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Champa (
Cham Cham or CHAM may refer to: Ethnicities and languages *Chams, people in Vietnam and Cambodia **Cham language, the language of the Cham people ***Cham script ***Cham (Unicode block), a block of Unicode characters of the Cham script *Cham Albanian ...
: ꨌꩌꨛꨩ; km, ចាម្ប៉ា; vi, Chiêm Thành or ) was a collection of independent
Cham Cham or CHAM may refer to: Ethnicities and languages *Chams, people in Vietnam and Cambodia **Cham language, the language of the Cham people ***Cham script ***Cham (Unicode block), a block of Unicode characters of the Cham script *Cham Albanian ...
polities A polity is an identifiable political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between ind ...
that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
from approximately the 2nd century AD until 1832, when it was annexed by the Vietnamese Empire under
Minh Mạng Minh Mạng (, vi-hantu, wikt:明, 明wikt:命, 命, lit. "the bright Mandate of Heaven, favour of Heaven"; 25 May 1791 – 20 January 1841; born Nguyễn Phúc Đảm, also known as Nguyễn Phúc Kiểu) was the second List of monarchs of ...
. The kingdom was known variously as ''Nagaracampa'' ( sa, नगरचम्पः), ꨌꩌꨛꨩ in the
Chamic The Chamic languages, also known as Aceh–Chamic and Achinese–Chamic, are a group of ten languages spoken in Aceh Aceh () is the westernmost province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, a ...
and ''Châmpa'' () in the
Khmer
Khmer
inscriptions, ''Chiêm Thành'' in
Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary ( vi, Từ Hán Việt, Chữ Nôm Chữ Nôm (, , literally 'Southern characters') is a logographic In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a ...
and ''Zhànchéng'' (
Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
: 占城) in Chinese records. According to
National Geographic ''National Geographic'' (formerly the ''National Geographic Magazine'', sometimes branded as NAT GEO) is an American monthly magazine published by the National Geographic Society The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Was ...
, Champa's navy was considered unrivaled. The
Chams The Chams or Champa people (Cham Cham or CHAM may refer to: Ethnicities and languages *Chams The Chams or Cham people ( Cham: ''Urang Campa'' / ꨂꨣꩃ ꨌꩌꨛꨩ, vi, người Chăm or người Chàm, km, ជនជាតិចា ...
of modern
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
and
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...

Cambodia
are the remnants of this former kingdom. They speak
Chamic languages The Chamic languages, also known as Aceh–Chamic and Achinese–Chamic, are a group of ten languages spoken in Aceh Aceh () is the westernmost Provinces of Indonesia, province of Indonesia. It is located on the northern end of Sumatra, with ...
, a subfamily of
Malayo-Polynesian The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers. The Malayo-Polynesian languages are spoken by the Austronesian peoples outside of Taiwan, in the island nations of Southeast A ...
closely related to the
Malayic
Malayic
and Bali–Sasak languages. Champa was preceded in the region by a kingdom called
Lâm Ấp Lâm Ấp (Vietnamese pronunciation of Middle Chinese Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese language, Chinese recorded in the ''Qieyun'', a rime dictionary first publi ...
(Vietnamese), or Linyi (,
Middle Chinese Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country ...
( ZS): *''liɪm ʔˠiɪp̚''), that was in existence since 192 AD; although the historical relationship between Linyi and Champa is not clear. Champa reached its apogee in the 9th and 10th centuries AD. Thereafter, it began a gradual decline under pressure from
Đại Việt Đại Việt (, ; literally Great Việt), often known as Annam, was a Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Viet ...
, the Vietnamese polity centred in the region of modern
Hanoi , population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , population_demonym = Hanoian , population_density_km2 = auto , population_urban = 3,962,310 , population_density_urban_km2 = 14708.8 , popula ...

Hanoi
. In 1832, the Vietnamese emperor
Minh Mạng Minh Mạng (, vi-hantu, wikt:明, 明wikt:命, 命, lit. "the bright Mandate of Heaven, favour of Heaven"; 25 May 1791 – 20 January 1841; born Nguyễn Phúc Đảm, also known as Nguyễn Phúc Kiểu) was the second List of monarchs of ...
annexed the remaining Cham territories.
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
, adopted through conflicts and conquest of territory from neighbouring
Funan Funan (; km, ហ៊្វូណន, ; vi, Phù Nam, Chu Han During ancient times, the ancestors of the Vietnamese people, Vietnamese were considered to have been Proto-Austroasiatic (also called ''Proto-Mon–Khmer'') speaking people, pos ...
in the 4th century AD, shaped the art and culture of the Cham kingdom for centuries, as testified by the many Cham
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...
statues and red brick temples that dotted the landscape in Cham lands.
Mỹ Sơn Mỹ Sơn () is a cluster of abandoned and partially ruined Hindu temple A Mandir or Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of divinity for Hindus Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or r ...
, a former religious centre, and
Hội An Hội An (), formerly known as Fai-Fo or Faifoo, is a city with a population of approximately 120,000 in Vietnam's Quảng Nam Province and noted since 1999 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Old Town Hội An, the city's historic district, is rec ...
, one of Champa's main port cities, are now
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
s. Today, many Cham people adhere to
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
, a conversion which began in the 10th century, with the ruling dynasty having fully adopted the faith by the 17th century; they are called the Bani (Ni tục, from Arabic: Bani). There are, however, the Bacam (Bacham, Chiêm tục) who still retain and preserve their
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...
faith, rituals, and festivals. The Bacam are one of only two surviving non- Indic indigenous
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...
peoples in the world, with a culture dating back thousands of years. The other is the
Balinese Hinduism Balinese Hinduism ( id, Agama Hindu Dharma; Agama Tirtha; Agama Air Suci; Agama Hindu Bali) is the form of Hinduism practiced by the majority of the population of Bali.McDaniel, June (2013), A Modern Hindu Monotheism: Indonesian Hindus as ‘P ...
of the
Balinese Balinese may refer to: *Bali, an Indonesian island *Balinese art *Balinese dance *Balinese people *Balinese language **Balinese script **Balinese (Unicode block) *Balinese mythology *Balinese cat, a cat breed *Balinese Gamelan, local music *Balinese ...
of
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
.


