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Wayang
Wayang
(Krama Javanese: Ringgit ꦫꦶꦁꦒꦶꦠ꧀, "Shadow"), also known as Wajang, is a form of puppet theatre art found in Indonesia and other parts of Southeast Asia,[1] wherein a dramatic story is told through shadows thrown by puppets and sometimes combined with human characters.[2][3] The art form celebrates the Indonesian culture and artistic talent; its origins are traced to the spread of Hinduism
Hinduism
in the medieval era and the arrival of leather-based puppet arts called Tholu bommalata from southern India.[2][4][5] Wayang
Wayang
refers to the entire dramatic show. Sometimes the leather puppet itself is referred to as wayang.[6] Performances of shadow puppet theatre are accompanied by a gamelan orchestra in Java, and by gender wayang in Bali. The dramatic stories depict mythologies, such as episodes from the Hindu epics the Ramayana, the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
as well as local adaptations of cultural legends.[2][3][5] Traditionally, a wayang is played out in a ritualized midnight-to-dawn show by a dalang, an artist and spiritual leader; people watch the show from both sides of the screen.[2][3] UNESCO
UNESCO
designated wayang kulit, a shadow puppet theatre and the best known of the Indonesian wayang, as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity on 7 November 2003. In return for the acknowledgment, UNESCO
UNESCO
required Indonesians to preserve their heritage.[7] Wayang
Wayang
has also been a significant historical art form in Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia
Cambodia
and Laos.[1][8][note 1]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Development 2.2 Artist

3 Styles

3.1 Wayang
Wayang
kulit 3.2 Wayang
Wayang
wong 3.3 Wayang
Wayang
gedog/wayang topeng 3.4 Wayang
Wayang
golek 3.5 Wayang
Wayang
karucil or Wayang
Wayang
klitik 3.6 Wayang
Wayang
beber 3.7 Wayang
Wayang
and new themes

4 Characters

4.1 Wayang
Wayang
Purwa 4.2 Wayang
Wayang
Panji 4.3 Wayang
Wayang
Menak

5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Etymology[edit] The term 'wayang' is the Javanese word for shadow,[11] or bayang in standard Indonesian; the word also means "imagination". In modern daily Javanese and Indonesian vocabulary, wayang can refer to the puppet itself or the whole puppet theatre performance. History[edit]

Wayang
Wayang
shadow-puppet (Bali, early 20th century)

Wayang
Wayang
is a term that denotes the traditional shadow puppet theatre in Indonesia
Indonesia
and other southeast Asian countries.[1][2][3] There is no evidence that wayang existed in ancient Indonesia. The earliest evidence is from the late 1st millennium CE, in medieval-era texts and archeological sites. The origins of Wayang
Wayang
are unclear, and three competing theories have been proposed:[12]

Indian origin: this is the generally favored theory, since Hinduism and Buddhism
Buddhism
arrived on the Indonesian islands in the early centuries of the 1st millennium, and along with theology, the peoples of Indonesia
Indonesia
and Indian subcontinent exchanged culture, architecture and traded goods.[12][4][5] Puppet arts and dramatic plays have been documented in ancient Indian texts, dated to the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE and the early centuries of the common era.[13] Further, the coastal region of Southern India ( Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Tamil Nadu) which most interacted with Indonesian islands has had a leather-based intricate puppet arts called Tholu bommalata, which shares many elements with Wayang.[2][14] Some characters such as the Vidusaka in Sanskrit drama and Semar
Semar
in Wayang
Wayang
are very similar. Indian mythologies and characters from the Hindu epics feature in many of the major plays performed, all of which suggest possible Indian origins, or at least an influence in the pre-Islamic period of Indonesian history.[12] Jivan Pani states that wayang developed from two arts of Odisha
Odisha
in Eastern India, the Ravana Chhaya
Ravana Chhaya
puppet theatre and the Chhau dance.[15] Indigenous origin: the word "Wayang" is not found in Indian languages, but is Javanese. Similarly, some of the other technical terms used in the Wayang
Wayang
Kulit found in Java and Bali
Bali
are based on local languages, even when the play overlaps with Buddhist or Hindu mythologies. This suggests, state some scholars such as Hazeu, that Wayang
Wayang
has indigenous roots.[12] Chinese origin: the least popular theory, but it is based on the evidence that puppet arts based on animism existed in ancient China (2nd century BCE) and it may have been the "place of origin of all Asian shadow theatre", states Brandon.[12]

