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The Isaaq (also Isaq, Ishaak, Isaac) ( so, Reer Sheekh Isxaaq, ar, بني إسحاق, Banī Isḥāq) is a
Somali clan The Somalis ( so, Soomaalida 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒆𐒖, ar, صوماليون) are an Cushitic peoples, East Cushitic ethnic group native to the Horn of Africa who share a common ancestry, culture and history. The Somali language is the ...
. It is one of the major Somali clans in the Horn of Africa, with a large and densely populated traditional territory.
Perry–Castañeda Library Map Collection The Perry–Castañeda Library Map Collection is an extensive map collection owned by the Perry–Castañeda Library at The University of Texas at Austin. Many of the maps in the collection have been scanned and are available online, and most of ...
– N.B. Various authorities indicate that the Isaaq is among the largest Somali clan



The clan-family traces their lineage to Ishaaq bin Ahmed, Sheikh Ishaaq bin Ahmed, an
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in food, the World Hea ...

Arab
Islamic scholar In Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the firs ...
who purportedly traveled to
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign s ...

Somaliland
in the 12th or 13th century and married into the local
Dir clan The Dir ( so, Dir) is one of the largest and most prominent Somali clans in the Horn of Africa. They are also considered to be the oldest Somali stock to have inhabited the region. Its members inhabit Djibouti, Somaliland, Somalia, Ethiopia (Soma ...
, though this story is probably legendary.


Overview

According to genealogical books and Somali tradition, the Isaaq clan was founded in the 12th or 13th century with the arrival of Sheikh
Ishaaq Bin Ahmed Sheikh Sheikh ( , ; ar, شيخ ' , mostly pronounced , plural ' )—also transliteration of Arabic, transliterated sheekh, sheik, sheyikh, shaykh, shayk, shekh, shaik and shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language. It commonly des ...
(Sheikh Ishaaq) from
Arabia The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
.Rima Berns McGown, ''Muslims in the diaspora'', (University of Toronto Press: 1999), pp. 27–28I.M. Lewis, ''A Modern History of the Somali'', fourth edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2002), p. 22 He purportedly settled in the coastal town of
Maydh Maydh (also transliterated as Mait or Meit) (, ) is an ancient port city in the eastern Sanaag region of Somaliland. History Antiquity According to Augustus Henry Keane Augustus Henry Keane (1833–1912) was an Irish Roman Catholic Roman or Ro ...

Maydh
in modern-day northeastern
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign s ...

Somaliland
, where he married into the local Magaadle clan.I.M. Lewis, ''A Modern History of the Somali'', fourth edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2002), pp. 31 & 42 According to multiple Arabic hagiologies, Sheikh Ishaaq is a descendant of
Ali ibn Abi Talib , house = Quraysh The Quraysh ( ar, قُرَيْشٌ, ) are a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled the city of Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah () and commonly shortened to Makkah,Quran ...
, the cousin and son-in-law of the prophet
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
, though according to I.M. Lewis this lineage was most likely invented to enhance the clan-family's prestige and to stress its proper Muslim background. There are also numerous existing hagiologies in Arabic which describe Sheikh Ishaaq's travels, works and overall life in modern Somaliland, as well as his movements in Arabia before his arrival.Roland Anthony Oliver, J. D. Fage, ''Journal of African history, Volume 3'' (Cambridge University Press.: 1962), p.45 Besides historical sources, one of the more recent printed biographies of Sheikh Ishaaq is the ''Amjaad'' of Sheikh Husseen bin Ahmed Darwiish al-Isaaqi as-Soomaali, which was printed in
Aden Aden ( , ; ar, عدن ' Yemeni: ) is a city, and since 2015, the temporary capital of Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Houthi takeover in Yemen, ...

Aden
in 1955.I. M. Lewis, ''A pastoral democracy: a study of pastoralism and politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa'', (LIT Verlag Münster: 1999), p.131. Sheikh Ishaaq's tomb is in
Maydh Maydh (also transliterated as Mait or Meit) (, ) is an ancient port city in the eastern Sanaag region of Somaliland. History Antiquity According to Augustus Henry Keane Augustus Henry Keane (1833–1912) was an Irish Roman Catholic Roman or Ro ...

Maydh
, and is the scene of frequent pilgrimages. Sheikh Ishaaq's ''
mawlid Mawlid, Mawlid al-Nabi al-Sharif or Eid Milad un Nabi ( ar, مَولِد النَّبِي, translit=mawlidu n-nabiyyi, lit=Birth of the Prophet, sometimes simply called in colloquial Arabic , , among other vernacular pronunciations; sometimes , ...
'' (birthday) is also celebrated every Thursday with a public reading of his ''manaaqib'' (a collection of glorious deeds). His Siyaara or pilgrimage is performed annually both within Somaliland and in the diaspora particularly in the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in food, the World Health Organi ...

Middle East
among Isaaq expatriates. The dialect of the
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...
language that the Isaaq speak has the highest prestige of any other Somali dialect.


Distribution

The Isaaq have a very wide and densely populated traditional territory. They live in all 6 regions of
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign s ...

Somaliland
such as
Awdal Awdal ( so, Awdal, ar, أودَل) is a region in Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلا ...

Awdal
, Marodi Jeh,
Togdheer Togdheer ( so, Togdheer, ar, تُوْجْدَيْر, Tūjdayr) is an administrative region (''Administrative divisions of Somaliland, gobol'') in central Somaliland. Togdheer is bordered by Maroodi Jeex to the west, Sahil, Somaliland, Saaxil to ...

Togdheer
, Sahil,
Sanaag Sanag ( so, Sanaag, ar, سَنَاج) is an administrative region (''Administrative divisions of Somaliland, gobol'') in north eastern Somaliland.
and Sool. They have large settlements in the
Somali Region The Somali Region ( so, Dawlad Deegaanka Soomaalida, am, ሱማሌ ክልል, ar, المنطقة الصومالية), also known as Soomaali Galbeed (''Somali West'') is a Regions of Ethiopia, regional state in eastern Ethiopia. Its territor ...

