the ''spolia opima'' and of the fetials which connect Jupiter with Mars and Quirinus are dedicated to ''Iuppiter Feretrius'' or ''Iuppiter Lapis''. The concept of the sky god was already overlapped with the ethical and political domain since this early time. According to Wissowa and DumézilG. Dumézil ARR above p. 169. ''Iuppiter Lapis'' seems to be inseparable from ''Iuppiter Feretrius'' in whose tiny templet on the Capitol the stone was lodged. Another most ancient epithet is ''Lucetius'': although the Ancients, followed by some modern scholars such as Wissowa, interpreted it as referring to sunlight, the ''carmen Saliare'' shows that it refers to lightning. A further confirmation of this interpretation is provided by the sacred meaning of lightning which is reflected in the sensitivity of the ''flaminica Dialis'' to the phenomenon. To the same atmospheric complex belongs the epithet ''Elicius'': while the ancient erudites thought it was connected to lightning, it is in fact related to the opening of the rervoirs of rain, as is testified by the ceremony of the ''Nudipedalia'', meant to propitiate rainfall and devoted to Jupiter. and the ritual of the ''lapis manalis'', the stone which was brought into the city through the ''Porta Capena'' and carried around in times of drought, which was named ''Aquaelicium''. Other early epithets connected with the atmospheric quality of Jupiter are ''Pluvius'', ''Imbricius'', ''Tempestas'', ''Tonitrualis'', ''tempestatium divinarum potens'', ''Serenator'', ''Serenus'' and, referred to lightning, ''Fulgur'', ''Fulgur Fulmen'', later as nomen agentis ''Fulgurator'', ''Fulminator'': the high antiquity of the cult is testified by the neutre form ''Fulgur'' and the use of the term for the ''bidental'', the lightning well dug on the spot hit by a lightning bolt. A group of epithets has been interpreted by Wissowa (and his followers) as a reflection of the agricultural or warring nature of the god, some of which are also in the list of eleven preserved by Augustine. The agricultural ones include ''Opitulus'', ''Almus'', ''Ruminus'', ''Frugifer'', ''Farreus'', ''Pecunia'', ''Dapalis'', ''Epulo''. Augustine gives an explanation of the ones he lists which should reflect Varro's: ''Opitulus'' because he brings ''opem'' (means, relief) to the needy, ''Almus'' because he nourishes everything, ''Ruminus'' because he nourishes the living beings by breastfeeding them, ''Pecunia'' because everything belongs to him. Dumézil maintains the cult usage of these epithets is not documented and that the epithet Ruminus, as Wissowa and Latte remarked, may not have the meaning given by Augustine but it should be understood as part of a series including ''Rumina'', '' Ruminalis ficus'', ''Iuppiter Ruminus'', which bears the name of Rome itself with an Etruscan vocalism preserved in inscriptions, series that would be preserved in the sacred language (cf. ''Rumach'' Etruscan for Roman). However many scholars have argued that the name of Rome, ''Ruma'', meant in fact woman's breast. Diva Rumina, as Augustine testifies in the cited passage, was the goddess of suckling babies: she was venerated near the ''ficus ruminalis'' and was offered only libations of milk. Here moreover Augustine cites the verses devoted to Jupiter by Quintus Valerius Soranus, while hypothesising ''Iuno'' (more adept in his view as a breastfeeder), i.e. Rumina instead of Ruminus, might be nothing else than ''Iuppiter'': "''Iuppiter omnipotens regum rerumque deumque Progenitor genetrixque deum...''". In Dumézil's opinion ''Farreus'' should be understood as related to the rite of the ''confarreatio'' the most sacred form of marriage, the name of which is due to the spelt cake eaten by the spouses, rather than surmising an agricultural quality of the god: the epithet means the god was the guarantor of the effects of the ceremony, to which the presence of his flamen is necessary and that he can interrupt with a clap of thunder. The epithet ''Dapalis'' is on the other hand connected to a rite described by Cato and mentioned by Festus. Before the sowing of autumn or spring the peasant offered a banquet of roast beef and a cup of wine to Jupiter : it is natural that on such occasions he would entreat the god who has power over the weather, however Cato' s prayer of s one of sheer offer and no request. The language suggests another attitude: Jupiter is invited to a banquet which is supposedly abundant and magnificent. The god is honoured as ''summus''. The peasant may hope he shall receive a benefit, but he does not say it. This interpretation finds support in the analogous urban ceremony of the ''epulum Iovis'', from which the god derives the epithet of ''Epulo'' and which was a magnificent feast accompanied by flutes. Epithets related to warring are in Wissowa's view ''Iuppiter Feretrius'', ''Iuppiter Stator'', ''Iuppiter Victor'' and ''Iuppiter Invictus''. ''Feretrius'' would be connected with war by the rite of the first type of ''spolia opima'' which is in fact a dedication to the god of the arms of the defeated king of the enemy that happens whenever he has been killed by the king of Rome or his equivalent authority. Here too Dumézil notes the dedication has to do with regality and not with war, since the rite is in fact the offer of the arms of a king by a king: a proof of such an assumption is provided by the fact that the arms of an enemy king captured by an officer or a common soldier were dedicated to Mars and Quirinus respectively. ''Iuppiter Stator'' was first attributed by tradition to
Romulus Romulus () was the legendary founder Founder or Founders may refer to: Places *Founders Park, a stadium in South Carolina, formerly known as Carolina Stadium * Founders Park, a waterside park in Islamorada, Florida#In popular culture, Islamora ...
, who had prayed to the god for his almighty help at a difficult time during the battle with the Sabines of king Titus Tatius. Dumézil opines the action of Jupiter is not that of a god of war who wins through fighting: Jupiter acts by causing an inexplicable change in the morale of the fighters of the two sides. The same feature can be detected also in the certainly historical record of the battle of the third Samnite War in 294 BC, in which consul
Marcus Atilius Regulus :''This is about the Roman general and consul. for other Romans of that name, see Marcus Atilius Regulus (disambiguation).'' Marcus Atilius Regulus (probably lived between 307 BC – 250 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman and general who was ...
vowed a temple to ''Iuppiter Stator'' if "Jupiter will stop the rout of the Roman army and if afterwards the Samnite legions shall be victouriously massacred...It looked as if the gods themselves had taken side with Romans, so much easily did the Roman arms succeed in prevailing...". In a similar manner one can explain the epithet ''Victor'', whose cult was founded in 295 BC on the battlefield of Sentinum by Quintus Fabius Maximus Gurges and who received another vow again in 293 by consul Lucius Papirius Cursor before a battle against the Samnite ''legio linteata''. The religious meaning of the vow is in both cases an appeal to the supreme god by a Roman chief at a time of need for divine help from the supreme god, albeit for different reasons: Fabius had remained the only political and military responsible of the Roman State after the ''devotio'' of P. Decius Mus, Papirius had to face an enemy who had acted with impious rites and vows, i.e. was religiously reprehensible. More recently Dario Sabbatucci has given a different interpretation of the meaning of ''Stator'' within the frame of his structuralistic and dialectic vision of Roman calendar, identifying oppositions, tensions and equilibria: January is the month of Janus, at the beginning of the year, in the uncertain time of winter (the most ancient calendar had only ten months, from March to December). In this month Janus deifies kingship and defies Jupiter. Moreover, January sees also the presence of Veiovis who appears as an anti-Jupiter, of Carmenta who is the goddess of birth and like Janus has two opposed faces, ''Prorsa'' and ''Postvorta'' (also named Antevorta and Antevorta, Porrima), of Iuturna, who as a gushing spring evokes the process of coming into being from non-being as the god of passage and change does. In this period the preeminence of Janus needs compensating on the Ides through the action of Jupiter ''Stator'', who plays the role of anti-Janus, i.e. of moderator of the action of Janus.