Regardless of its origins, states Brandon, Wayang
Wayang
developed and matured into a Javanese phenomenon. There is no true contemporary puppet shadow artwork in either China
China
or India that has the sophistication, depth and creativity as expressed in Wayang.[12] Development[edit] The oldest known record that probably concerns wayang is from the 9th century. Around 860 CE an Old Javanese (Kawi) charter issued by Maharaja Sri Lokapala mentions three sorts of performers: atapukan, aringgit, and abanol. Ringgit is described in an 11th-century Javanese poem as a leather shadow figure. An inscription dated 930 CE says si Galigi mawayang ("Sir Galigi played wayang"). From that time till today it seems certain features of traditional puppet theatre have remained. Galigi was an itinerant performer who was requested to perform for a special royal occasion. At that event he performed a story about the hero Bhima
Bhima
from the Mahabharata. The kakawin Arjunawiwaha
Arjunawiwaha
composed by Mpu Kanwa, the poet of Airlangga's court of Kahuripan
Kahuripan
kingdom, in 1035 CE describes santoṣâhĕlĕtan kĕlir sira sakêng sang hyang Jagatkāraṇa, which means "He is steadfast and just a wayang screen away from the 'Mover of the World'." Kelir is Javanese word for wayang screen, the verse eloquently comparing actual life to a wayang performance where the almighty Jagatkāraṇa (the mover of the world) as the ultimate dalang (puppet master) is just a thin screen away from us mortals. This reference to wayang as shadow plays suggested that wayang performance is already familiar in Airlangga's court and wayang tradition has been established in Java, perhaps earlier. An inscription from this period also mentioned some occupations as awayang and aringgit.[16] Wayang kulit
Wayang kulit
is a unique form of theatre employing light and shadow. The puppets are crafted from buffalo hide and mounted on bamboo sticks. When held up behind a piece of white cloth, with an electric bulb or an oil lamp as the light source, shadows are cast on the screen. The plays are typically based on romantic tales and religious legends, especially adaptations of the classic Indian epics, the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the Ramayana. Some of the plays are also based on local happening or other local secular stories.[citation needed]

A dalang performing wayang kulit in Java, circa 1890.

Artist[edit] The dalang, sometimes referred to as Dhalang
Dhalang
or Kawi Dalang, is the puppeteer artist behind the entire performance.[2][3][17] It is he who sits behind the screen, sings and narrates the dialogues of different characters of the story.[18] With a traditional orchestra in the background to provide a resonant melody and its conventional rhythm, the dalang modulates his voice to create suspense thus heightening the drama. Invariably, the play climaxes with the triumph of good over evil. The dalang is highly respected in Indonesian culture for his knowledge, art and as a spiritual person capable of bringing to life the spiritual stories in the religious epics.[2][3][18] The figures of the wayang are also present in the paintings of that time, for example, the roof murals of the courtroom in Klungkung, Bali. They are still present in traditional Balinese painting today. The figures are painted, flat woodcarvings (a maximum of 5 to 15 mm thick—barely half an inch) with movable arms. The head is solidly attached to the body. Wayang
Wayang
klitik can be used to perform puppet plays either during the day or at night. This type of wayang is relatively rare.[citation needed] Wayang
Wayang
today is both the most ancient and most popular form of puppet theatre in the world. Hundreds of people will stay up all night long to watch the superstar performers, dalang, who command extravagant fees and are international celebrities. Some of the most famous dalang in recent history are Ki Nartosabdho, Ki Anom Suroto, Ki Asep Sunandar Sunarya, Ki Sugino, and Ki Manteb Sudarsono.[citation needed] Styles[edit] Wayang
Wayang
kulit[edit]

Wayang
Wayang
(shadow puppets) from central Java, a scene from Irawan's Wedding, mid-20th century, University of Hawaii Dept. of Theater and Dance

Wayang
Wayang
Purwa type, depicting five Pandawa, from left to right: Bimo, Arjuna, Yudhishthira, Nakula, and Sahadewa at the Indonesia
Indonesia
Museum in Jakarta.

Wayang
Wayang
kulit, or shadow puppets, are without a doubt the best known of the Indonesian wayang. Kulit means skin, and refers to the leather construction of the puppets that are carefully chiselled with very fine tools, supported with carefully shaped buffalo horn handles and control rods, and painted in beautiful hues, including gold. The stories are usually drawn from the Hindu epics the Ramayana
Ramayana
and the Mahabharata.[19]. There is a family of characters in Javanese wayang called Punakawan; they are sometimes referred to as "clown-servants" because they normally are associated with the story's hero, and provide humorous and philosophical interludes. Semar
Semar
is actually the god of love, who has consented to live on earth to help humans. He has three sons: Gareng (oldest ), Petruk, and Bagong (youngest son). These characters did not originate in the Hindu epics, but were added later.[20] They provide something akin to a political cabaret, dealing with gossip and contemporary affairs. The puppet figures themselves vary from place to place. In Central Java the city of Surakarta
Surakarta
(Solo) and city of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
have the most well-known wayang traditions, and the most commonly imitated style of puppets. Regional styles of shadow puppets can also be found in Temanggung, West Java, Banyumas, Cirebon, Semarang, and East Java. Bali
Bali
wayang are more compact and naturalistic figures, and Lombok has figures representing real people. Often modern-world objects as bicycles, automobiles, airplanes and ships will be added for comic effect, but for the most part the traditional puppet designs have changed little in the last 300 years. Historically, the performance consisted of shadows cast by an oil lamp onto a cotton screen. Today, the source of light used in wayang performance in Java is most often a halogen electric light, while Bali still uses the traditional firelight. Some modern forms of wayang such as Wayang
Wayang
Sandosa (from BahaSA iNDOneSiA, since it uses the national language of Indonesian instead of Javanese) created in the Art Academy at Surakarta
Surakarta
(STSI) employs theatrical spotlights, colored lights, contemporary music, and other innovations.

