HOME

TheInfoList




Haryana (; ) is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine ''State Magazine'' is a digital magazine published by the U.S. Department of State's Bureau of Global Talent Management. Its mission is to acquaint Department o ...
in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of
East Punjab East Punjab (known simply as Punjab from 1950) was a province and later a state of India from 1947 until 1966, consisting of the parts of the Punjab (British India), Punjab Province of British India that went to India following the Partition ...
on 1 November 1966 on a
linguistic Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...
basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital is
Chandigarh Chandigarh (; ) is a city, district A district is a type of that, in some countries, is managed by the . Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning s or , several , subdivisions of municipalities, , or . ...

Chandigarh
and the most populous city is
Faridabad Faridabad () is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...
, which is a part of the . The city of
Gurgaon Gurgaon, officially named Gurugram (pronunciation: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, ʊɾʊɡɾaːm, is a city located in the northern Indian state of Haryana. It is situated near the Delhi–Haryana border, about southwest of the national capit ...
is among India's largest financial and technology hubs. Haryana has 6
administrative divisions Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular ...

administrative divisions
, 22
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic ...
, 72 sub-divisions, 93 revenue tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils, 140
community development block In India, a community development block (CD block) is a rural area administratively earmarked for planning and development. The area is administered by a Block (country subdivision)#Block Development Officer, Block Development Officer, supported ...
s, 154
cities and towns A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a pe ...
, 7,356 villages, and 6,222 villages panchayats. There are 32
special economic zone A special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which the business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country. SEZs are located within a country's national borders, and their aims include increasing trade balance, employment, incre ...
s (SEZs), mainly located within the industrial corridor projects connecting the National Capital Region. Cities like
Gurgaon Gurgaon, officially named Gurugram (pronunciation: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, ʊɾʊɡɾaːm, is a city located in the northern Indian state of Haryana. It is situated near the Delhi–Haryana border, about southwest of the national capit ...
is considered one of the major information technology and
automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on Track (rail transport), rails (such as trains o ...

automobile
hubs of India. Haryana is the 11th-highest ranking among Indian states in
human development index The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and ot ...
. The
economy of Haryana GSDP of Haryana state was US$85 billion in 2016-17 (estimated to be US$95 billion in 2017-2018, comparable to Angola , national_anthem = " Angola Avante"() , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Luanda , religion ...
is the 13th largest in India, with a gross state domestic product (GSDP) of and has the country's 5th-highest GSDP per capita of . Haryana has the highest
unemployment rate Unemployment, according to the (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), is people above a specified age (usually 15) not being in paid or but currently available for work during the . Unemployment is measured by the unemplo ...

unemployment rate
among Indian states. Rich in
history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...
,
monuments A monument is a type of structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a ...
,
heritage Heritage may refer to: History and society * In history History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the invention of writing systems are conside ...
,
flora and fauna In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxonomy (biology), taxonomy into groups such as Multic ...
and
tourism Tourism is travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical location In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of th ...
, with a well developed
economy An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ...
,
national highways National Highways, formerly the Highways Agency and later Highways England, is a State-owned enterprise, government-owned company charged with operating, maintaining and improving Roads in England, motorways and major A roads in England. It al ...

national highways
and
state roads State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
, it is bordered by
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...

Himachal Pradesh
to the north-east, by river
Yamuna The Yamuna (Hindustani language, Hindustani: ) is the second-largest tributary river of the Ganga by discharge and the longest tributary in List of major rivers of India, India. Originating from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height of on the ...

Yamuna
along its eastern border with
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

Uttar Pradesh
, by
Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspa ...

Rajasthan
to the west and
south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germa ...
, and
Ghaggar-Hakra River The Ghaggar-Hakra River is an intermittent river Intermittent, temporary, or seasonal rivers and streams cease to flow every year or at least twice every five years.(Tzoraki et al., 2007) Such rivers drain large arid and semi-arid areas, co ...
flows along its northern border with
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
. Since Haryana surrounds the country's capital
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
on three sides (north, west and south), consequently a large area of Haryana state is included in the economically important National Capital Region of India for the purposes of planning and development.


Etymology

Anthropologists came up with the view that Haryana was known by this name because in the post-
Mahabharata The ''Mahābhārata'' (; sa, महाभारतम्, ', ) is one of the two major Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan langua ...

Mahabharata
period here lived the
Abhiras The Abhira tribe (Ahirs) or Abhira Kshatriya Kshatriya ( hi, क्षत्रिय) (from Sanskrit ''kṣatra'', "rule, authority") is one of the four varna (social orders) of Hindu Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as c ...
. who developed special skills in the art of agriculture. According to Pran Nath Chopra Haryana got it's name from Abhirayana-Ahirayana-Hirayana-Haryana.


History


Ancient period

The villages of
Rakhigarhi Rakhigarhi, Rakhi Garhi (''Rakhi Shahpur'' + ''Rakhi Khas''), is a village in Hisar District Hisar district is one of the 22 districts of Haryana, India. Hisar, India, Hisar city serves as the district headquarters. Hisar district has four s ...
in
Hisar district Hisar district is one of the 22 districts of Haryana Haryana, with 22 districts, is a States and territories of India, state in the North India, northern region of India and is the nation's List of states and union territories of India by p ...
and
Bhirrana Bhirrana, also Bhirdana and Birhana, (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, North ...
in
Fatehabad district Fatehabad District is one of the twenty two Districts of Haryana, districts of the state of Haryana India. Fatehbad was founded Firuz Shah Tughlaq.The Fatehabad district was carved out of Hisar district on 15 July 1997. History Indo-Europe ...
are home to the largest and one of the sites, dated at over 9,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, a drainage system, a large-scale rainwater collection storage system, terracotta brick and statue production, and skilled metal working (in both bronze and precious metals) have been uncovered. According to archaeologists, Rakhigarhi may be the origin of Harappan civilisation, which arose in the Ghaggar basin in Haryana and gradually and slowly moved to the Indus valley. During the Vedic era, Haryana was the site of the
Kuru Kingdom Kuru ( sa, कुरु) was a Vedic Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan invasion theory ...
, one of India's great
Mahajanapadas The Mahājanapadas ( sa, great realm, from ''maha'', "great", and ''janapada'' "foothold of a people") were sixteen Realm, kingdoms or oligarchy, oligarchic republics that existed in Northern History of India, ancient India from the sixth to ...
. The south of Haryana is the claimed location of the Vedic Brahmavarta region.


Medieval period

Ancient bronze and stone idols of Jain
Tirthankara In Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion. It is one of the oldest Indian religions. The three main pillars of Jainism are ''Ahimsa in Jainism, ahiṃsā'' (non-violence), ''anekāntav ...
were found in archaeological expeditions in Badli,
Bhiwani Bhiwani is a city and a municipal council in Bhiwani district in the state of Haryana Haryana () is a States and union territories of India, state in India located in the northern part of the country. It was carved out of the former state ...

Bhiwani
( Ranila,
Charkhi Dadri Charkhi Dadri is a city and headquarters of Charkhi Dadri district in the state of Haryana Haryana () is a States and union territories of India, state in India located in the northern part of the country. It was carved out of the former s ...
and
Badhra Badhra is a tehsil, sub-division and assembly constituency in the Charkhi Dadri district of the Indian state of Haryana. It is located west of district headquarters Charkhi Dadri, south west of city of Bhiwani and east of the national capital ...
),
Dadri Dadri is a town and a municipal board ''Township'' refers to various kinds of settlements or administrative subdivisions in different countries. While a ''township'' may be associated with an urban area, this tends to be an exception to t ...
,
Gurgaon Gurgaon, officially named Gurugram (pronunciation: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, ʊɾʊɡɾaːm, is a city located in the northern Indian state of Haryana. It is situated near the Delhi–Haryana border, about southwest of the national capit ...
( Ferozepur Jhirka),
Hansi Hansi, is a city, a municipal council A municipal council is the legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members ...