Etymology

The name ''Champa'' derived from the
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
word (pronounced ), which refers to ''
Magnolia champaca ''Magnolia champaca'', known in English as champak, is a large evergreen tree in the family Magnoliaceae The Magnoliaceae () are a flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most divers ...
'', a species of flowering tree known for its fragrant flowers. The name of the flower is further derived from the Tamil term , meaning "red".


Historiography


Sources

The
historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians hav ...

historiography
of Champa relies upon four types of sources: * Physical remains, including ruins as well as stone sculptures; * Inscriptions in Cham and
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
on
stele A stele ( ),Anglicized plural steles ( ); Greek plural stelai ( ), from Greek , ''stēlē''. The Greek plural is written , ''stēlai'', but this is only rarely encountered in English. or occasionally stela (plural ''stelas'' or ''stelæ''), ...

stele
s and other stone surfaces; * Chinese and Vietnamese annals, diplomatic reports, and other literature such as those provided by Jia Dan; * Historiography of modern
Cham people The Chams or Champa people (Cham language, Cham: ꨂꨣꩃ ꨌꩌꨛꨩ, ''Urang Campa''; vi, Người Chăm or ; km, ជនជាតិចាម, ) are an Austronesian peoples, Austronesian ethnic group. From the 2nd to the mid-15th century t ...
.


Overarching theories

Modern scholarship has been guided by two competing theories in the historiography of Champa. Scholars agree that historically Champa was divided into several regions or principalities spread out from south to north along the coast of modern
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
and united by a common language, culture, and heritage. It is acknowledged that the historical record is not equally rich for each of the regions in every historical period. For example, in the 10th century AD, the record is richest for ''Indrapura''; in the 12th century AD, it is richest for
Vijaya Vijaya may refer to: Places * Vijaya (Champa), a city-state and former capital of the historic Champa in what is now Vietnam * Vijayawada, a city in Andhra Pradesh, India People * Prince Vijaya of Sri Lanka (fl. 543–505 BC), earliest recorded ...
; following the 15th century AD, it is richest for ''Panduranga''. Some scholars have taken these shifts in the historical record to reflect the movement of the Cham capital from one location to another. According to such scholars, if the 10th-century record is richest for Indrapura, it is so because at that time Indrapura was the capital of Champa. Other scholars have disputed this contention, holding that Champa was never a united country, and arguing that the presence of a particularly rich historical record for a given region in a given period is no basis for claiming that the region functioned as the capital of a united Champa during that period.


History


Sources of foreign cultural influence

Through the centuries, Cham culture and society were influenced by forces emanating from
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...

Cambodia
, China,
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 147.7 million people, Java is the world's List of ...

Java
and
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
amongst others.
Lâm Ấp Lâm Ấp (Vietnamese pronunciation of Middle Chinese Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese language, Chinese recorded in the ''Qieyun'', a rime dictionary first publi ...
, a predecessor state in the region, began its existence in AD 192 as a breakaway Chinese colony. An official successfully revolted against Chinese rule in central Vietnam, and
Lâm Ấp Lâm Ấp (Vietnamese pronunciation of Middle Chinese Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese language, Chinese recorded in the ''Qieyun'', a rime dictionary first publi ...
was founded in AD 192. In the 4th century AD, wars with the neighbouring
Kingdom of Funan Funan ( or , Chu Han: 夫南, km, ហ្វូណន, ; vi, Phù Nam) or Nokor Phnom ( km, នគរភ្នំ, , lit. 'Mountain Kingdom') was the name given by Chinese cartography, Chinese cartographers, geographers and writers to an a ...
in
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...

Cambodia
and the acquisition of Funanese territory led to the infusion of
Indian culture Indian culture is the heritage Heritage may refer to: History and society * In history History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the inven ...
into Cham society.
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
was adopted as a scholarly language, and
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
, especially
Shaivism Shaivism (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; , , ) is a of that belongs to the branch of the . It arose in South Asia after its predecessor languages had there from the northwest in the late . Sanskrit is the of , the langua ...
, became the state religion. Starting from 10th century AD, the Arab maritime trade introduces Islamic cultural and religious influences to the region. Although
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
was the predominant religion among the Cham people until the 16th century, Islam began to attract large numbers of Chams, when some members of the Cham royalty converted to Islam in the 17th century. Champa came to serve as an important link in the
spice trade The spice trade involved historical civilizations in Asia Asia () is a landmass variously described as part of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified b ...
, which stretched from the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
to
South China South China () is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China. Its precise meaning varies with context. A notable feature of South China in comparison to the rest of China is that most of its citizens are not ...
, and later in the
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
maritime routes in
Mainland Southeast Asia Mainland Southeast Asia, also known as the Indochinese Peninsula or Indochina, is the continental portion of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is ...

Mainland Southeast Asia
as a supplier of
aloe ''Aloe'' ( , ), also written ''Aloë'', is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circum ...

aloe
. Despite the frequent wars between the
Cham Cham or CHAM may refer to: Ethnicities and languages *Chams, people in Vietnam and Cambodia **Cham language, the language of the Cham people ***Cham script ***Cham (Unicode block), a block of Unicode characters of the Cham script *Cham Albanian ...
and the Khmer, the two nations also traded and their cultural influences moved in the same directions. Since royal families of the two countries intermarried frequently. Champa also had close trade and cultural relations with the powerful maritime empire of
Srivijaya Srivijaya (, ; , ) was a Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay langu ...
and later with the
Majapahit The Majapahit () was a Javanese Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 ...

Majapahit
of the
Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago ( ceb, Kapupud-ang Malay, ms, Kepulauan Melayu, tgl, Kapuluang Malay, jv, Nusantara) is the archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection o ...