Wayang kulit
Wayang kulit
Group Indra Swara
Indra Swara
Mexico[21] in Spanish language

Making a wayang kulit figure that is suitable for a performance involves hand work that takes several weeks, with the artists working together in groups. They start from master models (typically on paper) which are traced out onto skin or parchment, providing the figures with an outline and with indications of any holes that will need to be cut (such as for the mouth or eyes). The figures are then smoothed, usually with a glass bottle, and primed. The structure is inspected and eventually the details are worked through. A further smoothing follows before individual painting, which is undertaken by yet another craftsman. Finally, the movable parts (upper arms, lower arms with hands and the associated sticks for manipulation) mounted on the body, which has a central staff by which it is held. A crew makes up to ten figures at a time, typically completing that number over the course of a week. However, unfortunately there is not strong continuing demand for the top skills of wayang craftspersons and the relatively few experts still skilled at the art sometimes find it difficult to earn a satisfactory income.[22] The painting of less expensive puppets is handled expediently with a spray technique, using templates, and with a different person handling each color. Less expensive puppets, often sold to children during performances, are sometimes made on cardboard instead of leather. Wayang
Wayang
wong[edit] Main article: Wayang
Wayang
wong

Pandava
Pandava
and Krishna
Krishna
in an act of the wayang wong performance

Wayang
Wayang
wong, also known as Wayang
Wayang
orang (literally "human wayang"), is a type of Javanese theatrical performance wherein human characters imitate movements of a puppet show. The show also integrates dance by the human characters into the dramatic performance. It typically shows episodes of the Ramayana
Ramayana
or the Mahabharata.[23] Wayang
Wayang
gedog/wayang topeng[edit]

Studio portrait of wayang topeng actors

Wayang
Wayang
gedog theatrical performance take themes from the Panji cycles stories from the kingdom of Janggala. The players wear masks known as wayang topeng or wayang gedog. The word gedog comes from kedok, which, like topeng means "mask". The main story of the performances is of Raden Panji and Candra, a love story about princess Candra Kirana of Kediri and Raden Panji Asmarabangun, the crown prince of Jenggala. Candra Kirana was the incarnation of Dewi Ratih (goddess of love) and Panji was an incarnation of Kamajaya (god of love). Kirana's story was given the title Smaradahana
Smaradahana
("The fire of love"). At the end of the complicated story they finally can marry and bring forth a son, named Raja
Raja
Putra. Panji Asmarabangun ruled Jenggala under the official names Sri Kameswara, Prabu Suryowiseso, and Hino Kertapati. Originally, wayang wong was performed only as an aristocratic entertainment in four palaces of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
and Surakarta. In the course of time, it spread to become a popular and folk form as well. Wayang
Wayang
golek[edit]

A pair of wayang golek from West Java

Cepot, a Sundanese Punokawan, in wayang golek form.

Wayang
Wayang
golek are three-dimensional wooden rod puppets that are operated from below a wooden rod that runs through the body to the head, and by sticks connected to the hands. The construction of the puppets contributes to their versatility, expressiveness and aptitude for imitating human dance. Today, wayang golek is mainly associated with Sundanese culture of West Java. In Central Java, the wooden wayang also known as Wayang
Wayang
Menak, which originated from Kudus, Central Java.

wayang golek in Spanish group Indra Swara
Indra Swara
México[24]