Epithets denoting functionality

Some epithets describe a particular aspect of the god, or one of his functions: *Jove Aegiochus, Jove "Holder of the Goat or Aegis", as the father of Aegipan. *Jupiter Caelus, Jupiter as the sky or heavens; see also Caelus. *Jupiter Caelestis, "Heavenly" or "Celestial Jupiter". *Jupiter Elicius, Jupiter "who calls forth [celestial omens]" or "who is called forth [by incantations]"; "sender of rain". *Jupiter Feretrius, who carries away the War looting, spoils of war". Feretrius was called upon to witness solemn oaths. The epithet or "numen" is probably connected with the verb ''ferire'', "to strike," referring to a ritual striking of ritual as illustrated in ''foedus ferire'', of which the ''silex'', a quartz rock, is evidence in his temple on the Capitoline hill, which is said to have been the first temple in Rome, erected and dedicated by
Romulus Romulus () was the legendary founder Founder or Founders may refer to: Places *Founders Park, a stadium in South Carolina, formerly known as Carolina Stadium * Founders Park, a waterside park in Islamorada, Florida#In popular culture, Islamora ...
to commemorate his winning of the ''spolia opima'' from Acron, king of the Caeninenses, and to serve as a repository for them. ''Iuppiter Feretrius'' was therefore equivalent to ''Iuppiter Lapis'', the latter used for a specially solemn oath. According to Livy I 10, 5 and Plutarch ''Marcellus'' 8 though, the meaning of this epithet is related to the peculiar frame used to carry the ''spolia opima'' to the god, the ''feretrum'', itself from verb ''fero'', *Jupiter Centumpeda, literally, "he who has one hundred feet"; that is, "he who has the power of establishing, of rendering stable, bestowing stability on everything", since he himself is the paramount of stability. *Jupiter Fulgur ("Lightning Jupiter"), Fulgurator or Fulgens *Jupiter Lucetius ("of the light"), an epithet almost certainly related to the light or flame of lightningbolts and not to daylight, as indicated by the Jovian verses of the carmen Saliare. *Jupiter Optimus Maximus ("the best and greatest"). ''Optumus'' because of the benefits he bestows, ''Maximus'' because of his strength, according to Cicero ''Pro Domo Sua''. *Pluvius, Jupiter Pluvius, "sender of rain". *Jupiter Ruminus, "breastfeeder of every living being", according to Augustine. *Jupiter Stator, from ''stare'', "to stand": "he who has power of founding, instituting everything", thence also he who bestows the power of resistance, making people, soldiers, stand firm and fast. *Jupiter Summanus, sender of nocturnal thunder *Terminus (mythology), Jupiter Terminalus or Iuppiter Terminus, patron and defender of boundaries *Jupiter Tigillus, "beam or shaft that supports and holds together the universe."Augustine CD VII 11. *Jupiter Tonans, "thunderer" *Jupiter Victor, "he who has the power of conquering everything."