Malay Archipelago
. Evidence gathered from linguistic studies around
Aceh Aceh () is the westernmost province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivis ...
confirms that a very strong Champan cultural influence existed in Indonesia; this is indicated by the use of the
Chamic The Chamic languages, also known as Aceh–Chamic and Achinese–Chamic, are a group of ten languages spoken in Aceh Aceh () is the westernmost province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, a ...
language Acehnese as the main language in the coastal regions of Aceh. Linguists believe the Acehnese language, a descendant of the Proto-Chamic language, separated from the Chamic tongue sometime in the 1st millennium AD. However, scholarly views on the precise nature of Aceh-Chamic relations vary.


Founding legend

According to Cham folk legends, Champa was founded by
Lady Po NagarLady Po Nagar/Yan Po Nagar (杨婆那加), was the founder of the Cham people according to legends. She originated from a peasant family in the mountains of Khánh Hòa Province. Spirits assisted her when she sailed on a drift piece of sandalwood to ...
–the divide mother goddess of the kingdom. She came from the moon and arrived in Central Vietnam and found the kingdom, but a
typhoon A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm, storm system characterized by a Low-pressure area, low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, Beaufort scale, strong winds, and ...

typhoon
drifted her away and left her stranded on the coast of China, where she married a Chinese prince, and returned to Champa. The
Po Nagar Po Nagar is a Cham temple tower founded sometime before 781 C.E. and located in the medieval principality of Kauthara, near modern Nha Trang in Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital ...

Po Nagar
temple built in
Nha Trang Nha Trang ( or ; ) is a coastal city and capital of Khánh Hòa Province, on the South Central Coast of Vietnam. It is bounded on the north by Ninh Hoà district, on the south by Cam Ranh town and on the west by Diên Khánh District. The cit ...

Nha Trang
during the 8th century, and rebuilt in 11th century. Her portrayal image in the temple is said dating from 965 AD, is of a commanding personage seated cross-legged upon a throne. She is also worshiped by the Vietnamese, a tradition dates back to the 11th century during the Ly dynasty period.


Formation and growth

The people of Champa descended from seafaring settlers who reached the Southeast Asian mainland from
Borneo Borneo (; id, Kalimantan) is the third-List of islands by area, largest island in the world and the largest in Asia. At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java Is ...

Borneo
about the time of the Sa Huỳnh culture between 1000 BC and 200 AD, the predecessor of the Cham kingdom. The
Cham language Cham (Cham: ꨌꩌ) is a Malayo-Polynesian language of the Austronesian family, spoken by the Cham of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion ...
is part of the
Austronesian Austronesian may refer to: *The Austronesian languages *The historical Austronesian peoples who carried Austronesian languages on their migrations {{disambiguation ...
family. According to one study, Cham is related most closely to modern Acehnese in northern Sumatra. While
Northern Vietnam Northern Vietnam ( vi, Bắc Bộ) is one of three geographical regions within Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spell ...
Kinh The Vietnamese people ( vi, người Việt) or Kinh people ( vi, người Kinh) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group originally native to modern-day Northern Vietnam and South China, Southern China. The native language is Vietnamese language, ...
people assimilated Han Chinese immigrants into their population, have a
sinicized Sinicization, sinofication, sinification, or sinonization (from the prefix , 'Chinese, relating to China') is the process by which non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han-Chinese culture, language, so ...
culture and carry the
patrilineal Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship In , kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact ...
Han Chinese O-M7
haplogroup A haplotype A haplotype (haploid Ploidy () is the number of complete sets of chromosome A chromosome is a long DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism. Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging prot ...
,
Cham people The Chams or Champa people (Cham language, Cham: ꨂꨣꩃ ꨌꩌꨛꨩ, ''Urang Campa''; vi, Người Chăm or ; km, ជនជាតិចាម, ) are an Austronesian peoples, Austronesian ethnic group. From the 2nd to the mid-15th century t ...
carry the patrilineal R-M17 haplogroup of
South Asian South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is a landmass variously described as part of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention ( ...
Indian origin from South Asian merchants spreading Hinduism to Champa and marrying Cham females since Chams have no
matrilineal Matrilineality is the tracing of kinship through the female line. It may also correlate with a social system in which each person is identified with their matriline – their mother's Lineage (anthropology), lineage – and which can inv ...
South Asian
mtDNA Illustration of the location of mitochondrial DNA in human cells Electron microscopy reveals mitochondrial DNA in discrete foci. Bars: 200 nm. (A) Cytoplasmic section after immunogold labelling with anti-DNA; gold particles marking mtDNA are ...

mtDNA
, and this fits with the
matrilocal In social anthropology, matrilocal residence or matrilocality (also uxorilocal residence or uxorilocality) is the societal system in which a married couple resides with or near the wife's parents. Thus, the female offspring of a mother A m ...
structure of Cham families. Analysis of Vietnamese Kinh people's genetics show that within the last 800 years there was mixture between a
Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language from the 4th to the 14th century ** ...
like southern Asian and a Chinese ancestral component that happens to fit the time period in which Kinh expanded south from their
Red River Delta The Red River Delta or Hong River Delta ( vi, Châu thổ sông Hồng) is the flat low-lying plain formed by the Red River and its distributaries merging with the Thái Bình River in northern Vietnam , image_map = , m ...
homeland in the ''
nam tiến Image:Nam Tien.PNG, 220px, Map of Vietnam showing the conquest of the south (''nam tiến'', 1069–1834). (; vi-hantu, 南進; lit. "southward advance" or "march to the south") was the southward expansion of the territory of Vietnam from the 11t ...
'' (lit. 'southward advance') process, which also matches the event 700 years ago when the Cham population suffered massive losses. With the exception of Cham who are Austronesian speaking and Mang who are Austroasiatic speaking, the southern Han Chinese and all other ethnic groups in Vietnam share ancestry. To the
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...

