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Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the
most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities in all jurisdictions are classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the city proper, cities proper, the extent of their urban area, or the ...
in the
U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a W ...
of
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware a ...

Maryland
, as well as the 30th most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 593,490 in 2019. Baltimore was designated an
independent city An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity (such as a province). Historical precursors In the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imp ...
by the
Constitution of Maryland The current Constitution of the State of Maryland, which was ratified by the people of the state on September 18, 1867, forms the basic law In countries with uncodified constitutions, basic law is the denomination of a law providing constitutional ...
in 1851, and today is the largest independent city in the United States. As of 2017, the population of the
Baltimore metropolitan area The Baltimore–Columbia–Towson Metropolitan Statistical Area, also known as Central Maryland, is a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in Maryland as defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB). As of the 2010 United Sta ...
was estimated to be just under 2.802 million, making it the 21st largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about northeast of
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
, making it a principal city in the Washington–Baltimore combined statistical area (CSA), the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2018 population of 9,797,063. Prior to
European colonization The historical phenomenon of colonization is one that stretches around the globe and across time. Ancient and medieval colonialism was practiced by the Phoenicians, the Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ...
, the Baltimore region was home to the
Susquehannock The Susquehannock people, also called the Conestoga by English settlers, are Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South Am ...

Susquehannock
Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
. Colonists from the
Province of Maryland The Province of Maryland was an Kingdom of England, English and later British Empire, British colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1776, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen Colonies in American Revolution, rebellion aga ...
established the
Port of Baltimore towards the Inner Harbor and downtown Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 593,490 in 2019 ...
in 1706 to support the
tobacco Tobacco is the common name of several plants in the ' of the , and the general term for any product prepared from the of these plants. of tobacco are known, but the chief commercial crop is . The more potent variant is also used in som ...

tobacco
trade with Europe, and established the Town of Baltimore in 1729. The
Battle of Baltimore The Battle of Baltimore was a sea/land battle fought between British invaders and American defenders in the War of 1812 War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or group of peop ...
was a pivotal engagement during the
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the and its against and its allies in , with limited participation by in . It began when the US declared war on 18 June 1812 and although peace terms were agreed i ...
, culminating in the failed
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...

British
bombardment of
Fort McHenry Fort McHenry is a historical American coastal pentagonal bastion fort on Locust Point, now a neighborhood of Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous ...

Fort McHenry
, during which
Francis Scott Key Francis Scott Key (August 1, 1779January 11, 1843) was an American lawyer, author, and amateur poet from Frederick, Maryland, who is best known for writing the lyrics for the American national anthem " The Star-Spangled Banner". Key observed t ...

Francis Scott Key
wrote a poem that would become "
The Star-Spangled Banner "The Star-Spangled Banner" is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...
", which was eventually designated as the American national anthem in 1931. During the Pratt Street Riot of 1861, the city was the site of some of the earliest violence associated with the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by Names of the American Civil War, other names) was a civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865, fought between northern U.S. state, states loyal to the Union (American Civil War), Union and south ...
. The
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was the first common carrier A common carrier in common law countries (corresponding to a public carrier in some civil law (legal system), civil law systems,Encyclopædia Britannica CD 2000 "Civil-law public ca ...
, the oldest railroad in the United States, was built in 1830 and cemented Baltimore's status as a major transportation hub, giving producers in the
Midwest The midwestern United States, often referred to simply as the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of ...
and
Appalachia Appalachia () is a cultural region 's map of native American cultural areas within the territory of the United States (1948) as defined by Melville J. Herskovits influence , homelands of the Celtic languages The Celtic languages ( ...
access to the city's
port A port is a facility comprising one or more or loading areas, where ships load and discharge and passengers. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, ports can also be found far inland, such as , and ; these access t ...
. Baltimore's
Inner Harbor The Inner Harbor is a historic seaport File:PorticcioloCedas.jpg, The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola near Trieste, a small local port A port is a maritime law, maritime facility which may comprise one or more Wharf, wharves ...

Inner Harbor
was once the second leading
port of entry In general, a port of entry (POE) is a place where one may lawfully enter a country. It typically has border security staff and facilities to check passport A passport is an official travel documentA travel document is an identity docume ...
for
immigrant Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship ...

immigrant
s to the United States. In addition, Baltimore was a major
manufacturing Manufacturing is the creation or production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (g ...
center. After a decline in major manufacturing,
heavy industry Heavy industry is an industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely related set of raw materials, goods, or services. For example, one ...
, and restructuring of the rail industry, Baltimore has shifted to a service-oriented economy.
Johns Hopkins Hospital The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. It was founded in 1889 using money from a bequest of over $7 million (1873 mon ...

Johns Hopkins Hospital
and
Johns Hopkins University The Johns Hopkins University (Johns Hopkins, Hopkins, or JHU) is a private university, private research university in Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur ...

Johns Hopkins University
are the city's top two employers. Baltimore and its surrounding region are home to the headquarters of a number of major organizations and government agencies, including the
NAACP The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' political freedom, freedom from infringement by governments, social organiz ...
,
ABET ABET, incorporated as the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc., is a non-governmental organization File:Europe in a suitcase - UK.jpg, upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili ad ...
, the
National Federation of the Blind The National Federation of the Blind (NFB) is an organization of blind people in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, pri ...
,
Catholic Relief Services Catholic Relief Services (CRS) is the international humanitarian agency of the Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from t ...
, the
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), is a federal agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) that administers the Medicare (United States), Medicare program and works in partnership with state go ...
, and the
Social Security Administration The United States Social Security Administration (SSA) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in different jurisdic ...
. With hundreds of identified
district A district is a type of that, in some countries, is managed by the . Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning s or , several , subdivisions of municipalities, , or . By country/region Afghanistan In , a d ...

district
s, Baltimore has been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods". Many of Baltimore's neighborhoods have rich histories: the city is home to some of the earliest
National Register Historic District The U.S. National Register of Historic Places The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) is the United States federal government's official United States National Register of Historic Places listings, list of Historic districts in the ...
s in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, and
Mount Vernon Mount Vernon is an American landmark and former plantation of George Washington, the first President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of Ame ...
. These were added to the
National Register The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) is the United States federal government's official United States National Register of Historic Places listings, list of Historic districts in the United States, districts, sites, buildings, struc ...

National Register
between 1969 and 1971, soon after historic preservation legislation was passed. Baltimore has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country. Nearly one third of the city's buildings (over 65,000) are designated as historic in the National Register, which is more than any other U.S. city.


History

The city has 66
National Register Historic District The U.S. National Register of Historic Places The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) is the United States federal government's official United States National Register of Historic Places listings, list of Historic districts in the ...
s and 33 local historic districts. Over 65,000 properties are designated as historic buildings and listed in the
NRHP The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) is the United States federal government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the national government of the United States ...
, more than any other U.S. city. The historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the
Baltimore City Archives The Baltimore City Archives is the official municipal archive of the City of Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous city in the United States, with an est ...

Baltimore City Archives
.


Etymology

The city is named after , an
Anglo-Irish Anglo-Irish () is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that di ...
member of the
Irish House of Lords The Irish House of Lords was the upper house of the Parliament of Ireland that existed from medieval times until 1800. It was also the final court of appeal of the Kingdom of Ireland. It was modelled on the House of Lords of England, with mem ...
and founding proprietor of the
Province of Maryland The Province of Maryland was an Kingdom of England, English and later British Empire, British colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1776, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen Colonies in American Revolution, rebellion aga ...
. ''Baltimore Manor'' was the name of the estate in
County Longford County Longford ( gle, Contae an Longfoirt) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Cha ...
which the Calvert family, Barons Baltimore, owned in
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in ...

Ireland
. ''Baltimore'' is an
anglicization Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English. The term commonly ...
of the
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
name ''Baile an Tí Mhóir'', meaning "town of the big house".


Native American settlement

The Baltimore area had been inhabited by
Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
since at least the 10th millennium BC, when
Paleo-Indians Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleo-Americans, were the first peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a ...
first settled in the region. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and
Woodland period In the classification of archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be d ...
archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the
Late Woodland period In the classification of archaeological cultures of North America Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller ...
. During the Late Woodland period, the
archaeological culture An archaeological culture is a recurring Assemblage (archaeology), assemblage of types of Artifact (archaeology), artifacts, buildings and monuments from a specific period and region that may constitute the material culture remains of a particular p ...
known as the Potomac Creek complex resided in the area from Baltimore south to the
Rappahannock River The Rappahannock River is a river in eastern Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, Southeastern regions of the ...

Rappahannock River
in present-day
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a in the and regions of the , between the and the . The geography and climate of the are shaped by the and the , which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capit ...

Virginia
. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans. The Baltimore County area northward was used as hunting grounds by the
Susquehannock The Susquehannock people, also called the Conestoga by English settlers, are Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South Am ...

Susquehannock
living in the lower
Susquehanna River The Susquehanna River (; Unami language, Lenape: Siskëwahane) is a major river located in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, overlapping between the lower Northeastern United States, Northeast and the Upla ...

Susquehanna River
valley. This "controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake" but "refrained from much contact with
Powhatan in a longhouse at Werowocomoco (detail of John Smith map, 1612) The Powhatan people (; also spelled Powatan) may refer to any of the indigenous Algonquian peoples, Algonquian people that are traditionally from eastern Native American tribes i ...
in the " and south into Virginia. Pressured by the Susquehannock, the
Piscataway tribe The Piscataway or Piscatawa , also referred to as the Piscataway Conoy Tribal Nation, are Native Americans. They spoke Algonquian Piscataway, a dialect of Nanticoke. One of their neighboring tribes, with whom they merged after a massive decli ...
, an Algonquian-speaking people, stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited primarily the north bank of the
Potomac River The Potomac River () is found within the Mid-AtlanticMid-Atlantic or Mid Atlantic can refer to: *The middle of the Atlantic Ocean *Mid-Atlantic English, a mix between British English and American English *Mid-Atlantic Region (Little League World ...

Potomac River
in what are now
Charles Charles is a masculine given name predominantly found in English and French speaking countries. It is from the French form ''Charles'' of a Germanic nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two ...
and southern Prince George's counties in the coastal areas south of the
Fall Line A fall line (or fall zone) is the area where an upland region and a coastal plain meet and is typically prominent where rivers cross it, with resulting rapids or waterfalls. The uplands are relatively hard Basement (geology), crystalline basement r ...
.


Colonial period

European colonization The historical phenomenon of colonization is one that stretches around the globe and across time. Ancient and medieval colonialism was practiced by the Phoenicians, the Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ...
of Maryland began with the arrival of the merchantman '' The Ark'' carrying 140 colonists at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac River on March 25, 1634. Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of
Baltimore County Baltimore County is the third-most populous county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chamber ...
.Brooks & Rockel (1979), pp. 1–3. The original
county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. Th ...
, known today as Old Baltimore, was located on Bush River within the present-day
Aberdeen Proving Ground Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) (sometimes erroneously called Aberdeen Proving ''Grounds'') is a U.S. Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water. The va ...
. The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquehanna, whose numbers dwindled primarily from new infectious diseases, such as
smallpox Smallpox was an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to the infectious a ...

smallpox
, endemic among the Europeans. In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as
Jonestown The Peoples Temple Agricultural Project, better known by its informal name "Jonestown", was a remote settlement in Guyana, established by the Peoples Temple, a San Francisco-based cult under the leadership of Jim Jones. The settlement becam ...
on the east bank of the
Jones Falls The Jones Falls is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map , accessed April 1, 2011 stream in Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid- ...
stream. The colonial
General Assembly of Maryland The Maryland General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Maryland that convenes within the State House in Annapolis. It is a bicameral body: the upper house, upper chamber, the Maryland Senate, has 47 representatives and th ...
created the
Port of Baltimore towards the Inner Harbor and downtown Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 593,490 in 2019 ...
at old Whetstone Point (now Locust Point) in 1706 for the
tobacco trade The tobacco industry comprises those persons and companies who are engaged in the growth, preparation for sale, shipment, advertisement, and distribution of tobacco village in Xanthi, Greece Tobacco is the common name of several plants in ...
. The Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729. By 1752 the town had just 27 homes, including a church and two taverns. Jonestown and Fells Point had been settled to the east. The three settlements, covering , became a commercial hub, and in 1768 were designated as the county seat. Since Maryland was a colony, Baltimore's streets were named to show loyalty to the mother country, e.g. King, Queen, King George and Caroline streets. Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century, its plantations producing grain and tobacco for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean. The profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane in the Caribbean and the importation of food by planters there. Since Baltimore was the county seat, a courthouse was built in 1768 to serve both the city and county. Its square was a center of community meetings and discussions. Baltimore established its public market system in 1763.
Lexington Market Lexington Market is a historic market in downtown Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 593 ...
, founded in 1782, is known as one of the oldest continuously operating public markets in the United States today. Lexington Market was also a center of slave trading. Enslaved Blacks were sold at numerous sites through the downtown area, with sales advertised in ''The Baltimore Sun''. Both tobacco and sugar cane were labor-intensive crops. In 1774 Baltimore established the first post office system in what became the United States, and the first water company chartered in the newly independent nation (Baltimore Water Company, 1792). Baltimore played a key part in the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
. City leaders such as Jonathan Plowman Jr. led many residents to resist British taxes, and merchants signed agreements refusing to trade with Britain. The
Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British c ...
met in the
Henry Fite House The "Henry Fite House", located on West Baltimore Street (then known as Market Street), between South Sharp and North Liberty Streets (also later known as Hopkins Place), in Baltimore, Maryland, was the meeting site of the Second Continental Congr ...
from December 1776 to February 1777, effectively making the city the capital of the United States during this period.