Hansi
, Hisar, Kasan, Nahad,
Narnaul Narnaul is a city, a municipal council A municipal council is the legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of member ...
,
Pehowa Pehowa is a town and a municipal committee in Kurukshetra district in the Indian States and territories of India, state of Haryana. It is an important sacred Hindu yatra, pilgrimage site, related to Krishna and Mahabharata, within the 48 Kos Par ...
,
Rewari Rewari is a city and a Municipal Council in Rewari district in the Indian States and territories of India, state of Haryana. It is located in south-west Haryana. 82 km from Delhi
, Rohad,
Rohtak Rohtak () is a city and the administrative headquarters of the Rohtak district Rohtak district is a Districts of Haryana, district in the Indian state of Haryana. It is located in the southeast of Haryana and northwest of Delhi, bounded by ...

Rohtak
( Asthal Bohar) and
Sonepat Sonipat is a city and a municipal corporation in Haryana state of India. It comes under the National Capital Region and is around from Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory ...
in Haryana.
Pushyabhuti dynasty The Pushyabhuti dynasty (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages ...
ruled parts of northern India in the 7th century with its capital at
Thanesar Thanesar city or old Kurukshetra city is a historic town and an important Hindu pilgrimage centre in the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Depart ...
.
Harsha Harshavardhana (c. 590–647 CE) was an Indian emperor who ruled North India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in Sou ...

Harsha
was a prominent king of the dynasty.
Tomara dynasty The Tomara (also called Tomar in modern vernaculars because of schwa deletion) dynasty ruled parts of present-day Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a ...
ruled the south Haryana region in the 10th century.
Anangpal Tomar Anangpal II, popularly known as Anangpal Tomar, was an Indian emperor who belonged to the Tomara dynasty. He is credited to have established and populated Delhi in the 11th century. The Tomar empire reached its zenith during his reign. He is of ...
was a prominent king among the Tomaras. After the sack of Bhatner fort during the
TimuridTimurid refers to those descended from Timur (Tamerlane), a 14th-century conqueror: * Timurid dynasty, a dynasty of Turco-Mongol lineage descended from Timur who established empires in Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent ** Timurid Empire of Ce ...
conquests of India in 1398,
Timur Timur ; chg, ''Aqsaq Temür'', 'Timur the Lame') or as ''Sahib-i-Qiran'' ( 'Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction'), his epithet. ( chg, ''Temür'', 'Iron'; 9 April 133617–19 February 1405), later Timūr Gurkānī ( chg, ''Temür Kür ...

Timur
attacked and sacked the cities of
Sirsa Sirsa is a city and a municipal council in Sirsa district in the westernmost region of the Indian States and territories of India, state of Haryana, bordering Punjab (India), Punjab and Rajasthan. It is located 250 kilometres north-west of New De ...
, Fatehabad,
Sunam Sunam is a city and a tehsil in Sangrur district in the Indian States and territories of India, state of Punjab (India), Punjab. The city of Sunam, which falls in Sunam tehsil, was renamed as Sunam Udham Singh Wala in 2006 by the Punjab Governm ...
, Kaithal and
Panipat Panipat () is a historic city in Haryana, India. It is 95 km north of Delhi and 169 km south of Chandigarh on List of National Highways in India, NH-1. The three major battles fought in First Battle of Panipat, 1526, Second Battle o ...

Panipat
. When he reached the town of Sarsuti (Sirsa), the residents, who were mostly non-Muslims, fled and were chased by a detachment of Timur's troops, with thousands of them being killed and looted by the troops. From there he travelled to Fatehabad, whose residents fled and a large number of those remaining in the town were massacred. The
Ahirs Ahir or Aheer is a community in India, most members of which identify as being of the Indian Yadav community because they consider the two terms to be synonymous. The Ahirs are variously described as a Caste system in India, caste, a clan, a co ...
resisted him at Ahruni but were defeated, with thousands being killed and many being taken prisoners while the town was burnt to ashes. From there he travelled to
Tohana Tohana is a city and a municipal council A municipal council is the legislative body A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. Legislat ...
, whose
Jat The Jat people () are a traditionally agriculture based community largely in rural parts of Northern India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of ...
inhabitants were stated to be robbers according to
Sharaf ad-Din Ali Yazdi Sharaf ad-Din Ali Yazdi or Sharif al-Din Ali’ Yazdi ( fa, شرف الدین علی یزدی) (born Yazd, Iran—died 1454, Yazd), also known by his pen name Sharaf, was a 15th-century Persian scholar who authored several works in the arts and sc ...
. They tried to resist but were defeated and fled. Timur's army pursued and killed 200
Jats The Journal Article Tag Suite (JATS) is an XML format used to Metadata, describe scientific literature published online. It is a technical standard developed by the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) and approved by the American N ...
, while taking many more as prisoners. He then sent a detachment to chase the fleeing
Jats The Journal Article Tag Suite (JATS) is an XML format used to Metadata, describe scientific literature published online. It is a technical standard developed by the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) and approved by the American N ...
and killed 2,000 of them while their wives and children were enslaved and their property plundered. Timur proceeded to Kaithal whose residents were massacred and plundered, destroying all villages along the way. On the next day, he came to Assandh whose residents were " fire-worshippers" according to Yazdi, and had fled to Delhi. Next, he travelled to and subdued Tughlaqpur fort and Salwan before reaching
Panipat Panipat () is a historic city in Haryana, India. It is 95 km north of Delhi and 169 km south of Chandigarh on List of National Highways in India, NH-1. The three major battles fought in First Battle of Panipat, 1526, Second Battle o ...

Panipat
whose residents had already fled. He then marched on to Loni fort. Hemu claimed royal status after defeating Akbar's Mughal forces on 7 October 1556 in the Battle of Delhi and assumed the ancient title of
Vikramaditya Vikramaditya (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientif ...
. The area that is now Haryana has been ruled by some of the major empires of India.
Panipat Panipat () is a historic city in Haryana, India. It is 95 km north of Delhi and 169 km south of Chandigarh on List of National Highways in India, NH-1. The three major battles fought in First Battle of Panipat, 1526, Second Battle o ...

Panipat
is known for three seminal battles in the history of India. In the
First Battle of Panipat The First Battle of Panipat, on 21 April 1526, was fought between the invading forces of Babur Babur ( fa, , lit= tiger, translit= Bābur; 14 February 148326 December 1530), born Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the founder of the Mugha ...
(1526),
Babur Babur ( fa, , lit= tiger, translit= Bābur; 14 February 148326 December 1530), born Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the founder of the Mughal Empire and first Mughal emperors, Emperor of the Mughal dynasty () in the Indian subcontinent. He ...

Babur
defeated the Lodis. In the
Second Battle of Panipat The Second Battle of Panipat was fought on 5 November 1556, between the Hindu king, Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, also called Hemu Hemu (; also known as Hemu Vikramaditya and Hemchandra Vikramaditya; died 5 November 1556) was a Hindu king who ...
(1556),
Akbar Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated ...

Akbar
defeated the local Haryanvi Hindu Emperor of Delhi, who belonged to
Rewari Rewari is a city and a Municipal Council in Rewari district in the Indian States and territories of India, state of Haryana. It is located in south-west Haryana. 82 km from Delhi
.
Hem Chandra Vikramaditya Hemu (; also known as Hemu Vikramaditya and Hemchandra Vikramaditya; died 5 November 1556) was a Hindu Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduis ...
had earlier won 22 battles across India from Punjab to Bengal, defeating Mughals and Afghans. Hemu had defeated Akbar's forces twice at Agra and the Battle of Delhi in 1556 to become the last Hindu Emperor of India with a formal coronation at
Purana Quila Purana Qila () is one of the oldest forts in Delhi, India. It is located near the expansive Pragati Maidan exhibition ground and is separated from the Dhyanchand Stadium by the Mathura Road, Delhi. History Pre-Islamic origins and Indraprastha ...