Han
Chinese, the country of Champa was known as 林邑 ''
Linyi Linyi () is a prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of C ...
'' in Mandarin and ''Lam Yap'' in Cantonese and to the Vietnamese, ''Lâm Ấp'' (which is the Sino-Vietnamese pronunciation of 林邑). It was founded in AD 192. Around the 4th century AD, Champan polities began to absorb much of Indic influences, probably through its neighbour,
Funan Funan (; km, ហ៊្វូណន, ; vi, Phù Nam, Chu Han During ancient times, the ancestors of the Vietnamese people, Vietnamese were considered to have been Proto-Austroasiatic (also called ''Proto-Mon–Khmer'') speaking people, pos ...

Funan
.
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
was established as Champa began to create Sanskrit stone inscriptions and erect red brick
Hindu temple A Mandir or Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of divinity for Hindus Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Ind ...

Hindu temple
s. The first king acknowledged in the inscriptions is Bhadravarman,https://www.britannica.com/place/Champa-ancient-kingdom-Indochina who reigned from AD 380 to AD 413. At
Mỹ Sơn Mỹ Sơn () is a cluster of abandoned and partially ruined Hindu temple A Mandir or Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of divinity for Hindus Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or r ...
, King Bhadravarman established a linga called Bhadresvara, whose name was a combination of the king's own name and that of the
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...

Hindu
god of gods
Shiva Shiva (; sa, शिव, lit=The Auspicious One, Śiva ), also known as Mahadeva (; ɐɦaːd̪eːʋɐ, is one of the Hindu deities, principal deities of Hinduism. He is the God, Supreme Being in Shaivism, one of the major traditions wit ...

Shiva
. The worship of the original god-king under the name Bhadresvara and other names continued through the centuries that followed. Rudravarman of Champa founded a new dynasty in 529 CE and was succeeded by his son, Sambhuvarman (r. 572–629). He reconstructed the temple of Bhadravarman and renamed it Shambhu-bhadreshvara. He died in 629 and was succeeded by his son, Kandarpadharma, who died in 630–31. Kandarpadharma was succeeded by his son, Prabhasadharma, who died in 645. Between the 7th to 10th centuries AD, the Cham polities rose to become a naval power; as Champan ports attracted local and foreign traders, Champan fleets also controlled the trade in spices and silk in the
South China Sea The South China Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97 ...

South China Sea
, between China, the
Indonesian archipelago The islands of Indonesia, also known as the Indonesian Archipelago or Nusantara ''Nusantara'' is the Indonesian name of Maritime Southeast Asia (or parts of it). It is an Old Javanese Kawi or Old Javanese is the oldest attested phase ...
and
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
. They supplemented their income from the trade routes not only by exporting ivory and aloe, but also by engaging in piracy and raiding. However, the rising influence of Champa caught the attention of a neighbouring
thalassocracy A thalassocracy or thalattocracy (from grc-x-classical, θάλασσα, translit=thalassa, , , and grc, κρατεῖν, translit=kratein, lit=power; giving grc-x-koine, θαλασσοκρατία, translit=thalassokratia, lit=sea power), somet ...
that considered Champa as a rival, the Javanese ( Javaka, probably refers to
Srivijaya Srivijaya (, ; , ) was a Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay langu ...
ruler of Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Java). In AD 767, the Tonkin coast was raided by a fleet (Daba) and Kunlun pirates, Champa was subsequently assaulted by Javanese or
Kunlun The Kunlun Mountains ( zh, s=昆仑山, t=崑崙山, p=Kūnlún Shān, ; mn, Хөндлөн Уулс, ''Khöndlön Uuls''; ug, كۇئېنلۇن تاغ تىزمىسى) constitute one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending for more tha ...

Kunlun
vessels in AD 774 and AD 787. In AD 774 an assault was launched on Po-Nagar in Nha-trang where the pirates demolished temples, while in AD 787 an assault was launched on Phang-rang. Afterwards, during the 1000s,
Rajah ''Raja'' (; from sa, राजन्, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguist ...

Rajah
Kiling, the Hindu king of the Philippine kingdom of the
Rajahnate of Butuan Butuan (also called as Kingdom of Butuan) was a precolonial Philippine polity centered on the northern Mindanao island in the modern city of Butuan in what is now the southern Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas' ...
instigated a commercial rivalry with the Champa Civilization by requesting for diplomatic equality in court protocol towards his Rajahnate, from the Chinese Empire, which was later denied by the Chinese Imperial court, mainly because of favoritism over the Champa civilization. However, the future Rajah of Butuan, Sri Bata Shaja later succeeded in attaining diplomatic equality with Champa by sending the flamboyant ambassador Likanhsieh. Likanhsieh shocked the
Emperor Zhenzong Emperor Zhenzong of Song (23 December 968 – 23 March 1022), personal name Zhao Heng, was the third emperor of the Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The ...
by presenting a memorial engraved on a gold tablet, some (''Bailong'' 白龍)
camphor Camphor () is a wax Waxes are a diverse class of organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The ...

camphor
,
Moluccan Moluccans are the Austronesian-speaking ethnic groups indigenous to the Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago in eastern Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within ...
cloves, and a slave at the eve of an important ceremonial state sacrifice. Cham merchants then immigrated to what is the now the
Sultanate of Sulu The Sultanate of Sulu ( ar, سلطنة سولك, Tausug language, Tausūg: كاسولتانن سين سوڬ, ) was a Muslim Sovereign state, state that ruled the islands in the Sulu Archipelago, parts of Mindanao in today's Philippines, certai ...
, which is also in the Philippines. They were called Orang Dampuan. The Champa civilization and the port-kingdom of
Sulu Sulu (; Tausug language, Tausūg: ''Wilāya sin Lupa' Sūg''; tl, Lalawigan ng Sulu) is a Provinces of the Philippines, province of the Philippines in the Sulu Archipelago and part of the Bangsamoro, Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Minda ...
engaged in commerce with each other which resulted in merchant Chams settling in Sulu from the 10th-13th centuries. The Orang Dampuan were slaughtered by envious native Sulu Buranuns due to the wealth of the Orang Dampuan. The Buranun were then subjected to retaliatory slaughter by the Orang Dampuan. Harmonious commerce between Sulu and the Orang Dampuan was later restored. The Yakans were descendants of the Taguima-based Orang Dampuan who came to Sulu from Champa. According to Cham inscriptions, in 1190,
Jayavarman VII Jayavarman VII, posthumous name of Mahaparamasaugata ( km, ជ័យវរ្ម័នទី៧, c. 1122–1218), was king of the Khmer Empire The Khmer Empire (; km, ចក្រភពខ្មែរ, ), or Angkor Empire ( km, ចក្ ...