Antebellum period

The Town of Baltimore, Jonestown, and Fells Point were
incorporated Incorporated may refer to: * Incorporated community * Incorporated (Grip Inc. album), ''Incorporated'' (Grip Inc. album), 2004, by Grip Inc. * Incorporated (Legion of Doom album), ''Incorporated'' (Legion of Doom album), 2006 * Incorporated (TV seri ...
as the ''City of Baltimore'' in 1796–1797. The city remained a part of surrounding
Baltimore County Baltimore County is the third-most populous county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chamber ...
and continued to serve as its county seat from 1768 to 1851, after which it became an
independent city An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity (such as a province). Historical precursors In the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imp ...
. The
Battle of Baltimore The Battle of Baltimore was a sea/land battle fought between British invaders and American defenders in the War of 1812 War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or group of peop ...
against the British in 1814 inspired the U.S. national anthem, "
The Star-Spangled Banner "The Star-Spangled Banner" is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...
", and the construction of the
Battle Monument The Battle Monument, located in Battle Monument Square on North Calvert Street between East Fayette and List of streets in Baltimore#Lexington Street, East Lexington Streets in Baltimore, Maryland, commemorates the Battle of Baltimore with the ...

Battle Monument
which became the city's official emblem. A distinctive local culture started to take shape, and a unique skyline peppered with churches and monuments developed. Baltimore acquired its moniker "The Monumental City" after an 1827 visit to Baltimore by President
John Quincy Adams John Quincy Adams (; July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, and diarist who served as the sixth president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state ...

John Quincy Adams
. At an evening function, Adams gave the following toast: "Baltimore: the Monumental City—May the days of her safety be as prosperous and happy, as the days of her dangers have been trying and triumphant." Baltimore pioneered the use of
gas lighting Gas lighting is production of artificial light from combustion of a gaseous fuel, such as hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, propane, butane, acetylene, ethylene, coal gas (town gas) or natural gas. The light is produced either directly by the ...

gas lighting
in 1816, and its population grew rapidly in the following decades, with concomitant development of culture and infrastructure. The construction of the federally funded
National Road The National Road (also known as the Cumberland Road) was the first major improved highway in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country ...

National Road
(which later became part of
U.S. Route 40 U.S. Route 40 or U.S. Highway 40 (US 40), also known as the Main Street of America, is a major east–west United States Highway The United States Numbered Highway System (often called U.S. Routes or U.S. Highways) is an integrated netwo ...
) and the private
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was the first common carrier A common carrier in common law countries (corresponding to a public carrier in some civil law (legal system), civil law systems,Encyclopædia Britannica CD 2000 "Civil-law public ca ...
(B. & O.) made Baltimore a major shipping and
manufacturing Manufacturing is the creation or production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (g ...
center by linking the city with major markets in the
Midwest The midwestern United States, often referred to simply as the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of ...
. By 1820 its population had reached 60,000, and its economy had shifted from its base in tobacco plantations to
sawmilling A sawmill (saw mill, saw-mill) or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the Plant stem, stems and roots of trees and ...
, shipbuilding, and textile production. These industries benefited from war but successfully shifted into infrastructure development during peacetime. Baltimore suffered one of the worst riots of the antebellum Southern United States, South in 1835, when bad investments led to the Baltimore bank riot. Soon after the city created the world's first dental college, the University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, in 1840, and shared in the Baltimore–Washington telegraph line, world's first telegraph line, between Baltimore and Washington, DC, in 1844.


Civil war and after

Maryland, a slave state with abundant popular support for secession in some areas, remained part of the Union (American Civil War), Union during the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by Names of the American Civil War, other names) was a civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865, fought between northern U.S. state, states loyal to the Union (American Civil War), Union and south ...
, due in part to the Union's strategic occupation of the city in 1861. The Union's capital, Washington, in the state of Maryland (geographically if not politically), was well-situated to impede Baltimore and Maryland's communication or commerce with the Confederacy. Baltimore saw the first casualties of the war on April 19, 1861, when Union Soldiers en route from the President Street Station to Camden Yards clashed with a secessionist mob in the Baltimore riot of 1861, Pratt Street riot. In the midst of the Long Depression which followed the Panic of 1873, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad company attempted to lower its workers' wages, leading to Baltimore railroad strike of 1877, strikes and riots in the city and Great Railroad Strike of 1877, beyond. Strikers clashed with the U.S. National Guard, National Guard, leaving 10 dead and 25 wounded.


20th century through 1968

On February 7, 1904, the Great Baltimore Fire destroyed over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours, leaving more than 70 blocks of the downtown area burned to the ground. Damages were estimated at $150 million in 1904 dollars. As the city rebuilt during the next two years, lessons learned from the fire led to improvements in firefighting equipment standards. Baltimore lawyer Milton Dashiell advocated for an ordinance to bar African-Americans from moving into the Eutaw Place neighborhood in northwest Baltimore. He proposed to recognize majority white residential blocks and majority black residential blocks and to prevent people from moving into housing on such blocks where they would be a minority. The Baltimore Council passed the ordinance, and it became law on December 20, 1910, with Democratic J. Barry Mahool, Mayor J. Barry Mahool's signature. The Baltimore segregation ordinance was the first of its kind in the United States. Many other southern cities followed with their own segregation ordinances, though the US Supreme Court ruled against them in ''Buchanan v. Warley'' (1917). The city grew in area by annexing new suburbs from the surrounding counties through 1918, when the city acquired portions of Baltimore County and Anne Arundel County, Maryland, Anne Arundel County. A state constitutional amendment, approved in 1948, required a special vote of the citizens in any proposed annexation area, effectively preventing any future expansion of the city's boundaries. Streetcars enabled the development of distant neighborhoods areas such as Edmondson, Baltimore, Edmonson Village whose residents could easily commute to work downtown. Driven by migration from the deep South and by white flight, white suburbanization, the relative size of the city's African American, black population grew from 23.8% in 1950 to 46.4% in 1970. Encouraged by real estate blockbusting techniques, recently settled white areas rapidly became all-black neighborhoods, in a rapid process which was nearly total by 1970.


1968 and after

The Baltimore riot of 1968, coinciding with King assassination riots, riots in other cities, followed the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. on April 4, 1968. Public order was not restored until April 12, 1968. The Baltimore riot cost the city an estimated $10 million (US$ million in ). A total of 11,000 Maryland National Guard and federal troops were ordered into the city. The city experienced challenges again in 1974 when teachers, Baltimore municipal strike of 1974, municipal workers, and Baltimore police strike, police officers conducted strikes. Following the death of Freddie Gray in April 2015, the city experienced 2015 Baltimore protests, major protests and international media attention, as well as a clash between local youth and police which resulted in a state of emergency declaration and curfew. Baltimore has suffered from a Crime in Baltimore, high homicide rate for several decades, peaking in 1993, and again in 2015. These deaths have taken a severe toll, especially within the local black community.


Development and promotion

By the beginning of the 1970s, Baltimore's downtown area, known as the Inner Harbor, had been neglected and was occupied by a collection of abandoned warehouses. The nickname "Charm City" came from a 1975 meeting of advertisers seeking to improve the city's reputation. Efforts to redevelop the area started with the construction of the Maryland Science Center, which opened in 1976, the Baltimore World Trade Center (1977), and the Baltimore Convention Center (1979). Harborplace, an urban retail and restaurant complex, opened on the waterfront in 1980, followed by the National Aquarium in Baltimore, National Aquarium, Maryland's largest tourist destination, and the Baltimore Museum of Industry in 1981. In 1995, the city opened the American Visionary Art Museum on Federal Hill. During the HIV/AIDS in the United States, epidemic of HIV/AIDS in the United States, Baltimore City Health Department official Robert Mehl persuaded the city's mayor to form a committee to address food problems; the Baltimore-based charity Moveable Feast (organization), Moveable Feast grew out of this initiative in 1990. By 2010, the organization's region of service had expanded from merely Baltimore to include all of the Eastern Shore of Maryland. In 1992, the Baltimore Orioles Major League Baseball, baseball team moved from Memorial Stadium (Baltimore), Memorial Stadium to Oriole Park at Camden Yards, located downtown near the harbor. Pope John Paul II held an open-air mass at Camden Yards during his papal visit to the United States in October 1995. Three years later the Baltimore Ravens National Football League, football team moved into M&T Bank Stadium next to Camden Yards. Baltimore has seen the reopening of the Hippodrome Theatre (Baltimore), Hippodrome Theatre in 2004, the opening of the Reginald F. Lewis Museum of Maryland African American History & Culture in 2005, and the establishment of the National Slavic Museum in 2012. On April 12, 2012, Johns Hopkins held a dedication ceremony to mark the completion of one of the United States' largest medical complexes – the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore – which features the Sheikh Zayed Cardiovascular and Critical Care Tower and The Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children's Center. The event, held at the entrance to the $1.1 billion 1.6 million-square-foot-facility, honored the many donors including Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, first president of the United Arab Emirates, and Michael Bloomberg. On September 19, 2016 the Baltimore City Council approved a $660 million bond deal for the $5.5 billion Port Covington redevelopment project championed by Under Armour founder Kevin Plank and his real estate company Sagamore Development. Port Covington surpassed the Harbor Point development as the largest tax-increment financing deal in Baltimore's history and among the largest urban redevelopment projects in the country. The waterfront development that includes the new headquarters for Under Armour, as well as shops, housing, offices, and manufacturing spaces is projected to create 26,500 permanent jobs with a $4.3 billion annual economic impact. Goldman Sachs invested $233 million into the redevelopment project.


Geography

Baltimore is in north-central Maryland on the Patapsco River close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay. The city is also located on the fall line between the Piedmont (United States), Piedmont Plateau and the Atlantic coastal plain, which divides Baltimore into "lower city" and "upper city". The city's elevation ranges from sea level at the harbor to in the northwest corner near Pimlico, Baltimore, Pimlico. According to the 2010 Census, the city has a total area of , of which is land and is water. The total area is 12.1 percent water. Baltimore is almost surrounded by Baltimore County, but is Independent city (United States), politically independent of it. It is bordered by Anne Arundel County to the south.


Cityscape


Architecture

Baltimore exhibits examples from each period of architecture over more than two centuries, and work from architects such as Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Benjamin Latrobe, George A. Frederick, John Russell Pope, Mies van der Rohe and I. M. Pei. The city is rich in architecturally significant buildings in a variety of styles. The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Baltimore Basilica (1806–1821) is a neoclassical design by Benjamin Latrobe, and also the oldest Catholic cathedral in the United States. In 1813 Robert Cary Long, Sr., built for Rembrandt Peale the first substantial structure in the United States designed expressly as a museum. Restored is now the Municipal Museum of Baltimore, or popularly the Peale Museum. The McKim's School, McKim Free School was founded and endowed by John McKim. However, the building was erected by his son Isaac McKim, Isaac in 1822 after a design by William Howard and William Small. It reflects the popular interest in ancient Greece, Greece when the nation was securing its independence and a scholarly interest in recently published drawings of Athenian antiquities. The Phoenix Shot Tower (1828), at tall, was the tallest building in the United States until the time of the Civil War, and is one of few remaining structures of its kind. It was constructed without the use of exterior scaffolding. The Sun Iron Building, designed by R.C. Hatfield in 1851, was the city's first iron-front building and was a model for a whole generation of downtown buildings. Brown Memorial Presbyterian Church, built in 1870 in memory of financier George Brown (financier), George Brown, has stained glass windows by Louis Comfort Tiffany and has been called "one of the most significant buildings in this city, a treasure of art and architecture" by ''Baltimore Magazine''. The 1845 Greek Revival architecture, Greek Revival-style Lloyd Street Synagogue is one of the oldest synagogues in the United States. The
Johns Hopkins Hospital The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. It was founded in 1889 using money from a bequest of over $7 million (1873 mon ...