Syncretic or geographical epithets

Some epithets of Jupiter indicate his association with a particular place. Epithets found in the provinces of the Roman Empire may identify Jupiter with a local deity or site (see syncretism). *Jupiter Ammon, Jupiter equated with the Egyptian deity Amun after the Egypt (Roman province), Roman conquest of Egypt *Jupiter Brixianus, Jupiter equated with the local god of the town of Brescia in Cisalpine Gaul (modern North Italy) *Jupiter Capitolinus, also Jupiter Optimus Maximus, venerated throughout the Roman Empire at sites with a ''Capitol'' (Capitolium) *Jupiter Dolichenus, from Gaziantep, Doliche in Syria (Roman province), Syria, originally a Baal weather and war god. From the time of Vespasian, he was popular among the Roman legions as god of war and victory, especially on the Danube at Carnuntum. He is depicted as standing on a bull, with a thunderbolt in his left hand, and a double ax in the right. *Jupiter Indiges, "Jupiter of the country," a title given to Aeneas after his death, according to
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a Ancient Rome, Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, titled , covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditiona ...
*Jupiter Ladicus, Jupiter equated with a Celtiberian mountain-god and worshipped as the spirit of Mount Ladicus in Gallaecia, northwest Iberia, preserved in the toponym ''Codos de Ladoco''. *Jupiter Laterius or Latiaris, the god of Latium *Jupiter Parthinus or Partinus, under this name was worshiped on the borders of northeast Dalmatia (Roman province), Dalmatia and Upper Moesia, perhaps associated with the local tribe known as the Partheni. *Jupiter Poeninus, under this name worshipped in the Alps, around the Great St Bernard Pass, where he had a sanctuary. *Jupiter Solutorius, a local version of Jupiter worshipped in Spain; he was syncretised with the local Iberians, Iberian god Eacus (god), Eacus. *Jupiter Taranis, Jupiter equated with the Celtic god Taranis. *Jupiter Uxellinus, Jupiter as a god of high mountains. In addition, many of the epithets of Zeus can be found applied to Jupiter, by ''interpretatio romana''. Thus, since the hero Trophonius (from Lebadea in Boeotia) is called Zeus Trophonius, this can be represented in English (as it would be in Latin) as Jupiter Trophonius. Similarly, the Greek cult of Zeus Meilichios appears in Pompeii as Jupiter Meilichius. Except in representing actual cults in Italy, this is largely 19th-century usage; modern works distinguish Jupiter from Zeus.


Theology


Sources

Marcus Terentius Varro and Verrius Flaccus were the main sources on the theology of Jupiter and archaic Roman religion in general. Varro was acquainted with the ''Glossary of ancient Roman religion#libri pontificales, libri pontificum'' ("books of the College of Pontiffs, Pontiffs") and their archaic classifications. On these two sources depend other ancient authorities, such as
Ovid Pūblius Ovidius Nāsō (; 20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known in English as Ovid ( ), was a Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a contemporary of the older Virgil and Horace, with whom ...

Ovid
, Maurus Servius Honoratus, Servius, Aulus Gellius, Macrobius, Church Fathers, patristic texts, Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Plutarch. One of the most important sources which preserve the theology of Jupiter and other List of Roman deities, Roman deities is ''City of God (book), The City of God against the Pagans'' by Augustine of Hippo. Augustine's criticism of traditional Roman religion is based on Varro's lost work, ''Antiquitates rerum humanarum et divinarum, Antiquitates Rerum Divinarum''. Although a work of Christian apologetics, ''The City of God'' provides glimpses into Varro's theological system and authentic Roman theological lore in general. According to Augustine, Varro drew on the pontiff Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex, Mucius Scaevola's tripartite theology: * The mythical theology, mythic theology of the poets (useful for the Theatre of ancient Rome, theatre) * The Natural theology, physical theology of the philosophers (useful for understanding the natural world) * The civil theology of the priests (useful for the state)


Jovian theology

Georg Wissowa Georg Otto August Wissowa (17 June 1859 – 11 May 1931) was a German classical philology, classical philologist born in Neudorf, near Breslau. Education and career Wissowa studied classical philology under August Reifferscheid at the Un ...

Georg Wissowa
stressed Jupiter's uniqueness as the only case among Indo-European religions in which the original god preserved his name, his identity and his prerogatives. In this view, Jupiter is the god of heaven and retains his identification with the sky among the Latin poets (his name is used as a synonym for "sky".) In this respect, he differs from his Greek equivalent Zeus (who is considered a personal god, warden and dispenser of skylight). His name reflects this idea; it is a derivative of the Indo-European word for "bright, shining sky". His residence is found atop the hills of Rome and of mountains in general; as a result, his cult is present in Rome and throughout Italy at upper elevations. Jupiter assumed atmospheric qualities; he is the wielder of lightning and the master of weather. However, Wissowa acknowledges that Jupiter is not merely a naturalistic, heavenly, supreme deity; he is in continual communication with man by means of thunder, lightning and the flight of birds (his
auspices Augury is the practice from ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion In religious studies, an ethnic religion is a religion or Belief#Religion, belief associated with a particular ethnic group. ...
). Through his vigilant watch he is also the guardian of public oaths and compacts and the guarantor of good faith in the State cult. The Jovian cult was common to the Italic people under the names ''Iove'', ''Diove'' (Latin) and ''Iuve'', ''Diuve'' (Oscan, in Umbrian only ''Iuve'', ''Iupater'' in the Iguvine Tables). Wissowa considered Jupiter also a god of war and agriculture, in addition to his political role as guarantor of good faith (public and private) as ''Iuppiter Lapis'' and ''Dius Fidius'', respectively. His view is grounded in the sphere of action of the god (who intervenes in battle and influences the harvest through weather). In Georges Dumézil's view, Jovian theology (and that of the equivalent gods in other Indo-European religions) is an evolution from a naturalistic, supreme, celestial god identified with heaven to a sovereign god, a wielder of lightning bolts, master and protector of the community (in other words, of a change from a naturalistic approach to the world of the divine to a socio-political approach). In Vedic mythology, Vedic religion, Dyaus Pitar remained confined to his distant, removed, passive role and the place of sovereign god was occupied by Varuna and Mitra. In Greek and Roman religion, instead, the homonymous gods ''*Diou-'' and ''Διdigamma, ϝ-'' evolved into atmospheric deities; by their mastery of thunder and lightning, they expressed themselves and made their will known to the community. In Rome, Jupiter also sent signs to the leaders of the state in the form of
auspices Augury is the practice from ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion In religious studies, an ethnic religion is a religion or Belief#Religion, belief associated with a particular ethnic group. ...
in addition to thunder. The art of augury was considered prestigious by ancient Romans; by sending his signs, Jupiter (the sovereign of heaven) communicates his advice to his terrestrial colleague: the king (''rex'') or his successor magistrates. The encounter between the heavenly and political, legal aspects of the deity are well represented by the prerogatives, privileges, functions and taboos proper to his ''flamen'' (the ''flamen Dialis'' and his wife, the ''flaminica Dialis''). Dumézil maintains that Jupiter is not himself a god of war and agriculture, although his actions and interest may extend to these spheres of human endeavour. His view is based on the methodological assumption that the chief criterion for studying a god's nature is not to consider his field of action, but the quality, method and features of his action. Consequently, the analysis of the type of action performed by Jupiter in the domains in which he operates indicates that Jupiter is a sovereign god who may act in the field of politics (as well as agriculture and war) in his capacity as such, i.e. in a way and with the features proper to a king. Sovereignty is expressed through the two aspects of absolute, magic power (epitomised and represented by the Vedic god Varuna) and lawful right (by the Vedic god Mitra). However, sovereignty permits action in every field; otherwise, it would lose its essential quality. As a further proof, Dumézil cites the story of Tullus Hostilius (the most belligerent of the Roman kings), who was killed by Jupiter with a lightning bolt (indicating that he did not enjoy the god's favour). Varro's definition of Jupiter as the god who has under his jurisdiction the full expression of every being (''penes Iovem sunt summa'') reflects the sovereign nature of the god, as opposed to the jurisdiction of Janus (god of passages and change) on their beginning (''penes Ianum sunt prima'').