Purana Quila
in Delhi on 7 October 1556. In the
Third Battle of Panipat The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 at Panipat, about 97 km (60 miles) north of Delhi, between the Maratha Empire and the invading Durrani Empire, Afghan army (of Ahmad Shah Durrani), supported by four Indian allies ...
(1761), the Afghan king
Ahmad Shah Abdali Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 4 June 1772) ( Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (), was the founder of the Durrani Empire The Durrani Empire ( ps, د درانيانو ټولواکمني), also ...
defeated the
Marathas The Maratha caste are a Marathi clan originally formed in the earlier centuries from the amalgamation of families from the peasant (Kunbi), shepherd ( Dhangar), pastoral (Gavli, Gawli), blacksmith (Lohar), Sutar (carpenter), Bhandari caste, Bh ...

Marathas
.


Formation

Haryana as a state came into existence on 1 November 1966 the Punjab Reorganisation Act (1966). The Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice JC Shah on 23 April 1966 to divide the existing state of
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
and determine the boundaries of the new state of Haryana after consideration of the languages spoken by the people. The commission delivered its report on 31 May 1966 whereby the then-districts of Hisar,
Mahendragarh Mahendragarh is a city and a municipal committee in Mahendragarh district in the Indian States and territories of India, state of Haryana. It is from Gurgaon and comes under National Capital Region (India). Etymology Earlier named ''kanaud'', ...

Mahendragarh
,
Gurgaon Gurgaon, officially named Gurugram (pronunciation: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, ʊɾʊɡɾaːm, is a city located in the northern Indian state of Haryana. It is situated near the Delhi–Haryana border, about southwest of the national capit ...
,
Rohtak Rohtak () is a city and the administrative headquarters of the Rohtak district Rohtak district is a Districts of Haryana, district in the Indian state of Haryana. It is located in the southeast of Haryana and northwest of Delhi, bounded by ...

Rohtak
and
Karnal Karnal ( is a city located in the state of Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with l ...

Karnal
were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the
tehsil A tehsil also known as tahsil, taluka, or taluk) is a local unit of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, a ...
s of
Jind Jind is one of the largest and oldest cities in the Indian state of Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st ...
and Narwana in the
Sangrur Sangrur is a city in the Indian state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a dai ...
district – along with Naraingarh,
Ambala Ambala (), is a city and a municipal corporation A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body An Academy school in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the Unite ...
and
Jagadhri Jagadhri is a city and a municipal council in the Yamunanagar district of the States and union territories of India, Indian state of Haryana. This town lies adjacent to the city of Yamunanagar. The demarcation line between the two is difficult to ...
– were to be included. The commission recommended that the tehsil of Kharar, which includes
Chandigarh Chandigarh (; ) is a city, district A district is a type of that, in some countries, is managed by the . Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning s or , several , subdivisions of municipalities, , or . ...

Chandigarh
, the state capital of Punjab, should be a part of Haryana. However Kharar was given to Punjab. The city of Chandigarh was made a
union territory #REDIRECT Union territory #REDIRECT Union territory#REDIRECT Union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administ ...
, serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana. Bhagwat Dayal Sharma became the first
Chief Minister of Haryana#REDIRECT List of chief ministers of Haryana {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from alternative capitalisation ...
.


Demographics


Religion

According to the 2011 census, of total 25,350,000 population of Haryana,
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...

Hindu
s (87.46%) constitute the majority of the state's population with
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
s (7.03%) (mainly
MeoMeo may refer to: * Meo (ethnic group), Muslim inhabitants of Mewat, a region in North-Western India * MEO (telecommunication company), a brand of Portugal Telecom used for services targeting individuals and homes * Méo, a place in Ivory Coast * Me ...
s) and
Sikh Sikhs ( or ; pa, ਸਿੱਖ, ', ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a Monotheism, monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The te ...

Sikh
s (4.91%) being the largest minorities. Muslims are mainly found in the
Nuh Nuh may refer to: * Nuh (city), Nuh district, Haryana, India * Nuh district, Haryana * Nūḥ, the 71st sura of the Qur'an People * Nuh (name), list of people with this name * Nuh (prophet), a prophet in the Qur'an, known as Noah in the Old Tes ...
. Haryana has the second largest Sikh population in India after
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
, and they mostly live in the districts adjoining
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...

Punjab
, such as
Sirsa Sirsa is a city and a municipal council in Sirsa district in the westernmost region of the Indian States and territories of India, state of Haryana, bordering Punjab (India), Punjab and Rajasthan. It is located 250 kilometres north-west of New De ...
,
Jind Jind is one of the largest and oldest cities in the Indian state of Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st ...
, Fatehabad, Kaithal,
Kurukshetra Kurukshetra (, ) is a city in the Indian state of Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of ar ...
,
Ambala Ambala (), is a city and a municipal corporation A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body An Academy school in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the Unite ...
and
Panchkula Panchkula is a planned city A planned community, planned city, or planned town is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed on previously undeveloped land. This contrasts with settlement ...
.


Languages

The official language of Haryana is
Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, North India. Hindi has been described as a Standard la ...

Hindi
. Several regional languages or dialects, often subsumed under Hindi, are spoken in the state. Predominant among them is
Haryanvi Haryanvi ( ' or ') is a Central Indo-Aryan language or dialect spoken in Haryana, India. It is also spoken in metropolitan cities like Delhi and Kolkata to a lesser extent. Haryanvi is considered to be a Western Hindi dialect, like Khariboli a ...
(also known as Bangru), whose territory encompasses the central and eastern portions of Haryana.
Hindustani Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms are Hindi and Urdu * Fiji Hindi, a variety of Eastern Hindi spoken in Fiji, and i ...
is spoken in the northeast, Bagri in the west, and
Ahirwati Ahirwati (''Ahīrvāṭī'', sometimes also known as Hīrwāṭī) is an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these language ...
,
Mewati Mewati (Devanagri:मेवाती; Urdu:میواتی) is an Indo-Aryan language The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages form a major language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( s ...
and
Braj Bhasha The Braj language, ''Braj Bhāshā'', also known as Braji or Brij Bhasha or Braj Boli, is a Western Hindi languages, Western Hindi language. Along with Awadhi (a variety of Eastern Hindi), it was one of the two predominant literary languages o ...
in the south. There are also significant numbers of speakers of
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
and
Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a ge ...
, the latter of which was recognised in 2010 as a second official language of Haryana for government and administrative purposes. After the state's formation, Telugu was made the state's "second language" – to be taught in schools – but it was not the "second official language" for official communication. Due to a lack of students, the language ultimately stopped being taught. Tamil was made the second language in 1969 by
Bansi Lal Bansi Lal Legha (26 August 1927 – 28 March 2006) was an Indian independence activist, senior Congress leader, former Chief Minister of Haryana, former Defense Minister of India, and considered by many to be the architect of modern Haryana. B ...
to show the state's differences with Punjab although there were no Tamil speakers in Haryana at the time. In 2010, due to the lack of Tamil speakers, the language was removed from its status. There are also some speakers of several major regional languages of neighbouring states or other parts of the subcontinent, like
Bengali Bengali or Bengalee, or Bengalese may refer to: *something of, from, or related to Bengal, a large region in South Asia * Bengalis, an ethnic and linguistic group of the region * Bengali language, the language they speak ** Bengali alphabet, the wr ...
,
Bhojpuri Bhojpuri (;Bhojpuri entry, Oxford Dictionaries
, Oxford Un ...
, Marwari,
Mewari Mewari is one of the major dialects of Rajasthani language of Indo-Aryan languages family. It is spoken by about five million speakers in Rajsamand, Bhilwara, Udaipur, Rajasthan, Udaipur, and Chittorgarh districts of Rajasthan state of India. It ...
, and Saraiki, as well as smaller communities of speakers of languages that are dispersed across larger regions, like Bauria,
Bazigar Bazigars (from fa, بازیگر bazi + gar), are an ethnic group of north-western India. They are primarily found in Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, a ...
,
Gujari Gurjari, also known as Gujri (गुर्जरी, ) is a variety of Indo-Aryan spoken by the Gurjars and other tribes of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of ...

