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Varanasi
Varanasi
(Hindustani pronunciation: [ʋaːˈraːɳəsi] ( listen)), also known as Benares,[4] Banaras (Banāras [bəˈnaːrəs] ( listen)), or Kashi (Kāśī [ˈkaːʃi] ( listen)), is a city on the banks of the Ganges in the Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
state of North India, 320 kilometres (200 mi) south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and 121 kilometres (75 mi) east of Allahabad. A major religious hub in India, it is the holiest of the seven sacred cities (Sapta Puri) in Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism, and played an important role in the development of Buddhism
Buddhism
and Ravidassia. Varanasi
Varanasi
lies along National Highway 2, which connects it to Kolkata, Kanpur, Agra, and Delhi, and is served by Varanasi Junction railway station
Varanasi Junction railway station
and Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport. Varanasi
Varanasi
is also one of 72 districts in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. At the time of the 2011 census, there were a total of 8 blocks and 1329 villages in this district.Main languages of Varanasi are Banarasi, Bhojpuri/Awadhi. Varanasi
Varanasi
grew as an important industrial centre, famous for its muslin and silk fabrics, perfumes, ivory works, and sculpture. Buddha
Buddha
is believed to have founded Buddhism
Buddhism
here around 528 BCE when he gave his first sermon, "The Setting in Motion of the Wheel of Dharma", at nearby Sarnath. The city's religious importance continued to grow in the 8th century, when Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
established the worship of Shiva
Shiva
as an official sect of Varanasi. During the Muslim rule through Middle Ages, the city continued as an important centre of Hindu
Hindu
devotion, pilgrimage, mysticism and poetry which further contributed to its reputation as a centre of cultural importance and religious education. Tulsidas
Tulsidas
wrote his epic poem on Rama's life called Ram Charit Manas
Ram Charit Manas
in Varanasi. Several other major figures of the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement were born in Varanasi, including Kabir
Kabir
and Ravidas. Guru
Guru
Nanak visited Varanasi for Maha Shivaratri
Shivaratri
in 1507, a trip that played a large role in the founding of Sikhism. In the 16th century, Varanasi
Varanasi
experienced a cultural revival under the Mughal emperor Akbar
Akbar
who patronised the city, and built two large temples dedicated to Shiva
Shiva
and Vishnu, though much of modern Varanasi was built during the 18th century, by the Maratha and Brahmin
Brahmin
kings. The Kingdom of Benares was given official status by the Mughals in 1737, and continued as a dynasty-governed area until Indian independence in 1947. The city is governed by the Varanasi
Varanasi
Nagar Nigam (Municipal Corporation) and is represented in the Parliament of India by the current Prime Minister of India
India
Narendra Modi, who won the Lok Sabha elections in 2014 by a huge margin. Silk weaving, carpets and crafts and tourism employ a significant number of the local population, as do the Diesel Locomotive Works and Bharat Heavy Electricals. Varanasi
Varanasi
Hospital
Hospital
was established in 1964. Varanasi
Varanasi
has been a cultural centre of North India
India
for several thousand years,[citation needed]a and is closely associated with the Ganges. Hindus believe that death in the city will bring salvation, making it a major centre for pilgrimage. The city is known worldwide for its many ghats, embankments made in steps of stone slabs along the river bank where pilgrims perform ritual ablutions. Of particular note are the Dashashwamedh Ghat, the Panchganga Ghat, the Manikarnika Ghat and the Harishchandra Ghat, the last two being where Hindus cremate their dead and the Hindu
Hindu
genealogy registers at Varanasi
Varanasi
are kept here. The Ramnagar Fort, near the eastern bank of the Ganges, was built in the 18th century in the Mughal style of architecture with carved balconies, open courtyards, and scenic pavilions. Among the estimated 23,000 temples in Varanasi
Varanasi
are Kashi Vishwanath Temple
Kashi Vishwanath Temple
of Shiva, the Sankat Mochan Hanuman
Hanuman
Temple, and the Durga
Durga
Temple. The Kashi Naresh ( Maharaja
Maharaja
of Kashi) is the chief cultural patron of Varanasi, and an essential part of all religious celebrations. An educational and musical centre, many prominent Indian philosophers, poets, writers, and musicians live or have lived in the city, and it was the place where the Benares gharana
Benares gharana
form of Hindustani classical music
Hindustani classical music
was developed. One of Asia's largest residential universities is Banaras Hindu
Hindu
University
University
(BHU). The Hindi-language nationalist newspaper, Aj, was first published in 1920.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Archaeological evidence 2.2 Ancient period 2.3 Medieval period 2.4 Modern history (1500 – present)

3 Geography and climate

3.1 Geography 3.2 Climate

4 Administration and politics

4.1 Administration

4.1.1 General Administration 4.1.2 Police Administration 4.1.3 Infrastructure and Civic Administration

4.2 Politics 4.3 Healthcare 4.4 Public maintenance

5 Demographics 6 Economy 7 Notable landmarks

7.1 Jantar Mantar 7.2 Ramnagar Fort 7.3 Ghats 7.4 Temples 7.5 Mosques 7.6 Shri Guru
Guru
Ravidass Janam Asthan

8 Culture

8.1 Literature 8.2 Art 8.3 Music 8.4 Festivals

9 Education 10 Sport 11 Transport

11.1 Air transport 11.2 Railways 11.3 Roads 11.4 Varanasi
Varanasi
Metro

12 Twin towns – sister cities 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Etymology Traditional etymology links "Varanasi" to the names of two Ganges tributaries forming the city's borders: Varuna, still flowing in northern Varanasi, and Assi, today a small stream in the southern part of the city, near Assi Ghat. The old city is located on the north shores of the Ganges, bounded by Varuna
Varuna
and Assi.[5] In the Rigveda, an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns, the city is referred to as Kāśī (Kashi) from the Sanskrit verbal root kaś- "to shine", making Varanasi
Varanasi
known as "City of Light",[6] the "luminous city as an eminent seat of learning".[7] The name was also used by pilgrims dating from Buddha's days. Hindu
Hindu
religious texts use many epithets to refer to Varanasi, such as Kāśikā (Sanskrit: "the shining one"), Avimukta (Sanskrit: "never forsaken" by Shiva), Ānandavana (Sanskrit: "the forest of bliss"), and Rudravāsa (Sanskrit: "the place where Rudra/Śiva resides").[8] History According to legend, Varanasi
Varanasi
was founded by the god Shiva.[9] There happened a fight between the two supreme gods, Brahma
Brahma
and Shiva, and the succeeding combat resulted in one of the five heads of Brahma being torn off by Shiva. It was a custom of the time that the victor carried the slain adversary’s head in his hand and let it hang down from his hand as an act of ignominy and a sign of his own bravery. A bridle was also put into the mouth. Shiva
Shiva
thus dishonored Brahma's head, and kept it with him at all times. When he came to the city of Varanasi
Varanasi
in this state, the hanging head of Brahma
Brahma
dropped from Shiva's hand and disappeared in the ground. The land of Varanasi
Varanasi
is therefore considered an extremely holy religious site.[10] The Pandavas, the protagonists of the Hindu
Hindu
epic Mahabharata, are said to have visited the city in search of Shiva
Shiva
to atone for their sin of fratricide and Brāhmanahatya that they had committed during the climactic Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra
War.[11] It is regarded as one of seven holy cities (Sapta Puri) which can provide Moksha; Ayodhya, Mathura, Haridwar, Kashi, Kanchi, Avanti, and Dvārakā
Dvārakā
are the seven cities known as the givers of liberation.[12] Archaeological evidence 2014 excavations found artefacts dating to 800 BCE and finds at Aktha and Ramnagar, two sites very near to Varanasi, show them to be from 1800 BCE, supporting the view that the Varanasi
Varanasi
area was inhabited by this time.[13] Ancient period Varanasi
Varanasi
grew as an important industrial centre, famous for its muslin and silk fabrics, perfumes, ivory works, and sculpture.[14] During the time of Gautama Buddha, Varanasi
Varanasi
was part of the Kingdom of Kosala.[14] The Buddha
Buddha
is believed to have founded Buddhism
Buddhism
here around 528 BCE when he gave his first sermon, "The Setting in Motion of the Wheel of Dharma", at nearby Sarnath.[15][16] The celebrated Chinese traveller Xuanzang, also known as Hiuen Tsiang, who visited the city around 635 CE, attested that the city was a centre of religious and artistic activities, and that it extended for about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) along the western bank of the Ganges.[14][17] When Xuanzang, visited Varanasi
Varanasi
in the 7th century, he named it "Polonisse" and wrote that the city had some 30 temples with about 30 monks.[18] The city's religious importance continued to grow in the 8th century, when Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
established the worship of Shiva
Shiva
as an official sect of Varanasi.[19] Medieval period