Jayavarman VII
conquered Champa and made it a dependency of the
Khmer Empire The Khmer Empire ( km, ចក្រភពខ្មែរ), or the Angkorian Empire ( km, ចក្រភពអង្គរ, link=no), are the terms that historians use to refer to Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ព ...

Khmer Empire
for 30 years.


Decline

In the Cham–Vietnamese War (AD 1471), Champa suffered serious defeats at the hands of the Vietnamese, in which 120,000 people were either captured or killed, and the kingdom was reduced to a small enclave near
Nha Trang Nha Trang ( or ; ) is a coastal city and capital of Khánh Hòa Province, on the South Central Coast of Vietnam. It is bounded on the north by Ninh Hoà district, on the south by Cam Ranh town and on the west by Diên Khánh District. The cit ...

Nha Trang
with many Chams fleeing to
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...

Cambodia
. Champa was reduced to the principalities of Panduranga and Kauthara at the beginning of the 17th century. Kauthara was annexed by the Vietnamese in 1653. The last remaining principality of Champa, Panduranga, survived until August 1832, when Minh Mang of Vietnam began his purge against Le Van Duyet's faction, and accused the Cham leaders for supporting Duyet. Minh Mang ordered the last Cham king and the vice-king to be arrested in Hue, while incorporating the last remnants of Champa into what is Ninh Thuan province. Two widespread Cham revolts against the court of Minh Mang's oppression arose in 1833–1835, the latter led by khatib Ja Thak Wa–a Cham Bani clergy–which was more successful and even briefly reestablished a Cham state in short period of time, before being crushed by Minh Mang's forces.


Government


King of Champa, King

King of Champa is the title ruler of Champa. Champa rulers often use two Hinduism, Hinduist style titles: ''raja-di-raja'' ( "raja of rajas": written here in Devanagari since the Cham used their own Cham script) or ''po-tana-raya'' ( "lord of all territories"). The regnal name of the Champa rulers originated from the Hindu tradition, often consisting of titles and aliases. Titles (prefix) like: Jaya ( "victory"), Maha ( "great"), Sri ( "glory"). Aliases (stem) like: Bhadravarman, Vikrantavarman, Rudravarman, Simhavarman, Indravarman, Paramesvaravarman, Harivarman... Among them, the suffix -varman belongs to the Kshatriya class and is only for those leaders of the Champa Alliance. The last king of Champa was deposed by
Minh Mạng Minh Mạng (, vi-hantu, wikt:明, 明wikt:命, 命, lit. "the bright Mandate of Heaven, favour of Heaven"; 25 May 1791 – 20 January 1841; born Nguyễn Phúc Đảm, also known as Nguyễn Phúc Kiểu) was the second List of monarchs of ...
in 1832.


Military

The Cham traditionally used large numbers of soldiers for their infantry along with elephant corps. They wore various types of armor such as leather armor, scale lamellar, chainmail, and buff coats. Though the Cham were traditionally seafarers, their navy consisted of mostly large war boats powered by oars that could carry many marines to engage the Khmer and Vietnamese ships in close quarters combat. However, after the gunpowder age, Chinese firearms - including rockets and handguns were imported and employed by most Southeast Asian rulers in Dai Viet, Lan Na, and Luchuan. But Champa and Ayutthaya failed to adopt this technology and suffered the consequences. In 1390, the powerful Cham ruler Po Binasuor died in a naval battle. The Vietnamese records (written in Chữ Hán) attribute his death to the weapon called Huochong- long understood as referring to cannon but more probably a handgun. The use of these new weapons technology helped permanently shift the balance of power between the two kingdoms.