Johns Hopkins Hospital
, designed by John Shaw Billings, Lt. Col. John S. Billings in 1876, was a considerable achievement for its day in functional arrangement and fireproofing. I.M. Pei's Baltimore World Trade Center, World Trade Center (1977) is the tallest equilateral pentagonal building in the world at tall. The Inner Harbor East, Harbor East area has seen the addition of two new towers which have completed construction: a 24-floor tower that is the new world headquarters of Legg Mason, and a 21-floor Four Seasons Hotel complex. The streets of Baltimore are organized in a Grid plan, grid pattern, lined with tens of thousands of brick and formstone-faced Terraced house, rowhouses. In ''The Baltimore Rowhouse'', Mary Ellen Hayward and Charles Belfoure considered the rowhouse as the architectural form defining Baltimore as "perhaps no other American city". In the mid-1790s, developers began building entire neighborhoods of the British-style rowhouses, which became the dominant house type of the city early in the 19th century. Formstone facings, now a common feature on Baltimore rowhouses, were an addition patented in 1937 by Albert Knight. John Waters (director born 1946), John Waters characterized formstone as "the polyester of brick" in a 30-minute documentary film, ''Little Castles: A Formstone Phenomenon''. Oriole Park at Camden Yards is a Major League Baseball park, opened in 1992, which was built as a retro style baseball park. Camden Yards, along with the National Aquarium, have helped revive the Inner Harbor from what once was an industrial district full of dilapidated warehouses into a bustling commercial district full of bars, restaurants and retail establishments. Today, the Inner Harbor has some of the most desirable real estate in the Mid-Atlantic. After an international competition, the University of Baltimore School of Law awarded the German firm Behnisch Architekten 1st prize for its design, which was selected for the school's new home. After the building's opening in 2013, the design won additional honors including an ENR National "Best of the Best" Award. Baltimore's newly rehabilitated Everyman Theatre, Baltimore, Everyman Theatre was honored by the Baltimore Heritage at the 2013 Preservation Awards Celebration in 2013. Everyman Theatre will receive an Adaptive Reuse and Compatible Design Award as part of Baltimore Heritage's 2013 historic preservation awards ceremony. Baltimore Heritage is Baltimore's nonprofit historic and architectural preservation organization, which works to preserve and promote Baltimore's historic buildings and neighborhoods.


Tallest buildings


Neighborhoods

Baltimore is officially divided into nine geographical regions: North, Northeast, East, Southeast, South, Southwest, West, Northwest, and Central, with each district patrolled by a respective Baltimore Police Department. Interstate 83 and Charles Street (Baltimore), Charles Street down to Maryland Route 2, Hanover Street and Ritchie Highway serve as the east–west dividing line and Maryland Route 150, Eastern Avenue to U.S. Route 40 in Maryland, Route 40 as the north–south dividing line; however, Baltimore Street is north–south dividing line for the U.S. Postal Service. It is not uncommon for locals to divide the city simply by East or West Baltimore, using Charles Street or I-83 as a dividing line or into North and South using Baltimore Street as a dividing line.


=Central Baltimore

= Central Baltimore, originally called the Middle District, stretches north of the Inner Harbor up to the edge of Druid Hill Park. Downtown Baltimore has mainly served as a commercial district with limited residential opportunities; however, between 2000 and 2010, the downtown population grew 130 percent as old commercial properties have been replaced by residential property. Still the city's main commercial area and business district, it includes Baltimore's sports complexes: Oriole Park at Camden Yards, M&T Bank Stadium, and the Royal Farms Arena; and the shops and attractions in the Inner Harbor: Harborplace, the Baltimore Convention Center, the National Aquarium in Baltimore, National Aquarium, Maryland Science Center, Pier Six Pavilion, and Power Plant Live. The University of Maryland, Baltimore, the University of Maryland Medical Center, and
Lexington Market Lexington Market is a historic market in downtown Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 593 ...
are also in the central district, as well as the Hippodrome and many nightclubs, bars, restaurants, shopping centers and various other attractions. The northern portion of Central Baltimore, between downtown and the Druid Hill Park, is home to many of the city's cultural opportunities. Maryland Institute College of Art, the Peabody Institute (music conservatory), George Peabody Library, Enoch Pratt Free Library – Central Library, the Lyric Opera House, the Joseph Meyerhoff Symphony Hall, the Walters Art Museum, the Maryland Center for History and Culture and its Enoch Pratt Mansion, and several galleries are located in this region.


=North Baltimore

= North Baltimore lies directly north of Central Baltimore and is bounded on the east by The Alameda (Baltimore), The Alameda and on the west by Pimlico Road. Loyola University Maryland, Homewood Campus of Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins University Homewood Campus, St. Mary's Seminary and University and Notre Dame of Maryland University are located in this district. Baltimore Polytechnic Institute high school for mathematics, science and engineering, and adjacent Western High School (Baltimore), Western High School, the oldest remaining public girls secondary school in America, share a joint campus at Cold Spring Lane, West Cold Spring Lane and Maryland Route 25, Falls Road. Several historic and notable neighborhoods are in this district: Govans, Baltimore, Govans (1755), Roland Park, Baltimore, Roland Park (1891), Guilford, Baltimore, Guilford (1913), Homeland, Baltimore, Homeland (1924), Hampden, Baltimore, Hampden, Woodberry, Baltimore, Woodberry, Old Goucher College Buildings, Old Goucher (the original campus of Goucher College), and
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. Along the Maryland Route 45, York Road corridor going north are the large neighborhoods of Charles Village, Waverly, Baltimore, Waverly, and Mount Washington, Baltimore, Mount Washington. The Station North Arts and Entertainment District is also located in North Baltimore.


=South Baltimore

= South Baltimore, a mixed industrial and residential area, consists of the "Old South Baltimore" peninsula below the Inner Harbor and east of the old B&O Railroad's Camden line tracks and Russell Street (Baltimore), Russell Street downtown. It is a culturally, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse waterfront area with neighborhoods such as Locust Point and Riverside around a large park of the same name. Just south of the Inner Harbor, the historic Federal Hill neighborhood, is home to many working professionals, pubs and restaurants. At the end of the peninsula is historic
Fort McHenry Fort McHenry is a historical American coastal pentagonal bastion fort on Locust Point, now a neighborhood of Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous ...

Fort McHenry
, a National Park since the end of World War I, when the old U.S. Army Hospital surrounding the 1798 star-shaped battlements was torn down. The area south of the Hanover Street Bridge, Vietnam Veterans (Hanover Street) Bridge and the Patapsco River was annexed to the city in 1919 from being independent towns in Anne Arundel County. Across the Hanover Street Bridge are residential areas such as Cherry Hill, Baltimore, Cherry Hill, Brooklyn, Baltimore, Brooklyn, and Curtis Bay, Baltimore, Curtis Bay, with Fort Armistead bordering the city's south side from Anne Arundel County.


=Northeast Baltimore

= Northeast is primarily a residential neighborhood, home to Morgan State University, bounded by the city line of 1919 on its northern and eastern boundaries, Sinclair Lane, Maryland Route 151, Erdman Avenue, and U.S. Route 40 in Maryland, Pulaski Highway to the south and The Alameda (Baltimore), The Alameda on to the west. Also in this wedge of the city on 33rd Street (Baltimore), 33rd Street is Baltimore City College high school, third oldest active public secondary school in the United States, founded downtown in 1839. Across Loch Raven Boulevard is the former site of the old Memorial Stadium (Baltimore), Memorial Stadium home of the History of the Indianapolis Colts, Baltimore Colts, Baltimore Orioles, and Baltimore Ravens, now replaced by a YMCA athletic and housing complex. Lake Montebello is in Northeast Baltimore.


=East Baltimore

= Located below Sinclair Lane and Maryland Route 151, Erdman Avenue, above Orleans Street (Baltimore), Orleans Street, East Baltimore is mainly made up of residential neighborhoods. This section of East Baltimore is home to
Johns Hopkins Hospital The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. It was founded in 1889 using money from a bequest of over $7 million (1873 mon ...

Johns Hopkins Hospital
, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and Johns Hopkins Children's Center on Broadway (Baltimore), Broadway. Notable neighborhoods include: Armistead Gardens, Broadway East, Barclay, Baltimore, Barclay, Ellwood Park, Greenmount, Baltimore, Greenmount, and McElderry Park. This area was the on-site film location for ''Homicide: Life on the Street'', ''The Corner'' and ''The Wire''.


=Southeast Baltimore

= Southeast Baltimore, located below Fayette Street, bordering the Inner Harbor and the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River to the west, the city line of 1919 on its eastern boundaries and the Patapsco River to the south, is a mixed industrial and residential area. Patterson Park, the "Best Backyard in Baltimore", as well as the Highlandtown Arts District, Baltimore, MD, Highlandtown Arts District, and Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center are located in Southeast Baltimore. The Shops at Canton Crossing opened in 2013. The Canton, Baltimore, Canton neighborhood, is located along Baltimore's prime waterfront. Other historic neighborhoods include: Fell's Point, Baltimore, Fells Point, Patterson Park (neighborhood), Baltimore, Patterson Park, Butchers Hill, Baltimore, Butchers Hill, Highlandtown, Baltimore, Highlandtown, Greektown, Baltimore, Greektown, Inner Harbor East, Baltimore, Harbor East, Little Italy, Baltimore, Little Italy, and Upper Fell's Point.


=Northwest Baltimore

= Northwestern is bounded by the county line to the north and west, Gwynns Falls Parkway on the south and Pimlico Road on the east, is home to Pimlico Race Course, Sinai Hospital (Maryland), Sinai Hospital, and the headquarters of the
NAACP The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' political freedom, freedom from infringement by governments, social organiz ...
. Its neighborhoods are mostly residential and are dissected by Northern Parkway (Baltimore), Northern Parkway. The area has been the center of History of the Jews in Baltimore, Baltimore's Jewish community since after World War II. Notable neighborhoods include: Pimlico, Baltimore, Pimlico, Mount Washington, Baltimore, Mount Washington, and Cheswolde, Baltimore, Cheswolde, and Park Heights.


=West Baltimore

= West Baltimore is west of downtown and the Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard (Baltimore), Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard and is bounded by Gwynns Falls Parkway, Fremont Avenue, and Baltimore Street, West Baltimore Street. The Old West Baltimore Historic District includes the neighborhoods of Harlem Park, Sandtown-Winchester, Druid Heights, Madison Park, Baltimore, Madison Park, and Upton, Baltimore, Upton. Originally a predominantly German neighborhood, by the last half of the 1800s, Old West Baltimore was home to a substantial section of the city's African American population. It became the largest neighborhood for the city's black community and its cultural, political, and economic center. Coppin State University, Mondawmin Mall, and Edmondson, Baltimore, Edmondson Village are located in this district. The area's crime problems have provided subject material for television series, such as ''The Wire''. Local organizations, such as the Sandtown Habitat for Humanity and the Upton Planning Committee, have been steadily transforming parts of formerly blighted areas of West Baltimore into clean, safe communities.