Relation to other gods


Capitoline Triad

The Capitoline Triad was introduced to Rome by the Tarquins. Dumézil thinks it might have been an Etruscan (or local) creation based on Vitruvius' treatise on architecture, in which the three deities are associated as the most important. It is possible that the Etruscans paid particular attention to Menrva (Minerva) as a goddess of destiny, in addition to the royal couple Uni (Juno) and Tinia (Jupiter). In Rome, Minerva later assumed a military aspect under the influence of Athena Pallas (Polias). Dumézil argues that with the advent of the Republic, Jupiter became the only king of Rome, no longer merely the first of the great gods.


Archaic Triad

The Archaic Triad is a hypothetical theological structure (or system) consisting of the gods Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus. It was first described by Wissowa, and the concept was developed further by Dumézil. The three-function hypothesis of Proto-Indo-European religion, Indo-European society advanced by Dumézil holds that in prehistory, society was divided into three classes: : At least for the three main functions, people in each station in life had their religious counterparts the divine figures of the sovereign god, the warrior god, and the industrius god; there were almost always two separate gods for class 1, and sometimes more than one for class 3. Over time gods or, groups of gods might be consolidated or split, and it is unclear that there were ever any strict separations of all function. The sovereign function (1) embodied in Jupiter entailed omnipotence; thence, a domain extended over every aspect of nature and life. The three functions are interrelated with one another, overlapping to some extent; the sovereign function, although including a part that is essentially religious in nature, is involved in many ways in areas pertaining to the other two. Therefore, Jupiter is the "magic player" in the founding of the Roman state and the fields of war, agricultural plenty, human fertility, and wealth. This hypothesis has not found widespread support among scholars.


Jupiter and Minerva

Apart from being protectress of the arts and craft as Minerva Capta, who was brought from Falerii, Minerva's association to Jupiter and relevance to Roman state religion is mainly linked to the Palladium (classical antiquity), Palladium, a wooden statue of Athena that could move the eyes and wave the spear. It was stored in the ''penus interior'', inner penus of the ''aedes Vestae'', temple of Vesta and considered the most important among the ''pignora imperii'', pawns of dominion, empire. In Roman traditional lore it was brought from Troy by Aeneas. Scholars though think it was last taken to Rome in the third or second century BC.


Juno and Fortuna

The divine couple received from Greece its matrimonial implications, thence bestowing on
Juno Juno commonly refers to: *Juno (mythology), the Roman goddess of marriage and queen of the gods *Juno (film), ''Juno'' (film), 2007 Juno may also refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Fictional characters *Juno, in the film ''Jenny, Juno'' *Jun ...
the role of tutelary goddess of marriage (''Iuno Pronuba''). The couple itself though cannot be reduced to a Greek apport. The association of Juno and Jupiter is of the most ancient Latin theology.
Praeneste Palestrina (ancient ''Praeneste''; grc, Πραίνεστος, ''Prainestos'') is a modern Italian city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or mun ...
offers a glimpse into original Latin mythology: the local goddess Fortuna is represented as milking two infants, one male and one female, namely Jove (Jupiter) and Juno. It seems fairly safe to assume that from the earliest times they were identified by their own proper names and since they got them they were never changed through the course of history: they were called Jupiter and Juno. These gods were the most ancient deities of every Latin town. Praeneste preserved divine filiation and infancy as the sovereign god and his paredra Juno have a mother who is the primordial goddess Fortuna Primigenia. Many terracotta statuettes have been discovered which represent a woman with a child: one of them represents exactly the scene described by Cicero of a woman with two children of different sex who touch her breast. Two of the votive inscriptions to Fortuna associate her and Jupiter: " Fortunae Iovi puero..." and "Fortunae Iovis puero..." In 1882 though R. Mowat published an inscription in which Fortuna is called ''daughter of Jupiter'', raising new questions and opening new perspectives in the theology of Latin gods. Dumezil has elaborated an interpretative theory according to which this ''aporia'' would be an intrinsic, fundamental feature of Indoeuropean deities of the primordial and sovereign level, as it finds a parallel in Vedic religion. The contradiction would put Fortuna both at the origin of time and into its ensuing diachronic process: it is the comparison offered by Vedic deity Aditi, the ''Not-Bound'' or ''Enemy of Bondage'', that shows that there is no question of choosing one of the two apparent options: as the mother of the Aditya she has the same type of relationship with one of his sons, Dakṣa, the minor sovereign. who represents the ''Creative Energy'', being at the same time his mother and daughter, as is true for the whole group of sovereign gods to which she belongs. Moreover, Aditi is thus one of the heirs (along with Savitr) of the opening god of the Indoiranians, as she is represented with her head on her two sides, with the two faces looking opposite directions. The mother of the sovereign gods has thence two solidal but distinct modalities of duplicity, i.e. of having two foreheads and a double position in the genealogy. Angelo Brelich has interpreted this theology as the basic opposition between the primordial absence of order (chaos) and the organisation of the cosmos.