Little is known for certain about the history of wayang golek, but scholars have speculated that it most likely originated in China
China
and arrived in Java sometime in the 17th century. Some of the oldest traditions of wayang golek are from the north coast of Java in what is called the pasisir region. This is home to some of the oldest Muslim kingdoms in Java and it is likely the wayang golek grew in popularity through telling the wayang menak stories of Amir Hamza, the uncle of Muhammad. These stories are still widely performed in Kabumen, Tegal, and Jepara as wayang golek menak, and in Cirebon, wayang golek cepak. Legendary origins of wayang golek attribute their invention to the Muslim
Muslim
saint Wali Sunan Kudus, who used the medium to proselytize Muslim
Muslim
values. In the 18th century the tradition moved into the mountainous region of Priangan
Priangan
West Java
West Java
where it eventually was used to tell stories of the Ramayana
Ramayana
and the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
in a tradition now called Wayang
Wayang
Golek Purwa, which can be found in Bandung, Bogor
Bogor
and Jakarta. The adoption of Javanese Mataram kejawen culture by Sundanese aristocrats was probably the remnant of Mataram influence over the Priangan
Priangan
region during the reign of expansive Sultan Agung. While main characters from Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata
Mahabharata
are similar with wayang kulit purwa version of Central Java, some of punakawan (servant also jester) were rendered in Sundanese names and characteristics, such as Cepot
Cepot
or Astrajingga as Bagong, Dawala or Udel as Petruk. Wayang
Wayang
golek purwa has become the most popular form of wayang golek today and the most famous puppeteer family is the Sunarya family which has produced several generations of stellar performers.

Wayang
Wayang
karucil or Wayang
Wayang
klitik[edit]

Wayang
Wayang
klitik image of Batara Guru

Wayang
Wayang
klitik figures occupy a middle ground between the figures of wayang golek and wayang kulit. They are constructed similarly to wayang kulit figures, but from thin pieces of wood instead of leather, and, like wayang kulit figures, are used as shadow puppets. A further similarity is that they are the same smaller size as wayang kulit figures. However, wood is more subject to breakage than leather. During battle scenes, wayang klitik figures often sustain considerable damage, much to the amusement of the public, but in a country in which before 1970 there were no adequate glues available, breakage generally meant an expensive, newly made figure. On this basis the wayang klitik figures, which are to appear in plays where they have to endure battle scenes, have leather arms. The name of these figures is onomotopaeic, from the sound klitik-klitik, that these figures make when worked by the dalang. Wayang
Wayang
klitik figures come originally from eastern Java, where one still finds workshops turning them out. They are less costly to produce than wayang kulit figures. The origin of the stories involved in these puppet plays comes from the kingdoms of eastern Java: Jenggala, Kediri and Majapahit. From Jenggala and Kediri come the stories of Raden Panji and Cindelaras, which tells of the adventures of a pair of village youngsters with their fighting cocks. The Damarwulan
Damarwulan
presents the stories of a hero from Majapahit. Damarwulan
Damarwulan
is a clever chap, who with courage, aptitude, intelligence and the assistance of his young lover Anjasmara, makes a surprise attack on the neighboring kingdom and brings down Minakjinggo, an Adipati (viceroy) of Blambangan and mighty enemy of Majapahit's beautiful queen Sri Ratu Kencanawungu. As a reward, Damarwulan
Damarwulan
is married to Kencanawungu and becomes king of Majapahit; he also takes Lady Anjasmara as a second wife. This story is full of love affairs and battles and is very popular with the public. The dalang is liable to incorporate the latest local gossip and quarrels and work them into the play as comedy. Wayang
Wayang
beber[edit]

Wayang
Wayang
beber depiction of a battle

Wayang
Wayang
glass painting depiction of Bharatayudha battle

Wayang
Wayang
beber relies on scroll-painted presentations of the stories being told.[25] Wayang
Wayang
beber has strong similarities to narratives in the form of illustrated ballads that were common at annual fairs in medieval and early modern Europe. They have also been subject to the same fate—they have nearly vanished although there are still some groups of artists who support wayang beber in places such as Surakarta (Solo) in Central Java.[26] Chinese visitors to Java during the 15th century described a storyteller or unrolled scrolls and told stories that made the audience laugh or cry. A few scrolls of images remain from those times, found today in museums. There are two sets, hand-painted on hand-made bark cloth, that are still owned by families who have inherited them from many generations ago, in Pacitan and Wonogiri, both villages in Central Java. Performances, mostly in small open-sided pavilions or auditoriums, take place according to the following pattern: The dalang gives a sign, the small gamelan orchestra with drummer and a few knobbed gongs and a musician with a rebab (violin-like instrument held vertically) begins to play and the dalang unrolls the first scroll of the story. Then, speaking and singing, he narrates the episode in more detail. In this manner, in the course of the evening he unrolls several scrolls one at a time. Each scene in the scrolls represents a story or part of a story. The content of the story typically stems from the Panji romances which are semi-historical legends set in the 12th-13th century East Javanese kingdoms of Jenggala, Daha and Kediri, and also in Bali.[27] Wayang
Wayang
and new themes[edit] According to Marzanna Paplawska, the historically popular Wayang
Wayang
kulit typically is based on the Hindu epics the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the Ramayana.[28] In 1960s, the Christian missionary effort adopted the art form to create Wayang
Wayang
wahyu. The Javanese Jesuit
Jesuit
Brother Timotheus L. Wignyosubroto used the show to communicate to the Javanese and other Indonesians the teachings of the Bible
Bible
and of the Catholic Church in a manner accessible to the audience.[28] Similarly, Wayang sadat has deployed Wayang
Wayang
for religious teachings of Islam, while Wayang
Wayang
pancasila has used it as a medium for national politics.[28] Characters[edit] Wayang
Wayang
characters are derived from several group of stories and settings. The most popular and the most ancient is wayang purwa which its story and characters was derived from Indian Hindu epics of Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata, set in ancient kingdoms of Hastinapura, Ayodhya and Alengkapura (Lanka). Another group of characters derived from Panji cycles, natively developed in Java during Kediri Kingdom, the story set in twin Javanese kingdoms of Janggala
Janggala
and Panjalu (Kediri). Wayang
Wayang
Purwa[edit] Wayang
Wayang
Purwa (Javanese for "ancient" or "original" wayang) refer to wayang that based on the stories of Hindu epics Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata. Its form of expression usually performed as wayang kulit, wayang golek, and wayang wong dance drama [29]. In Central Java, popular wayang kulit characters include the following (Notopertomo & Jatirahayu 2001).[30]