=Southwest Baltimore

= Southwest Baltimore is bound by the Baltimore County line to the west, West Baltimore Street to the north, and Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard (Baltimore), Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard and Baltimore–Washington Parkway, Russell Street/Baltimore-Washington Parkway (Maryland Route 295) to the east. Notable neighborhoods in Southwest Baltimore include: Pigtown, Baltimore, Pigtown, Carrollton Ridge, Baltimore, Carrollton Ridge, Ridgely's Delight, Baltimore, Ridgely's Delight, Gwynns Falls Leakin Park, Leakin Park, Violetville, Baltimore, Violetville, Lakeland, Baltimore, Lakeland, and Morrell Park, Baltimore, Morrell Park. St. Agnes Hospital (Baltimore), St. Agnes Hospital on Maryland Route 372, Wilkens and Caton Avenue, Caton avenues is located in this district with the neighboring Cardinal Gibbons School (Baltimore, Maryland), Cardinal Gibbons High School, which is the former site of Babe Ruth's alma mater, St. Mary's Industrial School. Also through this segment of Baltimore ran the beginnings of the historic
National Road The National Road (also known as the Cumberland Road) was the first major improved highway in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country ...

National Road
, which was constructed beginning in 1806 along Old Frederick Road and continuing into the county on Maryland Route 144, Frederick Road into Ellicott City, Maryland. Other sides in this district are: Mount Clare (Maryland), Carroll Park, one of the city's largest parks, the colonial Mount Clare Mansion, and U.S. Route 1 in Maryland, Washington Boulevard, which dates to pre-Revolutionary War days as the prime route out of the city to Alexandria, Virginia, and Georgetown (Washington, D.C.), Georgetown on the
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Adjacent communities

The City of Baltimore is bordered by the following communities, all unincorporated census-designated places.


Climate

Baltimore has a humid subtropical climate (''Cfa'') in the Köppen climate classification, with long, hot summers, cool winters, and a summer peak to annual precipitation. Baltimore is part of USDA plant hardiness zones 7b and 8a. Summers are normally hot, with occasional late day thunderstorms. July the hottest month, has a mean temperature of . Winters are chilly to mild but variable, with sporadic snowfall: January has a daily average of , though temperatures reach rather often, but can drop below when Arctic air masses affect the area. Spring and autumn are warm, with spring being the wettest season in terms of the number of precipitation days. Summers are hot and humid with a daily average in July of , and the combination of heat and humidity leads to rather frequent thunderstorms. A southeasterly bay breeze off the Chesapeake often occurs on summer afternoons when hot air rises over inland areas; prevailing winds from the southwest interacting with this breeze as well as the city proper's UHI can seriously exacerbate air quality. In late summer and early autumn the track of hurricanes or their remnants may cause flooding in downtown Baltimore, despite the city being far removed from the typical coastal storm surge areas. The average seasonal snowfall is , but it varies greatly depending on the winter, with some seasons seeing minimal snow while others see several major Nor'easters. Due to lessened urban heat island (UHI) as compared to the city limits, city proper and distance from the moderating Chesapeake Bay, the outlying and inland parts of the Baltimore metro area are usually cooler, especially at night, than the city proper and the coastal towns. Thus, in the northern and western suburbs, winter snowfall is more significant, and some areas average more than of snow per winter. It is by no means uncommon for the rain-snow line to set up in the metro area. Freezing rain and sleet occurs a few times each winter in the area, as warm air overrides cold air at the low to mid-levels of the atmosphere. When the wind blows from the east, the cold air gets cold air damming, dammed against the mountains to the west and the result is freezing rain or sleet. Extreme temperatures range from on February 9, 1934, and Great Blizzard of 1899, February 10, 1899, up to on July 22, 2011. On average, + temperatures occur on 0.9 days annually, + on 37 days, and there are 10 days where the high fails to reach the freezing mark.


Demographics


Population

According to the United States Census, there were 593,490 people living in Baltimore City in 238,436 households as of July 1, 2019. The population decreased by 4.4% since the 2010 Census. Baltimore's population has declined at each census since its peak in 1950. In 2011, then-Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake said her main goal was to increase the city's population by improving city services to reduce the number of people leaving the city and by passing legislation protecting immigrants' rights to stimulate growth. For the first time in decades, in July 2012, the U.S. Census Bureau's census estimate showed the population grew by 1,100 residents, a 0.2% increase from the previous year. Baltimore is sometimes identified as a sanctuary city. Mayor Jack Young (politician), Jack Young said in 2019 that Baltimore will not assist U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, ICE agents with immigration raids. Gentrification has increased since the 2000 census, primarily in East Baltimore, downtown, and Central Baltimore. Downtown Baltimore and its surrounding neighborhoods are seeing a resurgence of young professionals and immigrants, mirroring major cities across the country. After New York City, Baltimore was the second city in the United States to reach a population of 100,000. From the 1830 through 1850 U.S. censuses, Baltimore was the second most-populous city, before being surpassed by Philadelphia in 1860. It was among the top 10 cities in population in the United States in every census up to the 1980 census, and after World War II had a population of nearly 1 million.


Characteristics

According to the , Baltimore's population is 63.7% African Americans, Black, 29.6% White Americans, White (6.9% German Americans, German, 5.8% Italian Americans, Italian, 4% Irish Americans, Irish, 2% Americans, American, 2% Polish Americans, Polish, 0.5% Greek Americans, Greek) 2.3% Asian Americans, Asian(0.54% Korean Americans, Korean, 0.46% Indian Americans, Indian, 0.37% Chinese Americans, Chinese, 0.36% Filipino Americans, Filipino, 0.21% Nepali American, Nepali, 0.16% Pakistani Americans, Pakistani), and 0.4% Native Americans in the United States, Native American and Alaska Native. Across races, 4.2% of the population are of History of the Hispanics and Latinos in Baltimore, Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (1.63% Salvadoran Americans, Salvadoran, 1.21% Mexican Americans, Mexican, 0.63% Puerto Rican-American, Puerto Rican, 0.6% Honduran Americans, Honduran). Females made up 53.4% of the population. The median age was 35 years old, with 22.4% under 18 years old, 65.8% from 18 to 64 years old, and 11.8% 65 or older. Baltimore also has a large Caribbean American population, with the largest groups being Jamaican Americans, Jamaicans, at roughly 1% of the population, and Trinidadian and Tobagonian Americans, Trinidadians, at roughly 0.5% of the population. In 2005, approximately 30,778 people (6.5%) identified as LGBT, gay, lesbian, or bisexual. In 2012, same-sex marriage in Maryland was legalized, going into effect January 1, 2013.


Income and housing

In 2009, the median household income was $42,241 and the median income per capita was $25,707, compared to the national median income of $53,889 per household and $28,930 per capita. In Baltimore, 23.7% of the population lived below the poverty line, compared to 13.5% nationwide. Housing in Baltimore is relatively inexpensive for large, coastal cities of its size. The median sale price for homes in Baltimore in 2012 was $95,000. Despite the housing collapse, and along with the national trends, Baltimore residents still face slowly increasing rent (up 3% in the summer of 2010). The Homelessness, homeless population in Baltimore is steadily increasing; it exceeded 4,000 people in 2011. The increase in the number of young homeless people was particularly severe.


Life expectancy

As of 2015, life expectancy in Baltimore was 74 to 75 years, compared to the U.S. average of 78 to 80. Fourteen neighborhoods had lower life expectancies than North Korea. The life expectancy in Downtown/Seton Hill was comparable to that of Yemen.


Religion

According to Pew Research Center, 25% of adults in Baltimore report affiliating with no religion. 50% of the adult population of Baltimore are Protestants. Following Protestantism, Catholicism is the second largest religious affiliation, comprising 15% percent of the population, followed by Judaism (3%) and Muslim (2%). Around 1% identify with other Christian denominations.Adults in the Baltimore metro area
''Religious Landscape Study'', Pew Research Center, 12 May 2015


Languages

, 91% (526,705) of Baltimore residents five years old and older spoke only English at home. Close to 4% (21,661) spoke Spanish. Other languages, such as Languages of Africa, African languages, French, and Chinese are spoken by less than 1% of the population.


Crime

Crime in Baltimore, generally concentrated in areas high in poverty, has been far above the national average for many years. Overall reported crime has dropped by 60% from the mid 1990s to the mid 2010s, but homicide rates remain high and exceed the national average. The worst years for crime in Baltimore overall were from 1993 to 1996; with 96,243 crimes reported in 1995. Baltimore's 344 homicides in 2015 represented the highest homicide rate in the city's recorded history—52.5 per 100,000 people, surpassing the record set in 1993—and the second-highest for U.S. cities behind St. Louis and ahead of Detroit. To put that in perspective, New York City, a city with a 2015 population of 8,491,079, recorded a total of 339 homicides in 2015. Baltimore had a 2015 population of 621,849; which means that in 2015 Baltimore had a homicide rate 14 times higher than New York City's. Of Baltimore's 344 homicides in 2015, 321 (93.3%) of the victims were African-American. Chicago, which saw 762 homicides in 2016 compared to Baltimore's 318, still had a homicide rate (27.2) that was half of Baltimore's because Chicago has a population four times greater than Baltimore's. As of 2018, the murder rate in Baltimore was higher than that of El Salvador, Guatemala, or Honduras. Drug use and deaths by drug use (particularly drugs used intravenously, such as heroin) are a related problem which has crippled Baltimore for decades. Among cities greater than 400,000, Baltimore ranked 2nd in its opiate drug death rate in the United States behind Dayton, Ohio. The Drug Enforcement Administration, DEA reported that 10% of Baltimore's population – about 64,000 people – are addicted to heroin. In 2011, Baltimore police reported 196 homicides, the lowest number in the city since 197 homicides in 1978 and far lower than the peak homicide count of 353 slayings in 1993. City leaders at the time credited a sustained focus on repeat violent offenders and increased community engagement for the continued drop, reflecting a nationwide decline in crime. On August 8, 2014, Baltimore's new youth curfew law went into effect. It prohibits unaccompanied children under age 14 from being on the streets after 9 p.m. and those aged 14–16 from being out after 10 p.m. during the week and 11 p.m. on weekends and during the summer. The goal is to keep children out of dangerous places and reduce crime. Crime in Baltimore reached another peak in 2015 when the year's tally of 344 homicides was second only to the record 353 in 1993, when Baltimore had about 100,000 more residents. The killings in 2015 were on pace with recent years in the early months of 2015 but skyrocketed after the Baltimore Uprising, unrest and rioting of late April. In five of the next eight months, killings topped 30–40 per month. Nearly 90 percent of 2015's homicides resulted from shootings, renewing calls for new gun laws. In 2016, according to annual crime statistics released by the Baltimore Police Department, there were 318 murders in the city. This total marked a 7.56 percent decline in homicides from 2015. In an interview with ''The Guardian'', on November 2, 2017,Gately, Gary (November 2, 2017)
" Baltimore is more murderous than Chicago. Can anyone save the city from itself?"
''The Guardian''.
David Simon, himself a former police reporter for ''The Baltimore Sun'', ascribed the most recent surge in murders to the high-profile decision by Baltimore state's attorney, Marilyn Mosby, to charge six city police officers following the death of Freddie Gray after he fell into a coma while in police custody in April 2015. "What Mosby basically did was send a message to the Baltimore police department: 'I'm going to put you in jail for making a bad arrest.' So officers figured it out: 'I can go to jail for making the wrong arrest, so I'm not getting out of my car to clear a corner,' and that's exactly what happened post-Freddie Gray." In Baltimore, "arrest numbers have plummeted from more than 40,000 in 2014, the year before Gray's death and the subsequent charges against the officers, to about 18,000 [as of November 2017]. This happened even as homicides soared from 211 in 2014 to 344 in 2015 – an increase of 63%."


Economy

Once a predominantly industrial town, with an economic base focused on steel processing, shipping, auto manufacturing (General Motors Baltimore Assembly), and transportation, the city experienced deindustrialization which cost residents tens of thousands of low-skill, high-wage jobs. The city now relies on a low-wage service economy, which accounts for 31% of jobs in the city. Around the turn of the 20th century, Baltimore was the leading US manufacturer of rye whiskey and straw hats. It also led in refining of crude oil, brought to the city by pipeline from Pennsylvania. the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics calculates Baltimore's unemployment rate at 5.8% while one quarter of Baltimore residents (and 37% of Baltimore children) live in poverty. The 2012 closure of a major steel plant at Sparrows Point is expected to have a further impact on employment and the local economy. The Census Bureau reported in 2013 that 207,000 workers commute into Baltimore city each day. Downtown Baltimore is the primary economic asset within Baltimore City and the region with 29.1 million square feet of office space. The tech sector is rapidly growing as the Baltimore metro ranks 8th in the CBRE Tech Talent Report among 50 U.S. metro areas for high growth rate and number of tech professionals. ''Forbes'' ranked Baltimore fourth among America's "new tech hot spots". The city is home to the
Johns Hopkins Hospital The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. It was founded in 1889 using money from a bequest of over $7 million (1873 mon ...