Janus

The relation of Jupiter to Janus is problematic. Varro defines Jupiter as the god who has ''potestas'' (power) over the forces by which anything happens in the world. Janus, however, has the privilege of being invoked first in rites, since in his power are the beginnings of things (''prima''), the appearance of Jupiter included.


Saturn

The Latini, Latins considered Saturn the predecessor of Jupiter. Saturn reigned in Latium during a mythical Golden Age reenacted every year at the festival of Saturnalia. Saturn also retained primacy in matters of agriculture and money. Unlike the Greek tradition of Cronus and Zeus, the usurpation of Saturn as king of the gods by Jupiter was not viewed by the Latins as violent or hostile; Saturn continued to be revered in his temple at the foot of the Capitol Hill, which maintained the alternative name ''Saturnius'' into the time of Varro. A. Pasqualini has argued that Saturn was related to ''Iuppiter Latiaris'', the old Jupiter of the Latins, as the original figure of this Jupiter was superseded on the Alban Mount, whereas it preserved its gruesome character in the ceremony held at the sanctuary of the Latiar Hill in Rome which involved a human sacrifice and the aspersion of the statue of the god with the blood of the victim.


Fides

The abstract personification Fides ("Faith, Trust") was one of the oldest gods associated with Jupiter. As guarantor of public faith, Fides had her temple on the Capitol (near that of Capitoline Jupiter).


Dius Fidius

''Dius Fidius'' is considered a theonym for Jupiter, and sometimes a separate entity also known in Rome as Sancus, Semo Sancus Dius Fidius. Wissowa argued that while Jupiter is the god of the ''Fides Publica Populi Romani'' as ''Iuppiter Lapis'' (by whom important oaths are sworn), Dius Fidius is a deity established for everyday use and was charged with the protection of good faith in private affairs. Dius Fidius would thus correspond to ''Zeus Pistios''. The association with Jupiter may be a matter of divine relation; some scholars see him as a form of Hercules. Both Jupiter and Dius Fidius were wardens of oaths and wielders of lightning bolts; both required an opening in the roof of their temples. The functionality of Sancus occurs consistently within the sphere of ''fides'', oaths and respect for contracts and of the divine-sanction guarantee against their breach. Wissowa suggested that Semo Sancus is the ''Genius (mythology), genius'' of Jupiter,G. Wissowa in ''Roschers Lexicon'' 1909 s.v. Semo Sancus col. 3654; ''Religion und Kultus der Römer'' Munich, 1912, p. 131 f. but the concept of a deity's ''genius'' is a development of the Imperial period. Some aspects of the oath-ritual for Dius Fidius (such as proceedings under the open sky or in the ''compluvium'' of private residences), and the fact the temple of Sancus had no roof, suggest that the oath sworn by Dius Fidius predated that for ''Iuppiter Lapis'' or ''Iuppiter Feretrius''.


Genius

Augustine quotes Varro who explains the ''genius'' as "the god who is in charge and has the power to generate everything" and "the rational spirit of all (therefore, everyone has their own)". Augustine concludes that Jupiter should be considered the ''genius'' of the universe. G. Wissowa advanced the hypothesis that Semo Sancus is the genius of Jupiter. W. W. Fowler has cautioned that this interpretation looks to be an anachronism and it would only be acceptable to say that Sancus is a ''Genius Iovius'', as it appears from the Iguvine Tables. Censorinus cites Granius Flaccus as saying that "the Genius was the same entity as the Lar" in his lost work ''De Indigitamentis''. probably referring to the ''Lar Familiaris''. Mutunus Tutunus had his shrine at the foot of the Velian Hill near those of the Di Penates and of Vica Pota, who were among the most ancient gods of the Roman community of according to Wissowa. Dumézil opines that the attribution of a Genius to the gods should be earlier than its first attestation of 58 BC, in an inscription which mentions the ''Iovis Genius''. A connection between Genius and Jupiter seems apparent in Plautus' comedy ''Amphitryon'', in which Jupiter takes up the looks of Alcmene, Alcmena's husband in order to seduce her: J. Hubeaux sees there a reflection of the story that Scipio Africanus' mother conceived him with a snake that was in fact Jupiter transformed. Scipio himself claimed that only he would rise to the mansion of the gods through the widest gate. Among the Etruscan ''Penates'' there is a ''Genius Iovialis'' who comes after ''Fortuna'' and ''Ceres'' and before ''Pales''. Genius Iovialis is one of the ''Penates'' of the humans and not of Jupiter though, as these were located in region I of Martianus Capella' s division of Heaven, while Genius appears in regions V and VI along with Ceres, Favor (possibly a Roman approximation to an Etruscan male manifestation of Fortuna) and Pales. This is in accord with the definition of the Penates of man being Fortuna, Ceres, Pales and Genius Iovialis and the statement in Macrobius that the Larentalia were dedicated to Jupiter as the god whence the souls of men come from and to whom they return after death.


Summanus

The god of nighttime lightning has been interpreted as an aspect of Jupiter, either a
chthonic The word chthonic is derived from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speaker ...

chthonic
manifestation of the god or a separate god of the underworld. A statue of Summanus stood on the roof of the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter, and ''Iuppiter Summanus'' is one of the epithets of Jupiter. Dumézil sees the opposition Dius Fidius versus Summanus as complementary, interpreting it as typical to the inherent ambiguity of the sovereign god exemplified by that of Mitra and Varuna in Vedic religion. The complementarity of the epithets is shown in inscriptions found on ''puteal''s or ''bidental''s reciting either ''fulgur Dium conditum'' or ''fulgur Summanum conditum'' in places struck by daytime versus nighttime lightning bolts respectively. This is also consistent with the etymology of ''Summanus'', deriving from ''sub'' and ''mane'' (the time before morning).