Kabir, a 15th-century Indian mystic poet and saint

Chandradeva, founder of the Gahadavala
Gahadavala
dynasty made Banaras a second capital in 1090.[20] During the Mauryan era, Varanasi
Varanasi
was connected by a road starting from Taxila
Taxila
and ending at Pataliputra.[21] Varanasi
Varanasi
remained the centre of activity for intellectuals and theologians during the Middle Ages, which further contributed to its reputation as a cultural centre of religion and education. Several major figures of the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement were born in Varanasi, including Kabir
Kabir
who was born here in 1389,[22] and Ravidas, a 15th-century socio-religious reformer, mystic, poet, traveller, and spiritual figure, who was born and lived in the city and employed in the tannery industry.[23] Modern history (1500 – present)

A lithograph by James Prinsep (1832) of a Brahmin
Brahmin
placing a garland on the holiest location in the city

A painting by Edwin Lord Weeks
Edwin Lord Weeks
(1883) of Varanasi, viewed from the Ganges

An illustration (1890) of Bathing Ghat
Ghat
in Varanasi

Numerous eminent scholars and preachers visited the city from across India
India
and south Asia. Guru
Guru
Nanak visited Varanasi
Varanasi
for Maha Shivaratri in 1507, a trip that played a large role in the founding of Sikhism.[24] Varanasi
Varanasi
experienced a Hindu
Hindu
cultural revival in the 16th century under the Muslim Mughal emperor Akbar, who invested in the city and built two large temples dedicated to Shiva
Shiva
and Vishnu.[17] The Raja of Pune
Pune
established the Annapurna Mandir, and the 200-metre (660 ft) Akbari Bridge was also completed during this period.[25] The earliest tourists began arriving in the city during the 16th century.[26] In 1665, the French traveller Jean-Baptiste Tavernier
Jean-Baptiste Tavernier
described the architectural beauty of the Vindu Madhava temple on the side of the Ganges. The road infrastructure was also improved during this period. It was extended from Kolkata
Kolkata
to Peshawar
Peshawar
by Emperor Sher Shah Suri; later during the British Raj
British Raj
it came to be known as the famous Grand Trunk Road. In 1656, Emperor Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
ordered the destruction of many temples and the building of mosques, causing the city to experience a temporary setback.[17] However, after Aurangazeb's death, most of India
India
was ruled by a confederacy of pro- Hindu
Hindu
kings. Much of modern Varanasi
Varanasi
was built during this time, especially during the 18th century by the Maratha and Bhumihar(Brahmin).[27] The kings governing Varanasi
Varanasi
continued to wield power and importance through much of the British Raj
British Raj
period, including the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Benares, or Kashi Naresh.

Majaraja of Benares and Suite, 1870s

Map of the city, ca 1914

The Kingdom of Benares was given official status by the Mughals in 1737, and continued as a dynasty-governed area until Indian independence in 1947, during the reign of Dr. Vibhuti
Vibhuti
Narayan Singh. In the 18th century, Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
ordered the construction of an observatory on the Ganges, attached to Man Mandir Ghat, designed to discover imperfections in the calendar in order to revise existing astronomical tables. Tourism in the city began to flourish in the 18th century.[26] In 1791, under the rule of the British Governor-General Warren Hastings, Jonathan Duncan founded a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
College in Varanasi.[28] In 1867, the establishment of the Varanasi
Varanasi
Municipal Board led to significant improvements in the city's infrastructure and basic amenities of health services, drinking water supply and sanitation [29]

An 1895 photograph of the Varanasi
Varanasi
riverfront

The British Army
British Army
committed a massacre of Indian troops and destroyed city residences during the early stages of the Indian Rebellion of 1857.[30] Author Mark Twain
Mark Twain
wrote in 1897 of Varanasi, "Benares is older than history, older than tradition, older even than legend, and looks twice as old as all of them put together."[31] In 1910, the British made Varanasi
Varanasi
a new Indian state, with Ramnagar as its capital, but with no jurisdiction over the city proper. The religious head, Kashi Naresh, has had his headquarters at the Ramnagar Fort
Ramnagar Fort
since the 18th century, also a repository of the history of the kings of Varanasi, which is situated to the east of Varanasi, across the Ganges.[32] The Kashi Naresh is deeply revered by the local people and the chief cultural patron; some devout inhabitants consider him to be the incarnation of Shiva.[33] Annie Besant
Annie Besant
founded the Central Hindu
Hindu
College, which later became a foundation for the creation of Banaras Hindu University
Banaras Hindu University
in 1916. Besant founded the college because she wanted "to bring men of all religions together under the ideal of brotherhood in order to promote Indian cultural values and to remove ill-will among different sections of the Indian population."[34] Varanasi
Varanasi
was ceded to the Union of India
India
in 1947, and Dr. Vibhuti Narayan Singh incorporated his territories into the United Provinces in 1949.[citation needed] Geography and climate

Location in India

Geography Varanasi
Varanasi
is located at an elevation of 80.71 metres (264.8 ft)[35] in the centre of the Ganges
Ganges
valley of North India, in the Eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh, along the left crescent-shaped bank of the Ganges, averaging between 15 metres (50 ft) and 21 metres (70 ft) above the river.[36] The city is the headquarters of Varanasi
Varanasi
district. By road, Varanasi
Varanasi
is located 797 kilometres (495 mi) south-east of New Delhi, 320 kilometres (200 mi) south-east of Lucknow, 121 kilometres (75 mi) east of Allahabad, and 63 kilometres (39 mi) south of Jaunpur.[37] The " Varanasi
Varanasi
Urban Agglomeration" – an agglomeration of seven urban sub-units – covers an area of 112.26 km 2 (approximately 43 mi²).[38] Neighbourhoods of the city include Adampura, Anandbagh, Bachchhaon, Bangali Tola, Bhelpura, Bulanala, Chaitganj, Chaukaghat, Chowk, Dhupchandi, Dumraon, Gandhinagar, Gautam Nagar, Giri Nagar, Gopal Vihar, Guru
Guru
Nanak Nagar, Jaitpura, Kail Garh, Khanna, Kotwali, Lanka Manduadih, Luxa, Maheshpur, Mahmoorganj, Maulvibagh, Nagwar, Naipokhari, Shivala, Siddhagiribagh, and Sigra.[37] Being located in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of North India, the land is very fertile because low level floods in the Ganges
Ganges
continually replenish the soil.[citation needed] Varanasi
Varanasi
is located between the Ganges
Ganges
confluences with two rivers: the Varuna
Varuna
and the Assi stream. The distance between the two confluences is around 2 miles (4 km), and serves as a sacred journeying route for Hindus, which culminates with a visit to a Sakshi Vinayak Temple.[39] Climate Varanasi
Varanasi
experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa) with large variations between summer and winter temperatures.[40][41] The dry summer starts in April and lasts until June, followed by the monsoon season from July to October. The temperature ranges between 22 and 46 °C (72 and 115 °F) in the summers. Winters in Varanasi
Varanasi
see very large diurnal variations, with warm days and downright cold nights. Cold waves from the Himalayan region cause temperatures to dip across the city in the winter from December to February and temperatures below 5 °C (41 °F) are not uncommon. The average annual rainfall is 1,110 mm (44 in). Fog is common in the winters, while hot dry winds, called loo, blow in the summers.[42] In recent years, the water level of the Ganges
Ganges
has decreased significantly; upstream dams, unregulated water extraction, and dwindling glacial sources due to global warming may be to blame.[43][44]