Somali Region
of Ethiopia, mainly on the eastern side of Somali Region also known as the
Hawd Haud (or Hawd) is a region of thorn-bush and grasslands in the Horn of Africa. It includes the eastern side of the Somali region of Ethiopia adjacent to Somalia, or the Hawd Reserve Area. The eastern parts of Haud are called ''Ciid''. Overview Th ...
and formerly Reserve Area which is mainly inhabited by the Isaaq sub-clan members. They also have large settlements in
Kenya ) , national_anthem = " Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"() , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Nairobi Nairobi () is the Capital city, capital a ...

Kenya
, where the clan makes up a large percentage of the Somali population, and in
Djibouti Djibouti, ar, جيبوتي ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Somaliland in the south, Ethiopia in the southwest, Eritrea in the no ...

Djibouti
, where the Isaaq is the fourth largest ethnic group after the Issa, the Afar, and the
Gadabuursi The Gadabuursi (Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered ...
, accounting for 20% of Djibouti's population. The Isaaq clan-family constitute the largest Somali clan in
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign s ...

Somaliland
. The populations of five major cities in Somaliland –
Hargeisa Hargeisa ( so, Hargeysa, ar, هرجيسا) is a city in the Maroodi Jeex region of Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Somaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, ...

Hargeisa
,
Burao Burao, also spelt Bur'o or Bur'ao (; so, Burco, , ar, برعو) is the capital of the Togdheer region and the second largest city in Somaliland. Burao was the site of the Somaliland Declaration of Independence, declaration of an independent Som ...

Burao
,
Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somaliland and is the main sea port of the country. Berbera is a coastal city and was the former capital of the British Somaliland protectorate bef ...

Berbera
,
Erigavo Erigavo ( so, Ceerigaabo, ), also spelled as Erigabo, is the capital and largest city of the Sanaag region of Somaliland. History The Erigavo settlement is several centuries old. The surrounding area was supposedly built by the Dir (clan), Mad ...

Erigavo
and
Gabiley Gabiley ( so, Gabiley, ar, غابيلي), also known as Gebiley, is a city in the Maroodi Jeex region of Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Somaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadd ...

Gabiley
– are all predominantly Isaaq. They exclusively dominate the Marodi Jeh region, and the
Togdheer Togdheer ( so, Togdheer, ar, تُوْجْدَيْر, Tūjdayr) is an administrative region (''Administrative divisions of Somaliland, gobol'') in central Somaliland. Togdheer is bordered by Maroodi Jeex to the west, Sahil, Somaliland, Saaxil to ...

Togdheer
region, and form a majority of the population inhabiting the western and central areas of
Sanaag Sanag ( so, Sanaag, ar, سَنَاج) is an administrative region (''Administrative divisions of Somaliland, gobol'') in north eastern Somaliland.
region, including the regional capital
Erigavo Erigavo ( so, Ceerigaabo, ), also spelled as Erigabo, is the capital and largest city of the Sanaag region of Somaliland. History The Erigavo settlement is several centuries old. The surrounding area was supposedly built by the Dir (clan), Mad ...

Erigavo
. The Isaaq also have a large presence in the western and northern parts of Sool region as well, with
Habr Je'lo The Habr Je’lo, historically known as the Habr Toljaala ( so, Habar Jeclo, ar, هبر جعلو , Full Name: ''Mūsa ibn ash-Shaykh Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad'') is a major clan of the wider Isaaq clan family. The Habr Je'lo played a prominent role ...
sub-clan of Isaaq living in the whilst the
Habr Yunis The Habar Yoonis ( so, Habar Yoonis, ar, هبر يونس) (Full Name: ''Siciid Ismacil (Garxajis) Sheikh Ishaaq ibn Ahmed'') is a major Somali clan and is a sub-division of the Garhajis subclan of the Isaaq clan family. Members of this clan ar ...
subclan of
Garhajis The Garhajis, historically known as the Habar Gerhajis ( so, Garxajis, ar, غرحجس , Full Name: ''Ismā'īl ibn ash-Shaykh Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad'') is a major clan of the wider Isaaq clan family. They are the traditional holders of the Isaaq ...
lives in the eastern part of Xudun district and the very western part of . They also live in the northeast of the
Awdal Awdal ( so, Awdal, ar, أودَل) is a region in Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلا ...

Awdal
region, with Saad Muse sub-clan being centered around Lughaya and its environs. A subclan of the Habr Yunis, the Damal Muse, also inhabit the
Mudug Mudug ( so, Mudug; it, Mudugh) is an administrative region ('' gobol'') in north-central Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered ...
region of
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒕𐒖; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
. The populations of five major cities in
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign s ...

Somaliland
Hargeisa Hargeisa ( so, Hargeysa, ar, هرجيسا) is a city in the Maroodi Jeex region of Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Somaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, ...

Hargeisa
,
Burao Burao, also spelt Bur'o or Bur'ao (; so, Burco, , ar, برعو) is the capital of the Togdheer region and the second largest city in Somaliland. Burao was the site of the Somaliland Declaration of Independence, declaration of an independent Som ...

Burao
,
Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somaliland and is the main sea port of the country. Berbera is a coastal city and was the former capital of the British Somaliland protectorate bef ...

Berbera
,
Erigavo Erigavo ( so, Ceerigaabo, ), also spelled as Erigabo, is the capital and largest city of the Sanaag region of Somaliland. History The Erigavo settlement is several centuries old. The surrounding area was supposedly built by the Dir (clan), Mad ...

Erigavo
and
Gabiley Gabiley ( so, Gabiley, ar, غابيلي), also known as Gebiley, is a city in the Maroodi Jeex region of Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Somaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadd ...