Liber

''Iuppiter'' was associated with Liber through his epithet of ''Liber'' (association not yet been fully explained by scholars, due to the scarcity of early documentation). In the past, it was maintained that Liber was only a progressively-detached wikt:hypostasis, hypostasis of Jupiter; consequently, the vintage festivals were to be attributed only to ''Iuppiter Liber''. Such a hypothesis was rejected as groundless by Wissowa, although he was a supporter of Liber's Jovian origin. Olivier de Cazanove contends that it is difficult to admit that Liber (who is present in the oldest calendars—those of Numa—in the ''Liberalia'' and in the month of ''Liber'' at Lavinium)Augustine CD VII 21. was derived from another deity. Such a derivation would find support only in epigraphic documents, primarily from the Osco-Sabellic area. Wissowa sets the position of ''Iuppiter Liber'' within the framework of an agrarian Jupiter. The god also had a temple in this name on the Aventine in Rome, which was restored by Augustus and dedicated on September 1. Here, the god was sometimes named ''Liber'' and sometimes ''Libertas''. Wissowa opines that the relationship existed in the concept of creative abundance through which the supposedly-separate Liber might have been connected to the Greek god Dionysos, although both deities might not have been originally related to viticulture. Other scholars assert that there was no Liber (other than a god of wine) within historical memory. O. de Cazanove argues that the domain of the sovereign god Jupiter was that of sacred, sacrificial wine (''vinum inferium''), while that of Liber and Libera was confined to secular wine (''vinum spurcum''); these two types were obtained through differing fermentation processes. The offer of wine to Liber was made possible by naming the ''mustum'' (grape juice) stored in amphoras ''sacrima''. Sacred wine was obtained by the natural fermentation of juice of grapes free from flaws of any type, religious (e. g. those struck by lightning, brought into contact with corpses or wounded people or coming from an unfertilised grapeyard) or secular (by "cutting" it with old wine). Secular (or "profane") wine was obtained through several types of manipulation (e.g. by adding honey, or ''mulsum''; using raisins, or ''passum''; by boiling, or ''defrutum''). However, the ''sacrima'' used for the offering to the two gods for the preservation of grapeyards, vessels and wine was obtained only by pouring the juice into amphors after pressing. The ''mustum'' was considered ''spurcum'' (dirty), and thus unusable in sacrifices. The amphor (itself not an item of sacrifice) permitted presentation of its content on a table or could be added to a sacrifice; this happened at the ''auspicatio vindamiae'' for the first grape and for ears of corn of the ''praemetium'' on a dish (''lanx'') at the temple of Ceres (mythology), Ceres. Dumézil, on the other hand, sees the relationship between Jupiter and Liber as grounded in the social and political relevance of the two gods (who were both considered patrons of freedom). The ''Liberalia'' of March were, since earliest times, the occasion for the ceremony of the donning of the ''toga virilis'' or ''libera'' (which marked the passage into adult citizenship by young people). Augustine relates that these festivals had a particularly obscene character: a ''phallus'' was taken to the fields on a cart, and then back in triumph to town. In Lavinium they lasted a month, during which the population enjoyed bawdy jokes. The most honest ''matronae'' were supposed to publicly crown the ''phallus'' with flowers, to ensure a good harvest and repeal the ''fascinatio'' (evil eye). In Rome representations of the sex organs were placed in the temple of the couple ''Liber Libera'', who presided over the male and female components of generation and the "liberation" of the semen. This complex of rites and beliefs shows that the divine couple's jurisdiction extended over fertility in general, not only that of grapes. The etymology of ''Liber'' (archaic form ''Loifer, Loifir'') was explained by Émile Benveniste as formed on the IE theme *leudh- plus the suffix -es-; its original meaning is "the one of germination, he who ensures the sprouting of crops". The relationship of Jupiter with freedom was a common belief among the Roman people, as demonstrated by the dedication of the ''Mons Sacer'' to the god after the first secession of the ''plebs''. Later inscriptions also show the unabated popular belief in Jupiter as bestower of freedom in the imperial era.