Climate data for Varanasi Airport
Varanasi Airport
(1971–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 32.3 (90.1) 35.8 (96.4) 42.4 (108.3) 45.3 (113.5) 46.8 (116.2) 48.0 (118.4) 43.9 (111) 39.8 (103.6) 42.3 (108.1) 39.0 (102.2) 35.3 (95.5) 32.7 (90.9) 48.0 (118.4)

Average high °C (°F) 23.0 (73.4) 26.2 (79.2) 32.6 (90.7) 38.5 (101.3) 40.3 (104.5) 38.4 (101.1) 33.7 (92.7) 32.9 (91.2) 32.8 (91) 32.7 (90.9) 29.4 (84.9) 24.7 (76.5) 32.1 (89.8)

Average low °C (°F) 9.2 (48.6) 11.6 (52.9) 16.2 (61.2) 21.9 (71.4) 25.5 (77.9) 27.2 (81) 25.7 (78.3) 25.4 (77.7) 24.4 (75.9) 20.6 (69.1) 14.4 (57.9) 10.1 (50.2) 19.2 (66.6)

Record low °C (°F) 0.3 (32.5) 2.4 (36.3) 7.9 (46.2) 11.4 (52.5) 17.8 (64) 14.3 (57.7) 21.4 (70.5) 21.7 (71.1) 19.1 (66.4) 8.9 (48) 4.3 (39.7) 2.3 (36.1) 0.3 (32.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 19.0 (0.748) 18.2 (0.717) 8.3 (0.327) 6.1 (0.24) 10.3 (0.406) 107.3 (4.224) 309.3 (12.177) 288.4 (11.354) 244.9 (9.642) 32.3 (1.272) 9.3 (0.366) 4.8 (0.189) 1,058.2 (41.661)

Average rainy days 1.6 1.7 1.0 0.6 1.2 5.4 13.9 13.1 10.0 1.8 0.6 0.5 51.5

Source: India
India
Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[45][46]

Administration and politics Administration General Administration Varanasi division
Varanasi division
which consists of four districts, and is headed by the Divisional Commissioner
Divisional Commissioner
of Varanasi, who is an IAS officer of high seniority, the Commissioner is the head of local government institutions (including Municipal Corporations) in the division, is in charge of infrastructure development in his division, and is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the division.[47][48][49][50][51] The District Magistrate
District Magistrate
of Varanasi reports to the Divisional Commissioner. The current Commissioner is Nitin Ramesh Gokarn.[52][53][54] Varanasi district
Varanasi district
administration is headed by the District
District
Magistrate of Varanasi, who is an IAS officer. The DM is in charge of property records and revenue collection for the central government and oversees the elections held in the city. The DM is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the city, hence the SSP of Varanasi
Varanasi
also reports to the DM of Varanasi.[47][55][56][57][58] The DM is assisted by a Chief Development Officer (CDO), four Additional District Magistrates (ADM) (Finance/Revenue, City, Protocol, Executive), one Chief Revenue Officer (CRO), one City Magistrate (CM), and four Additional City Magistrates (ACM). The district has three tehsils, each headed by a Sub-Divisional magistrate. The current DM is Yogeshwar Ram Mishra.[52][53][54] Police Administration Varanasi district
Varanasi district
comes under the Varanasi
Varanasi
Police Zone and Varanasi Police Range, Varanasi
Varanasi
Zone is headed by an Additional Director General ranked IPS officer, and the Varanasi
Varanasi
Range is headed Inspector General ranked IPS officer. The current ADG, Varanasi
Varanasi
Zone is Biswajit Mahapatra,[59] and IG, Varanasi
Varanasi
Range is Deepak Ratan.[60] The district police is headed by a Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP), who is an IPS officer, and is assisted by six Superintendents of Police (SP)/Additional Superintendents of Police (Addl. SP) (City, Rural Area, Crime, Traffic, Protocol and Protocol), who are either IPS officers or PPS officers.[61] Each of the several police circles is headed by a Circle Officer (CO) in the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police.[61] The current SSP is Ram Krishna
Krishna
Bharadwaj.[61] Infrastructure and Civic Administration The development of infrastructure in the city is overseen by Varanasi Development Authority (VDA), which comes under the Housing Department of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
government. The Divisional Commissioner
Divisional Commissioner
of Varanasi acts as the ex-officio Chairman of VDA, whereas a Vice Chairman, a government-appointed IAS officer, looks after the daily matters of the authority.[62] The current Vice-Chairman of Varanasi
Varanasi
Development Authority is Pulkit Khare.[63] The Varanasi
Varanasi
Municipal Corporation
Municipal Corporation
oversees civic activities in the city, the head of the corporation is the Mayor, but the executive and administration of the corporation is the responsibility of the Municipal Commissioner, who is a Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
government-appointed either an IAS officer or Provincial Civil Service (PCS) officer of high seniority. The current Mayor
Mayor
of Varanasi
Varanasi
is Mridula Jaiswal, whereas the Municipal Commissioner is Nitin Bansal.[64] Water supply and sewage system is operated by the Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Jal Nigam.[65] Politics Varanasi
Varanasi
is represented in the Parliament of India
India
by the current Prime Minister of India
India
Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
who won the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
elections in 2014 by a huge margin.[66] Healthcare Sushruta, the great surgeon and author of the Sushruta
Sushruta
Samhita, the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text of surgery, lived in Varanasi
Varanasi
and practised medicine and surgery sometime during the 5th century BCE. Since 1922, Ayurveda
Ayurveda
has been a subject of training in the Banaras Hindu University
Banaras Hindu University
and in 1927 a separate Ayurvedic College was established.[67][68] There are many Ayurvedic centres in Varanasi
Varanasi
like Sparsa Ayurvedic Centre which provide Ayurvedic treatments such as Panchakarma and other methods.[69] S S Ayurveda
Ayurveda
Hospital
Hospital
operates a Panchakarma treatment centre, in association with Kerala Ayurveda
Ayurveda
Ltd.[70] Varansi has several hospitals, including Heritage Hospital, Marwari Hospital, Pitambari Hopspital, Mata Anand Mai Hospital, Rajkiya Hospital, Ram Krishna
Krishna
Mission Hospital, Shiv Prasad Gupta Hospital, Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyay hospital (managed by state govt.) the largest and superspeciality hospital is Sir Sundar Lal Hospital ( University
University
Hospital) having more 1150 beds&a separate trauma centre having 340 beds, and Varanasi
Varanasi
Hospital
Hospital
and Medical Research Centre. A separate cancer institute is also operated in Varanasi.[71] The Varanasi
Varanasi
Hospital, established in 1964 by Dr. Baijnath Prasad.[72] The hospital, which in 2012 had 66 beds, serves Varanasi
Varanasi
and surrounding districts and states, many of which rely on it for surgery.[72] Although the hospital suffers from a lack of funding, it has facilities such as x-ray, ultrasonography, echocardiography and a pathology lab.[72] The urban portion of Varanasi
Varanasi
District
District
had an infant mortality rate of 70 per 1,000 live births in 2010–2011.[73] Public maintenance Because of the high population density of Varanasi
Varanasi
and the increasing number of tourists, the Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
government and international non-governmental organisations and institutions have expressed grave concern for the pollution and pressures on infrastructure in the city, mainly the sewage, sanitation, and drainage components.[74] Pollution of the Ganges
Ganges
is a particular source of worry because of the religious significance of the river, the dependence of people on it as a source of drinking water, and its prominence as a symbol of Varanasi
Varanasi
and the city itself.[75] The sewage problem is exacerbated by the role of the Ganges
Ganges
in bathing and in river traffic, which is very difficult to control.[74] Because of the sewage, people using local untreated water have higher risk of contracting a range of water-borne stomach diseases.[76] Parts of Varanasi
Varanasi
are contaminated with industrial chemicals including toxic heavy metal. Studies of wastewater from Varanasi's sewage treatment plants identify that water's contamination with metals and the reuse of this water for irrigation as a way that the toxic metals come to be in the plants that people grow for food.[77][78] One studied example is palak, a popular leafy vegetable which takes up heavy metal when it is in the soil, and which people then eat.[79] Some of the polluting sludge contains minerals which are fertiliser, which could make polluted water attractive to use.[80] Pesticides used in local farming are persistent enough to be spread through the water, to sewer treatment, then back to the farms as wastewater.[80] Varanasi's water supply and sewage system is maintained by Jal Nigam, a subsidiary of Varanasi
Varanasi
Nagar Nigam. Power supply is by the Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation Limited. The city produces about 350,000,000 litres (77,000,000 imp gal; 92,000,000 US gal) per day[81] of sewage and 425 tonnes (418 long tons; 468 short tons) per day of solid waste.[82] The solid wastes are disposed in one landfill site.[83] Demographics See also: List of cities in Uttar Pradesh According to provisional data from the 2011 census, the Varanasi
Varanasi
urban agglomeration had a population of 1,435,113, with 761,060 men and 674,053 women.[84] The population of the Varanasi
Varanasi
urban agglomeration in 2001 was 1,371,749 with a ratio of 879 females every 1,000 males.[85] However, the area under Varanasi Nagar Nigam
Varanasi Nagar Nigam
has a population of 1,100,748[86] with a ratio of 883 females for every 1,000 males.[86] The literacy rate in the urban agglomeration is 77% while that in the municipal corporation area is 78%.[86] Approximately 138,000 people in the municipal area live in slums.[87] Economy