Gabiley
– are predominantly Isaaq.Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
''Somalia: Information on the ethnic composition in Gabiley (Gebiley) in 1987–1988''
1 April 1996, SOM23518.E ccessed 6 October 2009/ref>


History

The Isaaq clan played a prominent role in the Ethiopian-Adal War (1529–1543, referred to as the "Conquest of Abyssinia") in the army of
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi ( so, Axmed Ibraahim al-Qaasi or Ahmed Gurey, Harari: አህመድ ኢብራሂም አል-ጋዚ, ar, أحمد بن إبراهيم الغازي ; c. 1506 – 21 February 1543) was a Somali Imam Imam (; ar, إ ...
, I. M. Lewis noted that only the Habr Magadle division (Ayoub, Garhajis, Habr Awal and Arap) of the Isaaq were mentioned in chronicles of that war written by Shihab Al-Din Ahmad Al-Gizany known as Futuh ''Al Habash.'' I. M. Lewis states:
The Marrehan and the Habr Magadle agādialso play a very prominent role (...) The text refers to two Ahmads's with the nickname 'Left-handed'. One is regularly presented as 'Ahmad Guray, the Somali' (...) identified as Ahmad Guray Xuseyn, chief of the Habr Magadle. Another reference, however, appears to link the Habr Magadle with the Marrehan. The other Ahmad is simply referred to as 'Imam Ahmad' or simply the 'Imam'.This Ahmad is not qualified by the adjective Somali (...) The two Ahmad's have been conflated into one figure, the heroic Ahmed Guray (...)
Long after the collapse of the
Adal Sultanate The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal or Awdal or Bar Sa'ad ad-din (alt. spelling ''Adel Sultanate'' , ''Awdal Sultanate''), was a Muslim Somalis, Somali kingdom and sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II aft ...

Adal Sultanate
, the Isaaq established successor states, the
Isaaq Sultanate The Isaaq Sultanate ( so, Saldanadda Isaaq, ar, سلطنة الإسحاق) was a Somali kingdom that ruled parts of the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afr ...
and the
Habr Yunis Sultanate The Habr Yunis Sultanate ( so, Saldanadda Habar Yoonis, ar, سلطنة هبر يونس) was a Somali kingdom that ruled parts of the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so ...
. These two Sultanates possessed some of the organs and trappings of a traditional integrated state: a functioning bureaucracy, regular taxation in the form of livestock, as well as an army (chiefly consisting of mounted light cavalry).''Horn of Africa'', Volume 15, Issues 1–4, (Horn of Africa Journal: 1997), p.130.Michigan State University. African Studies Center, Northeast African studies, Volumes 11–12, (Michigan State University Press: 1989), p.32. These sultanates also maintained written records of their activities, which still exist. The Isaaq clan also played a major role in the Dervish movement, with Sultan Nur Aman of the Habr Yunis being fundamental in the inception of the movement. Sultan Nur was the principle agitator that rallied the dervish behind his anti-French Catholic Mission campaign that would become the cause of the dervish uprise.
Haji Sudi Ahmed Warsama, more commonly known as Haji Sudi ( so, Xaaji Suudi Shabeel) was one of the leaders behind the Somali Dervish Dervish or Darvesh or Darwīsh (from fa, درویش, ''Darvīsh'') in Islam can refer broadly to members of a Sufi fra ...
of the Habr Je'lo was the highest ranking Dervish after
Mohammed Abdullah Hassan Sayid Mohamed Abdullahi Hassan ( so, Sayid Maxamed Cabdulle Xasan; 1856–1920) was a Somali religious and military leader of the Dervish movement. It was subdivided into 13 administrative divisions, of which the four largest were Shiikhyaale, D ...
, he died valiantly defending the
Taleh Taleh ( so, Taleex, ar, تليح) is a historical town in the eastern Sool, Somalia, Sool region of Somaliland. As of September 2015, both Puntland and Somaliland had nominal influence or control in Taleh and it's vicinity. The town served as ...

Taleh
fort during the RAF bombing campaign. The Isaaq sub-clans that were highly known for joining the Dervish movement were from the eastern
Habr Yunis The Habar Yoonis ( so, Habar Yoonis, ar, هبر يونس) (Full Name: ''Siciid Ismacil (Garxajis) Sheikh Ishaaq ibn Ahmed'') is a major Somali clan and is a sub-division of the Garhajis subclan of the Isaaq clan family. Members of this clan ar ...
and
Habr Je'lo The Habr Je’lo, historically known as the Habr Toljaala ( so, Habar Jeclo, ar, هبر جعلو , Full Name: ''Mūsa ibn ash-Shaykh Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad'') is a major clan of the wider Isaaq clan family. The Habr Je'lo played a prominent role ...
sub-clans. These two sub-clans were able to purchase advanced weapons and successfully resist both
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
and
Ethiopian Empire The Ethiopian Empire (), also formerly known by the exonym Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic ''al-Habash''), or just simply known as Ethiopia (; Amharic and Tigrinya language, Tigrinya: ኢትዮጵያ , , Oromo language, Oromo: Itoophiyaa, S ...
for many years. The Isaaq clan along with other northern Somali tribes were under
British Somaliland British Somaliland, officially the Somaliland Protectorate ( so, Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka), was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the c ...
protectorate administration from 1884 to 1960. On gaining independence, the Somaliland protectorate decided to form a union with Italian Somalia. The Isaaq clan spearheaded the greater Somalia quest from 1960 to 1991. The Isaaq played a massive role to push for unification and independence. They selected to join the
Trust Territory of Somaliland The Trust Territory of Somaliland, officially the "Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian administration" ( it, Amministrazione fiduciaria italiana della Somalia), was a United Nations Trust Territories, United Nations Trust Territory situat ...
to form the
Somali Republic The Somali Republic ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliyeed, it, Repubblica Somala, ar, الجمهورية الصومالية ) was the name of a sovereign state composing of Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the ...
. During the civilian government from 1960 to 1969, they held dominant positions.
Jama Mohamed Ghalib Introduction Jama Mohamed Ghalib ( so, Jaamac Maxamed Ghalib, ar, جامع محمد غالب) is a Somalis, Somali writer, former military leader and police chief, and politician, who is from Hargeisa, North Somalia (the present-day Somaliland). ...

Jama Mohamed Ghalib
(1960-4) and Ahmed Mohamed Obsiye (1964-6), both belonging to the Isaaq clan, served as the president of the National Assembly, while a notable Isaaq member named
Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal ( so, Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaal, ar, محمد الحاج ابراهيم عقال) (August 15, 1928 – May 3, 2002) was a veteran Somali politician. He was the President of Somaliland from 1993 to 2002. He previou ...

Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal
served as the Prime Minister of
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒕𐒖; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
from 1967-9. Furthermore, when English became one of the official languages, the ministries of Foreign Trade, Foreign Affairs, Education, and Information were mainly held by the Isaaq members. They were still powerful in the early years of the military dictatorship (1969-91). However, from the late 1970s,
Marehan The Marehan ( so, Mareexaan, ar, مريحان, ''Marehan bin Ahmed bin Abdirahman bin Is'mail bin Ibrahim al Jaberti'') is a Somali clan family, part of one of the largest Somali clan-families — the Darod. The clan is one of the largest con ...
became politically powerful under the leadership of the military dictator
Siad Barre Jaalle Mohamed Siad Barre ( so, Maxamed Siyaad Barre; ar, محمد سياد بري; 1910 – January 2, 1995) was a Somali General who served as the President of Somalia, President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991. Barre, a m ...

Siad Barre
. The Isaaq began to face political and economic marginalization and in response, they organized the
Somali National Movement The Somali National Movement ( so, Dhaqdhaqaaqa Wadaniga Soomaaliyeed, ar, الحركة الوطنية الصومالية) was one of the first and most important organized guerilla groups opposed to the Siad Barre regime in the 1980s to the 1990 ...
to over his regime. Thus
Somali Civil War The Somali Civil War ( so, Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya; ar, الحرب الأهلية الصومالية) is an ongoing civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups withi ...
began and this struggle movement forced the Isaaq clan to become a victim to a genocidal campaign by
Siad Barre Jaalle Mohamed Siad Barre ( so, Maxamed Siyaad Barre; ar, محمد سياد بري; 1910 – January 2, 1995) was a Somali General who served as the President of Somalia, President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991. Barre, a m ...

Siad Barre
's troops (which also included armed Somali refugees from Ethiopia); the death toll has been estimated to be between 50,000 and 200,000. After the collapse of the
Somali Democratic Republic The Somali Democratic Republic ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiya Soomaaliyeed, ar, الجمهورية الديمقراطية الصومالية ''al-Jumhūrīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah aṣ-Ṣūmālīyah'', it, Repubblica Democratica Somala) was th ...
in 1991 the Isaaq-dominated
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign s ...

Somaliland
declared independence from Somalia as a separate nation.


Mercantilism

Historically (and presently to a degree), the wider Isaaq clan were relatively more disposed to trade than their tribal counterparts due in part to their centuries old trade links with the
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciati ...
. In view of this imbalance in mercantile experience, other major Somali clans tended to resort to tribal slang terms such as "iidoor", an enviable pejorative roughly meaning trader/exchanger:
Somalis bandied about numerous stereotypes of clan behavior that mirrored these emerging social inequalities. The pejorative slang terms iidoor or kabadhe iidoora (loosely meaning "exchange") reflect Somali disdain for the go-between, the person who amasses wealth through persistence and mercantile skills without firm commitments to anyone else. As the Isaaq became more international and cosmopolitan, their commercial success and achievement ideology aroused suspicion and jealousy, notably among rural Darod who disliked Isaaq self-confidence and made them the target of stereotypes.
This was not lost on the sole president and dictator of the
Somali Democratic Republic The Somali Democratic Republic ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiya Soomaaliyeed, ar, الجمهورية الديمقراطية الصومالية ''al-Jumhūrīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah aṣ-Ṣūmālīyah'', it, Repubblica Democratica Somala) was th ...
(1969–1991), Siad Barre, who disliked the Isaaq clan due to their financial independence, thus making it harder to control them:
Siyaad had a deep and personal dislike for the clan. The real reasons can only be guessed at, but in part it was due to his inability to control them. As accomplished business operatives, they had built a society that was not dependant on government largesse. The Isaaq had traditional trade relationships with the nations of the Arabian Peninsula that continued despite the attempts of the government to center all economic activity in Mogadishu. Siyaad did what he could, however, and Isaaq traders were forced to make the long trip to Mogadishu for permits and licenses.
Nevertheless, in the 1970s and 1980s, nearly all of the
livestock Livestock are the domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable ...
exports went out through the port of
Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somaliland and is the main sea port of the country. Berbera is a coastal city and was the former capital of the British Somaliland protectorate bef ...

Berbera
via Isaaq livestock traders, with the towns of
Burao Burao, also spelt Bur'o or Bur'ao (; so, Burco, , ar, برعو) is the capital of the Togdheer region and the second largest city in Somaliland. Burao was the site of the Somaliland Declaration of Independence, declaration of an independent Som ...

Burao
and Yirowe in the interior being home to the largest livestock markets in the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland fro ...

Horn of Africa
. The entire livestock exports accounted to upwards of 90% of the Somali Republic's entire export figures in a given year, and Berbera's exports alone provided over 75% of the nation's recorded foreign currency income at the time.