Satriya

Bima Arjuna Dursasana Nakula Sadewa Antareja Ghatotkaca Antasena Abimanyu Wisanggeni Irawan Sumantri Wibisana

Raja

Arjuna
Arjuna
Sasrabahu Rama
Rama
Wijaya Dasamuka Destarata Pandu
Pandu
Dewanata Subali
Subali
and Sugriwa Barata Baladewa Duryudana Kresna Karna Yudhistira

Dewa

Sang Hyang Tunggal Sang Hyang Wenang Batara Narada Batara Guru Dewa Ruci Batara Indra Batara Surya Batara Wisnu Sang Hyang Nagaraja Lembu Andini Batara Ganesha

Resi

Anoman Bhisma Durna Rama
Rama
Bargawa

Putri

Sinta Kunti Drupadi Sumbadra Srikandi

Abdi

Semar Gareng Petruk Bagong

Raksasa

Kumbakarna Sarpakanaka Indrajit
Indrajit
Megananda Sukrasana Kalabendana Cakil

Wayang
Wayang
Panji[edit]

Wayang Museum
Wayang Museum
in Kota, Jakarta
Kota, Jakarta
area

Derived from Panji cycles, natively developed in Java during Kediri Kingdom, the story set in twin Javanese kingdoms of Janggala
Janggala
and Panjalu (Kediri). Its form of expressions are usually performed as wayang gedog (masked wayang) and wayang wong dance drama of Java and Bali.

Raden Panji, alias Panji Asmoro Bangun, alias Panji Kuda Wanengpati, alias Inu Kertapati Galuh Chandra Kirana, alias Sekartaji Panji Semirang, alias Kuda Narawangsa, the male disguise of Princess Kirana Anggraeni

Wayang
Wayang
Menak[edit]

Wayang
Wayang
Menak character Amir Hamza

Derived from Javanese- Islamic literature
Islamic literature
Serat Menak which is a Javanese rendering of Malay Hikayat Amir Hamzah, which ultimately derived from Persian Hamzanama, tell the adventure of Amir Hamzah, the uncle of prophet Muhammad.[31] The wooden wayang Menak is similar in shape to Wayang
Wayang
Golek, it is most prevalent in northern coast of Central Java, especially Kudus area.

Wong Agung Jayeng Rana / Amir Ambyah / Amir Hamzah Prabu Nursewan Umar Maya Umar Madi Dewi Retna Muninggar

Notes[edit]

^ The art is regionally called by different names. For example, it is called Nang Yai or Nang Talung in Thailand.[9] In Cambodia, it is called Nang sbaek thom (large puppets), or Ayang (small puppets).[10]

References[edit]