Banarasi sari

According to the 2006 City Development Plan for Varanasi, approximately 29% of Varanasi's population is employed.[88] Approximately 40% are employed in manufacturing, 26% work in trade and commerce, 19% work in other services, 8% work in transport and communication, 4% work in agriculture, 2% work in construction, and 2% are marginal workers (working for less than half of the year).[89] Among manufacturing workers, 51% work in spinning and weaving, 15% work in metal, 6% work in printing and publishing, 5% work in electrical machinery, and the rest work in a wide variety of industry sectors.[90] Varanasi's manufacturing industry is not well developed and is dominated by small-scale industries and household production.[88]

Tourists shopping for jewellery in Varanasi

Silk weaving is the dominant industry in Varanasi.[91] Muslims are the influential community in this industry with nearly half a million of them working as weavers, dyers, sari finishers, and salespersons.[92] Weaving is typically done within the household, and most weavers are Momin Ansari Muslims.[93] Varanasi
Varanasi
is known throughout India
India
for its production of very fine silk and Banarasi saris, brocades with gold and silver thread work, which are often used for weddings and special occasions. The production of silk often uses bonded child labour, though perhaps not at a higher rate than elsewhere in India.[94] The silk weaving industry has recently been threatened by the rise of power looms and computer-generated designs and by competition from Chinese silk imports.[88] In the metal manufacturing sector, Diesel Locomotive Works is a major employer.[90] Bharat Heavy Electricals, a large power equipment manufacturer, also operates a heavy equipment maintenance plant.[95] Other major commodities manufactured and traded in Varanasi
Varanasi
include hand-knotted Mirzapur
Mirzapur
carpets, rugs, dhurries, brassware, copperware, wooden and clay toys, handicrafts, gold jewellery, and musical instruments.[91] Important agricultural products include betel leaves (for paan), langra mangoes and khoa (solidified milk).[90][96]

DLW manufactured locomotives hauling load across the nation

Tourism is Varanasi's second most important industry.[97] Nearly 6.3 million domestic tourists and 690,472 foreign tourists visited Varanasi
Varanasi
in 2015. Domestic tourist most commonly visit for religious purposes while foreign tourist visit for ghats along River Ganges
Ganges
and Sarnath. Most domestic tourists are from Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh, while the majority of foreign tourists are from Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Japan.[98] The peak tourist season falls between October and March.[98] In total, there are around 12,000 beds available in the city, of which about one half are in inexpensive budget hotels and one third in dharamsalas.[99] Overall, Varanasi's tourist infrastructure is not well developed.[99] The prominent malls and multiplexes in Varanasi
Varanasi
are JHV Mall in the Varanasi
Varanasi
Cantonment area, IP Mall in Sigra, IP Vijaya Mall in Bhelupur, and PDR in Luxa. The city has several banks, including the Allahabad
Allahabad
Bank, Andhra Bank, Bank of Baroda, Canara Bank, Central Bank of India, Corporation Bank, Indian Overseas Bank, and State Bank of India.[100] Notable landmarks

Ramnagar Fort

Apart from the 19 archaeological sites identified by the Archaeological Survey of India,[101] some of the prominent places of interest are the Aghor Peeth, the Alamgir Mosque, the Ashoka Pillar, the Bharat Kala Bhavan
Bharat Kala Bhavan
(Art Museum), the Bharat Mata
Bharat Mata
Mandir, the Central University
University
for Tibetan Studies, the Dhanvantari Temple, the Durga
Durga
Temple, the Jantar Mantar, the Kashi Vishwanath Temple, the Sankat Mochan Hanuman
Hanuman
Temple, the Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Kashi Vidyapith, the New Vishwanath Temple
New Vishwanath Temple
on the BHU campus, the Ramnagar Fort, the Riverfront Ghats, the Tulsi Manas Temple.[102] Jantar Mantar The Jantar Mantar observatory, constructed in 1737, is located above the ghats along the Ganges, and is adjacent to the Manmandir and Dasaswamedh Ghats
Ghats
and near the palace of Jai Singh II
Jai Singh II
of Jaipur. While less equipped than the observatories at Jaipur
Jaipur
and Delhi, the Jantar Mantar has a unique equatorial sundial which is functional and allows measurements to be monitored and recorded by one person.[103] Ramnagar Fort The Ramnagar Fort, located near the Ganges
Ganges
on its eastern bank and opposite the Tulsi Ghat, was built in the 18th century by Kashi Naresh Raja Balwant Singh with cream-coloured chunar sandstone. The fort is a typical example of the Mughal architecture
Mughal architecture
with carved balconies, open courtyards, and scenic pavilions. At present, the fort is in disrepair. The fort and its museum are the repository of the history of the kings of Benares. Cited as an "eccentric" museum, it contains a rare collection of American vintage cars, bejeweled sedan chairs, an impressive weaponry hall, and a rare astrological clock.[104] In addition, manuscripts, especially religious writings, are housed in the Saraswati
Saraswati
Bhawan which is a part of a museum within the fort. Many books illustrated in the Mughal miniature style are also part of the collections. Because of its scenic location on the banks of the Ganges, it is frequently used as an outdoor shooting location for films.[104][105]