Clan tree

In the Isaaq clan-family, component clans are divided into two uterine divisions, as shown in the genealogy. The first division is between those lineages descended from sons of Sheikh Ishaaq by a Harari woman – the Habr Habuusheed – and those descended from sons of Sheikh Ishaaq by a
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...
woman of the Magaadle sub-clan of the
Dir Dir, dir, or DIR may refer to: Acronyms * ''De Imperatoribus Romanis'', an online biographical encyclopedia of the Roman emperors from 27 BC to 1453 AD * Detroit International Riverfront, an area of Detroit, Michigan in the United States * Develop ...
– the Habr Magaadle. Indeed, most of the largest clans of the clan-family are in fact uterine alliances hence the matronymic "Habr" which in archaic
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...
means "mother". This is illustrated in the following clan structure.I. M. Lewis, ''A pastoral democracy: a study of pastoralism and politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa'', (LIT Verlag Münster: 1999), p. 157. ''A. Habr Magaadle'' * Ismail (
Garhajis The Garhajis, historically known as the Habar Gerhajis ( so, Garxajis, ar, غرحجس , Full Name: ''Ismā'īl ibn ash-Shaykh Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad'') is a major clan of the wider Isaaq clan family. They are the traditional holders of the Isaaq ...
) * Ayub * Muhammad (
Arap The Arap or Arab ( so, Arab, ar, أرب, Full Name: ''Muḥammad ibn ash-Shaykh Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad'') clan is a major clan of the wider Isaaq clan family and is the twin of Garhajis (Ismail), according to the clan genealogy. The Arap predominan ...
) * Abdirahman (
Habr Awal The Habr Awal ( so, Habar Awal, ar, هبر أول, Full Name: Abd al-Raḥmān ibn ash-Shaykh Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad)''; is a major clan of the wider Isaaq clan family, and is further divided into eight sub-clans of whom the two largest and mo ...
) ''B. Habr Habuusheed'' * Ahmed (Tol Je’lo) * Muuse (
Habr Je'lo The Habr Je’lo, historically known as the Habr Toljaala ( so, Habar Jeclo, ar, هبر جعلو , Full Name: ''Mūsa ibn ash-Shaykh Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad'') is a major clan of the wider Isaaq clan family. The Habr Je'lo played a prominent role ...
) * Ibrahiim ( Sanbuur) * Muhammad ( ‘Ibraan) There is clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures that has not changed for a long time. The oldest recorded genealogy of a Somali in Western literature was by Sir Richard Burton in the mid–19th century regarding his Isaaq (Habr Yunis) host and the governor of
Zeila Zeila ( so, Saylac, ar, زيلع, Zayla), also known as Zaila or Zayla, is a historical port town in the western Awdal Awdal ( so, Awdal, ar, أودَل) is a region in Somaliland. It was separated from Woqooyi Galbeed and became a province i ...
, Sharmarke Ali Saleh The following listing is taken from the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its ow ...
's ''Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics'' from 2005 and the United Kingdom's
Home Office The Home Office (HO), also known (especially in official papers and when referred to in Parliament) as the Home Department, is a ministerial department of the Government of the United Kingdom The Government of the United Kingdom, domestic ...

Home Office
publication, ''Somalia Assessment 2001''.Worldbank,
Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics
', January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p. 55 Figure A-1
Country Information and Policy Unit, Home Office, Great Britain, Somalia Assessment 2001, Annex B: Somali Clan Structure
, p. 43
*Isaaq **
Habr Awal The Habr Awal ( so, Habar Awal, ar, هبر أول, Full Name: Abd al-Raḥmān ibn ash-Shaykh Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad)''; is a major clan of the wider Isaaq clan family, and is further divided into eight sub-clans of whom the two largest and mo ...
*** Sa'ad Musa *** Issa Musa **
Garhajis The Garhajis, historically known as the Habar Gerhajis ( so, Garxajis, ar, غرحجس , Full Name: ''Ismā'īl ibn ash-Shaykh Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad'') is a major clan of the wider Isaaq clan family. They are the traditional holders of the Isaaq ...
***
Habr Yunis The Habar Yoonis ( so, Habar Yoonis, ar, هبر يونس) (Full Name: ''Siciid Ismacil (Garxajis) Sheikh Ishaaq ibn Ahmed'') is a major Somali clan and is a sub-division of the Garhajis subclan of the Isaaq clan family. Members of this clan ar ...
***Eidagale **
Arap The Arap or Arab ( so, Arab, ar, أرب, Full Name: ''Muḥammad ibn ash-Shaykh Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad'') clan is a major clan of the wider Isaaq clan family and is the twin of Garhajis (Ismail), according to the clan genealogy. The Arap predominan ...
**Ayub **
Habr Je'lo The Habr Je’lo, historically known as the Habr Toljaala ( so, Habar Jeclo, ar, هبر جعلو , Full Name: ''Mūsa ibn ash-Shaykh Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad'') is a major clan of the wider Isaaq clan family. The Habr Je'lo played a prominent role ...
*** Muuse Abokor *** Mohamed Abokor ***Samane Abokor **Tol Je'lo ** Sanbuur ** Imraan One tradition maintains that Sheikh Ishaaq had twin sons: Muhammad (Arap), and Ismail (Garhajis).


Notable figures


Royalty and rulers

*
Awad Deria Sultan Awad Deria ( so, Suldaan Cawad Suldaan Diiriye) was a Somali ruler and the 4th Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authorit ...
, 5th Sultan of the
Habr Yunis The Habar Yoonis ( so, Habar Yoonis, ar, هبر يونس) (Full Name: ''Siciid Ismacil (Garxajis) Sheikh Ishaaq ibn Ahmed'') is a major Somali clan and is a sub-division of the Garhajis subclan of the Isaaq clan family. Members of this clan ar ...
*
Deria Sugulleh Ainashe Deria Sugulle Ainanshe ( so, Diiriye Sugulle Caynaashe) was a Somalis, Somali ruler and the 2nd Sultan of the Habr Yunis Sultanate, reigning from the late-eighteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. Biography Deria was the second Sultan of the Habr ...
, 2nd Sultan of the
Habr Yunis The Habar Yoonis ( so, Habar Yoonis, ar, هبر يونس) (Full Name: ''Siciid Ismacil (Garxajis) Sheikh Ishaaq ibn Ahmed'') is a major Somali clan and is a sub-division of the Garhajis subclan of the Isaaq clan family. Members of this clan ar ...
* Deria Hassan, 4th Grand Sultan of the Isaaq * Guled Abdi, first Grand Sultan of the Isaaq * Hassan Farah, 3rd Grand Sultan of Isaaq *
Hersi Aman Sultan Hersi Aman ( so, Suldaan Xirsi Amaan) was a Somali people, Somali ruler. He was the 3rd Sultan of the Habr Yunis Sultanate. Biography Reign Hersi Aman belonged to the Habr_Awal#Clan_Tree_and_Lineage, Bah Makahil section of the Sugulle dyna ...
, 3rd Sultan of the
Habr Yunis The Habar Yoonis ( so, Habar Yoonis, ar, هبر يونس) (Full Name: ''Siciid Ismacil (Garxajis) Sheikh Ishaaq ibn Ahmed'') is a major Somali clan and is a sub-division of the Garhajis subclan of the Isaaq clan family. Members of this clan ar ...
* Sharmarke Ali Saleh, major trader and governor of
Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somaliland and is the main sea port of the country. Berbera is a coastal city and was the former capital of the British Somaliland protectorate bef ...