Veiove

Scholars have been often puzzled by Ve(d)iove (or Veiovis, or Vedius) and unwilling to discuss his identity, claiming our knowledge of this god is insufficient. Most, however, agree that Veiove is a sort of special Jupiter or anti-Iove, or even an underworld Jupiter. In other words, Veiove is indeed the Capitoline god himself, who takes up a different, diminished appearance (''iuvenis'' and ''parvus'', young and gracile), in order to be able to discharge sovereign functions over places, times and spheres that by their own nature are excluded from the direct control of Jupiter as Optimus Maximus. This conclusion is based on information provided by Gellius, who states his name is formed by adding prefix ''ve'' (here denoting "deprivation" or "negation") to ''Iove '' (whose name Gellius posits as rooted in the verb ''iuvo'' "I benefit"). D. Sabbatucci has stressed the feature of bearer of instability and antithesis to cosmic order of the god, who threatens the kingly power of Jupiter as ''Stator'' and ''Centumpeda'' and whose presence occurs side by side to Janus' on January 1, but also his function of helper to the growth of the young Jupiter. In 1858 Ludwig Preller suggested that Veiovis may be the sinister double of Jupiter. In fact, the god (under the name ''Vetis'') is placed in the last case (number 16) of the outer rim of the Piacenza Liver—before ''Cilens'' (Nocturnus), who ends (or begins in the Etruscan vision) the disposition of the gods. In Martianus Capella's division of heaven, he is found in region XV with the ''dii publici''; as such, he numbers among the infernal (or antipodal) gods. The location of his two temples in Rome—near those of Jupiter (one on the Capitoline Hill, in the low between the ''arx'' and the Capitolium, between the two groves where the asylum (antiquity), asylum founded by Romulus stood, the other on the Tiber Island near that of ''Iuppiter Iurarius'', later also known as temple of Aesculapius)—may be significant in this respect, along with the fact that he is considered the father of Apollo, perhaps because he was depicted carrying arrows. He is also considered to be the unbearded Jupiter. The dates of his festivals support the same conclusion: they fall on January 1, March 7 and May 21, the first date being the recurrence of the Agonalia, dedicated to Janus and celebrated by the king with the sacrifice of a ram. The nature of the sacrifice is debated; Gellius states ''capra'', a female goat, although some scholars posit a ram. This sacrifice occurred ''rito humano'', which may mean "with the rite appropriate for human sacrifice". Gellius concludes by stating that this god is one of those who receive sacrifices so as to persuade them to refrain from causing harm. The arrow is an ambivalent symbol; it was used in the ritual of the devotio (the general who vowed had to stand on an arrow). It is perhaps because of the arrow and of the juvenile looks that Gellius identifies Veiove with Apollo and as a god who must receive worship in order to obtain his abstention from harming men, along with Robigus and Averruncus. The ambivalence in the identity of Veiove is apparent in the fact that while he is present in places and times which may have a negative connotation (such as the ''asylum'' of Romulus in between the two groves on the Capitol, the Tiberine island along with Faunus and Aesculapius, the kalends of January, the nones of March, and May 21, a statue of his nonetheless stands in the ''arx''. Moreover, the initial particle ''ve-'' which the ancient supposed were part of his name is itself ambivalent as it may have both an accrescitive and diminutive value. Maurice Besnier has remarked that a temple to ''Iuppiter'' was dedicated by ''praetor'' Lucius Furius Purpureo before the Battle of Cremona (200 BC), battle of Cremona against the Cenomani (Cisalpine Gaul), Celtic Cenomani of Cisalpine Gaul. An inscription found at Brescia in 1888 shows that ''Iuppiter Iurarius'' was worshipped there and one found on the south tip of Tiber Island in 1854 that there was a cult to the god on the spot too. Besnier speculates that Lucius Furius had evoked the chief god of the enemy and built a temple to him in Rome outside the ''pomerium''. On January 1, the ''Fasti Praenestini'' record the festivals of Aesculapius and Vediove on the Island, while in the ''Fasti'' Ovid speaks of ''Jupiter'' and his grandson. Livy records that in 192 BC, ''duumvir'' Q. Marcus Ralla dedicated to Jupiter on the Capitol the two temples promised by L. Furius Purpureo, one of which was that promised during the war against the Gauls. Besnier would accept a correction to Livy's passage (proposed by Jordan) to read ''aedes Veiovi'' instead of ''aedes duae Iovi''. Such a correction concerns the temples dedicated on the Capitol: it does not address the question of the dedication of the temple on the Island, which is puzzling, since the place is attested epigraphically as dedicated to the cult of ''Iuppiter Iurarius'', in the ''Fasti Praenestini'' of ''Vediove'' and to Jupiter according to Ovid. The two gods may have been seen as equivalent: ''Iuppiter Iurarius'' is an awesome and vengeful god, parallel to the Greek ''Zeus Orkios'', the avenger of perjury. A. Pasqualini has argued that Veiovis seems related to ''Iuppiter Latiaris'', as the original figure of this Jupiter would have been superseded on the Alban Mount, whereas it preserved its gruesome character in the ceremony held on the sanctuary of the Latiar Hill, the southernmost hilltop of the Quirinal in Rome, which involved a human sacrifice. The gens Iulia had gentilician cults at Bovillae where a dedicatory inscription to Vediove has been found in 1826 on an ara. According to Pasqualini it was a deity similar to Vediove, wielder of lightningbolts and chthonic, who was connected to the cult of the founders who first inhabited the Alban Mount and built the sanctuary. Such a cult once superseded on the Mount would have been taken up and preserved by the Iulii, private citizens bound to the ''sacra Albana'' by their Alban origin.


Victoria

Victoria was connected to ''Iuppiter Victor'' in his role as bestower of military victory. Jupiter, as a sovereign god, was considered as having the power to conquer anyone and anything in a supernatural way; his contribution to military victory was different from that of Mars (mythology), Mars (god of military valour). Victoria appears first on the reverse of coins representing Venus (driving the quadriga of Jupiter, with her head crowned and with a palm in her hand) during the first Punic War. Sometimes, she is represented walking and carrying a trophy. A temple was dedicated to the goddess afterwards on the Palatine, testifying to her high station in the Roman mind. When Hieron of Syracuse presented a golden statuette of the goddess to Rome, the Senate had it placed in the temple of Capitoline Jupiter among the greatest (and most sacred) deities. Although Victoria played a significant role in the religious ideology of the late Republic and the Empire, she is undocumented in earlier times. A function similar to hers may have been played by the little-known Vica Pota.


Terminus

Juventas and Terminus were the gods who, according to legend, refused to leave their sites on the Capitol when the construction of the temple of Jupiter was undertaken. Therefore, they had to be reserved a ''sacellum'' within the new temple. Their stubbornness was considered a good omen; it would guarantee youth, stability and safety to Rome on its site. This legend is generally thought by scholars to indicate their strict connection with Jupiter. An inscription found near Ravenna reads ''Iuppiter Ter.'', indicating that Terminus is an aspect of Jupiter. Terminus is the god of boundaries (public and private), as he is portrayed in literature. The religious value of the boundary marker is documented by Plutarch, who ascribes to king Numa the construction of temples to Fides and Terminus and the delimitation of Roman territory. Ovid gives a vivid description of the rural rite at a boundary of fields of neighbouring peasants on February 23 (the day of the Terminus (mythology)#Worship, Terminalia. On that day, Roman pontiffs and magistrates held a ceremony at the sixth mile of the Via Laurentina (ancient border of the Roman ''ager'', which maintained a religious value). This festival, however, marked the end of the year and was linked to time more directly than to space (as attested by Augustine's Apologetics, apologia on the role of Janus with respect to endings). Dario Sabbatucci has emphasised the temporal affiliation of Terminus, a reminder of which is found in the rite of the ''regifugium''. G. Dumézil, on the other hand, views the function of this god as associated with the legalistic aspect of the sovereign function of Jupiter. Terminus would be the counterpart of the minor Vedic god Bagha, who oversees the just and fair division of goods among citizens.