A view of the Ghats in Varanasi
Ghats in Varanasi
from the Ganges

Ghats Main article: Ghats
Ghats
in Varanasi

Dashashwamedh Ghat

Manikarnika Ghat

The Ghats in Varanasi
Ghats in Varanasi
are world-renowned embankments made in steps of stone slabs along the river bank where pilgrims perform ritual ablutions. The ghats are an integral complement to the Hindu
Hindu
concept of divinity represented in physical, metaphysical, and supernatural elements.[106] Varanasi
Varanasi
has at least 84 ghats, most of which are used for bathing by pilgrims and spiritually significant Hindu
Hindu
puja ceremony, while a few are used exclusively as Hindu
Hindu
cremation sites.[107][108][109] Steps in the ghats lead to the banks of Ganges, including the Dashashwamedh Ghat, the Manikarnika Ghat, the Panchganga Ghat, and the Harishchandra Ghat, where Hindus cremate their dead. Many ghats are associated with Hindu
Hindu
legends and several are now privately owned.[110] Many of the ghats were constructed under the patronage of the Marathas, Shindes (Scindias), Holkars, Bhonsles, and Peshwas. Most are bathing ghats, while others are used as cremation sites. A morning boat ride on the Ganges
Ganges
across the ghats is a popular tourist attraction. The extensive stretches of ghats in Varanasi
Varanasi
enhance the riverfront with a multitude of shrines, temples, and palaces built "tier on tier above the water's edge".[14] The Dashashwamedh Ghat
Dashashwamedh Ghat
is the main and probably the oldest ghat of Varanasi
Varanasi
located on the Ganges, close to the Kashi Vishwanath Temple. It is believed that Brahma
Brahma
created this ghat to welcome Shiva
Shiva
and sacrificed ten horses during the Dasa- Ashwamedha
Ashwamedha
yajna performed there. Above and adjacent to this ghat, there are also temples dedicated to Sulatankesvara, Brahmesvara, Varahesvara, Abhaya Vinayaka, Ganga (the Ganges), and Bandi Devi, which are all important pilgrimage sites. A group of priests perform " Agni
Agni
Pooja" (Sanskrit :"Worship of Fire") daily in the evening at this ghat as a dedication to Shiva, Ganga, Surya
Surya
(Sun), Agni
Agni
(Fire), and the entire universe. Special
Special
aartis are held on Tuesdays and on religious festivals.[108] The Manikarnika Ghat
Manikarnika Ghat
is the Mahasmasana, the primary site for Hindu cremation in the city. Adjoining the ghat, there are raised platforms that are used for death anniversary rituals. According to a myth it is said that an earring of Shiva
Shiva
or his wife Sati fell here. Fourth-century Gupta period inscriptions mention this ghat. However, the current ghat as a permanent riverside embankment was built in 1302 and has been renovated at least three times throughout its existence.[108]

Bachraj Ghat

The Jain Ghat : Varanasi
Varanasi
is believed to birthplace of Suparshvanatha
Suparshvanatha
(7th tirthankara) and Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
(23rd tirthankara). The Jain Ghat
Ghat
or Bachraj Ghat
Ghat
is a Jain Ghat
Ghat
and has three Jain Temples located on the banks of the River. It is believed that the Jain Maharajas used to own these ghats.Bachraj Ghat
Ghat
has three Jain temples near the river's banks and one them is a very ancient temple of Tirthankara Suparswanath. Temples Main articles: Hindu
Hindu
temples in Varanasi
Varanasi
and Religion in Varanasi Among the estimated 23,000 temples in Varanasi,[11] the temples most popular for worship are: the Kashi Vishwanath Temple
Kashi Vishwanath Temple
of Shiva; the Sankat Mochan Hanuman
Hanuman
Temple; and the Durga
Durga
Temple, known for monkeys that reside in the large trees nearby.[111][112][5]

The Kashi Vishwanath Temple, the most important temple in Varanasi

The Kashi Vishwanath Temple, on the Ganges, is one of the 12 Jyotirlinga
Jyotirlinga
Shiva
Shiva
temples in Varanasi.[112] The temple has been destroyed and rebuilt several times throughout its existence. The Gyanvapi Mosque, which is adjacent to the temple, is the original site of the temple.[113] The temple, which is also known as the Golden Temple,[114] was built in 1780 by Queen Ahilyabai Holkar
Holkar
of Indore. The two pinnacles of the temple are covered in gold and were donated in 1839 by Ranjit Singh, the ruler of Punjab. The dome is scheduled to receive gold plating through a proposed initiative of the Ministry of Culture and Religious Affairs of Uttar Pradesh. Numerous rituals, prayers, and aartis are held daily at the temple between 02:30 and 23:00.[115] The Sankat Mochan Hanuman
Hanuman
Temple, which is situated by the Asi River, is one of the sacred temples of the Hindu
Hindu
god Hanuman.[116] The present temple was built in the early 1900s by the educationist and Indian independence figure, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, the founder of Banaras Hindu
Hindu
University.[117] According to Hindu
Hindu
legend the temple was built on the spot where the medieval Hindu
Hindu
saint Tulsidas
Tulsidas
had a vision of Hanuman.[118] During a 7 March 2006 terrorist attack, one of three explosions hit the temple while a wedding was in progress, and resulted in injuries to 30 people apart from 23 deaths.[117] Following the attack, a permanent police post was installed inside the temple.[119]

The 18th century Durga
Durga
Kund Temple, also known as the "Monkey temple"

There are two temples named "Durga" in Varanasi: Durga
Durga
Mandir built in the 16th century (exact date not known), and Durga
Durga
Kund (Sanskrit 'kund' meaning "pond or pool") built in the 18th century. A large number of Hindu
Hindu
devotees visit Durga
Durga
Kund during Navratri
Navratri
to worship the goddess Durga. The temple, built in the Nagara
Nagara
architectural style, has multi-tiered spires[114] and is stained red with ochre, representing the red colour of Durga. The building has a rectangular tank of water called the Durga
Durga
Kund ("Kund" meaning a pond or pool). During annual celebrations of Nag Panchami, the act of depicting the god Vishnu
Vishnu
reclining on the serpent Shesha
Shesha
is recreated in the Kund.[120] While the Annapurna Temple, located nearby to the Kashi Vishwanath Temple, is dedicated to Annapoorna devi, the goddess of food,[112] the Sankatha Temple adjacent to the Sindhia Ghat
Ghat
is dedicated to Sankatha, the goddess of remedy. The Sankatha Temple has a large sculpture of a lion and a cluster of nine smaller temples dedicated to the nine planets.[112] Other temples of note are: the Bharat Mata
Bharat Mata
Mandir, dedicated to the national personification of India, which was inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
in 1936, the Kalabhairav Temple, the Mrithyunjay Mahadev Temple, and the New Vishwanath Temple located in the campus of BHU, the Tulsi Manas Mandir.[112]

Parshvanath Jain temple

Parshvanath Jain temple: The Parshvanath Jain temple, Varanasi
Parshvanath Jain temple, Varanasi
is temple of Jain religion dedicated to Parshvanath, the 23rd Thirthankara who was born at Bhelpur in Varanasi. The idol deified in the temple is of black colour and 75 centimetres (30 inches) in height. It is located in Bhelapur about 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) from the centre of Varanasi
Varanasi
city and 3 kilometres (1.9 miles) from the Benares Hindu
Hindu
University. It belongs to the digambara sect of Jainism and is a holy tirtha or pilgrimage centre for Jains.

Mosques

Gyanvapi Mosque

Alamgiri Mosque

There are 15 mosques of significant historical value in Varanasi. Of particular note are the Abdul Razzaq, Alamgir, Bibi Razia, Chaukhambha, Dhai Nim Kangore, Fatman, Ganje Shahada, Gyanavapi and Hazrat Sayyed Salar Masud Dargah. Many of these mosques were constructed from the components of the Hindu
Hindu
shrines which were destroyed under the auspices of subsequent Muslim invaders or rulers. The two well known mosques are the Gyanvapi Mosque
Gyanvapi Mosque
and the Alamgir Mosque.[121] The Gyanvapi Mosque
Gyanvapi Mosque
was built by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
in 1664 CE, after destroying a Hindu
Hindu
temple.[122] Gyan Vapi (Sanskrit: "the well of knowledge"), the name of the mosque, is derived from a well of the same name located within the precincts of the mosque.[123] The remains of an erstwhile temple can be seen in the foundation, the columns and at the rear part of the mosque [124] The façade of the mosque is modelled partially on the Taj Mahal's entrance.[125] The mosque is administered by the Anjuman Inthazamiya Masajid (AIM).[126] The Alamgiri Mosque
Mosque
was built in the 17th century by Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
over the ruins of a Hindu
Hindu
temple.[127] The Hindu
Hindu
temple that was destroyed was dedicated to Vishnu, and had been built by Beni Madhur Rao Scindia, a Maratha chieftain. When emperor Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
had captured Banaras, he had ordered total destruction of all Hindu
Hindu
temples there. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
then built a mosque over the ruins of this temple in 1669[128] and named it as Alamagir Mosque
Mosque
in the name of his own honorific title "Alamgir" which he had adopted after becoming the emperor of Mughal empire.[129][130] The mosque is located at a prominent site above the Panchganga Ghat, which is a funerary ghat facing the Ganges.[131] The mosque is architecturally a blend of Islamic and Hindu
Hindu
architecture, particularly because of the lower part of the walls of the mosque having been built fully with the remains of the Hindu
Hindu
temple.[129] The mosque has high domes and minarets.[132][130] Two of its minarets had been damaged; one minaret crashed killing a few people and the other minaret was officially brought down because of stability concerns.[130] Non-Muslims are not allowed to enter the mosque.[133] The mosque has a security cordon of a police force.[134] Shri Guru
Guru
Ravidass Janam Asthan