Gujari
, Gade Lohar, Oadki, and Sansi.


Culture


Music

Haryana has its own unique traditional
folk music Folk music is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from ''musical form'' and musical style, althoug ...
, ,
saang Saang ( hi, सांग), also known as Swang (meaning "initiation") or Svang (), is a popular folk dance–theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses ...
(folk theatre),Sachchidananda'' Encyclopaedic Profile of Indian Tribes'' Volume 1 - 1996 817141298X p416.
cinema Cinema may refer to: Film * Cinematography Cinematography (from ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It ...
, belief system such as Jathera (ancestral worship),A Glossary of the tribes & castes of Punjab by H. A Rose and arts such as
Phulkari Phulkari ( pa, ਫੁਲਕਾਰੀ) refers to the folk embroidery of the Punjab. Although Phulkari means floral work, the designs include not only flowers but also cover motifs and geometrical shapes. The main characteristics of Phulkari embro ...
and Shisha embroidery.


Folk theatre and dances

Folk music and dances of Haryana are based on satisfying cultural needs of primarily agrarian society, agrarian and martial race, martial natures of Haryanavi tribes. Haryanvi musical folk theatre main types are Saang, Rasa lila and Raga#Rāga-Rāgini system, Ragini. The Saang and Ragini form of theatre was popularised by Lakhmi Chand.Manorma Sharma, 2007
Musical Heritage of India
Page 65-125.
Haryanvi folk dances and music have fast energetic movements. Three popular categories of dance are: festive-seasonal, devotional, and ceremonial-recreational. The festive-seasonal dances and songs are Gogaji/Gugga, Holi, Phalgun, Phaag, Shravana, Sawan, Teej. The devotional dances and songs are Chaupai (poetry), Chaupaiya, Holi, Taal (instrument), Manjira, Rasa lila, Ras Leela, Raga#Rāga-Rāgini system, Raginis). The ceremonial-recreational dances and songs are of following types: legendary bravery (Punjabi Qisse, Kissa and Raga#Rāga-Rāgini system, Ragini of male warriors and female Satis), love and romance (Pungi, Been and its variant Nāginī dance, and Raga#Rāga-Rāgini system, Ragini), ceremonial (Chang dance, Dhamal Dance, Ghoomar, Jhumar, Jhoomar (male), Khoria, Loor, and Raga#Rāga-Rāgini system, Ragini).


Folk music and songs

Haryanvi folk music is based on day to day themes and injecting earthly humour enlivens the feel of the songs. Haryanvi music takes two main forms: "Classical folk music" and "Desi Folk music" (Country Music of Haryana), and sung in the form of ballads and love, valor and bravery, harvest, happiness and pangs of parting of lovers.S. C. Bhatt and Gopal K. Bhargava, 2006
Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: 21 Arts and Crafts of Haryana
S. Gajrani, 2004
History, Religion and Culture of India
Volume 1, Page 96.


=Classical Haryanvi folk music

= Classical Haryanvi folk music is based on Indian classical music. List of Ragas in Hindustani classical music, Hindustani classical ragas, learnt in gharana parampara of guru–shishya tradition, are used to sing songs of heroic bravery (such as Alha-Khand (1163–1202 CE) about the bravery of Alha, Alha and Udal, Jaimal Rathore, Jaimal and Patta Sisodia, Patta of Maharana Udai Singh II), Brahmas worship and festive seasonal songs (such as Teej, Holi and Phalguna, Phaag songs of Phalgun month near Holi). Bravery songs are sung in high pitch.


=Desi Haryanvi folk music

= Desi Haryanvi folk music, is a form of Haryanvi music, based on Bhairavi (Hindustani), Raag Bhairvi, Bhairav (raga), Raag Bhairav, Kafi (raga), Raag Kafi, Jaijaivanti, Raag Jaijaivanti, Jhinjhoti, Raag Jhinjhoti and Raga, Raag Pahadi and used for celebrating community bonhomie to sing seasonal songs, ballads, Religious music, ceremonial songs (wedding, etc.) and related religious legendary tales such as Puran Bhagat. Relationship and songs celebrating love and life are sung in medium pitch. Ceremonial and religious songs are sung in low pitch. Young girls and women usually sing entertaining and fast seasonal, love, relationship and friendship related songs such as Phalguna, Phagan (song for eponymous season/month), Kartik (month), Katak (songs for the eponymous season/month), Shraavana, Samman (songs for the eponymous season/month), (male-female duet songs), (songs of sharing heartfelt feelings among female friends). Older women usually sing devotional Mangal Geet (auspicious songs) and ceremonial songs such as Bhajan, Bhat (wedding gift to the mother of bride or groom by her brother), Punjabi wedding traditions#Sagai, Sagai, Hindu wedding, Ban (Hindu wedding ritual where pre-wedding festivities starts), Childbirth in India, Kuan-Poojan (a custom that is performed to welcome the birth of a child by worshiping the well or source of drinking water), Sanjhi and Holi festival.


= Socially normative-cohesive impact

= Music and dance for Haryanvi people is a great way of demolishing societal differences as folk singers are highly esteemed and they are sought after and invited for the events, ceremonies and special occasions regardless of their caste or status. These inter-caste songs are fluid in nature, and never personalised for any specific caste, and they are sung collectively by women from different strata, castes, dialects. These songs do transform fluidly in dialect, style, words, etc. This adoptive style can be seen from the adoption of tunes of Bollywood movie songs into Haryanvi songs. Despite this continuous fluid transforming nature, Haryanvi songs have a distinct style of their own as explained above. With the coming up of a strongly socio-economic metropolitan culture in the emergence of urban Gurgaon (Gurugram) Haryana is also witnessing community participation in public arts and city beautification. Several landmarks across Gurgaon are decorated with public murals and graffiti with cultural cohesive ideologies and stand the testimony of a lived sentiment in Haryana folk.


Cuisine

As per a survey, 13% of males and 7.8% of females of Haryana are non-vegetarian. The Indian cuisine#Haryana, regional cuisine features the staples of roti, saag, Curry, vegetarian sabzi and milk products such as ghee, milk, lassi and kheer.Cuisine of Haryana
, Haryana Tourism.


Society

Haryanvi people have a concept of inclusive society involving the ''"36 royal races, 36 Jātis"'' or communities. Castes such as
Jat The Jat people () are a traditionally agriculture based community largely in rural parts of Northern India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of ...
,
Ahirs Ahir or Aheer is a community in India, most members of which identify as being of the Indian Yadav community because they consider the two terms to be synonymous. The Ahirs are variously described as a Caste system in India, caste, a clan, a co ...
, Khatri,Aggarwal, Brahmin, Rajput, Tyagi, Saini, Gurjar, Meo (ethnic group), Mev, Vishnoi and Dalit, Harijan are some of the notable of these 36 Jātis.


Geography

Haryana is a landlocked state in northern India. It is between 27°39' to 30°35' N latitude and between 74°28' and 77°36' E longitude. The total geographical area of the state is 4.42 m ha, which is 1.4% of the geographical area of the country. The altitude of Haryana varies between 700 and 3600 ft (200 metres to 1200 metres) above sea level. Haryana has only 4% (compared with national 21.85%) area under forests. Karoh Peak, a tall mountain peak in the Sivalik Hills range of the greater Himalayas range located near Morni Hills area of Panchkula district, is highest point in Haryana.


Plains and mountains

Haryana has four main geographical features. * The
Yamuna The Yamuna (Hindustani language, Hindustani: ) is the second-largest tributary river of the Ganga by discharge and the longest tributary in List of major rivers of India, India. Originating from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height of on the ...