Johns Hopkins Hospital
. Other large :Companies based in Baltimore, companies in Baltimore include Under Armour, BRT Laboratories, Cordish Company, Legg Mason, McCormick & Company, T. Rowe Price, and Royal Farms. A sugar refinery owned by American Sugar Refining is one of Baltimore's cultural icons. Nonprofits based in Baltimore include Lutheran Services in America and
Catholic Relief Services Catholic Relief Services (CRS) is the international humanitarian agency of the Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from t ...
. Almost a quarter of the jobs in the Baltimore region were in science, technology, engineering and math as of mid 2013, in part attributed to the city's extensive undergraduate and graduate schools; maintenance and repair experts were included in this count.


Port

The center of international commerce for the region is the Baltimore World Trade Center, World Trade Center Baltimore. It houses the Maryland Port Administration and U.S. headquarters for major shipping lines. Baltimore is ranked 9th for total dollar value of cargo and 13th for cargo tonnage for all U.S. ports. In 2014, total cargo moving through the port totaled 29.5 million tons, down from 30.3 million tons in 2013. The value of cargo traveling through the port in 2014 came to $52.5 billion, down from $52.6 billion in 2013. The
Port of Baltimore towards the Inner Harbor and downtown Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 593,490 in 2019 ...
generates $3 billion in annual wages and salary, as well as supporting 14,630 direct jobs and 108,000 jobs connected to port work. In 2014, the port also generated more than $300 million in taxes. It serves over 50 ocean carriers making nearly 1,800 annual visits. Among all U.S. ports, Baltimore is first in handling automobiles, light trucks, farm and construction machinery; and imported forest products, aluminum, and sugar. The port is second in coal exports. The Port of Baltimore's cruise industry, which offers year-round trips on several lines supports over 500 jobs and brings in over $90 million to Maryland's economy annually. Growth at the port continues with the Maryland Port Administration plans to turn the southern tip of the former steel mill into a marine terminal, primarily for car and truck shipments, but also for anticipated new business coming to Baltimore after the completion of the Panama Canal expansion project.


Tourism

Baltimore's history and attractions have allowed the city to become a popular tourist destination on the East Coast. In 2014, the city hosted 24.5 million visitors, who spent $5.2 billion. The Baltimore Visitor Center, which is operated by Visit Baltimore, is located on Light Street in the Inner Harbor. Much of the city's tourism centers around the Inner Harbor, with the National Aquarium in Baltimore, National Aquarium being Maryland's top tourist destination. Baltimore Harbor's restoration has made it "a city of boats", with several historic ships and other attractions on display and open for the public to visit. The USS Constellation (1854), USS ''Constellation'', the last Civil War-era vessel afloat, is docked at the head of the Inner Harbor; the USS Torsk (SS-423), USS ''Torsk'', a submarine that holds the Navy's record for dives (more than 10,000); and the Coast Guard cutter ''USCGC Taney (WHEC-37), Taney'', the last surviving U.S. warship that was in Pearl Harbor during the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese attack on December 7, 1941, and which engaged Japanese Zero aircraft during the battle. Also docked is the lightship ''Chesapeake'', which for decades marked the entrance to Chesapeake Bay; and the Seven Foot Knoll Lighthouse, the oldest surviving screw-pile lighthouse on Chesapeake Bay, which once marked the mouth of the Patapsco River and the entrance to Baltimore. All of these attractions are owned and maintained by the Historic Ships in Baltimore organization. The Inner Harbor is also the home port of ''Pride of Baltimore II'', the state of Maryland's "goodwill ambassador" ship, a reconstruction of a famous Baltimore Clipper ship. Other tourist destinations include sporting venues such as Oriole Park at Camden Yards, M&T Bank Stadium, and Pimlico Race Course,
Fort McHenry Fort McHenry is a historical American coastal pentagonal bastion fort on Locust Point, now a neighborhood of Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous ...

Fort McHenry
, the
Mount Vernon Mount Vernon is an American landmark and former plantation of George Washington, the first President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of Ame ...
, Federal Hill, and Fells Point neighborhoods,
Lexington Market Lexington Market is a historic market in downtown Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 593 ...
, Horseshoe Casino Baltimore, Horseshoe Casino, and museums such as the Walters Art Museum, the Baltimore Museum of Industry, the Babe Ruth Birthplace and Museum, the Maryland Science Center, and the B&O Railroad Museum. The Baltimore Convention Center is home to BronyCon, the world's largest convention for fans of ''My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic''. The convention had over 6,300 attendees in 2017, and 10,011 attendees during its peak in 2015. File:Baltimore Visitor Center.JPG, Baltimore Visitor Center in Inner Harbor File:Fountain@InnerHarbor Baltimore.JPG, Fountain near visitor center in Inner Harbor File:Sunset@Baltimore 1.JPG, Sunset views from Baltimore's Inner Harbor File:Sunset@Baltimore 2.JPG, File:Sunset@Baltimore 3.JPG, File:Sunset@Baltimore II.JPG File:BaltimoreNationalAquarium.JPG, Baltimore is the home of the National Aquarium in Baltimore, National Aquarium, one of the world's largest.


Culture

Historically a working-class port town, Baltimore has sometimes been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods", with 72 designated historic districts traditionally occupied by distinct ethnic groups. Most notable today are three downtown areas along the port: the Inner Harbor, frequented by tourists due to its hotels, shops, and museums; Fells Point, once a favorite entertainment spot for sailors but now refurbished and gentrified (and featured in the movie ''Sleepless in Seattle''); and Little Italy, Baltimore, Little Italy, located between the other two, where Baltimore's Italian-American community is based – and where U.S. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi grew up. Further inland,
Mount Vernon Mount Vernon is an American landmark and former plantation of George Washington, the first President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of Ame ...
is the traditional center of cultural and artistic life of the city; it is home to a distinctive Washington Monument (Baltimore), Washington Monument, set atop a hill in a 19th-century urban square, that predates the more well-known monument in Washington, D.C. by several decades. Baltimore also has a significant History of the Germans in Baltimore, German American population, and was the second largest port of immigration to the United States, behind Ellis Island in New York and New Jersey. Between 1820 and 1989, almost 2 million who were German, History of the Poles in Baltimore, Polish, English, Irish, History of the Russians in Baltimore, Russian, History of the Lithuanians in Baltimore, Lithuanian, History of the French in Baltimore, French, History of the Ukrainians in Baltimore, Ukrainian, History of the Czechs in Baltimore, Czech, History of the Greeks in Baltimore, Greek and History of the Italians in Baltimore, Italian came to Baltimore, most between the years 1861 to 1930. By 1913, when Baltimore was averaging forty thousand immigrants per year, World War I closed off the flow of immigrants. By 1970, Baltimore's heyday as an immigration center was a distant memory. There also was a Chinatown, Baltimore, Chinatown dating back to at least the 1880s which consisted of no more than 400 Chinese residents. A local Chinese-American association remains based there, but only one Chinese restaurant as of 2009. Baltimore has quite a history when it comes to making beer, an art that thrived in Baltimore from the 1800s to the 1950s with over 100 old breweries in the city's past. The best remaining example of that history is the old American Brewery (building), American Brewery Building on North Gay Street and the National Brewing Company building in the Brewers Hill, Baltimore, Brewer's Hill neighborhood. In the 1940s the National Brewing Company introduced the nation's first six-pack. National's two most prominent brands, were National Bohemian Beer colloquially "Natty Boh" and Colt 45 (malt liquor), Colt 45. Listed on the Pabst Brewing Company, Pabst website as a "Fun Fact", Colt 45 was named after running back Jerry Hill (American football), #45 Jerry Hill of the 1963 Indianapolis Colts#The NFL Baltimore Colts, Baltimore Colts and not the .45 Colt, .45 caliber handgun ammunition round. Both brands are still made today, albeit outside of Maryland, and served all around the Baltimore area at bars, as well as Baltimore Orioles, Orioles and Baltimore Ravens, Ravens games. The Natty Boh logo appears on all cans, bottles, and packaging; and merchandise featuring him can still easily be found in shops in Maryland, including several in Fells Point. Each year the Artscape (festival), Artscape takes place in the city in the Bolton Hill, Baltimore, Bolton Hill neighborhood, due to its proximity to Maryland Institute College of Art. Artscape styles itself as the "largest free arts festival in America". Each May, the Maryland Film Festival takes place in Baltimore, using all five screens of the historic Charles Theatre as its anchor venue. Many movies and television shows have been filmed in Baltimore. ''The Wire ''was set and filmed in Baltimore. ''House of Cards (U.S. TV series), House of Cards'' and ''Veep'' are set in Washington, D.C. but filmed in Baltimore. Baltimore has cultural museums in many areas of study. Baltimore Museum of Art, The Baltimore Museum of Art, and the Walters Art Museum are internationally renowned for its collection of art. The Baltimore Museum of Art has the largest holding of works by Henri Matisse in the world. The American Visionary Art Museum has been designated by United States Congress, Congress as America's national museum for visionary art. The National Great Blacks In Wax Museum is the first African American wax museum in the country, featuring more than 150 life-size and lifelike wax figures.


Cuisine

Baltimore is known for its Maryland Callinectes sapidus, blue crabs, crab cake, Old Bay Seasoning, pit beef, and the "chicken box". The city has many restaurants in or around the Inner Harbor. The most known and acclaimed are the Charleston, Woodberry Kitchen, and the Duff Goldman, Charm City Cakes bakery featured on the Food Network's ''Ace of Cakes''. The Little Italy, Baltimore, Little Italy neighborhood's biggest draw is the food. Fells Point also is a foodie neighborhood for tourists and locals and is where the oldest continuously running tavern in the country, "The Horse You Came in on Saloon", is located. Many of the city's upscale restaurants can be found in Harbor East. Five public markets are located across the city. The Baltimore Public Markets, Baltimore Public Market System is the oldest continuously operating public market system in the United States.
Lexington Market Lexington Market is a historic market in downtown Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 593 ...
is one of the longest-running markets in the world and longest running in the country, having been around since 1782. The market continues to stand at its original site. Baltimore is the last place in America where one can still find arabbers, vendors who sell fresh fruits and vegetables from a horse-drawn cart that goes up and down neighborhood streets. Food- and drink-rating site Zagat ranked Baltimore second in a list of the 17 best food cities in the country in 2015.


Local dialect

Baltimore city, along with its surrounding regions, is home to a unique local dialect known as the Baltimore dialect. It is part of the larger Mid-Atlantic American English group and is noted to be very similar to the Philadelphia dialect, albeit with more southern influences. The so-called "Bawlmerese" accent is known for its characteristic pronunciation of its long "o" vowel, in which an "eh" sound is added before the long "o" sound (/oʊ/ shifts to [ɘʊ], or even [eʊ]). It also adopts Philadelphia's pattern of the short "a" sound, such that the tensed vowel in words like "bath" or "ask" does not match the more relaxed one in "sad" or "act". Baltimore native John Waters (director born 1946), John Waters parodies the city and its dialect extensively in his films. Most of them are filmed and/or set in Baltimore, including the 1972 cult classic ''Pink Flamingos'', as well as ''Hairspray (1988 film), Hairspray'' and its Hairspray (musical), Broadway musical remake.