Memorial of Sant Ravidas
Ravidas
at Sant Ravidas
Ravidas
Ghat

Shri Guru
Guru
Ravidass Janam Asthan, at Sir Gobardhan
Sir Gobardhan
is the ultimate place of pilgrimage or religious headquarters for followers of the Ravidassia
Ravidassia
religion.[135] The foundation stone was laid on 14 June 1965 on Ashad Sankranti day at the birthplace of Ravidas. The temple was completed in 1994.[136] Culture Literature See also: The City of Varanasi
Varanasi
in Literature Renowned Indian writers who have resided in the city were Kabir, Ravidas, and Tulsidas, who wrote much of his Ram Charit Manas
Ram Charit Manas
here. Kulluka Bhatt wrote the best known account of Manusmriti
Manusmriti
in Varanasi in the 15th century,[137][dubious – discuss] Later writers of the city have included Acharya Shukla, Baldev Upadhyaya, Bharatendu Harishchandra, Devaki Nandan Khatri, Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Jaishankar Prasad, Kshetresa Chandra Chattopadhyaya, Sudama Pandey (Dhoomil), Vagish Shastri, and Vidya Niwas Mishra.[138][dubious – discuss] Several newspapers and journals are or were published in Varanasi
Varanasi
such as Varanasi
Varanasi
Chandroday and its successor Kashivartaprakashika, which became a weekly journal, first published on 1 June 1851.[139] The main newspaper is Aj, a Hindi-language nationalist newspaper first published in 1920.[140] The newspaper was the bulwark of the Indian National Congress and is a major newspaper of Hindi
Hindi
northern India.[140] Art

Wall paintings, Varanasi, 1974

Varanasi
Varanasi
is a major centre of arts and designs. It is a producer of silks and brocades with gold and silver thread work, carpet weaving, wooden toys, bangles made of glass, ivory work, perfumes, artistic brass and copper ware and a variety of handicrafts.[141][142] The cantonment graveyard of the British Raj
British Raj
is now the location of Varanasi's Arts and Crafts.[143][clarification needed] Notable artists (musicians and dancers) and historians who are connected with the city include Bismillah Khan, Ravi Shankar, Girija Devi, Gopal Shankar Misra, Gopi Krishna, Kishan Maharaj, Lalmani Misra, N. Rajam, Siddheshwari Devi, Samta Prasad, and Sitara Devi.[144] Music Main article: Music in Varanasi

Sant Goswami Tulsidas
Tulsidas
Awadhi Hindi
Hindi
poet and propagator of Bhakthi music in Varanasi

Varanasi’s music tradition is traced to the Pauranic days. According to ancient legend, Shiva
Shiva
is credited with evolving music and dance forms. During the medieval era, Vaishnavism, a Bhakti
Bhakti
movement, grew in popularity, and Varanasi
Varanasi
became a thriving center for musicians such as Surdas, Kabir, Ravidas, Meera
Meera
and Tulsidas. During the monarchic rule of Govind Chandra in the 16th century, the Dhrupad style of singing received royal patronage and led to other related forms of music such as Dhamar, Hori, and Chaturang. Presently the Dhrupad
Dhrupad
maestro Pandit Ritwik Sanyal
Ritwik Sanyal
from Varanasi
Varanasi
is working for the revival of this art-music.[145] In recent times, Girija Devi, the native famous classical singer of thumris, was widely appreciated and respected for her musical renderings.[146] Varanasi
Varanasi
is also associated with many great instrumentalists such as Bismillah Khan[145] and Ravi Shankar, the famous sitar player and musicologist who was given the highest civilian award of the country, the Bharat Ratna.[147] Varanasi
Varanasi
has joined the global bandwagon of UNESCO "Cities of Music" under the Creative Cities Network.[148] Festivals On Maha Shivaratri
Shivaratri
(February), a procession of Shiva
Shiva
proceeds from the Mahamrityunjaya Temple to the Kashi Vishwanath Temple.[111] Dhrupad Mela is a five-day musical festival devoted to dhrupad style held at Tulsi Ghat
Ghat
in February–March.[149] The Sankat Mochan Hanuman
Hanuman
Temple celebrates Hanuman
Hanuman
Jayanti (March–April), the birthday of Hanuman. A special puja, aarti, and a public procession is organised.[150][151] Since 1923, the temple has organised a five-day classical music and dance concert festival named Sankat Mochan Sangeet Samaroh, when iconic artists from all parts of India
India
are invited to perform.[111] The Ramlila
Ramlila
of Ramnagar is a dramatic enactment of Rama's legend, as told in Ramacharitamanasa.[33] The plays, sponsored by Kashi Naresh, are performed in Ramnagar every evening for 31 days.[33] On the last day, the festivities reach a crescendo as Rama
Rama
vanquishes the demon king Ravana.[33] Kashi Naresh
Kashi Naresh
Udit Narayan Singh started this tradition around 1830.[33]

Krishna
Krishna
standing on serpent Kaliya
Kaliya
during Nag Nathaiya
Nag Nathaiya
festival in Varanasi

Nag Nathaiya
Nag Nathaiya
is celebrated on the fourth lunar day of the dark fortnight of the Hindu
Hindu
month of Kartik (October–November). It commemorates the victory of Krishna
Krishna
over the serpent Kaliya. On this occasion, a large Kadamba tree (Neolamarckia cadamba) branch is planted on the banks of the Ganges
Ganges
so that a boy, playing the role of Krishna, can jump into the river on to the effigy representing Kaliya. He stands over the effigy in a dancing pose playing the flute, while an audience watches from the banks of the river or from boats.[152] Bharat Milap celebrates the meeting of Rama
Rama
and his younger brother Bharata after the return of the former after 14 years of exile.[111] It is celebrated during October–November, a day after the festival of Vijayadashami. Kashi Naresh
Kashi Naresh
attends this festival in his regal attire. The festival attracts a large number of devotees.[153] Ganga Mahotsav is a five-day music festival organised by the Uttar Pradesh Tourism Department, held in November–December. It culminates a day before Kartik Purnima, also called the Ganges
Ganges
festival. On this occasion the Ganges
Ganges
is attended by thousands of pilgrims, release lighted lamps to float in the river from the ghats.[111][149] The primary Muslim festivals celebrated annually in the city are the ld-ul-fitr' (Ramzan), Bakrid, Mid-Sha'ban, Bara Wafat and Muharram. Additional festivals include Alvida and Chehlum. A non-religious festival observed by Muslims is Ghazi-miyan-ka-byaha ("the marriage of Ghazi Miyan").[154][155] Education Main article: Educational institutions in Varanasi

Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi is an Institute of National Importance in Varanasi

Women's College, Banaras Hindu
Hindu
University, Varanasi

Bharat Kala Bhavan
Bharat Kala Bhavan
Museum, Banaras Hindu
Hindu
University, Varanasi