^ a b c James R. Brandon (2009). Theatre in Southeast Asia. Harvard University Press. pp. 143–145, 352–353. ISBN 978-0-674-02874-6.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Wayang: Indonesian Theatre]". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2012.  ^ a b c d e f Don Rubin; Chua Soo Pong; Ravi Chaturvedi; et al. (2001). The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: Asia/Pacific. Taylor & Francis. pp. 184–186. ISBN 978-0-415-26087-9. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ a b Miyao, J. (1977). "P. L. Amin Sweeney and Akira Goto (ed.) An International Seminar on the Shadow
Shadow
Plays of Asia". Southeast Asia: History and Culture. Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies (7): 142–146. doi:10.5512/sea.1977.142.  ^ a b c Yves Bonnefoy (1993). Asian Mythologies. University of Chicago Press. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-226-06456-7.  ^ Siyuan Liu (2016). Routledge Handbook of Asian Theatre. Routledge. pp. 72–81. ISBN 978-1-317-27886-3.  ^ "" Wayang
Wayang
puppet theatre", Inscribed in 2008 (3.COM) on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity (originally proclaimed in 2003)". UNESCO. Retrieved 10 October 2014.  ^ Beth Osnes (2010). The Shadow
Shadow
Puppet Theatre of Malaysia: A Study of Wayang
Wayang
Kulit with Performance Scripts and Puppet Designs. McFarland. pp. 2–3, 7–14. ISBN 978-0-7864-5792-2.  ^ Thai Shadow
Shadow
Puppet Show, Museum of Anthropology, University of Missouri (2015) ^ Siyuan Liu (2016). Routledge Handbook of Asian Theatre. Routledge. pp. 194, 553, 561. ISBN 978-1-317-27886-3.  ^ Mair, Victor H. Painting and Performance: Picture Recitation and Its Indian Genesis. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1988. p. 58. ^ a b c d e f James R. Brandon (2009). Theatre in Southeast Asia. Harvard University Press. pp. 42–44, 65, 92–94, 278. ISBN 978-0-674-02874-6.  ^ Kathy Foley (2016). Siyuan Liu, ed. Routledge Handbook of Asian Theatre. Routledge. pp. 181–182. ISBN 978-1-317-27886-3.  ^ Kathy Foley (2016). Siyuan Liu, ed. Routledge Handbook of Asian Theatre. Routledge. pp. 182–184. ISBN 978-1-317-27886-3.  ^ Varadpande, Manohar Laxman (1987). History of Indian Theatre, Volume 1. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. p. 75. ISBN 9788170172215.  ^ Drs. R. Soekmono, (1973). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia
Indonesia
2, 2nd ed. 5th reprint edition in 1988. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. p. 56.  ^ Sedana, I Nyoman; Foley, Kathy (1993). "The Education of a Balinese Dalang". Asian Theatre Journal. University of Hawaii Press. 10 (1): 81–100. doi:10.2307/1124218.  ^ a b Siyuan Liu (2016). Routledge Handbook of Asian Theatre. Routledge. pp. 166, 175 note 2, 76–78. ISBN 978-1-317-27886-3.  ^ Sumarsam (15 December 1995). Gamelan: Cultural Interaction and Musical Development in Central Java. University of Chicago Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-226-78011-5. Retrieved 19 June 2012.  ^ Eckersley. M.(ed.) 2009. Drama from the Rim: Asian Pacific Drama Book. Drama Victoria. Melbourne. 2009. (p15) ^ Wayang
Wayang
grupo Indra
Indra
Swara, Mexico City, December 1, 2016  ^ Simon Sudarman, 'Sagio: Striving to preserve wayang', The Jakarta Post, 11 September 2012. ^ James R. Brandon (2009). Theatre in Southeast Asia. Harvard University Press. pp. 46–54, 143–144, 150–152. ISBN 978-0-674-02874-6.  ^ Indra Swara
Indra Swara
Festejo dia de niños, Mexico City, May 1, 2017, p. Cultura  ^ Ganug Nugroho Adil, 'Joko Sri Yono: Preserving "wayang beber"', The Jakarta Post, 27 March 2012. ^ Ganug Nugroho Adil, 'The metamorphosis of " Wayang
Wayang
Beber"', The Jakarta Post, 19 April 2013. ^ Ganug Nugroho Adil, 'Sinhanto: A wayang master craftsman', The Jakarta Post 22 June 2012. ^ a b c Poplawska, Marzanna (2004). " Wayang
Wayang
Wahyu as an Example of Christian Forms of Shadow
Shadow
Theatre". Asian Theatre Journal. Johns Hopkins University Press. 21 (2): 194–202. doi:10.1353/atj.2004.0024.  ^ Inna Solomonik. Wayang
Wayang
Purwa Puppets: the Language of the Silhouette - in: “Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde”, 136 (1980), no: 4, Leiden, hlm. 482-497 ^ Notopertomo, Margono; Warih Jatirahayu. 2001. 51 Karakter Tokoh Wayang
Wayang
Populer. Klaten, Indonesia: Hafamina. ISBN 979-26-7496-9 ^ "Amir Hamzah, uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, spreader of Islam, and hero of the Serat Menak". Asian Art Education. 