Berbera
,
Zeila Zeila ( so, Saylac, ar, زيلع, Zayla), also known as Zaila or Zayla, is a historical port town in the western Awdal Awdal ( so, Awdal, ar, أودَل) is a region in Somaliland. It was separated from Woqooyi Galbeed and became a province i ...
and
Tadjoura Tadjoura ( aa, Tagórri; ar, تاجورة ''Tağūrah''; so, Tajuura) is one of the oldest towns in Djibouti and the capital of the Tadjourah Region. The town evolved into an early Islamic center with the arrival of Muslims shortly after the He ...
* Farah Guled, 2nd Grand Sultan of the Isaaq * - Sultan of the
Arap The Arap or Arab ( so, Arab, ar, أرب, Full Name: ''Muḥammad ibn ash-Shaykh Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad'') clan is a major clan of the wider Isaaq clan family and is the twin of Garhajis (Ismail), according to the clan genealogy. The Arap predominan ...
clan and commander of the SNM's 10th division * Sultan Abdulrahman Deria, Sultan of the
Habr Awal The Habr Awal ( so, Habar Awal, ar, هبر أول, Full Name: Abd al-Raḥmān ibn ash-Shaykh Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad)''; is a major clan of the wider Isaaq clan family, and is further divided into eight sub-clans of whom the two largest and mo ...
clan * Sultan Abdillahi Deria, prominent anti-colonial figure and 5th Grand
Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun A noun (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the ...

Sultan
of the Isaaq * Mahamed Abdiqadir – 8th Grand Sultan of the Isaaq * Daud Mahamed, 9th and current Grand Sultan of the Isaaq * Sultan Osman Sultan Ali Koshin, the current Grand sultan of the Issa Musse clans


Politicians

*, Former President of Somaliland from June 2010 to December 2017, fourth and longest-serving Chairman of the Somali National Movement, and former Chairman of the Kulmiye Party *
Muse Bihi Abdi Musa Bihi Abdi ( so, Muuse Biixi Cabdi, ar, موسى بيحي عبدي) (born 1948 in Hargeisa, Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Somaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaali ...
, current
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
of
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign s ...

Somaliland
*
Abdirahman Ahmed Ali Tuur Abdirahman Ahmed Ali Tuur ( so, Cabdiraxmaan Axmed Cali Tuur, ar, عبد الرحمن أحمد علي الطور) (var. "Tur", "Tour", meaning "Hunchback") (1931-2003) was a Somali politician who served as the first President of Somaliland from ...

Abdirahman Ahmed Ali Tuur
, last Somali National Movement chairman and First President of Somaliland *
Abdirahman Mohamed Abdullahi Abdirahman Mohamed Abdullahi ( so, Cabdiraxmaan Maxamed Cabdillaahi Cirro, ar, عبد الرحمن محمد عبد الله) (born 24 April 1955), also known as Irro, is a Somaliland politician, who served as speaker of House of Representatives ...

Abdirahman Mohamed Abdullahi
, Speaker of the House of Representatives of Somaliland and the Chairman of Wadani political party *
Ahmed Yusuf Yasin Ahmed Yusuf Yasin ( so, Axmed Yuusuf Yaasiin) (born 1957) is a Somaliland politician and lawyer who was Vice President of Somaliland, from 2002 until 2010 and he was the second chairman of UDUB party. He hails from the Issa Musa (Adan Issa) sub-di ...

Ahmed Yusuf Yasin
, was the Vice-President of Somaliland from 2002 until 2010. and the second chairman of
UDUB The United Peoples' Democratic Party (), shortened UDUB, was one of the three political parties in Somaliland. It was founded by president Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, Egal in July 2001 in the preparation of the elections, which were originally sc ...
party. * Abdurrahman Mahmoud Aidiid, former
mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organization or government A governme ...
of
Hargeisa Hargeisa ( so, Hargeysa, ar, هرجيسا) is a city in the Maroodi Jeex region of Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Somaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, ...

Hargeisa
, the capital of the
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign s ...

Somaliland
*, current mayor of Hargeisa * Ali Abdi Farah, Former Minister of Communication and Culture in
Djibouti Djibouti, ar, جيبوتي ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Somaliland in the south, Ethiopia in the southwest, Eritrea in the no ...

Djibouti
*Abdirahim Abbey Farah, former United Nations Under-Secretary General *Umar Arteh Ghalib, former Prime Minister of Somalia 1991–1993. Brought Somalia into the Arab League in 1974 during his term Foreign Minister of Somalia from 1969 to 1977. Former president of UN Security Council, teacher and poet *Hussein Arab Isse, the Minister of Defence (Somalia), Minister of Defence and the Deputy Prime Minister of Somalia from 20 July 2011 to 4 November 2012 *Ismail Mahmud Hurre, foreign minister of the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia from mid-2006 to early 2007 *Ismail Ali Abokor, former Vice-President of the
Somali Democratic Republic The Somali Democratic Republic ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiya Soomaaliyeed, ar, الجمهورية الديمقراطية الصومالية ''al-Jumhūrīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah aṣ-Ṣūmālīyah'', it, Repubblica Democratica Somala) was th ...
*Faysal Ali Warabe, Chairman of the For Justice and Development party of Somaliland (UCID). *Fowsiyo Yusuf Haji Adan, former Foreign Minister of Somalia and MP in Federal Parliament *
Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal ( so, Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaal, ar, محمد الحاج ابراهيم عقال) (August 15, 1928 – May 3, 2002) was a veteran Somali politician. He was the President of Somaliland from 1993 to 2002. He previou ...

Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal
, former Prime Minister of Somalia July 1960, July 1967– November 1969; former President of Somaliland from May 1993 to May 2002. *Mohamed Abdullahi Omaar, former Foreign Minister of Somalia *Mohamed Omar Arte, former Deputy Prime Minister of Somalia. *Abdishakur Iddin, current Mayor of Berbera, mayor of
Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somaliland and is the main sea port of the country. Berbera is a coastal city and was the former capital of the British Somaliland protectorate bef ...

Berbera
*Abdirisaq Ibrahim Abdi, current Mayor of Burao, mayor of
Burao Burao, also spelt Bur'o or Bur'ao (; so, Burco, , ar, برعو) is the capital of the Togdheer region and the second largest city in Somaliland. Burao was the site of the Somaliland Declaration of Independence, declaration of an independent Som ...