Performing arts

Baltimore has three state-designated arts and entertainment (A & E) districts. The Station North Arts and Entertainment District, Highlandtown Arts District, Baltimore, MD, Highlandtown Arts District, and the Bromo Arts & Entertainment District. The Baltimore Office of Promotion & The Arts, a non-profit organization, produces events and arts programs as well as manages several facilities. It is the official Baltimore City Arts Council. BOPA coordinates Baltimore's major events including New Year's Eve and July 4 celebrations at the Inner Harbor, Artscape (festival), Artscape which is America's largest free arts festival, Baltimore Book Festival, Baltimore Farmers' Market & Bazaar, School 33 Art Center's Open Studio Tour and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Parade. The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra is an internationally renowned orchestra, founded in 1916 as a publicly funded municipal organization. The current Music Director is Marin Alsop, a protégé of Leonard Bernstein. Centerstage (theater), Centerstage is the premier theater company in the city and a regionally well-respected group. The Lyric Opera House is the home of Lyric Opera Baltimore, which operates there as part of the Patricia and Arthur Modell Performing Arts Center. The Baltimore Consort has been a leading early music ensemble for over twenty-five years. The France-Merrick Performing Arts Center, home of the restored Thomas W. Lamb-designed Hippodrome Theatre (Baltimore), Hippodrome Theatre, has afforded Baltimore the opportunity to become a major regional player in the area of touring Broadway and other performing arts presentations. Renovating Baltimore's historic theatres have become widespread throughout the city such as the Everyman Theatre, Baltimore, Everyman, Centre, Senator Theatre, Senator and most recent Parkway Theatre (Baltimore), Parkway theatre. Other buildings have been reused such as the former Mercantile Trust and Deposit Company, Mercantile Deposit and Trust Company bank building. It is now the Chesapeake Shakespeare Company Theater. Baltimore also boasts a wide array of professional (non-touring) and community theater groups. Aside from Center Stage, resident troupes in the city include The Vagabond Players, the oldest continuously operating community theater group in the country, Everyman Theatre, Baltimore, Everyman Theatre, Single Carrot Theatre, and Baltimore Theatre Festival. Community theaters in the city include Fells Point Community Theatre and the The Arena Players, Arena Players Inc., which is the nation's oldest continuously operating African American community theater. In 2009, the Baltimore Rock Opera Society, an all-volunteer theatrical company, launched its first production. Baltimore is home to the Pride of Baltimore Chorus, a three-time international silver medalist women's chorus, affiliated with Sweet Adelines International. The Maryland State Boychoir is located in the northeastern Baltimore neighborhood of Mayfield. Baltimore is the home of non-profit chamber music organization Vivre Musicale. VM won a 2011–2012 award for Adventurous Programming from the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers and Chamber Music America. The Peabody Institute, located in the Mount Vernon neighborhood, is the oldest conservatory of music in the United States. Established in 1857, it is one of the most prestigious in the world, along with Juilliard School, Juilliard, Eastman School of Music, Eastman, and the Curtis Institute of Music, Curtis Institute. The Morgan State University Choir is also one of the nation's most prestigious university choral ensembles. The city is home to the Baltimore School for the Arts, a public high school in the Mount Vernon neighborhood of Baltimore. The institution is nationally recognized for its success in preparation for students entering music (vocal/instrumental), theatre (acting/theater production), dance, and visual arts.


Sports


Baseball

Baltimore has a long and storied baseball history, including its distinction as the birthplace of Babe Ruth in 1895. The original Baltimore Orioles (19th century), 19th century Baltimore Orioles were one of the most successful early franchises, featuring numerous hall of famers during its years from 1882 to 1899. As one of the eight inaugural American League franchises, the Baltimore Orioles played in the AL during the 1901 and 1902 seasons. The team moved to New York City before the 1903 season and was renamed the New York Highlanders, which later became the New York Yankees. Ruth played for the Baltimore Orioles (minor league), minor league Baltimore Orioles team, which was active from 1903 to 1914. After playing one season in 1915 as the Richmond Climbers, the team returned the following year to Baltimore, where it played as the Orioles until 1953. The team currently known as the Baltimore Orioles has represented Major League Baseball locally since 1954 when the St. Louis Browns moved to the city of Baltimore. The Orioles advanced to the World Series in 1966, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1979 and 1983, winning three times (1966, 1970 and 1983), while making the playoffs all but one year (1972) from 1969 through 1974. In 1995, local player (and later Hall of Famer) Cal Ripken, Jr. broke Lou Gehrig's streak of 2,130 consecutive games played, for which Ripken was named Sportsman of the Year by ''Sports Illustrated'' magazine. Six former Orioles players, including Ripken (2007), and two of the team's managers have been inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, Baseball Hall of Fame. Since 1992, the Orioles' home ballpark has been Oriole Park at Camden Yards, which has been hailed as one of the league's best since it opened.


Football

Prior to an NFL team moving to Baltimore, there had been several attempts at a professional football team prior to the 1950s. Most were minor league or semi-professional teams. The first major league to base a team in Baltimore was the All-America Football Conference (AAFC), which had a team named the Baltimore Colts (1947–50), Baltimore Colts. The AAFC Colts played for three seasons in the AAFC (1947, 1948, and 1949), and when the AAFC folded following the 1949 season, moved to the NFL for a single year (1950) before going bankrupt. Three years later, the NFL's Dallas Texans (NFL), Dallas Texans would itself fold. Its assets and player contracts purchased by an ownership team headed by Baltimore businessman Carroll Rosenbloom, who moved the team to Baltimore, establishing a new team also named the History of the Baltimore Colts, Baltimore Colts. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Colts were one of the NFLs more successful franchises, led by Pro Football Hall of Fame quarterback Johnny Unitas who set a then-record of 47 consecutive games with a touchdown pass. The Colts advanced to the NFL Championship twice (1958 & 1959) and Super Bowl twice (1969 & 1971), winning all except Super Bowl III in 1969. After the 1983 season, the team Baltimore Colts relocation to Indianapolis, left Baltimore for Indianapolis in 1984, where they became the Indianapolis Colts. The NFL returned to Baltimore when the former Cleveland Browns relocation controversy, Cleveland Browns moved to Baltimore to become the Baltimore Ravens in 1996. Since then, the Ravens won a Super Bowl championship in Super Bowl XXXV, 2000 and Super Bowl XLVII, 2012, six AFC North division championships (2003, 2006, 2011, 2012, 2018, and 2019), and appeared in four AFC Championship Games (2000, 2008, 2011 and 2012). Baltimore also hosted a Canadian Football League franchise, the Baltimore Stallions for the 1994 CFL season, 1994 and 1995 CFL season, 1995 seasons. Following the 1995 season, and ultimate end to the Canadian Football League in the United States experiment, the team was sold and relocated to Montreal.


Other teams and events

The first professional sports organization in the United States, Maryland Jockey Club, The Maryland Jockey Club, was formed in Baltimore in 1743. Preakness Stakes, the second race in the United States Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing, has been held every May at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore since 1873. College lacrosse is a common sport in the spring, as the Johns Hopkins Blue Jays men's lacrosse team has won 44 national championships, the most of any program in history. In addition, Loyola University Maryland, Loyola University won its first men's NCAA lacrosse championship in 2012. The Baltimore Blast are a professional arena soccer team that play in the Major Arena Soccer League at the SECU Arena on the campus of Towson University. The Blast have won nine championships in various leagues, including the MASL. A previous entity of the Baltimore Blast (1980–92), Blast played in the Major Indoor Soccer League (1978–92), Major Indoor Soccer League from 1980 to 1992, winning one championship. The FC Baltimore, FC Baltimore 1729 is a semi-professional soccer club playing for National Premier Soccer League, NPSL league, with the goal of bringing a community-oriented competitive soccer experience to the city of Baltimore. Their inaugural season started on May 11, 2018, and they play home games at Community College of Baltimore County#Essex Campus, CCBC Essex Field. The Baltimore Blues are a semi-professional rugby league club which began competition in the USA Rugby League in 2012. The Baltimore Bohemians are an American Football (soccer), soccer club. They compete in the USL Premier Development League, the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid. Their inaugural season started in the spring of 2012. The Baltimore Grand Prix debuted along the streets of the Inner Harbor section of the city's downtown on September 2–4, 2011. The event played host to the American Le Mans Series on Saturday and the IndyCar Series on Sunday. Support races from smaller series were also held, including Indy Lights. After three consecutive years, on September 13, 2013, it was announced that the event would not be held in 2014 or 2015 due to scheduling conflicts. The athletic equipment company Under Armour is also based out of Baltimore. Founded in 1996 by Kevin Plank, a University of Maryland alumnus, the company's headquarters are located in Tide Point, adjacent to
Fort McHenry Fort McHenry is a historical American coastal pentagonal bastion fort on Locust Point, now a neighborhood of Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous ...

Fort McHenry
and the Domino Sugar factory. The Baltimore Marathon is the flagship race of several races. The marathon begins at the Camden Yards sports complex and travels through many diverse neighborhoods of Baltimore, including the scenic Inner Harbor waterfront area, historic Federal Hill, Fells Point, and Canton, Baltimore. The race then proceeds to other important focal points of the city such as Patterson Park, Clifton Park, Lake Montebello, the Charles Village neighborhood and the western edge of downtown. After winding through 42.195 kilometres (26.219 mi) of Baltimore, the race ends at virtually the same point at which it starts. The Baltimore Brigade were an Arena Football League team based in Baltimore that from 2017 to 2019 played at Royal Farms Arena. The team ceased operations along with the league in 2019.


Parks and recreation

The City of Baltimore boasts over of parkland."City Profiles: Baltimore"
''The Trust for Public Land''. Retrieved on July 5, 2013
The Baltimore City Department of Recreation and Parks manages the majority of parks and recreational facilities in the city including Patterson Park, Federal Hill Park, and Druid Hill Park. The city is also home to Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine, a coastal star-shaped fort best known for its role in the War of 1812. , Trust for Public Land, The Trust for Public Land, a national land conservation organization, ranks Baltimore 40th among the 75 largest U.S. cities.


Politics and government

Baltimore is an
independent city An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity (such as a province). Historical precursors In the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imp ...
, and not part of any county (United States), county. For most governmental purposes under Maryland law, Baltimore City is treated as a county-level entity. The United States Census Bureau uses counties as the basic unit for presentation of statistical information in the United States, and treats Baltimore as a county equivalent for those purposes. Baltimore has been a Democratic Party (United States), Democratic stronghold for over 150 years, with Democrats dominating every level of government. In virtually all elections, the Democratic primary is the real contest. As of the 2020 elections, registered Democrats outnumbered registered Republican Party (United States), Republicans by almost 10-to-1. No Republican has been elected to the City Council since 1939, and the city's last Republican mayor, Theodore McKeldin, left office in 1967. No Republican candidate since then has received 25 percent or more of the vote. In the 2016 Baltimore mayoral election, 2016 and 2020 Baltimore mayoral election, 2020 mayoral elections, the Republicans were pushed into third place by write-in and independent candidates, respectively. The city hosted the first six Democratic National Conventions, from 1832 through 1852, and hosted the DNC again in 1860 Democratic National Convention, 1860, 1872 Democratic National Convention, 1872, and 1912 Democratic National Convention, 1912.


City government


Mayor

Brandon Scott is the current mayor of Baltimore. He was elected in 2020 and took office on December 8, 2020. Scott succeeded Jack Young (politician), Jack Young who had been mayor since May 2, 2019 upon the resignation of Catherine Pugh. Prior to Pugh's official resignation, Young was the president of the Baltimore City Council and had been the acting mayor since April 2. Catherine Pugh became the Democratic nominee for mayor in 2016 and won the 2016 Baltimore mayoral election, mayoral election in 2016 with 57.1% of the vote; Pugh took office as mayor on December 6, 2016. Pugh took a leave of absence in April 2019 due to health concerns, then officially resigned from office on May 2. The resignation coincided with a scandal over a "self-dealing" book-sales arrangement. Stephanie Rawlings-Blake assumed the office of Mayor on February 4, 2010, when predecessor Dixon's resignation became effective. Rawlings-Blake had been serving as City Council President at the time. She was elected to a full term in 2011, defeating Pugh in the primary election and receiving 84% of the vote. Sheila Dixon became the first female mayor of Baltimore on January 17, 2007. As the former City Council President, she assumed the office of Mayor when former Mayor Martin O'Malley took office as Governor of Maryland. On November 6, 2007, Dixon won the Baltimore mayoral election, 2007, Baltimore mayoral election. Mayor Dixon's administration ended less than three years after her election, the result of a criminal investigation that began in 2006 while she was still City Council President. She was convicted on a single misdemeanor charge of embezzlement on December 1, 2009. A month later, Dixon made an Alford plea to a perjury charge and agreed to resign from office; Maryland, like most states, does not allow convicted felons to hold office.


Baltimore City Council

Grassroots pressure for reform, voiced as Question P, restructured the city council in November 2002, against the will of the mayor, the council president, and the majority of the council. A coalition of union and community groups, organized by the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN), backed the effort. The Baltimore City Council is now made up of 14 single-member districts and one elected at-large council president. Nick Mosby has been the council president since November 2020, when he was elected to succeed the role from Mayor Brandon Scott.