Yamuna
-Ghaggar plain forming the largest part of the state is also called Doab, Delhi doab consisting of ''Sutlej-Ghaggar doab'' (between Sutlej in north in Punjab and Ghaggar-Hakra River, Ghaggar river flowing through northern Haryana), ''Ghaggar-Hakra doab'' (between Ghaggar river and Drishadvati river, Hakra or Drishadvati river which is the paleochannel of the holy Saraswati River) and ''Hakra-Yamuna doab'' (between Hakra river and Yamuna). See also: Doab. * The Shivalik Hills, Lower Shivalik Hills to the northeast in foothills of Himalaya * The Bagar tract semi-desert dry sandy plain to the
south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germa ...
-west. See also: Doab#Khadir and bangar, Bangar and Khadir. * The Aravalli Range, Aravali Range's northernmost low rise isolated non-continuous outcrops in the
south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germa ...


Hydrography

The
Yamuna The Yamuna (Hindustani language, Hindustani: ) is the second-largest tributary river of the Ganga by discharge and the longest tributary in List of major rivers of India, India. Originating from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height of on the ...

Yamuna
, tributary of Ganges, flows along the state's eastern boundary. Northern Haryana has several north-east to west flowing rivers originating from the Sivalik Hills of Himalayas, such as Ghaggar-Hakra River, Ghaggar-Hakra (palaeochannel of vedic Sarasvati river), Chautang (paleochannel of vedic Drishadvati river, tributary of Ghagghar), Tangri river (tributary of Ghagghar), Kaushalya river (tributary of Ghagghar), Markanda river, Haryana, Markanda River (tributary of Ghagghar), Sarsuti, Dangri, Somb river. Haryana's main seasonal river, the Ghaggar-Hakra, known as Ghaggar before the Ottu barrage and as the Hakra downstream of the barrage, rises in the outer Himalayas, between the Yamuna and the Satluj and enters the state near Pinjore in the Panchkula district, passes through
Ambala Ambala (), is a city and a municipal corporation A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body An Academy school in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the Unite ...
and
Sirsa Sirsa is a city and a municipal council in Sirsa district in the westernmost region of the Indian States and territories of India, state of Haryana, bordering Punjab (India), Punjab and Rajasthan. It is located 250 kilometres north-west of New De ...
, it reaches Bikaner in
Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspa ...

Rajasthan
and runs for before disappearing into the deserts of Rajasthan. The seasonal Markanda River, Haryana, Markanda River, known as the ''Aruna'' in ancient times, originates from the lower Shivalik Hills and enters Haryana west of
Ambala Ambala (), is a city and a municipal corporation A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body An Academy school in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the Unite ...
, and swells into a raging torrent during monsoon is notorious for its devastating power, carries its surplus water on to the Sanisa Lake where the Markanda joins the Sarasuti and later the Ghaggar. Southern Haryana has several south-west to east flowing seasonal rivulets originating from the Aravalli Range in and around the hills in Mewat region, including Sahibi RiverCultural Contours of India: Dr. Satya Prakash Felicitation Volume, Vijai Shankar Śrivastava, 1981
Minerals and Metals in Ancient India: Archaeological evidence
Arun Kumar Biswas, Sulekha Biswas, University of Michigan. 1996. .
(called Najafgarh drain in Delhi),Environment Minister raises a stink over Najafgarh jheel
22 February 2005, The Indian Express
Najafgarh drain 11th among highly polluted industrial clusters
, 25 December 2009, The Times of India
drain causes less pollution in Yamuna now
4 July 2006, The Indian Express
Dohan river (tributary of Sahibi, originates at Mandoli village near Neem Ka Thana in Jhunjhunu district of
Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspa ...

Rajasthan
and then disappears in Mahendragarh district), Krishnavati river (former tributary of Sahibi river, originates near Dariba, Rajasthan, Dariba and disappears in Mahendragarh district much before reaching Sahibi river) and Indori river (longest tributary of Sahibi River, originates in Sikar district of
Rajasthan Rajasthan (; ; lit. 'Land of Kings') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspa ...

Rajasthan
and flows to Rewari district of Haryana), these once were tributaries of the Drishadwati/Saraswati river. Major canals are Western Yaumna Canal, Western Yamuna Canal, Sutlej Yamuna link canal (from Sutlej river tributary of Indus), and Indira Gandhi Canal.Ramtanu Maitra: The Indira Gandhi Canal: greening the desert in India EIR Volume 14, Number 7, 13 February 1987 Major dams are Kaushalya Dam in Panchkula district, Hathnikund Barrage and Tajewala Barrage on Yamuna in Yamunanagar district, Pathrala barrage on Somb river in Yamunanagar district, ancient Anagpur Dam near Surajkund in Faridabad district, and Ottu barrage on Ghaggar-Hakra River in Sirsa district. Major lakes are Dighal Wetland, Basai Wetland, Badkhal Lake in Faridabad, holy Brahma Sarovar and Sannihit Sarovar in Kurukshetra, Blue Bird Lake in Hisar, Damdama Lake at Sohna in Gurgram district,Damdama lake
, official website.
Rajiv Tiwari
"Delhi A Travel Guide"
, .
Hathni Kund in Yamunanagar district, Karna Lake at Karnal,Page 153, Tourism: Theory, Planning, and Practice, By K.K. Karma, Krishnan K. Kamra, Published 1997, Indus Publishing, ancient Surajkund in
Faridabad Faridabad () is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...
, and Tilyar Lake in Rohtak.Page 149, ''India: A Travel Guide'', By B.R. Kishore, published 2001, Diamond Pocket Books (P) Limited, The ''Haryana State Waterbody Management Board'' is responsible for rejuvenation of 14,000 Johad#Johads of Haryana, Johads of Haryana and up to 60 lakes in falling within the Haryana state."Haryana to develop 50-60 small lakes, water bodies in NCR: Manohar Lal Khattar"
, Indian Express, 1 November 2017.
"Haryana to constitute pond management authority "
, Business Standard, 1 November 2017.
Only hot spring of Haryana is the Sohna#Sohna Sulphur Hot Spring, Sohna Sulphur Hot Spring at Sohna in Gurgaon district."Sohna Hot Spring."
, The Tribune.
Tosham Hill range has several Tosham Hill range#Sacred Sulphur Ponds of Tosham Hill, sacred sulphur pond of religious significance that are revered for the healing impact of sulphur, such as ''Pandu Teerth Kund'', ''Surya Kund'', ''Kukkar Kund'', ''Gyarasia Kund'' or ''Vyas Kund''.2004
"Records, Volume 135, Part 1."
, Geological Survey of India, Page 144.
Seasonal waterfalls include Morni#Tikkar Taal, Tikkar Taal twin lakes at Morni, Morni hiills, Dhosi Hill in Mahendragarh district and Pali village on outskirts of Faridabad.


Climate

Haryana is extremely hot in summer at around and mild in winter. The hottest months are May and June and the coldest December and January. The climate is arid to semi-arid with average rainfall of 354.5 mm. Around 29% of rainfall is received during the months from July to September, and the remaining rainfall is received during the period from December to February.


Flora and fauna


Forests

Forest cover in the state in 2013 was 3.59% (1586 km2) and the Tree Cover in the state was 2.90% (1282 km2), giving a total forest and tree cover of 6.49%. In 2016–17, 18,412 hectares were brought under tree cover by planting 14.1 million seedlings. Thorny, dry, deciduous forest and thorny shrubs can be found all over the state. During the monsoon, a carpet of grass covers the hills. Mulberry, eucalyptus, pine, kikar, shisham and babul are some of the trees found here. The species of fauna found in the state of Haryana include black buck, nilgai, Leopard, panther, fox, mongoose, jackal and wild dog. More than 450 species of birds are found here.