Burao
*
Jama Mohamed Ghalib Introduction Jama Mohamed Ghalib ( so, Jaamac Maxamed Ghalib, ar, جامع محمد غالب) is a Somalis, Somali writer, former military leader and police chief, and politician, who is from Hargeisa, North Somalia (the present-day Somaliland). ...

Jama Mohamed Ghalib
, former Police Commissioner of the Somali Democratic Republic, Secretary of Interior, Minister of Labor and Social Affairs, Minister of Local Government and Rural Development, Minister of Transportation, and Minister of Interior. *Osman Dubbe – Minister of Information, Culture and Tourism of
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒕𐒖; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
*Muhammad Hawadle Madar, former Prime Minister of Somalia from 3 September 1990 to 24 January 1991 *Ismail Ali Abokor – Vice President of the
Somali Democratic Republic The Somali Democratic Republic ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiya Soomaaliyeed, ar, الجمهورية الديمقراطية الصومالية ''al-Jumhūrīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah aṣ-Ṣūmālīyah'', it, Repubblica Democratica Somala) was th ...
1971-1982 *Abdilahi Husein Iman Darawal - Somaliland politician and former SNM commander *Abdullahi Abdi Omar, Abdullahi Abdi Omar "Jawaan" - Somaliland politician and introducer of the National emblem of Somaliland *Mohamed Abdullahi Omaar, served twice as the Foreign Minister of Somalia. *Osman Jama Ali - Prime Minister of
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒕𐒖; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
under the Transitional National Government


Poets

*Hadrawi, poet and philosopher; author of ''Halkaraan''; also known as the "Somali Shakespeare" *Salaan Carrabey – legendary poet *Farah Nur, a famous warrior, poet and sultan of the
Arap The Arap or Arab ( so, Arab, ar, أرب, Full Name: ''Muḥammad ibn ash-Shaykh Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad'') clan is a major clan of the wider Isaaq clan family and is the twin of Garhajis (Ismail), according to the clan genealogy. The Arap predominan ...
subclan *Elmi Boodhari, famous Somali poet hailing from the Ciidagale sub-division of Garxajis and pioneer in the genre of Somali love poems also known as the King of Romance. *Gaariye, Mohamed Hashi Dhamac (Gaarriye), legendary Somali poet and political activist *Abdillahi Suldaan Mohammed Timacade, known as 'Timacade', a famous poet during the pre- and post-colonial periods *Kite Fiqi – legendary
Habr Je'lo The Habr Je’lo, historically known as the Habr Toljaala ( so, Habar Jeclo, ar, هبر جعلو , Full Name: ''Mūsa ibn ash-Shaykh Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad'') is a major clan of the wider Isaaq clan family. The Habr Je'lo played a prominent role ...
warrior and poet *Hussein Hasan – famous poet and warrior *Yusuf shaacir, Yusuf Shaacir - well-known Somalis, Somali poet *Aden Ahmed Dube of the Isaaq, Habr-Yonis tribe, great poems aroused envy in Raage Ugaz, and infrequently, bloody wars and irreconcilable enmity. *Mohammed Liban from the Isaaq tribe of
Habr Awal The Habr Awal ( so, Habar Awal, ar, هبر أول, Full Name: Abd al-Raḥmān ibn ash-Shaykh Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad)''; is a major clan of the wider Isaaq clan family, and is further divided into eight sub-clans of whom the two largest and mo ...
, was an eloquent and witty improviser, and even better known under the name of Mohammed Liban Giader. *Aden Ahmed Dube "Gabay Xoog" circa 1821 –1916, poet. *Abdiwaasa' Hasan Ali Araale Guleid, wellknown poet *Abdi Iidan Farah, 20th century Somali poet who wrote about Somali independence and camels


Economists

*Abdul Majid Hussein, Economist, Former Permanent Representative of Ethiopia to the United Nations, 2001–2004. Leader of Ethiopian Somali Democratic League (ESDL) party in the
Somali Region The Somali Region ( so, Dawlad Deegaanka Soomaalida, am, ሱማሌ ክልል, ar, المنطقة الصومالية), also known as Soomaali Galbeed (''Somali West'') is a Regions of Ethiopia, regional state in eastern Ethiopia. Its territor ...

Somali Region
of Ethiopia from 1995 to 2001 *Jamal Ali Hussein, Somali Politician and Economists expert. He was former presidential candidate of
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign s ...

Somaliland
UCID party *Saad Ali Shire, Dr. Saad Ali Shire, British-Somali politician, agronomist and economist, who is currently serving as the Minister of Finance of Somaliland. Shire formerly served as the Foreign Minister of Somaliland. He also served as the Minister of Planning and National Development of Somaliland.


Military leaders and personnel

*Mohamed Farah Dalmar Yusuf, Mohamed Dalmar Yusuf Ali, more commonly known as "Mohamed Ali", high-ranking commander of the Western Somali Liberation Front, WSLF and SNM *Mohamed Kahin Ahmed, high-ranking SNM commander and current Ministry of Interior (Somaliland), Minister of Interior of Somaliland *Guled Haji, wise sage and commander of the Habr Yunis *Mohamed Hasan Abdullahi, former Chief of Staff of the Somaliland Armed Forces *Ibrahim Boghol, high ranking commander of the Dervish movement *Nuh Ismail Tani, current Chief of Staff of the Somaliland Armed Forces *Mohamed Hashi Lihle - Colonel of the Somali National Army, SNA and later the commander of the military wing of the Somali National Movement *Mohamed Bullaleh - Prominent 20th Century tribal chief and commander of the Hagoogane raid that destroyed Dervish movement


Writers and musicians

*Abdullahi Qarshe, Somali musician, poet and playwright; known as the "Father of Somali music" *Ali Feiruz, popular musician in Djibouti, Somaliland and Somalia *Mohamed Mooge Liibaan, prominent
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...
instrumentalist and vocalist *Ahmed Mooge Liibaan, prominent
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...
instrumentalist and vocalist *Nadifa Mohamed – Somali novelist. Winner of the 2010 Betty Trask Prize *Chunkz – English YouTuber, musician, host and entertainer *Ahmed Gacayte – famous Somali singer, songwriter and composer *Sahra Halgan, Somali singer and cultural activist *Guduuda 'Arwo, Shamis Abokor Ismail (Guduudo Carwo),
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...
singer