Iuventas

Along with ''Terminus'', '' Iuventas'' (also known as ''Iuventus'' and ''Iuunta'') represents an aspect of Jupiter (as the legend of her refusal to leave the Capitol Hill demonstrates. Her name has the same root as
Juno Juno commonly refers to: *Juno (mythology), the Roman goddess of marriage and queen of the gods *Juno (film), ''Juno'' (film), 2007 Juno may also refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Fictional characters *Juno, in the film ''Jenny, Juno'' *Jun ...
(from ''Iuu-'', "young, youngster"); the ceremonial litter bearing the sacred goose of Juno Moneta stopped before her ''sacellum'' on the festival of the goddess. Later, she was identified with the Greek Hebe (mythology), Hebe. The fact that Jupiter is related to the concept of youth is shown by his epithets ''Puer'', ''Iuuentus'' and ''Ioviste'' (interpreted as "the youngest" by some scholars). Dumézil noted the presence of the two minor sovereign deities Bagha and Aryaman beside the Vedic sovereign gods Varuna and Mitra (though more closely associated with Mitra); the couple would be reflected in Rome by ''Terminus'' and ''Iuventas''. Aryaman is the god of young soldiers. The function of ''Iuventas'' is to protect the ''iuvenes'' (the ''novi togati'' of the year, who are required to offer a sacrifice to Jupiter on the Capitol) and the Roman soldiers (a function later attributed to Juno). King Servius Tullius, in reforming the Roman social organisation, required that every adolescent offer a coin to the goddess of youth upon entering adulthood. In Dumézil's analysis, the function of ''Iuventas'' (the personification of youth), was to control the entrance of young men into society and protect them until they reach the age of ''iuvenes'' or ''iuniores'' (i.e. of serving the state as soldiers). A temple to ''Iuventas'' was promised in 207 BC by consul Marcus Livius Salinator and dedicated in 191 BC.


Penates

The Romans considered the Penates as the gods to whom they owed their own existence. As noted by Wissowa ''Penates'' is an adjective, meaning "those of or from the ''penus''" the innermost part, most hidden recess; Dumézil though refuses Wissowa's interpretation of ''penus'' as the storeroom of a household. As a nation the Romans honoured the ''Penates publici'': Dionysius calls them ''Trojan gods'' as they were absorbed into the Trojan legend. They had a temple in Rome at the foot of the Velian Hill, near the Palatine, in which they were represented as a couple of male youth. They were honoured every year by the new consuls before entering office at Lavinium, because the Romans believed the Penates of that town were identical to their own. The concept of ''di Penates'' is more defined in Etruria: Arnobius (citing a Caesius) states that the Etruscan Penates were named Fortuna, Ceres, Genius Iovialis and Pales; according to Nigidius Figulus, they included those of Jupiter, of Neptune, of the infernal gods and of mortal men. According to Varro the Penates reside in the recesses of Heaven and are called ''Consentes'' and ''Complices'' by the Etruscans because they rise and set together, are twelve in number and their names are unknown, six male and six females and are the cousellors and masters of Jupiter. Martianus states they are always in agreement among themselves. While these last gods seem to be the Penates of Jupiter, Jupiter himself along with Juno and Minerva is one of the Penates of man according to some authors. This complex concept is reflected in Martianus Capella's division of heaven, found in Book I of his ''De Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae'', which places the ''Di Consentes Penates'' in region I with the ''Favores Opertanei''; ''Ceres'' and ''Genius'' in region V; ''Pales'' in region VI; ''Favor'' and ''Genius'' (again) in region VII; ''Secundanus Pales'', ''Fortuna'' and ''Favor Pastor'' in region XI. The disposition of these divine entities and their repetition in different locations may be due to the fact that ''Penates'' belonging to different categories (of Jupiter in region I, earthly or of mortal men in region V) are intended. ''Favor(es)'' may be the Etruscan language, Etruscan masculine equivalent of ''Fortuna''.Gérard Capdeville "Les dieux de Martianus Capella" in ''Revue de l'histoire des religions'' 213 1996 3 p. 285 citing Carl Olof Thulin ''Die Götter des Martianus Capella und der Bronzeleber von Piacenza'' (=RGVV 3. 1) Giessen 1906 pp. 38–39. On the topic see also A. L. Luschi "Cacu, Fauno e i venti' in ''Studi Etruschi'' 57 1991 pp. 105–117.


See also

*Ver sacrum *Japheth *Planets in astrology#Jupiter *
Zeus Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Ling ...

Zeus


Notes


References


Bibliography


Musei Capitolini
*Mary Beard (classicist), Mary Beard, J.A. North, and S.R.F. Price, ''Religions of Rome: A History'' (Cambridge University Press, 1998). *Georges Dumézil, Dumézil, G. (1977) ''La religione romana arcaica. Con un'appendice sulla religione degli Etruschi''. Milano, Rizzoli. Edizione e traduzione a cura di Furio Jesi. *Dumézil, G. (1988). ''Mitra-Varuna: An essay on two Indo-European representations of sovereignty''. New York: Zone Books. *Dumézil, G. (1996). ''Archaic Roman religion: With an appendix on the religion of the Etruscans''. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press. *Article "Jupiter" in ''The Oxford Classical Dictionary''. *Smith, Miranda J., 'Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend' *Favourite Greek Myths, Mary Pope Osbourn
''Aedes Iovis Optimi Maximi Capitolini''
*Platner, S. B., & Ashby, T. (1929). ''A topographical dictionary of ancient Rome''. London: Oxford University Press, H. Milford. *Jörg Rüpke, Rüpke, Jörg (Editor), ''A Companion to Roman Religion'', Wiley-Blackwell, 2007. *


External links


Warburg Institute Iconographic Database (ca 1,700 images of Jupiter)
{{DEFAULTSORT:Jupiter (Mythology) Jovian deities Sky and weather gods Thunder gods Justice gods Roman gods Mythological kings Mythological rapists Deities in the Aeneid Jupiter (mythology), Baal Metamorphoses characters