Wildlife

Haryana has two national parks, eight wildlife sanctuaries, two wildlife conservation areas, four animal and bird breeding centers, one deer park and three zoos, all of which are managed by the Haryana Forest Department of the Government of Haryana. Sultanpur National Park is a notable Park located in Gurugram District


Environmental and ecological issues

Haryana Environment Protection Council is the advisory committee and Department of Environment, Haryana is the department responsible for the administration of environment. Areas of Haryana surrounding National Capital Region (India), Delhi NCR are the most polluted. During smog of November 2017, Air quality index of
Gurgaon Gurgaon, officially named Gurugram (pronunciation: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, ʊɾʊɡɾaːm, is a city located in the northern Indian state of Haryana. It is situated near the Delhi–Haryana border, about southwest of the national capit ...
and
Faridabad Faridabad () is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...
showed that the density of Particulates, Fine particulates (2.5 Micrometre, PM diameter) was an average of 400 PM and monthly average of Haryana was 60 pm. Other sources of pollution are exhaust gases from old vehicles, Crusher, stone crushers and Brick Kiln. Haryana has 7.5 million old vehicles, of which 40% are old more polluting vehicles, besides 500,000 new vehicles are added every year. Other majorly polluted cities are
Bhiwani Bhiwani is a city and a municipal council in Bhiwani district in the state of Haryana Haryana () is a States and union territories of India, state in India located in the northern part of the country. It was carved out of the former state ...

Bhiwani
, Bahadurgarh, Dharuhera, Hisar and Yamunanagar."From Punjab to Patna pollution spreads."
Dainik Jagran, 12 November 2017.


Administration


Divisions

The state is divided into 6 revenue divisions, 5 Police ranks and insignia of India#State police forces and their structure, Police Ranges and 3 Police ranks and insignia of India#State police forces and their structure, Police Commissionerates (c. January 2017).Reorganisation of Haryana divisions
, Daily Pioneer, 3 January 2017.

, 2 February 2017.
Authority set up to rejig administrative units across Haryana
, Times of India, 3 January 2017.

, Web India, 2 February 2017.
Divisions of Haryana#Revenue divisions, Six revenue divisions are: Ambala Division, Ambala, Rohtak Division, Rohtak, Gurgaon Division, Gurgaon, Hisar Division, Hisar, Karnal division, Karnal and Faridabad division, Faridabad. Haryana has 11 Municipal Corporations in India, municipal corporations (Gurgaon, Faridabad, Ambala, Panchkula, Yamunanagar, Rohtak, Hisar, Panipat, Karnal, Sonepat, and Manesar), 18 municipal councils and 52 Nagar Palika, municipalities.Municipal taxes will be sanctioned to the weak bodies of the state
Within these there are 22 districts, 72 sub-divisions, 93 tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils, 140 blocks, 154 cities and towns, 6,848 villages, 6,222 villages panchayats and numerous smaller Dhani (settlement type), dhanis.


Districts


Law and order

Haryana Police force is the law enforcement agency of Haryana. Divisions of Haryana#Police ranges, Five Police Ranges are Ambala, Hissar, Karnal, Rewari and Rohtak.Haryana establishes five police ranges
, business Standard, 16 January 2017.
Divisions of Haryana#Police commissionerates, Three Police Commissionerates are Faridabad, Gurgaon and Panchkula. Cybercrime investigation cell is based in Gurgaon's Sector 51. The highest judicial authority in the state is the Punjab and Haryana High Court, with next higher right of appeal to Supreme Court of India. Haryana uses an e-filing facility.


Governance and e-governance

The Common Service Centres (CSCs) have been upgraded in all districts to offer hundreds of e-services to citizens, including applications of new water and sanitation connections, electricity bill collection, ration card member registration, result of Haryana Board of School Education, HBSE, admit cards for board examinations, online admission forms for government colleges, long route booking of buses, admission forms for Kurukshetra University and Haryana Urban Development Authority, HUDA plots status inquiry. Haryana has become the first state to implement Aadhaar-enabled birth registration in all the districts. Thousands of all traditional offline state and central government services are also available 24/7 service, 24/7 online through single unified UMANG app and portal as part of Digital India initiative."Government unveils Umang app for citizen services."
, Economic Times, 23 November 2017.

, Business Standard, 23 November 2017.


Economy

Haryana's list of Indian states and union territories by GDP, 14th placed 12.96% 2012-17 compound annual growth rate, CAGRIndustrial Development & Economic Growth in Haryana
, India Brand Equity Foundation, Nov 2017.
estimated 2017-18 GSDP of US$95 billion is split in to 52% Service economy, services, 30% Industrial sector, industries and 18% Agriculture in India, agriculture. Services sector is split across 45% in real estate and financial and professional services, 26% trade and Tourism in Haryana, hospitality, 15% state and central govt employees, and 14% transport and logistics & warehousing. In IT services, Gurugram ranks number 1 in India in growth rate and existing technology infrastructure, and number 2 in startup ecosystem, innovation and livability (Nov 2016).India's Top 12 Tech Cities: Digital Indian Cities Survey, 2016
, CEOWORLD magazine, Nov 2016.
Industries sector is split across 69% manufacturing, 28% construction, 2% utilities and 1% mining. In industrial manufacturing, Haryana produces India's 67% of passenger cars, 60% of motorcycles, 50% of tractors and 50% of the refrigerators. Services and industrial sectors are boosted by 7 operational special economic zone, SEZs and additional 23 formally approved SEZs (20 already notified and 3 in-principal approval) that are mostly spread along the Delhi–Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project, Delhi–Mumbai Industrial Corridor, Amritsar Delhi Kolkata Industrial Corridor and Delhi Western Peripheral Expressway, Western Peripheral Expressway. Agriculture sector is split across 93% crops and livestock, 4% commercial forestry and logging, and 2% fisheries. Agriculture sector of Haryana, with only less than 1.4% area of India, contributes 15% food grains to the Public distribution system, central food security public distribution system, and 7% of total national agricultural exports including 60% of total national Basmati rice export.


Agriculture


Crops

Haryana is traditionally an agrarian society of zamindars (owner-cultivator farmers). About 70% of Haryana's residents are engaged in agriculture. The Green Revolution in India, Green Revolution in Haryana of the 1960s combined with completion of Bhakra Dam in 1963 and Western Yamuna Canal#Western Yamuna Command Network, Western Yamuna Command Network canal system in 1970s resulted in the significantly increased food grain production. As a result, Haryana is self sufficient in food production and the second largest contributor to India's central pool of food grains In 2015–2016, Haryana produced the following principal crops: 13,352,000 tonne wheat, 4,145,000 tonne basmati, rice, 7,169,000 tonne sugarcane, 993,000 tonne cotton and 855,000 tonne oilseeds (mustard seed, sunflower, etc.).


Fruits, vegetables and spices

Vegetable production was: potato 853,806 tonnes, onion 705,795 tonnes, tomato 675,384 tonnes, cauliflower 578,953 tonnes, Leaf vegetable, leafy vegetables 370,646 tonnes, brinjal 331,169 tonnes, Cucurbitaceae, guard 307,793 tonnes, Pea, peas 111,081 tonnes and others 269,993 tonnes. Fruit, Fruits production was: citrus 301,764 tonnes, guava 152,184 tonnes, mango 89,965 tonnes, Sapota, chikoo 16,022 tonnes, Indian gooseberry, aonla 12,056 tonnes and other fruits 25,848 tonnes. Spice, Spices production was: garlic 40,497 tonnes, fenugreek 9,348 tonnes, ginger 4,304 tonnes and others 840 tonnes.


Flowers and medicinal plants

Cut flowers production was: Calendula officinalis, marigold 61,830 tonnes, gladiolus 2,448,620 million, rose 1,861,160 million and other 691,300 million. Medicinal plants production was: aloe vera 1403 tonnes and stevia 13 tonnes.


Livestock

Haryana is well known for its high-yield Murrah buffalo. Other breeds of cattle native to Haryana are Haryanvi cattle, Haryanvi, Mewati cattle, Mewati, Sahiwal cattle, Sahiwal and Nili-Ravi.