Geography of historical Champa

Between the 2nd and the 15th centuries AD, Champa at times included the modern provinces of Quảng Nam Province, Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi Province, Quảng Ngãi, Bình Định Province, Bình Định, Phú Yên Province, Phú Yên, Khánh Hòa Province, Khánh Hòa, Ninh Thuận Province, Ninh Thuận, and Bình Thuận Province, Bình Thuận. Though Cham territory included the mountainous zones west of the coastal plain and (at times) extended into present-day Laos, for the most part, the Cham remained a seafaring people dedicated to trading and maintained few settlements of any size away from the coast. Historical Champa consisted of up to five principalities: * Indrapura (Champa), Indrapura ("City of Indra") was the capital of Champa from about AD 875 to about AD 1000. It was located at the site of the modern village of Đồng Dương, near the modern city of Da Nang. Also found in the region of Da Nang is the ancient Cham city of Singhapura ("City of the Lion"), the location of which has been identified with an archaeological site in the modern village of Trà Kiệu, and the valley of
Mỹ Sơn Mỹ Sơn () is a cluster of abandoned and partially ruined Hindu temple A Mandir or Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of divinity for Hindus Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or r ...
, where a number of ruined temples and towers can still be seen. The associated port was at modern
Hội An Hội An (), formerly known as Fai-Fo or Faifoo, is a city with a population of approximately 120,000 in Vietnam's Quảng Nam Province and noted since 1999 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Old Town Hội An, the city's historic district, is rec ...
. The territory once controlled by this principality included present-day Quảng Bình Province, Quảng Bình, Quảng Trị Province, Quảng Trị, and Thừa Thiên–Huế Province, Thừa Thiên–Huế provinces. * Amaravati was located in present-day Châu Sa citadel of Quảng Ngãi Province. The earliest mention of Amaravati is from an AD 1160 inscription at Po Nagar.Higham, C., 2014, Early Mainland Southeast Asia, Bangkok: River Books Co., Ltd., *
Vijaya Vijaya may refer to: Places * Vijaya (Champa), a city-state and former capital of the historic Champa in what is now Vietnam * Vijayawada, a city in Andhra Pradesh, India People * Prince Vijaya of Sri Lanka (fl. 543–505 BC), earliest recorded ...
was located in present-day Bình Định Province. Early mention is made of Vijaya in an AD 1160 inscription at Po Nagar. The capital has been identified with the archaeological site at Cha Ban. The associated port was at present-day Qui Nhơn. Important excavations have also been conducted at nearby Tháp Mắm, which may have been a religious and cultural centre. Vijaya became the political and cultural centre of Champa around AD 1000, when the northern capital of Indrapura was abandoned due to pressure from the Viet. It remained the centre of Champa until AD 1471, when it was sacked by the Việt and the centre of Champa was again displaced toward the south. In its time, the principality of Vijaya controlled much of present-day Quang-Nam, Quang-Ngai, Bình Định, and Phú Yên Provinces. * Kauthara was located in the area of modern
Nha Trang Nha Trang ( or ; ) is a coastal city and capital of Khánh Hòa Province, on the South Central Coast of Vietnam. It is bounded on the north by Ninh Hoà district, on the south by Cam Ranh town and on the west by Diên Khánh District. The cit ...

Nha Trang
in Khánh Hòa Province. Its religious and cultural centre was the temple of
Po Nagar Po Nagar is a Cham temple tower founded sometime before 781 C.E. and located in the medieval principality of Kauthara, near modern Nha Trang in Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital ...

Po Nagar
, several towers of which still stand at Nha Trang. Kauthara is first mentioned in an AD 784 inscription at Po Nagar. * Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm, Panduranga was located in the area of present-day Phan Rang in Ninh Thuận Province. Panduranga was the last of the Cham territories to be annexed by the Vietnamese. Panduranga is first mentioned in an AD 817 inscription at Po Nagar. Within the four principalities were two main clans: the "Dừa" (means "coconut" in Vietnamese) and the "Cau" (means "areca catechu" in Vietnamese). The Dừa lived in Amravati and Vijaya, while the Cau lived in Kauthara and Panduranga. The two clans differed in their customs and habits and conflicting interests led to many clashes and even war. But they usually managed to settle disagreements through intermarriage.


Religion

Religiously and culturally, the
Chams The Chams or Champa people (Cham Cham or CHAM may refer to: Ethnicities and languages *Chams The Chams or Cham people ( Cham: ''Urang Campa'' / ꨂꨣꩃ ꨌꩌꨛꨩ, vi, người Chăm or người Chàm, km, ជនជាតិចា ...
were grouped into two major religio-cultural groups; the Balamon Chams that adhere to an indigenized form of
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
, and Bani Chams that adhere to an indigenized form of
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
. These two groups mostly live in separate villages. Intermarriage was prohibited in former times, and remains rare even nowadays. Both groups are
matrilineal Matrilineality is the tracing of kinship through the female line. It may also correlate with a social system in which each person is identified with their matriline – their mother's Lineage (anthropology), lineage – and which can inv ...
and conform to
matrilocal In social anthropology, matrilocal residence or matrilocality (also uxorilocal residence or uxorilocality) is the societal system in which a married couple resides with or near the wife's parents. Thus, the female offspring of a mother A m ...
residence practice.


Hinduism and Buddhism

The term "Balamon" derived from "Brahman" or "Brahmin", one of Hindu caste of religious elite. Balamon Chams adhere to the old religion of their ancestor, an indigenized form of Hinduism that thrived since the ancient era of Kingdom of Champa in 5th century CE. While today the Bacam (Bacham) are the only surviving Hindus in
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
, the region once hosted some of the most exquisite and vibrant Hinduism, Hindu cultures in the world. The entire region of Southeast Asia, in fact, was home to numerous sophisticated Hindu kingdoms. From Khmer Empire, Angkor in neighbouring Cambodia, to Medang Kingdom, Java and Bali Kingdom, Bali in Indonesia. Before the conquest of Champa by the Đại Việt emperor Trần Thánh Tông in 1471, the dominant religion of the Cham people was
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
, and the culture was heavily influenced by that of
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
. The
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
of Champa was overwhelmingly Shaivism, Shaiva and it was liberally combined with elements of local religious cults such as the worship of the Earth goddess
Lady Po NagarLady Po Nagar/Yan Po Nagar (杨婆那加), was the founder of the Cham people according to legends. She originated from a peasant family in the mountains of Khánh Hòa Province. Spirits assisted her when she sailed on a drift piece of sandalwood to ...
. The main symbols of Cham Shaivism were the lingam, the mukhalinga, the ''jaṭāliṅgam'', the segmented ''Lingam, liṅgam'', and the ''kośa''. * A liṅga (or liṅgam) is black stone pillar that serves as a representation of Shiva. Cham kings frequently erected and dedicated stone lingas as the central religious images in royal temples. The name a Cham king would give to such a linga would be a composite of the king's own name and suffix "-iśvara", which stands for Shiva. * A mukhaliṅga is a linga upon which has been painted or carved an image of Shiva as a human being or a human face. * A jaṭāliṅga is a linga upon which has been engraved a stylised representation of Shiva's chignon hairstyle. * A segmented liṅga is a linga post divided into three sections to represent the three aspects of the
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...
godhead or trimurti: the lowest section, square in shape, represents Brahma; the middle section, octagonal in shape, represents Vishnu, and the top section, circular in shape, represents Shiva. * A kośa is a cylindrical basket of precious metal used to cover a linga. The donation of a kośa to the decoration of a liṅga was a distinguishing characteristic of Cham Shaivism. Cham kings gave names to special kośas in much the way that they gave names to the liṅgas themselves. The predominance of
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
in Cham religion was interrupted for a time in the 9th and 10th centuries AD, when a dynasty at Indrapura (Champa), Indrapura (modern Đồng Dương, Quảng Nam Province, Vietnam) adopted Mahayana Buddhism as its faith. The Art of Champa, Buddhist art of Đồng Dương has received special acclaim for its originality. Beginning in the 10th century AD,
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
again became the predominant religion of Champa. Some of the sites that have yielded important works of religious art and architecture from this period are, aside from
Mỹ Sơn Mỹ Sơn () is a cluster of abandoned and partially ruined Hindu temple A Mandir or Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of divinity for Hindus Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or r ...
, Khương Mỹ, Trà Kiệu, Chanh Lo, and Art of Champa, Tháp Mắm.