Law enforcement

The Baltimore Police Department, Baltimore City Police Department, founded 1784 as a "Night City Watch" and day Constables system and later reorganized as a City Department in 1853, with a following reorganization under State of Maryland supervision in 1859, with appointments made by the Governor of Maryland after a disturbing period of civic and elections violence with riots in the later part of the decade, is the current primary law enforcement agency serving the citizens of the City of Baltimore. Campus and building security for the city's Baltimore City Public Schools, public schools is provided by the Baltimore City Public Schools Police, established in the 1970s. In the period of 2011–2015, 120 lawsuits were brought against Baltimore police for alleged brutality and misconduct. The Freddie Gray settlement of $6.4 million exceeds the combined total settlements of the 120 lawsuits, as state law caps such payments. The Maryland Transportation Authority Police under the Maryland Department of Transportation, (originally established as the "Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Police" when opened in 1957) is the primary law enforcement agency on the Fort McHenry Tunnel Thruway (Interstate 95), the Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Thruway (Interstate 895), which go under the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River, and Interstate 395 (Maryland), Interstate 395, which has three ramp bridges crossing the Middle Branch of the Patapsco River which are under Maryland Transportation Authority, MdTA jurisdiction, the Baltimore-Washington International Airport, (BWI) and have limited concurrent jurisdiction with the Baltimore Police Department, Baltimore City Police Department under a "memorandum of understanding". Law enforcement on the fleet of transit buses and transit rail systems serving Baltimore is the responsibility of the Maryland Transit Administration Police, which is part of the Maryland Transit Administration of the state Maryland Department of Transportation, Department of Transportation. The MTA Police also share jurisdiction authority with the Baltimore City Police, governed by a memorandum of understanding. As the enforcement arm of the Baltimore circuit and district court system, the Baltimore City Sheriff's Office (Maryland), Baltimore City Sheriff's Office, created by state constitutional amendment in 1844, is responsible for the security of city courthouses and property, service of court-ordered writs, protective and peace orders, warrants, tax levies, prisoner transportation and traffic enforcement. Deputy Sheriffs are sworn law enforcement officials, with full arrest authority granted by the constitution of Maryland, the Maryland Police and Correctional Training Commission and the Sheriff of the City of Baltimore. The United States Coast Guard, operating out of their shipyard and facility (since 1899) at Arundel Cove on Curtis Creek, (off Pennington Avenue extending to Hawkins Point Road/Fort Smallwood Road) in the Curtis Bay, Baltimore, Curtis Bay section of southern Baltimore City and adjacent northern Anne Arundel County. The U.S.C.G. also operates and maintains a presence on Baltimore and Maryland waterways in the Patapsco River and Chesapeake Bay. "Sector Baltimore" is responsible for commanding law enforcement and search & rescue units as well as aids to navigation.


Baltimore City Fire Department

The city of Baltimore is protected by the over 1,800 professional firefighters of the Baltimore City Fire Department (BCFD), which was founded in December 1858 and began operating the following year. Replacing several warring independent volunteer companies since the 1770s and the confusion resulting from Know-Nothing Riot of 1856, a riot involving the "Know-Nothing" political party two years before, the establishment of a unified professional fire fighting force was a major advance in urban governance. The BCFD operates out of 37 fire stations located throughout the city and has a long history and sets of traditions in its various houses and divisions.


State government

Since the legislative redistricting in 2002, Baltimore has had six legislative districts located entirely within its boundaries, giving the city six seats in the 47-member Maryland Senate and 18 in the 141-member Maryland House of Delegates. During the previous 10-year period, Baltimore had four legislative districts within the city limits, but four others overlapped the Baltimore County line. , all of Baltimore's state senators and delegates were Democrats.


State agencies


Federal government

Three of the state's eight congressional districts include portions of Baltimore: the Maryland's 2nd congressional district, 2nd, represented by Dutch Ruppersberger; the Maryland's 3rd congressional district, 3rd, represented by John Sarbanes; and the Maryland's 7th congressional district, 7th, represented by Kweisi Mfume. All three are Democrats; a Republican has not represented a significant portion of Baltimore in Congress since John Boynton Philip Clayton Hill represented the 3rd District in 1927, and has not represented any of Baltimore since the Eastern Shore of Maryland, Eastern Shore-based 1st District lost its share of Baltimore after the 2000 census; it was represented by Republican Wayne Gilchrest at the time. Maryland's senior United States Senator, Ben Cardin, is from Baltimore. He is one of three people in the last four decades to have represented the 3rd District before being elected to the United States Senate. Paul Sarbanes represented the 3rd from 1971 until 1977, when he was elected to the first of five terms in the Senate. Sarbanes was succeeded by Barbara Mikulski, who represented the 3rd from 1977 to 1987. Mikulski was succeeded by Cardin, who held the seat until handing it to John Sarbanes upon his election to the Senate in 2007. The United States Postal Service, Postal Service's Baltimore Main Post Office is located at 900 East Fayette Street in the
Jonestown The Peoples Temple Agricultural Project, better known by its informal name "Jonestown", was a remote settlement in Guyana, established by the Peoples Temple, a San Francisco-based cult under the leadership of Jim Jones. The settlement becam ...
area. The national headquarters for the United States Social Security Administration is located in Woodlawn, just outside of Baltimore.


Education


Colleges and universities

Baltimore is the home of numerous places of higher learning, both public and private. 100,000 college students from around the country attend Baltimore City's 12 accredited two-year or four-year colleges and universities. Among them are:


Private

* The Johns Hopkins University * Baltimore International College * Loyola University Maryland * Maryland Institute College of Art * St. Mary's Seminary and University * Notre Dame of Maryland University * The Peabody Institute of Johns Hopkins University * Stratford University (Baltimore campus)


Public

* Baltimore City Community College * Coppin State University * Morgan State University * University of Baltimore * University of Maryland, Baltimore


Primary and secondary schools

The city's public schools are managed by Baltimore City Public Schools and include schools that have been well known in the area: Carver Vocational Technical High School, Carver Vocational-Technical High School, the first African American vocational high school and center that was established in the state of Maryland; Digital Harbor High School, one of the secondary schools that emphasizes information technology; Lake Clifton Eastern High School, which is the largest school campus in Baltimore City of physical size; the historic Frederick Douglass Senior High School (Baltimore, Maryland), Frederick Douglass High School, which is the second oldest African American high school in the United States; Baltimore City College, the third oldest public high school in the country; and Western High School (Baltimore, Maryland), Western High School, the oldest public all-girls school in the nation. Baltimore City College (also known as "City") and Baltimore Polytechnic Institute (also known as "Poly") share the nation's second-oldest high school Baltimore City College football, football rivalry.


Transportation

The city of Baltimore has a higher-than-average percentage of households without a car. In 2015, 30.7 percent of Baltimore households lacked a car, which decreased slightly to 28.9 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Baltimore averaged 1.65 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.


Roads and highways

Baltimore's highway growth has done much to influence the development of the city and its suburbs. The first limited-access highway serving Baltimore was the Baltimore–Washington Parkway, which opened in stages between 1950 and 1954. Maintenance of it is split: the half closest to Baltimore is maintained by the state of Maryland, and the half closest to Washington by the National Park Service. Trucks are only permitted to use the northern part of the parkway. Trucks (tractor-trailers) continued to use U.S. Route 1 in Maryland, U.S. Route 1 (US 1) until Interstate 95 in Maryland, Interstate 95 (I-95) between Baltimore and Washington opened in 1971. The Interstate highways serving Baltimore are Interstate 70 in Maryland, I-70, I-83 (the Jones Falls Expressway), I-95, Interstate 395 (Maryland), I-395, Interstate 695 (Maryland), I-695 (the Baltimore Beltway), Interstate 795 (Maryland), I-795 (the Northwest Expressway), Interstate 895 (Maryland), I-895 (the Harbor Tunnel Thruway), and Interstate 97, I-97. The city's mainline Interstate highways—I-95, I-83, and I-70—do not directly connect to each other, and in the case of I-70 end at a park and ride lot just inside the city limits, because of highway revolts, freeway revolts in Baltimore. These revolts were led primarily by Barbara Mikulski, a former United States senator for Maryland, which resulted in the abandonment of the original plan. There are two tunnels traversing Baltimore Harbor within the city limits: the four-bore Fort McHenry Tunnel (opened in 1985 and serving I-95) and the two-bore Baltimore Harbor Tunnel, Harbor Tunnel (opened in 1957 and serving I-895). The Baltimore Beltway crosses south of Baltimore Harbor over the Francis Scott Key Bridge (Baltimore), Francis Scott Key Bridge. The first interstate highway built in Baltimore was I-83, called the Jones Falls Expressway (first portion built in the early 1960s). Running from the downtown toward the northwest (NNW), it was built through a natural corridor, which meant that no residents or housing were directly affected. A planned section from what is now its southern terminus to I-95 was abandoned. Its route through parkland received criticism. Planning for the Baltimore Beltway antedates the creation of the Interstate Highway System. The first portion completed was a small strip connecting the two sections of I-83, the Baltimore-Harrisburg Expressway and the Jones Falls Expressway. The only United States Numbered Highways, U.S. Highways in the city are US 1, which bypasses downtown, and U.S. Route 40 in Maryland, US 40, which crosses downtown from east to west. Both run along major surface streets; however, US 40 utilizes a small section of a freeway cancelled in the 1970s in the west side of the city originally intended for Interstate 170 (Maryland), Interstate 170. State routes in the city also travel along surface streets, with the exception of Maryland Route 295, which carries the Baltimore–Washington Parkway. The Baltimore City Department of Transportation (BCDOT) is responsible for several functions of the road transportation system in Baltimore, including repairing roads, sidewalks, and alleys; road signs; street lights; and managing the flow of transportation systems. In addition, the agency is in charge of vehicle towing and traffic cameras. BCDOT maintains all streets within the city of Baltimore. These include all streets that are marked as state and U.S. highways as well as the portions of I-83 and I-70 within the city limits. The only highways within the city that are not maintained by BCDOT are I-95, I-395, I-695, and I-895; those four highways are maintained by the Maryland Transportation Authority.


Transit systems


Public transit

Public transit in Baltimore is mostly provided by the Maryland Transit Administration (abbreviated "MTA Maryland") and Charm City Circulator. MTA Maryland operates a comprehensive MTA Maryland bus service, bus network, including many local, express, and commuter buses, Baltimore Light RailLink, a light rail network connecting Hunt Valley, Maryland, Hunt Valley in the north to BWI Airport and Cromwell Station / Glen Burnie (Baltimore Light Rail station), Cromwell (Glen Burnie, Maryland, Glen Burnie) in the south, and a Baltimore Metro SubwayLink, subway line between Owings Mills, Maryland, Owings Mills and Johns Hopkins Hospital. A proposed rail line, known as the Red Line (Baltimore), Red Line, which would link the Social Security Administration to Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center and perhaps the Canton, Baltimore, Canton and Dundalk, Maryland, Dundalk communities, was cancelled by Governor Larry Hogan; a proposal to extend Baltimore's existing subway line to Morgan State University, known as the Green Line (Baltimore), Green Line, is in the planning stages. The Charm City Circulator (CCC), a shuttle bus service operated by Veolia Transportation for the Baltimore Department of Transportation, began operating in the downtown area in January 2010. Funded partly by a 16 percent increase in the city's parking fees, the circulator provides free bus service seven days a week, picking up passengers every 15 minutes at designated stops during service hours. The CCC's first bus line, the Orange route, travels between Hollins Market and Harbor East. Its Purple route, launched June 7, 2010, operates between Fort Avenue and 33rd St. The Green route runs between Johns Hopkins and City Hall. The Charm City Circulator operates a fleet of diesel and hybrid vehicles built by DesignLine, Orion, and Van Hool. Baltimore also has a water taxi service, operated by Baltimore Water Taxi. The water taxi's six routes provide service throughout the city's harbor, and was purchased by Under Armour CEO Kevin Plank's Sagamore Ventures in 2016. In June 2017, The BaltimoreLink started operating; it is the redesign of the region's initial bus system. The BaltimoreLink runs through downtown Baltimore every 10 minutes via color-coded, high-frequency CityLink routes.