Research

To support its agrarian economy, both central government (Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Central Sheep Breeding Farm, National Research Centre on Equines, ICAR CIFE Rohtak centre, Central Institute of Fisheries, National Dairy Research Institute, Regional Centre for Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research and National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources) and state government (Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, CCS HAU, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, LUVAS, Government Livestock Farm, Hisar, Government Livestock Farm, Regional Fodder Station, Hisar, Regional Fodder Station and Northern Region Farm Machinery Training and Testing Institute) have opened several institutes for research and education.M Gupta, 2011
Ranking of Indian institutions in agriculture & allied sciences
.
Jagvir Singh Yadav, 1992
Evaluation of Agricultural Extension: A Study of Haryana
Page 44.
Salim Ahmed Lalli, 2007
Infrastructure and agricultural development in Haryana: policy implications


Industrial sector


Manufacturing

*
Faridabad Faridabad () is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...
is one of the biggest industrial cities of Haryana as well as North India. The city is home to large-scale MNC companies like India Yamaha Motor Company, Yamaha Motor Pvt. Ltd., Havells India Limited, JCB (company), JCB India Limited, Escorts Group, Indian Oil (R&D), and Larsen & Toubro (L&T). Eyewear e-tailer Lenskart and healthcare startup Lybrate have their headquarters in Faridabad. * Hisar, India, Hissar, a National Capital Region (India)#Counter magnets, NCR Counter Magnet city known as steel and cotton spinning hub as well as upcoming integrated industrial aerocity and Maintenance, repair, and operations, aero MRO hub at Hisar Airport,Hisar aerodrome being considered for international airport, says MLA
, HT Correspondent, Hindustan Times. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
Haryana to develop international airport at Hisar

TravelBizMonitor
, Retrieved in March 2016.

, The Tribune (Chandigarh), The Tribune, 29 May 2015.
is a fast developing city and the hometown of Navin Jindal and Subhash Chandra of Zee TV fame. Savitri Jindal, Navin Jindal's mother, has been listed by ''Forbes'' as the third richest woman in world. *
Panipat Panipat () is a historic city in Haryana, India. It is 95 km north of Delhi and 169 km south of Chandigarh on List of National Highways in India, NH-1. The three major battles fought in First Battle of Panipat, 1526, Second Battle o ...

Panipat
has heavy industry, including a refinery operated by the Indian Oil Corporation, a urea manufacturing plant operated by National Fertilizers Limited and a National Thermal Power Corporation power plant. It is known for its woven ''modhas'' or round stools. * Sonipat: Kundli#Kundli Industrial Area, IMT Kundli, Nathupur, Rai and Barhi are industrial areas with several Small and medium-sized enterprises, including come large ones such as Atlas cycles, E.C.E., Birla family, Birla factory, OSRAM *
Gurgaon Gurgaon, officially named Gurugram (pronunciation: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, ʊɾʊɡɾaːm, is a city located in the northern Indian state of Haryana. It is situated near the Delhi–Haryana border, about southwest of the national capit ...
: Manesar#Industrial Model Township .28IMT.29.2C Manesar, IMT Minesar, Dundahera and Sohna are industrial and logistics hubs, that also has National Security Guards, Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs, National Brain Research Centre and National Bomb Data Centre.


Utilities

Haryana State has always given high priority to the expansion of electricity infrastructure, as it is one of the most important inputs for the development of the state. Haryana was the first state in the country to achieve 100% rural electrification in 1970 as well as the first in the country to link all villages with all-weather roads and provide safe drinking water facilities throughout the state. Power in the state are: * Renewable and non-polluting sources ** Hydroelectricity *** Bhakra Dam#Electricity generation, Bhakra-Nangal Dam Hydroelectric Power Plant ***Haryana Power Generation Corporation#Generation capacity, WYC Hydro Electric Station, 62.4 MW, Yamunanagar ** Solar power stations *** Haryana Power Generation Corporation#Plans, Faridabad Solar Power Plant: being set up by Haryana Power Generation Corporation, HPGCL Faridabad (c.2016). * Nuclear power stations ** Gorakhpur Nuclear Power Plant, 2800MW, Fatehabad, Phase-I 1400MW by 2021 * Thermal power station#Typical coal thermal power station, Coal-fired thermal power stations ** Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram Thermal Power Station, 600MW, Yamunanagar ** Indira Gandhi Super Thermal Power Project, 1500MW, Jhajjar ** Jhajjar Power Station, 1500MW ** Panipat Thermal Power Station I, 440MW ** Panipat Thermal Power Station II, 920MW ** Rajiv Gandhi Thermal Power Station, 1200MW, Hisar


Services sector


Transport


=Aviation

=


=Roads and Highways

= Haryana has a total road length of , including List of National Highways in India, 29 national highways, List of state highways in Haryana, state highways, Major District Roads (MDR) and Other District Roads (ODR) (c. December 2017)."Single agency to handle road repair work from January 1"
, ''Tribune'', 29 December 2017.
A fleet of 3,864 Haryana Roadways buses covers a distance of 1.15 million km per day, and it was the first state in the country to introduce luxury video coaches. Ancient Delhi Multan Road and Grand Trunk Road, South Asia's oldest and longest major roads, pass through Haryana. GT Road passes through the districts of Sonipat district, Sonipat, Panipat district, Panipat, Karnal district, Karnal,
Kurukshetra Kurukshetra (, ) is a city in the Indian state of Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of ar ...
and
Ambala Ambala (), is a city and a municipal corporation A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body An Academy school in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the Unite ...
in north Haryana where it enters
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
and subsequently the industrial town of
Faridabad Faridabad () is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...
on its way. The Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway(KMP), Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway (KMP) will provide a high-speed link to northern Haryana with its southern districts such as Sonipat,
Gurgaon Gurgaon, officially named Gurugram (pronunciation: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, ʊɾʊɡɾaːm, is a city located in the northern Indian state of Haryana. It is situated near the Delhi–Haryana border, about southwest of the national capit ...
, and
Faridabad Faridabad () is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...
. The Delhi-Agra Expressway (NH-2) that passes through Faridabad is being widened to six lanes from current four lanes. It will further boost
Faridabad Faridabad () is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...
's connectivity with
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
.


= Railway

= Rail network in Haryana is covered by five rail divisions under three rail zones. Diamond Quadrilateral High-speed rail in India, High-speed rail network, Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor (72 km) and Western Dedicated Freight Corridor (177 km) pass through Haryana. Bikaner railway division of North Western Railway zone manages rail network in Hisar division, western and Gurgaon division, southern Haryana covering Jodhpur–Bathinda line, Bhatinda-Dabwali-Hanumangarh line, Bathinda–Rewari line, Rewari-Bhiwani-Hisar-Bathinda line, Hisar-Sadulpur line and Rewari-Loharu-Sadulpur line. Jaipur railway division of North Western Railway zone manages the rail network in Hisar division, south-west Haryana covering Delhi–Jaipur line, Rewari-Reengas-Jaipur line, Delhi-Alwar-Jaipur line and Loharu-Sikar line. Delhi railway division of Northern Railway zone manages the rail network in Karnal division, north and Rohtak division, east and central Haryana covering Delhi–Kalka line, Delhi-Panipat-Ambala line, Delhi–Fazilka line, Delhi-Rohtak-Tohana line, Rewari–Rohtak line, Jind-Sonepat line and Delhi–Jaipur line, Delhi-Rewari line. Agra railway division of North Central Railway zone manages another very small part of the network in South Haryana, south-east Haryana covering Palwal railway station, Palwal-Mathura railway station, Mathura line only. Ambala railway division of Northern Railway zone manages a small part of the rail network in Ambala division, north-east Haryana covering Moradabad–Ambala line, Ambala-Yamunanagar line, Delhi–Kalka line, Ambala-Kurukshetra line and UNESCO World Heritage Site, UNESCO World Heritage Kalka–Shimla Railway.Ambala Division map and history
.


=Metro

= Delhi Metro connects the national capital Delhi with NCR cities of
Faridabad Faridabad () is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...
,
Gurgaon Gurgaon, officially named Gurugram (pronunciation: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, ʊɾʊɡɾaːm, is a city located in the northern Indian state of Haryana. It is situated near the Delhi–Haryana border, about southwest of the national capit ...
and Bahadurgarh. Faridabad has the longest metro network in the NCR Region consisting of 11 stations and track length being 17 km.