Scholars

*Musa Haji Ismail Galal, a
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...
writer, scholar, linguist, historian and polymath *Abdillahi Diiriye Guled - Literary scholar and discoverer of the Somali prosodic system *Jama Musse Jama, prominent Somali ethnomathematician and author *Hussein M. Adam, Hussein Mohammed Adam (Tanzania) - foremost Somali intellectual and scholar who founded the Somali Studies International Association (SSIA)


Religious leaders and scholars

*Sheikh Bashir, Somali religious leader who waged the 1945 Sheikh Bashir Rebellion *Sheikh Madar – head of Qadiriyya tariqa and influential figure in the early growth and expansion of
Hargeisa Hargeisa ( so, Hargeysa, ar, هرجيسا) is a city in the Maroodi Jeex region of Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Somaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, ...

Hargeisa
*Abdallah Shihiri, senior advisor to the Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, Mullah of the Dervish movement *Deria Arale, senior advisor to the Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, Mullah of the Dervish movement *
Haji Sudi Ahmed Warsama, more commonly known as Haji Sudi ( so, Xaaji Suudi Shabeel) was one of the leaders behind the Somali Dervish Dervish or Darvesh or Darwīsh (from fa, درویش, ''Darvīsh'') in Islam can refer broadly to members of a Sufi fra ...
, one of the founders of the Somali Dervish state, Dervish movement *Sheikh Mohamed Sheikh Omar Dirir - Prominent religious scholar and businessman *Nur Ahmed Aman, Sultan Nur Ahmed Aman, Sultan of the Habr Yunis and one of the founders of the Somali Dervish state, Dervish movement *Ridwan Hirsi Mohamed – Former Deputy Prime Minister of Somalia and Former Minister of Religious Affairs of Somalia


Entrepreneurs

*Abdirashid Duale, Somali entrepreneur and the CEO of Dahabshiil *Amina Moghe Hersi (b. 1963), Award-winning Somali entrepreneur who has launched several multimillion-dollar projects in Kampala, Uganda *Ismail Ahmed (businessman), Ismail Ahmed, owner and CEO of WorldRemit which is one of the fastest growing money transfer company in the world and he's considered 7th most influential man in Britain. *Mahmood Hussein Mattan,
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...
former Merchant shipping, merchant seaman who was wrongfully convicted of the murder of Lily Volpert on 6 March 1952 *Ibrahim Dheere, considered to be the first Somali billionaire and richest Somalis, Somali person in the world with an estimated net worth of 1.8 billion US Dollars.http://www.somalilandinformer.com/somaliland/breaking-ibrahim-dheere-tycoon-passes-away-in-djibouti/ *Mohammed Abdillahi Kahin 'Ogsadey', Somali business tycoon based in Ethiopia, where he established MAO Harar Horse, the first African corporation to export coffee and amassed a net worth of approximately $3 Billion Ethiopian Birr.


Activists

*Edna Adan Ismail, first female Foreign Minister of Somaliland, has been called "The Muslim Mother Teresa" for her charity work and activism for women and girls *Michael Mariano – legendary Somali politician, lawyer and key figure in independence struggle and Somali Youth League *Farah Omar – anti-colonial ideologue and founder of the first Somali Association *Hassan Isse Jama, one of the founding fathers of the SNM in London, former deputy chairman of SNM, first vice president of Somaliland. *Hassan Adan Wadadid- One of the original founders of the Somali National Movement and served as the movement's first Vice-Chairman. *Hanan Ibrahim, gender activist and first Somali British to be awarded Member of British Empire (MBE) for community work in UK *Nimco Ali, British social activist *Magid Magid – Somali-British activist and politician who served as the List of mayors of Sheffield, Lord Mayor of Sheffield from May 2018 to May 2019


Athletes

*Mo Farah, British 4 time Olympic gold medalist and the most decorated athlete in British athletics history. *Mohammed Ahmed (athlete), Mohammed Ahmed, Somali-Canadian long-distance runner and Olympian *Mohammed Ahamed, Norwegian-Somalian association footballer currently playing in the Tippeligaen for Tromsø IL. He plays as a Center Forward *Ahmed Said Ahmed, an international Association football, footballer who plays for as a Defender (association football), defender. *Mohammed Ahmed (runner), Mohammed Ahmed, Canada, Canadian long-distance runner *Bashir Abdi, Somali-Belgian athlete *Sheikh hamse, Sheikh Hamse - notorious Somalis, Somali Association football, football player


Journalists

*Ahmed Hassan Awke, Somali journalist and broadcaster, veteran of the BBC World Service, the Voice of America, Somaliland National TV, Horn Cable Television, Radio Mogadishu and Universal Television (Somalia), Universal TV, former presidential spokesman of
Siad Barre Jaalle Mohamed Siad Barre ( so, Maxamed Siyaad Barre; ar, محمد سياد بري; 1910 – January 2, 1995) was a Somali General who served as the President of Somalia, President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991. Barre, a m ...

Siad Barre
during his Military Junta, military junta.http://www.somalilandinformer.com/somaliland/somaliland-prominent-somali-journalist-ahmed-hasan-awke-passes-away-in-jigjiga/ *Rageh Omaar, Somali-British journalist and writer. He used to be a BBC world affairs correspondent, In September 2006, he moved to a new post at Al Jazeera English, and as of 2017 is currently with ITV News *Mona Kosar Abdi – news anchor for ABC's Good Morning America


Other

*Hussain Bisad, is one of the tallest men in the world, at 2.32 m (7 ft 7 1⁄2 in). He has the largest hand span of anyone alive *Sada Mire, Swedish-Somali archaeologist, art historian and presenter *Abdi Haybe Lambad, famous Somali stand-up comedian *Buurmadow – well known clan elder *Hussein Mohamed Adam, Hussein Mohammed Adam "Tanzania", Somali professor, journalist and documentary maker *Sooraan, famous actor and comedian


References

{{Somali clans Somali clans Somali clans in Ethiopia Issa Musse