Intercity rail

Baltimore is a top destination for Amtrak along the Northeast Corridor. Baltimore's Pennsylvania Station (Baltimore), Penn Station is one of the busiest in the country. In FY 2014, Penn Station was ranked the List of busiest Amtrak stations, seventh-busiest rail station in the United States by number of passengers served each year. The building sits on a raised "island" of sorts between two open trenches, one for the Jones Falls Expressway and the other for the tracks of the Northeast Corridor (NEC). The NEC approaches from the south through the two-track, Baltimore and Potomac Tunnel, which opened in 1873 and whose limit, sharp curves, and steep grades make it one of the NEC's worst bottlenecks. The NEC's northern approach is the 1873 Union Tunnel (Baltimore), Union Tunnel, which has one single track (rail), single-track bore and one double track, double-track bore. Just outside the city, BWI Rail Station, Baltimore/Washington International (BWI) Thurgood Marshall Airport Rail Station is another stop. Amtrak's ''Acela Express'', ''Palmetto (train), Palmetto'', ''Carolinian (train), Carolinian'', ''Silver Star (Amtrak train), Silver Star'', ''Silver Meteor'', ''Vermonter (train), Vermonter'', ''Crescent (train), Crescent'', and ''Northeast Regional'' trains are the scheduled passenger train services that stop in the city. Additionally, MARC Train, MARC commuter rail service connects the city's two main intercity rail stations, Camden Station and Penn Station, with Washington, D.C.'s Union Station (Washington, D.C.), Union Station as well as stops in between. The MARC consists of 3 lines; the Brunswick, Camden and Penn. On December 7, 2013 the Penn Line began weekend service.


Airports

Baltimore is served by two airports, both operated by the Maryland Aviation Administration, which is part of the Maryland Department of Transportation. Baltimore–Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, generally known as "BWI", lies about to the south of Baltimore in neighboring Anne Arundel County. The airport is named after Thurgood Marshall, a Baltimore native who was the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. In terms of passenger traffic, BWI is the 22nd busiest airport in the United States. As of calendar year 2014, BWI is the largest, by passenger count, of three major airports serving the Baltimore–Washington Metropolitan Area. It is accessible by I-95 and the Baltimore–Washington Parkway via Interstate 195 (Maryland), Interstate 195, the Baltimore Light Rail, and Amtrak and MARC Train at BWI Rail Station. Baltimore is also served by Martin State Airport, a general aviation facility, to the northeast in Baltimore County. Martin State Airport is linked to downtown Baltimore by Maryland Route 150 (Eastern Avenue) and by MARC Train at Martin State Airport (MARC station), its own station.


Pedestrians and bicycles

Baltimore has a comprehensive system of bicycle routes in the city. These routes are not numbered, but are typically denoted with green signs displaying a silhouette of a bicycle upon an outline of the city's border, and denote the distance to destinations, much like bicycle routes in the rest of the state. The roads carrying bicycle routes are also labelled with either bike lanes, sharrows, or Share the Road signs. Many of these routes pass through the downtown area. The network of bicycle lanes in the city continues to expand, with over added between 2006 and 2014. Alongside bike lanes, Baltimore has also built bike boulevards, starting with Guilford Avenue in 2012. Baltimore currently has three major trail systems within the city. The Gwynns Falls Trail runs from the Inner Harbor to the I-70 Park and Ride, passing through Gwynns Falls Park and possessing numerous branches. There are also many pedestrian hiking trails traversing the park. The Jones Falls Trail currently runs from the Inner Harbor to the Cylburn Arboretum; however, it is currently undergoing expansion. Long-term plans call for it to extend to the Mount Washington (Baltimore Light Rail station), Mount Washington Light Rail Stop, and possibly as far north as the Falls Road stop to connect to the Robert E. Lee boardwalk north of the city. It will also incorporate a spur alongside Western Run. The two aforementioned trails carry sections of the East Coast Greenway through the city. There is also the Herring Run Trail, which runs from Maryland Route 147, Harford Road east to its end beyond Sinclair Lane, utilizing Herring Run Park; long-term plans also call for its extension to Morgan State University and north to points beyond. Other major bicycle projects include a protected cycle track installed on both Maryland Avenue and Mount Royal Avenue, expected to become the backbone of a downtown bicycle network. Installation for the cycletracks is expected in 2014 and 2016, respectively. In addition to the bicycle trails and cycletracks, Baltimore has the Stony Run Trail, a walking path that will eventually connect from the Jones Falls north to Northern Parkway, utilizing much of the old Ma and Pa Railroad corridor inside the city. In 2011, the city undertook a campaign to reconstruct many sidewalk ramps in the city, coinciding with mass resurfacing of the city's streets. A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Baltimore the 14th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.


Port of Baltimore

The port was founded in 1706, preceding the founding of Baltimore. The Maryland colonial legislature made the area near Locust Point as the
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trade with England. Fells Point, the deepest point in the natural harbor, soon became the colony's main ship building center, later on becoming leader in the construction of Baltimore Clipper, clipper ships. After Baltimore's founding, mills were built behind the wharves. The California Gold Rush led to many orders for fast vessels; many overland pioneers also relied upon canned goods from Baltimore. After the Civil War, a coffee ship was designed here for trade with Brazil. At the end of the nineteenth century, European ship lines had terminals for immigrants. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad made the port a major transshipment point. Currently the port has major roll-on/roll-off facilities, as well as bulk facilities, especially steel handling. Water taxis also operate in the Inner Harbor. Governor Ehrlich participated in naming the port after Helen Delich Bentley during the 300th anniversary of the port. In 2007, Duke Realty Corporation began a new development near the Port of Baltimore, named the Chesapeake Commerce Center. This new industrial park is located on the site of a former General Motors plant. The total project comprises in eastern Baltimore City, and the site will yield of warehouse/distribution and office space. Chesapeake Commerce Center has direct access to two major Interstate highways (I-95 and Interstate 895 (Maryland), I-895) and is located adjacent to two of the major Port of Baltimore terminals. The Port of Baltimore is one of two seaports on the U.S. East Coast with a dredge to accommodate the largest shipping vessels. Along with cargo terminals, the port also has a passenger cruise terminal, which offers year-round trips on several lines, including Royal Caribbean's Grandeur of the Seas and Carnival's Pride. Overall five cruise lines have operated out of the port to the Bahamas and the Caribbean, while some ships traveled to New England and Canada. The terminal has become an embarkation point where passengers have the opportunity to park and board next to the ship visible from Interstate 95. Passengers from Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey make up a third of the volume, with travelers from Maryland, Virginia, the District and even Ohio and the Carolinas making up the rest.


Environment

Baltimore's Inner Harbor, known for its skyline waterscape and its tourist-friendly areas, was horribly polluted. The waterway was often filled with garbage after heavy rainstorms, failing its 2014 water quality report card. The Waterfront Partnership of Baltimore took steps to remediate the waterways, in hopes that the harbor would be fishable and swimmable once again.


Trash interceptors

Baltimore has two water wheel trash interceptors for removing garbage in area waterways. One is at the mouth of
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in Baltimore's Inner Harbor, dubbed "Mr. Trash Wheel." Another is at Harris Creek in the Canton, Baltimore, Canton neighborhood. A February 2015 agreement with a local waste-to-energy plant is believed to make Baltimore the first city to use reclaimed waterway debris to generate electricity.


Other water pollution control

In August 2010, the National Aquarium assembled, planted, and launched a floating island, floating wetland island designed by Biohabitats in Baltimore's Inner Harbor. Hundreds of years ago Baltimore's harbor shoreline would have been lined with tidal wetlands. Floating wetlands provide many environmental benefits to water quality and habitat enhancement, which is why the Waterfront Partnership of Baltimore has included them in their Healthy Harbor Initiative pilot projects. Biohabitats also developed a concept to transform a dilapidated wharf into a living pier that cleans Harbor water, provides habitat and is an aesthetic attraction. Currently under design, the top of the pier will become a Constructed wetland, constructed tidal wetland. Other projects to improve water quality include the Blue Alleys project, expanded street sweeping, and stream restoration.


Media

Baltimore's main newspaper is ''The Baltimore Sun''. It was sold by its Baltimore owners in 1986 to the Times Mirror Company, which was bought by the Tribune Company in 2000. The ''Baltimore News-American'', another long-running paper that competed with the Sun, ceased publication in 1986. The city is home to the Baltimore Afro-American, an influential African American newspaper founded in 1892. In 2006, ''The Baltimore Examiner'' was launched to compete with ''The Sun''. It was part of a national chain that includes ''The San Francisco Examiner'' and ''The Washington Examiner''. In contrast to the paid subscription ''Sun'', ''The Examiner'' was a free newspaper funded solely by advertisements. Unable to turn a profit and facing a deep recession, ''The Baltimore Examiner'' ceased publication on February 15, 2009. Despite being located 40 miles northeast of
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, Baltimore is a major media market in its own right, with all major English language television networks represented in the city. WJZ-TV 13 is a CBS owned and operated station, and WBFF 45 is the flagship of Sinclair Broadcast Group, the largest station owner in the country. Other major television stations in Baltimore include WMAR-TV 2 (American Broadcasting Company, ABC), WBAL-TV 11 (NBC), WUTB 24 (MyNetworkTV), WNUV 54 (The CW, CW), and WMPB 67 (PBS). Nielsen ranked Baltimore as the 26th-largest television market for the 2008–2009 viewing season and the 27th-largest for 2009–2010. Arbitron's Fall 2010 rankings identified Baltimore as the 22nd largest radio market.


Notable people

* Spiro Agnew, 39th US vice president * Tom Clancy, author of the Ryanverse, Jack Ryan Book Series * Elijah Cummings, civil rights advocate and congressman of the US House of Representatives * Gervonta Davis, professional boxer, four-time world champion in two weight classes * Kyle Harrison, professional lacrosse player, first black Tewaaraton Award recipient *Thurgood Marshall, African-American US Supreme Court Justice * Nancy Pelosi, speaker of the US House of Representatives * Michael Phelps, Olympic swimmer * Edgar Allan Poe, poet * Babe Ruth, baseball player * Jada Pinkett Smith, actress, singer, and businesswoman * John Waters, filmmaker * Frank Zappa, singer, guitarist, composer, and satirist


International relations

Baltimore's own Sister City Committees recognize eight of these sister cities, indicated above with a "B" notation. Three additional sister cities have "emeritus status": * Genova, Italy (1985) * Ely O'Carroll, Ireland * Bremerhaven, Germany (2007)


See also

* * Baltimore Development Corporation * Baltimore in fiction * Bluegrass in Baltimore: The Hard Drivin' Sound and its Legacy (Book on the history of the History of the Appalachian people in Baltimore, Appalachian migrants' move into the city in the 20th Century) * History of the Germans in Baltimore, Maryland * :Cemeteries in Baltimore


Notes


References


Bibliography

* Brooks, Neal A. & Eric G. Rockel (1979). ''A History of Baltimore County''. Towson, Maryland: Friends of the Towson Library. * Crenson, Matthew A. (2017). ''Baltimore: A Political History.'' Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. * Dorsey, John, & James D. Dilts (1997).''A Guide to Baltimore Architecture''. Third Edition. Centreville, Maryland: Tidewater Publishers. (First edition published in 1973.) . * Hall, Clayton Coleman (1912). ''Baltimore: Its History and Its People''. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company
Vol. 1
* Orser, Edward W. (1994). ''Blockbusting in Baltimore: the Edmonston Village Story''. University Press of Kentucky. * John Thomas Scharf, Scharf, J. Thomas (1879). ''History of Maryland from the Earliest Period to the Present Day.'' Baltimore: John B. Piet
Vol. 1Vol. 2Vol. 3
* Townsend, Camilla (2000). ''Tales of Two Cities: Race and Economic Culture in Early Republican North and South America: Guyaquil, Ecuador, and Baltimore, Maryland.'' University of Texas Press. .


External links

*
Baltimore City Council

Visit Baltimore – official Destination Marketing Organization

Baltimore City Public Schools

Baltimore Development Corporation


historic maps at the Johns Hopkins University Libraries, Sheridan Libraries.
Papenfuse: Atlases and Maps of Baltimore City and County, 1876–1915 & Block Maps
April 2005 * The Wall Street Journal
Baltimore Demographics
2015. {{Authority control Baltimore, Cities in the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area, Maryland populated places on the Chesapeake Bay Cities in Maryland Early American industrial centers Former capitals of the United States Independent cities in the United States Populated places established in 1729 Port cities and towns in Maryland 1729 establishments in Maryland Ukrainian communities in the United States Maryland counties on the Chesapeake Bay Maryland counties