Signell, Karl. Shadow
Shadow
Music of Java. 1996 Rounder Records CD #5060, Cambridge MA. This article was initially translated from the German-language article. Poplawska, Marzanna. Asian Theatre Journal. Fall 2004, Vol. 21 p. 194-202

Further reading[edit]

Alton L. Becker
Alton L. Becker
(1979), Aram Yengoyan and Alton L. Becker, ed., Text-Building, Epistemology, and Aesthetics in the Javanese Shadow Theatre, Norwood, NJ: ABLEX 

Brandon, James (1970) On Thrones of Gold — Three Javanese Shadow
Shadow
Plays. Harvard. Ghulam-Sarwar Yousof. (1994)Dictionary of Traditional South-East Asian Theatre. Oxford University Press. Clara van Groenendael, Victoria (1985) The Dalang Behind the Wayang. Dordrecht, Foris Keeler, Ward (1987) Javanese Shadow
Shadow
Plays, Javanese Selves. Princeton University Press Keeler, Ward (1992) Javanese Shadow
Shadow
Puppets. OUP Long, Roger (1982) Javanese shadow theatre: Movement and characterization in Ngayogyakarta wayang kulit. Umi Research Press Mellema, R.L. (1988) Wayang
Wayang
Puppets: Carving, Colouring, Symbolism. Amsterdam, Royal Tropical Institute, Bulletin 315. Mudjanattistomo (1976) Pedhalangan Ngayogyakarta. Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
(in Javanese) Signell, Karl (1996) Shadow
Shadow
Music of Java. CD booklet. Rounder Records CD 5060 Soedarsono (1984) Wayang
Wayang
Wong. Yogyakarta, Gadjah Mada University Press

Indonesia
Indonesia
portal Theatre portal

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wayang.

Historical Development of Puppetry: Scenic Shades (includes informations about wayang beber, kulit, klitik and golek) Seleh Notes article on identifying Central Javanese wayang kulit Wayang
Wayang
Orang (wayang wong) traditional dance, from Indonesia
Indonesia
Tourism Wayang
Wayang
Klitik: a permanent exhibit of Puppetry Arts Museum Wayang
Wayang
Golek Photo Gallery, includes description, history and photographs of individual puppets by Walter O. Koenig Wayang
Wayang
Kulit: The Art form of the Balinese Shadow
Shadow
Play by Lisa Gold Wayang
Wayang
Puppet Theatre on the Indonesian site of UNESCO The Wayang
Wayang
Golek Wooden Stick Puppets of Java, Indonesia
Indonesia
(commercial site) An overview of the Shadow
Shadow
Puppets tradition (with many pictures) in a site to Discover Indonesia Wayang
Wayang
Kulit exhibition at the Museum of International Folk Art Wayang
Wayang
Kulit Collection of Shadow
Shadow
Puppets, Simon Fraser University Museum of Archaeology & Ethnology digitized on Multicultural Canada website Contemporary Wayang
Wayang
Archive, by the National University of Singapore Wayang
Wayang
Kontemporer, an interactive PhD dissertation on Contemporary Wayang
Wayang
Archive

v t e

UNESCO
UNESCO
Oral and Intangible Heritage: representative list

Africa

Aka music Chopi timbila Garifuna culture Afounkaha Gbofe Gelede Gule Wamkulu Ifá Ijele Masquerade Kamablon
Kamablon
re-roofing Kankurang Manden Charter Mbende Jerusarema Sosso Bala Ugandan barkcloth
Ugandan barkcloth
making Vimbuza healing dance Yaaral & Degal Zafimaniry
Zafimaniry
woodcrafting Zambian Makishi Festival

Arab States

Ahellil Al-Sirah Al-Hilaliyyah Bedu
Bedu
culture at Petra
Petra
and Wadi Rum Iraqi maqam Jemaa el-Fnaa Palestinian Hikaye Shashmaqam Song of Sana'a Taghribat Bani Hilal Tan-Tan Moussem

Asia and Pacific

Acupuncture & Moxibustion Ainu dance Akiu no Taue Odori Akyn Angklung "Arirang" Bakhshi music Batik Baul Beijing opera Boysun District Bunraku Cantonese opera Ca trù Chakkirako Cheoyongmu Chhau dance Chinese architecture Chinese block printing Chinese calligraphy Chinese paper cutting Chinese seal engraving Chinese shadow puppetry Daemokjang Daimokutate Dainichido Bugaku Darangen Epic Dragon Boat Festival Drametse Ngacham Epic of King Gesar Gagaku Gagok Ganggangsullae Gangneung Danoje Festival Gimjang Gióng Festival Gong culture Grand Song Guqin Guqin
Guqin
music Hayachine Kagura Hitachi Furyumono Hua'er Hudhud Chant Indonesian kris Jamdani Jeju Chilmeoridang Yeongdeunggut Jultagi Kabuki Kalbelia Kashan rug Katta Ashula Khoomei Koshikijima no Toshidon Kumiodori Kunqu Kutiyattam Ladakh chant Lakalaka Lenj boats Lhamo Longquan celadon Mak yong Mangal Shobhajatra Mazu belief Meshrep Mibu no Hana Taue Morin khuur Mosie ramie Mudiyett Muqam Naadam Namsadang Nori Nanyin Naqqāli Nhã nhạc Noh Oku-noto no Aenokoto Pahlevani and zoorkhaneh rituals Pansori Pungmul Quan họ Radif Ramlila Ramman Royal Ballet of Cambodia Regong arts Royal Ancestral Ritual Sada Shin Noh Saman dance Sand drawing Sbek Toch Sekishu-Banshi Shiraz rug Taekkyeon Ta'zīye Urtiin Duu Vedic chanting Wayang Xi'an ensemble Xuan paper Yamahoko Yeongsanjae Yūki-tsumugi Yunjin