Historically, Varanasi
Varanasi
has been a centre for education in India, attracting students and scholars from across the country.[156][157] Varanasi
Varanasi
has an overall literacy rate of 80% (male literacy: 85%, female literacy: 75%).[84] It is home to a number of colleges and universities. Most notably, it is the site of Banaras Hindu
Hindu
University (BHU), which is one of the largest residential universities in Asia with over 20,000 students.[158] The Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi
Varanasi
is designated an Institute of National Importance and is one of 16 Indian Institutes of Technology. Other colleges and universities in Varanasi
Varanasi
include Jamia-e-Imania, the Institute of Integrated Management and Technology, Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Kashi Vidyapith, Nav Sadhana Kala Kendra, Sampurnanand Sanskrit
Sanskrit
University, Sri Agrasen Kanya P.G. College, and Udai Pratap Autonomous College. Various engineering colleges have been established in the outskirts of the city. Varanasi
Varanasi
is also base for 3 Kendriya Vidyalaya. Among them Kendriya Vidyalaya BHU holds the regional office of Varanasi
Varanasi
Region of KVS and is seat of Deputy Commissioner. Kendriya Vidyalaya
Kendriya Vidyalaya
BHU is also accrediated by British Council. Other w KVs are Kendriya Vidyalaya
Kendriya Vidyalaya
39 GTC and Kendriya Vidyalaya
Kendriya Vidyalaya
DLW. St. Joseph's Convent School, in Shivpur, Varanasi, was established by the Sisters of Our Lady of Providence of France as a Catholic (Christian) minority institution with the approval of the Government of Uttar Pradesh. It is an autonomous organisation under the diocese of the Bishop of Varanasi. It provides education not only to the Catholic Christian children, but also to others who abide by its rules.[159] Another important institution is the Central Hindu
Hindu
School in Kamachha. This was established by Annie Besant
Annie Besant
in July 1898 with the objective of imparting secular education. It is affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education and is open to students of all cultures.[160][161] Schools in Varanasi
Varanasi
are affiliated with the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the CBSE, or the Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Board of Technical Education (U.P Board). The overall "state of education in Varanasi
Varanasi
is ... not good."[162] Schools in Varanasi
Varanasi
vary widely in quality, with private schools outperforming government schools.[162] In government schools, many teachers fail to come to class or to teach children.[162] Some government schools lack basic equipment, such as blackboards and sufficient desks and chairs for all students.[162] Private schools vary in quality, with the most expensive conducting lessons in English (seen as a key to children's success) and having computers in classrooms.[162] Pupils attending the more expensive private schools, tended to come from upper-class families.[162] Lower-cost private schools attracted children from lower-income families or those lower-income families with higher education aspirations.[162] Government schools tend to serve lower-class children with lower education aspirations.[162] Sport Basketball, cricket, and field hockey are popular sports in Varanasi.[163] The main stadium in the city is the Dr Sampurnanda Stadium (Sigra Stadium), where first-class cricket matches are held.[164] Local cricket matches are also played on the BHU Ground, Dr. Bheeem Rao Sports Complex.[165] The Physical Education Faculty of Arts of BHU offers diploma courses in Sports Management, Sports Physiotherapy, Sports Psychology and Sports Journalism.[166] Gymnastics
Gymnastics
is also popular in Varanasi, and many Indian girls practice outdoors at the ghats in the mornings which hosts akhadas, where "morning exercise, a dip in the Ganges
Ganges
and a visit to Lord Hanuman" forms a daily ritual.[167] Despite concerns regarding water quality, two swimming clubs offer swimming lessons in the Ganges.[168] The Varanasi
Varanasi
District
District
Chess Sports Association (VDCSA) is based in Varanasi, affiliated to the regional Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Chess Sports Association (UPCSA).[169] Transport

Cycle rickshaws in a busy street in Varanasi

Varanasi
Varanasi
is well-connected by air, rail and road. One of the major factors in Varanasi's is its access to all parts of the country. Within the city mobility is provided by taxis, rickshaws, cycle rickshaws and three wheelers, but with certain restrictions in the old town area of the city.[170]

The Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport

Air transport Varanasi
Varanasi
is served by Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport, which is approximately 26 km (16 mi) from the city centre in Babatpur.[171] The airport inaugurated a new terminal in 2010, and it was granted international airport status on 4 October 2012.[172][better source needed][173] Air India, Buddha
Buddha
Air, Jet Airways, IndiGo, Thai Smile, SriLankan Airlines
SriLankan Airlines
and SpiceJet operate flights from Varanasi
Varanasi
to Bangkok, Colombo, Delhi, Gaya, Kathmandu, Khajuraho, Sharjah, Yangon, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Goa
Goa
and Kolkata.[174] Over 1,916,454 passengers passed through the airport in 2016-17, making it the 21st busiest airport in India.

Varanasi
Varanasi
Junction

Railways Varanasi
Varanasi
Junction, commonly known as Varanasi
Varanasi
Cantt Railway Station, is the city's largest train station. More than 360,000 passengers and 240 trains pass through each day.[175] Manduadih railway station is also a Terminal station of Varanasi. Because of huge rush at Varanasi
Varanasi
Junction the railway developed the station as a high facilitated terminal. Varanasi City railway station
Varanasi City railway station
is also one of the railway stations in Varanasi
Varanasi
district. It is 4 km North-East of Varanasi Junction
Varanasi Junction
railway station.It serves as Terminal station because of heavy rush at Varanasi
Varanasi
Junction. Mughalsarai Junction railway station is also the important station in Varanasi
Varanasi
suburban. Some of the important express trains operating from the Varanasi Junction railway station and Manduadih railway station
Manduadih railway station
are: Shiv Ganga Express runs between New Delhi
Delhi
Junction and Manduadih station while Mahamana Express
Mahamana Express
runs between Varanasi
Varanasi
junction and New Delhi Junction; the Udhna Varanasi Express that runs between Udhna (Surat) junction and Varanasi, a distance of 1,398 kilometres (869 mi);[176] the Kashi Vishwanath Express
Kashi Vishwanath Express
that runs between Varanasi
Varanasi
and New Delhi
Delhi
railway station;[177] the Kanpur
Kanpur
Varanasi InterCity express, also called Varuna
Varuna
express, which runs over a distance of 355 kilometres (221 mi) and connects with Lucknow (the capital city of Uttar Pradesh) and Varanasi;[178] and the Sabarmati Express which runs between Varanasi
Varanasi
and Ahmedabad.

Road in Varanasi
Varanasi
Cantonment

Roads Varanasi
Varanasi
lies along National Highway 19 (old number: NH 2), which connects it to Kolkata, Kanpur, Agra, and Delhi.[37] National Highway 28 connects Varanasi
Varanasi
to the Nepal- India
India
border. National Highway 31 connects Varanasi
Varanasi
to Unnao.[37] The Government is executing seven road projects connecting Varanasi, the total project cost being Rs 7,100 crore and the total length of the project being 524 km. Some of the important projects are:

Six laning of Varanasi-Aurangabad NH-2 Varanasi
Varanasi
Bypass (Ring Road) Phase-I Ghagra Bridge- Varanasi
Varanasi
NH-233 Four laning of Varanasi-Sultanpur NH-56[179]