Islam

Bani Chams are Muslim Chams that converted to Islam, as the faith started making headway among the population after the 10th century AD. The term "Bani" derived from Arabic language, Arabic term "bani" (بني) which means "people". By the 17th century, the royal families of the Cham had converted to Islam. Most Cham are now evenly split between being followers of Islam and
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
, with the majority of Vietnamese Cham being
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...
while the majority of Khmer people, Cambodian Cham are Muslim, though significant minorities of Mahayana Buddhists continue to exist. Indonesian 15th century records indicate the influence of Princess Daravati, a Cham, converted to Islam, and influenced her husband, Kertawijaya, Majapahit's seventh ruler to convert the
Majapahit The Majapahit () was a Javanese Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 ...

Majapahit
royal family to Islam. The Islamic tomb of ''Putri Champa'' (Princess of Champa) can be found in Trowulan, East Java, the site of the Majapahit imperial capital. In the 15th to 17th century, Muslim Cham maintained a cordial relationship with the Aceh Sultanate through dynastic marriage. This sultanate was located on the northern tip of Sumatra and was an active promoter of the Islamic faith in the
Indonesian archipelago The islands of Indonesia, also known as the Indonesian Archipelago or Nusantara ''Nusantara'' is the Indonesian name of Maritime Southeast Asia (or parts of it). It is an Old Javanese Kawi or Old Javanese is the oldest attested phase ...
.


Economy

In contrast to Đại Việt, Champa's economy was not based on agriculture. As seafaring people, the Cham were highly mobile and established a network of trade including not only the major ports at
Hội An Hội An (), formerly known as Fai-Fo or Faifoo, is a city with a population of approximately 120,000 in Vietnam's Quảng Nam Province and noted since 1999 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Old Town Hội An, the city's historic district, is rec ...
, Thi Nai, Thị Nại but also extending into the Central Highlands (Vietnam), mountainous hinterland. Maritime trade was facilitated by a network of wells that provided fresh water to Cham and foreign ships along the coast of Champa and the islands of Cham Islands, Cù Lao Chàm and Ly Son, Vietnam, Lý Sơn.Hardy 2009, 111 While Kenneth R. Hall suggests that Champa was not able to rely on taxes on trade for continuous revenue, but instead financed their rule by raiding neighbouring countries, Hardy argues that the country's prosperity was above all based on commerce. The vast majority of Champa's export products came from the mountainous hinterland, sourced from as far as Attapeu Province, Attapeu in southern Laos. They included gold and silver, slaves, animal and animal products, and precious woods.Hardy 2009, 111–12 By far the most important export product was eaglewood. It was the only product mentioned in Marco Polo's brief account and similarly impressed the Arab trader Sulayman several centuries earlier.Hardy 2009, 116 Most of it was probably taken from the Aquilaria crassna tree, just as most of the eaglewood in Vietnam today.


Cham port-cities

During the medieval age, the Champa Kingdom was well-benefited from the luxurious maritime trade routes through the South China Sea and overland trade networks connecting Angkor and Bagan to Champa. Champa entrenched its richness around highly urbanized port-cities, might be regionally self-governed, namely Amarendrapura (the modern city of Huế), Visnupura (Nhan Bieu, Thua Thien Hue) in the north; Indrapura (Champa), Indrapura and Amavarati (Quang Nam);
Vijaya Vijaya may refer to: Places * Vijaya (Champa), a city-state and former capital of the historic Champa in what is now Vietnam * Vijayawada, a city in Andhra Pradesh, India People * Prince Vijaya of Sri Lanka (fl. 543–505 BC), earliest recorded ...
in the central (Qui Nhon);
Nha Trang Nha Trang ( or ; ) is a coastal city and capital of Khánh Hòa Province, on the South Central Coast of Vietnam. It is bounded on the north by Ninh Hoà district, on the south by Cam Ranh town and on the west by Diên Khánh District. The cit ...

Nha Trang
and Panduranga in the south. When French scholars arrived in the mid-19th century, they were impressed with Cham ruins, Cham urbanism, and medieval networks throughout the former kingdom. The middle-age densely populated areas of Tra Kieu and My Son were well connected by paved stone roads, bridges, urban ruins that were 16 feet high, rampart and stone citadel in a rectangle shape of 984 feet by 1640 feet, which hosted temples, fortified palaces, and resident structures. From the 4th to 15th century, these cities were relatively wealthy. Foreign traders and travelers from across medieval Eurasia were well-aware of Champa’s richness and eyewitnessed the crowded, prosperous Cham port-cities. Christopher Columbus, Columbus after his fourth voyage in 1503, due to contemporary limited knowledge that mistakenly to locate Central America and eastern Asia, thought that he had figured out the kingdom of "Ciampa" where previously visited by Marco Polo in 1290. Because of this, Champa was the target of multiple warring powers surrounding: the Chinese in 4th century-605 AD; the Javanese in 774 and 787, the Vietnamese in 982, 1044, 1069, 1073, 1446, and 1471; the Khmer in 1074, 1126–1128, 1139–1150, 1190–1220; and the Mongol Yuan in 1283–85, many cities were ransacked by invaders and rebuilt or repaired overtime. Some Cham port-cities later ended up captured by Vietnamese in the mid-15th century, which later resulted in the rise of Nguyen domain depending on these port-cities, whom benefited international trades, and was well-balanced enough to fend off several northern Trinh invasions in the 17th century.