Europe
Europe
and North America

Albanian iso-polyphony Ashik Ashiqs of Azerbaijan Aubusson tapestry Azerbaijani rug

weaving

Azerbaijani tar Baltic song and dance celebrations Bećarac Busójárás Căluş Cante Alentejano Cantu a tenore Carnival of Aalst Carnival of Binche Castell Chovgan Christmas Tsars Council of Wise Men of the plain of Murcia & Water Tribunal of the plain of Valencia Copper craftsmanship of Lahij Cremona violins Croatian lacemaking Daina Daredevils of Sassoun Doina Duduk Fado Falconry Falles of the Pyrenees Festivity of 'la Mare de Déu de la Salut' of Algemesí Festivity of Saint Blaise Flamenco French timber framing scribing Fujara Georgian vocal polyphony Horezu ceramics Houtem Jaarmarkt Hrvatsko Zagorje
Hrvatsko Zagorje
toys Istrian scale Jem Karagöz and Hacivat Kelaghayi Keşkek Khachkar Kihnu culture Kırkpınar Klapa Kryždirbystė Kvevri
Kvevri
wine La Patum Lefkaritika Licitar Ljelje/Kraljice Makishi Festival Maldovan Christmas Carols Maloya Manas Meddah Mediterranean diet Mesir Macunu Mugham Mystery Play of Elche Nestinarstvo Nijemo Kolo Nowruz

Azerbaijani Indian Iranian Turkish

Ojkanje Olonkho Opera dei Pupi Petrykivka decorative painting Procession of the Holy Blood Sama Semeiskie culture Seto Leelo Silbo Gomero Sinjska alka Slovácko Verbuňk Turkish Sohbet The Song of the Sibyl Suiti culture Sutartinės Táncház Turkish coffee Viennese cafes Wajãpi culture Za križen Zvončari

Caribbean and Latin America

Carnaval de Barranquilla Brotherhood of the Holy Spirit of the Congos of Villa Mella Candombe Carnaval de Negros y Blancos Carnaval de Oruro Círio de Nazaré Cocolo Costa Rican oxherding Dancing Devils of Yare Danza de los Voladores Danza de tijeras Frevo Garifuna culture Gióng Festival Harakmbut Huaconada Indigenous Day of the Dead Kallawaya
Kallawaya
culture Mexican cuisine Moore Town's Maroon Heritage Palenque de San Basilio Panama hat Parachico Peña de Bernal Pirekua Popayán Holy Week processions Pütchipü'ü Quyllur Rit'i Rabinal Achí Samba de Roda South Pacific Colombian marimba Tango Taquile textiles La Tumba Francesa Vallenato Wajãpi culture Yaokwa Záparo culture

v t e

UNESCO
UNESCO
Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity: music

Aka polyphony Albanian folk iso-polyphony Angklung Aqyn Arabic maqam Arirang Ashik Ashiqs of Azerbaijan Azerbaijani tar Baul
Baul
music Bećarac Bigwala Biyelgee Bistritsa Babi Dainichido Bugaku Beijing opera Candombe Cante Alentejano Cantonese opera Cantu a tenore Ca trù Cremona violins Doina Duduk Eshuva Fado Frevo Fujara Gagaku Gagok Garifuna music Georgian vocal polyphony Gong culture Guqin Gwoka Hua'er Hudhud chants Istrian scale Kgal Laox Khuumii Klapa Koodiyattam Khorasan Bakhshi Kumi Odori Kunqu Lhamo Long song Maloya Maqam al-iraqi Meshrep Morin khuur Mugham Muqam Nanyin Nhã nhạc Ojkanje singing Pansori Pirekua Quan họ Radif Sama Samba de roda Seto Leelo Shashmaqam Silbo Gomero Slovácko Verbuňk Song of Sana'a Sosso Bala Sutartinės Táncház The Song of the Sibyl Tumba francesa Vallenato Vedic chant Wayang
Wayang
kulit Xi'an

.