=Sky Way

= The Haryana and Delhi governments have constructed the international standard Delhi Faridabad Skyway, the first of its kind in North India, to connect Delhi and Faridabad.


Communication and media

Haryana has a statewide network of telecommunication facilities. Haryana Government has its own statewide area network by which all government offices of 22 districts and 126 blocks across the state are connected with each other thus making it the first SWAN of the country. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited and most of the leading private sector players (such as Reliance Infocom, Tata Teleservices, Bharti Telecom, Idea Vodafone Essar, Aircel, Uninor and Videocon) have operations in the state. Two biggest cities of Haryana,
Faridabad Faridabad () is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...
and
Gurgaon Gurgaon, officially named Gurugram (pronunciation: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, ʊɾʊɡɾaːm, is a city located in the northern Indian state of Haryana. It is situated near the Delhi–Haryana border, about southwest of the national capit ...
which are part of come under the local Delhi Mobile Telecommunication System. The rest of the cities of Haryana comes under Haryana Telecommunication System. Electronic media channels include, MTV, 9XM, Star Group, SET Max, News Time, NDTV 24x7 and Zee Group. The radio stations include All India Radio and other FM broadcasting, FM stations. Panipat, Hisar, Ambala and Rohtak are the cities in which the leading newspapers of Haryana are printed and circulated throughout Haryana, in which Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Jagran, Punjab Kesari, The Tribune (Chandigarh), The Tribune, Aaj Samaj, Hari Bhoomi and Amar Ujala are prominent.


Healthcare

The total fertility rate of Haryana is 2.3. The infant mortality rate is 41 (SRS 2013) and maternal mortality ratio is 146 (SRS 2010–2012). The state of Haryana has various Medical Colleges including Pandit Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences Rohtak, Bhagat Phool Singh Medical College in District Sonipat, ESIC Medical College, Faridabad along with notable private medical institutes like Medanta, Max Hospital, Gurgaon, Max Hospital, Fortis Healthcare


Education


Literacy

Literacy rate in Haryana has seen an upward trend and is 76.64 per cent as per 2011 population census. Male literacy stands at 85.38 per cent, while female literacy is at 66.67 per cent. In 2001, the literacy rate in Haryana stood at 67.91 per cent of which male and female were 78.49 per cent and 55.73 per cent literate respectively. ,
Gurgaon Gurgaon, officially named Gurugram (pronunciation: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, ʊɾʊɡɾaːm, is a city located in the northern Indian state of Haryana. It is situated near the Delhi–Haryana border, about southwest of the national capit ...
city had the highest literacy rate in Haryana at 86.30% followed by Panchkula at 81.9 per cent and
Ambala Ambala (), is a city and a municipal corporation A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body An Academy school in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the Unite ...
at 81.7 per cent. In terms of districts,
Rewari Rewari is a city and a Municipal Council in Rewari district in the Indian States and territories of India, state of Haryana. It is located in south-west Haryana. 82 km from Delhi
had the highest literacy rate in Haryana at 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy was 79%, and female 67%.


Schools

Haryana Board of School Education, established in September 1969 and shifted to
Bhiwani Bhiwani is a city and a municipal council in Bhiwani district in the state of Haryana Haryana () is a States and union territories of India, state in India located in the northern part of the country. It was carved out of the former state ...

Bhiwani
in 1981, conducts public examinations at middle, matriculation, and senior secondary levels twice a year. Over 700,000 candidates attend annual examinations in February and March; 150,000 attend supplementary examinations each November. The Board also conducts examinations for Haryana Open School at senior and senior secondary levels twice a year. The Haryana government provides free education to women up to the bachelor's degree level. In 2015–2016, there were nearly 20,000 schools, including 10,100 state government schools (36 Aarohi Schools, 11 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas, 21 Model Sanskriti Schools, 8,744 government primary school, 3386 government middle school, 1,284 government high school and 1,967 government senior secondary schools), 7,635 private schools (200 aided, 6,612 recognised unaided, and 821 unrecognised unaided private schools) and several hundred other central government and private schools such as Kendriya Vidyalaya, Indian Army Public Schools, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya and D.A.V. College Managing Committee, DAV schools affiliated to central government's Central Board of Secondary Education, CBSE and Indian Certificate of Secondary Education, ICSE school boards.


Universities and higher education

Haryana has 48 universities and 1,038 colleges, including 115 government colleges, 88 government-aided colleges and 96 self-finance colleges.Haryana is growing rapidly in higher education, 299 colleges in small state
, 17 January 2018.
Hisar has three universities: Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University - Asia's largest agricultural university, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences); several national agricultural and veterinary research centres (NRC on Equines, Hisar, Haryana, National Research Centre on Equines), Central Sheep Breeding Farm, National Institute on Pig Breeding and Research, Northern Region Farm Machinery Training and Testing Institute and Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes (CIRB); and more than 20 colleges including Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha. Demographically, Haryana has 471,000 women and 457,000 men pursuing post-secondary school higher education. There are more 18,616 female teachers and 17,061 male teachers in higher education. Union Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad announced on 27 February 2016 that National Institute of Electronics and Information Technology (NIELIT) would be set up in Kurukshetra to provide computer training to youth and a Software Technology Park of India (STPI) would be set up in Panchkula's existing HSIIDC IT Park in Sector 23. Hindi and English are compulsory languages in schools whereas Punjabi, Sanskrit and Urdu are chosen as optional languages.


Sports

In the 2010 Commonwealth Games at Delhi, 22 out of 38 gold medals that India won came from Haryana. During the 33rd National Games held in Assam in 2007, Haryana stood first in the nation with a medal tally of 80, including 30 gold, 22 silver and 28 bronze medals. The 1983 Cricket World Cup, 1983 World Cup winning captain Kapil Dev made his domestic-cricket debut playing for Haryana. Nahar Singh Stadium was built in
Faridabad Faridabad () is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Rou ...
in the year 1981 for international cricket. This ground has the capacity to hold around 25,000 people as spectators. Tejli Sports Complex is an ultra-modern sports complex in Yamuna Nagar. Tau Devi Lal Stadium in
Gurgaon Gurgaon, officially named Gurugram (pronunciation: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, ʊɾʊɡɾaːm, is a city located in the northern Indian state of Haryana. It is situated near the Delhi–Haryana border, about southwest of the national capit ...
is a multi-sport complex. Chief Minister of Haryana Manohar Lal Khattar announced the "Haryana Sports and Physical Fitness Policy", a policy to support 26 Olympic sports, on 12 January 2015 with the words "We will develop Haryana as the sports hub of the country." Haryana is home to Haryana Gold, one of India's eight professional basketball teams which compete in the country's UBA Pro Basketball League. At the 2016 Summer Olympics, Sakshi Malik won the bronze medal in the 58 kg category, becoming the first Indian female wrestler to win a medal at the Olympics and the fourth female Olympic medalist from the country. Notable Badminton Player, Saina Nehwal is from Hisar in Haryana. Notable Athlete, Neeraj Chopra , who competes in Javelin Throw and won the first track and field Gold medal in 2020 Tokyo Olympics for India, was born and raised in Panipat, Haryana. Wrestling is also very prominent in Haryana as 2 medals won in wrestling at 2020 Tokyo Olympics were from Haryana. Notable Athlete, Ravi Dahiya, who was born in Nahri village of Sonipat District. Won Silver Medal in 2020 Tokyo Olympics for India. Bajrang Punia-Bronze Medal.


See also

* List of Monuments of National Importance in Haryana * List of State Protected Monuments in Haryana * List of people from Haryana * Outline of Haryana * Politics of Haryana * Tourism in Haryana * Haryanvi cinema * List of highways in Haryana


References


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links

; Government
The Official Site of the Government of Haryana

Official Tourism Site of Haryana, India
; General information *
haryana.com
* {{Authority control Haryana, North India, * 1966 establishments in India Hindi-speaking countries and territories Punjabi-speaking countries and territories States and territories established in 1966 States and union territories of India