Archaeological remains and legacy


Religious

*
Mỹ Sơn Mỹ Sơn () is a cluster of abandoned and partially ruined Hindu temple A Mandir or Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of divinity for Hindus Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or r ...
near the town of
Hội An Hội An (), formerly known as Fai-Fo or Faifoo, is a city with a population of approximately 120,000 in Vietnam's Quảng Nam Province and noted since 1999 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Old Town Hội An, the city's historic district, is rec ...
on the Thu Bồn River. Established by Bhadravarman I in the 5th century AD, Vikrantavarman initiated a major building program in the 7th century. Construction continued until AD 1157 under Harivarman. *
Po Nagar Po Nagar is a Cham temple tower founded sometime before 781 C.E. and located in the medieval principality of Kauthara, near modern Nha Trang in Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital ...

Po Nagar
in Kauthara, on a harbour, comprising six temples and a pillared hall. Established before the 7th century AD, a wooden structure was burned in AD 774. Satyavarman initiated major construction in AD 757. One tower dates from AD 813 and construction continued until AD 1256. * Đồng Dương#Dong Duong Style, Đồng Dương was founded by Jaya Indravarman in AD 875. Most of the complex was destroyed during the Vietnam War. The site consists of three large courts, a large assembly hall, and a main temple sanctuary. Two bronze statues, one of Buddha and one of Avalokiteśvara were found at the site. * Po Klong Garai Temple, Po Klaung Garai in Panduranga (Phan Rang). * Po Rome. * Po Sah Inu in Hamu Lithit (Phan Thiết).


Fortresses

* Khu Túc (known in Chinese sources as Qusu) located along the Kiến Giang River of Quảng Bình province, was built in the 4th century AD and includes a revetment, revetted wall and moat as do the other centers. Khu Túc was sacked by the Chinese in AD 446, "all inhabitants over the age of 15 were put to the sword" and as much as 48,000 of gold taken. * Vijaya (Champa), Trà Bàn (Caban) was the capital of Vijaya. Ruins included Canh Tien towers, located north of Quy Nhon and contains a possible royal palace. * Châu Sa or Amaravati in Quảng Ngãi province. * Trà Kiệu or Simhapura, dating from two to three centuries BC until the 6th or 7th centuries AD. * Thành Hồ (Ayaru) is located on the northern bank of the Đà Rằng River, Phú Yên. * Song Luy (Bal Cattinon) is located on the coast south of Cape Dinh, Bình Thuận province. Some of the network of wells that was used to provide fresh water to Cham and foreign ships still remains. Cham wells are recognisable by their square shape. They are still in use and provide fresh water even during times of drought.


Museums

The largest collection of Art of Champa, Cham sculpture may be found in the Da Nang Museum of Cham Sculpture (formerly known as "Musée Henri Parmentier") in the coastal city of Da Nang. The museum was established in 1915 by French scholars, and is regarded as one of the most beautiful in Southeast Asia. Other museums with collections of Cham art include the following: * Museum of Fine Arts, Hanoi * Museum of History, Hanoi * Museum of Fine Arts, Saigon * Museum of History, Saigon * Musée Guimet, Paris


Cham influences on Vietnamese culture

Cham culture was absorbed by the Vietnamese, who in turn were strongly influenced by it. In 1044, after raiding Champa, Vietnamese king Lý Thái Tông took some 5,000 female Cham singers, dancers, servants, and engineers to Dai Viet and settled them in the capital
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Hanoi
where they created music for the Vietnamese court and had a direct influence on Vietnamese art. Both Lý Thái Tông and his son Lý Thánh Tông had a great appreciation for Cham music, and in 1060 Lý Thái Tông ordered Cham songs to be translated into Vietnamese to incorporate the Cham trong com drum into the royal band. Cham art also spread far across the Red River Delta, where many Vietnamese Buddhist temples hosted Cham-style statues of dragons, lions, ''Nāga, nāgá,'' ''makara'', kinnari, Brahma and Hamsa (bird), Hamsa dated back to the 11th–13th century (however, since these creatures also existed in China, it was more likely Chinese influence and not Champa). Thousand of bricks inscribed with Cham script indicate that a multitude of Vietnamese temples and holy sites were built by Cham engineers. A Buddhist stone stupa of Dạm tempe in Bắc Ninh Province, built by Vietnamese king Lý Nhân Tông in 1086, is a representation of a lingam and its yoni (a Hindu-Cham symbol of fertility and the power of creation). In 1693, after lord Nguyen Phuc Chu's take over of Panduranga, the Cham were forced to wear regulated Vietnamese dress, at least the members of the ruling Mâh Taha dynasty, Cham king Po Saktiraydapatih, and Cham court officials.


See also

* King of Champa * Art of Champa * History of Vietnam * Kampong Cham Province in east Cambodia * Kingdom of Champasak in the south of Laos * Champa independence movement


Citations


References

* * * * * * * * * *


External links

*
Website of the Asia Research Institute
including the working paper "Champa Revised" by Michael Vickery, and the draft translation "Champa in the ''Song hui-yao''" by Geoff Wade *
The Survivors of a Lost Civilisation
exhibited in Vietnamese museums
Plumeria flowers – Champa Flowers – La fleur de frangipaniers
nbsp;– Hoa Sứ, Hoa đại, Hoa Champa

{{Authority control Champa, 1832 disestablishments in Vietnam States and territories established in the 7th century Cham 2nd-century establishments in Vietnam Former countries in Vietnamese history Former monarchies of Southeast Asia