Auto rickshaws are the most widely available forms of public transport in old city.[180] In the outer regions of the city, buses are common, and taxis are available.[180] Varanasi
Varanasi
Metro The Varanasi Metro is a rapid transit proposed for Varanasi. The proposed system consists of two lines, spanning from BHEL to Banaras Hindu
Hindu
University
University
(19.35 km) and Benia Bagh to Sarnath (9.885 km). The feasibility study of the project was done by RITES
RITES
and was completed in June 2015. Metro Rail is likely to be completed around 2020. There will be 26 stations, including 20 underground and six elevated on the two lines, which includes total length of 29.235 km consisting of 23.467 km underground, while 5.768 km will be elevated.[181][182][183][184] The total estimated completion cost for construction of Varanasi
Varanasi
Metro is estimated to be Rs. 17,227 Crores, including taxes and duties. The project is envisaged to be undertaken as a Joint Venture (JV) project between the Government of India
India
(GoI) and the Government of Uttar Pradesh (GoUP) with 50:50 equity partnerships. To maintain the financial viability of the project, additional grants have been proposed from the two governments in addition to their equity contribution. Twin towns – sister cities Main article: Kyoto- Varanasi
Varanasi
Partner City Agreement Varanasi
Varanasi
is twinned with:

Kyoto, Japan[185]

See also

Bibliography of Varanasi Guptakashi List of people from Varanasi Pradosha Ramanathaswamy Temple Rameswaram Shivaratri Shivdwar Sonbhadra Uttarkashi Vibhuti

Varanasi
Varanasi
portal India
India
portal Hinduism
Hinduism
portal Buddhism
Buddhism
portal Jainism
Jainism
portal

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Footprint Focus Guide. Footprint Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1-909268-40-1.  Bindloss, Joe; Brown, Lindsay; Elliott, Mark (2007). Northeast India. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74179-095-5.  Bruyn, Pippa de; Bain, Keith; Allardice, David (18 February 2010). Frommer's India. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-64580-2.  City Development Plan for Varanasi
Varanasi
(PDF). Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission. 2006. [dead link] Callewaert, Winand M. (2000). Banaras: vision of a living ancient tradition. Hemkunt Press. p. 90. ISBN 81-7010-302-9.  Cunningham, Alexander; Sastri, Surendranath Majumdar (2002) [1924]. Ancient Geography of India. Munshiram Manoharlal. ISBN 81-215-1064-3.  Crowther, Geoff; Raj, Prakash A.; Wheeler, Tony (1984). India, a Travel Survival Kit. Lonely Planet.  Das, G. N. (1991). Couplets from Kabīr. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-0935-2.  Desai, Madhuri (2003). "Mosques, Temples, and Orientalists: Hegemonic Imaginations in Banaras" (PDF). Traditional Dwellings and Settlements. XV (1).  Dunlop, Fiona; Sykes, Carol; Jackson, Felicity (2001). Fodor's Exploring India. Fodor's Travel Publications. ISBN 978-0-679-00707-4.  Eck, Diana L. (1982). Banaras, City of Light. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11447-9.  Gandhi, Surjit Singh (2007). History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1469–1606 C.E. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. ISBN 978-81-269-0857-8.  Gupta, Amita (2006). Early Childhood Education, Postcolonial Theory, and Teaching Practices in India: Balancing Vygotsky and the Veda. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-7114-2.  Gupta, Shobhna (2003). Monuments of India. Har-Anand Publications. p. 11. ISBN 978-81-241-0926-7.  Herman, A. L. (1999). Community, Violence, and Peace: Aldo Leopold, Mohandas K. Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Gautama the Buddha
Buddha
in the Twenty-First Century. SUNY Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-7914-3983-8.  Hussain, Ansar (1 January 1999). Rediscovery of India, The: A New Subcontinent. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-250-1595-6.  (India), Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
(1965). Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
district gazetteers. Govt. of Uttar Pradesh.  Jayaswal, Vidula (2009). Ancient Varanasi: an archaeological perspective (excavations at Aktha). Aryan Books International. ISBN 978-81-7305-355-9.  Kasbekar, Asha (2006). Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts, And Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-636-7.  Kishore, Kaushal (2008). Holy Ganga. Rupa Publications. ISBN 978-81-291-3328-1.  Kochhar, Atul (4 June 2015). Benares: Michelin Starred Cooking. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4729-2078-2.  Kramrisch, Stella (1946). The Hindu
Hindu
Temple. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-0223-0.  Kumar, Brajesh (2003). Pilgrimage Centres of India. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. ISBN 978-81-7182-185-3.  Limited, Eicher Goodearth (2002). Good Earth Varanasi
Varanasi
City Guide. Eicher Goodearth Limited. ISBN 978-81-87780-04-5.  Medhasananda (2002). Varanasi
Varanasi
at the crossroads: a panoramic view of early modern Varanasi
Varanasi
and the story of its transition. Ramakrishna Mission, Institute of Culture. ISBN 978-81-87332-18-3.  Mellor, Ronald; Podany, Amanda H. (2005). The World in Ancient Times: Primary Sources and Reference Volume. Oxford University
University
Press. ISBN 978-0-19-522220-3.  Melton, J. Gordon (1 January 2007). The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena. Visible Ink Press. ISBN 978-1-57859-209-8.  Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin (2010). Religions of the World, Second Edition: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-204-3.  Merriam-Webster (1999). Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0.  Misra, Jaishree (2007). Rani. Penguin Books India. ISBN 978-0-14-310210-6.  Mitra, Swati (2002). Good Earth Varanasi
Varanasi
City Guide. Eicher Goodearth Limited. ISBN 978-81-87780-04-5.  Mohanty, Bidyut (1993). Urbanisation in Developing Countries: Basic Services and Community Participation. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-475-4.  Out, Time (2010). Time Out India: Perfect Places to Stay, Eat and Explore. Time Out Guides Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84670-164-1.  Pandey, K. N. (1989). Adoption of Agricultural Innovations: A Study of Small and Marginal Farmers of Varanasi, U.P. Northern Book Centre. ISBN 978-81-85119-68-7.  Pintchman, Tracy (2005). Guests at God's Wedding: Celebrating Kartik among the Women of Benares. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-8256-8.  Pletcher, Kenneth (2010). The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-61530-142-3.  Prakash, Satya
Satya
(1981). Cultural Contours of India: Dr. Satya
Satya
Prakash Felicitation Volume. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-0-391-02358-1.  Ray, Satyajit (2003). Adventures of Feluda : Mystery of the El. Penguin Books India. ISBN 978-0-14-333574-0.  Schreitmüller, Karen (2012). Baedeker India. Baedeker. ISBN 978-3-8297-6622-7.  Shackley, Myra (2001). Managing Sacred Sites: Service Provision and Visitor Experience. Cengage Learning EMEA. ISBN 978-1-84480-107-7.  Sharma, Urmila; Sharma, S.K. (2001). Indian Political Thought. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. ISBN 978-81-7156-678-5.  Sharma, Virendra Nath
Nath
(1995). Sawai Jai Singh And His Astronomy. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-1256-7.  Singh, Ram Bali (1975). Rajput Clan-settlements in Varanasi
Varanasi
District. National Geographical Society of India. OCLC 4702795.  Singh, Rana (2 October 2009). Banaras: Making of India’s Heritage City. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4438-1579-6.  Singh; Rana, Pravin S. (2002). Banaras region: a spiritual & cultural guide. Indica Books. ISBN 9788186569245.  Singh, Sarina (2009). India. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74179-151-8.  The Small Hands of Slavery: Bonded Child Labor in India. Human Rights Watch. 1996. ISBN 9781564321725.  Tiwari, Reena (2010). Space-Body-Ritual: Performativity in the City. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-2857-2.  Twain, Mark (1897). "L". Following the Equator: A journey around the world. Hartford, Connecticut, American Pub. Co. ISBN 0-404-01577-8. OCLC 577051.  Vera, Zak (2010). Invisible River: Sir Richard's Last Mission. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4389-0020-9.  Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shaw, Marc; Schwartz, Eli (2012). Travel Medicine: Tales Behind the Science. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-08-045359-0.  Sukul, Kuber Nath
Nath
(1974). Varanasi
Varanasi
Down The Ages. Kameshwar Nath Sukul.  Warikoo, K. (1 November 2010). Religion and Security in South and Central Asia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-89020-8.  Wood, Jolie M.F. (2011). "Contentious politics and civil society in Varanasi". In Ajay Gudavarthy. Re-framing Democracy and Agency at India: Interrogating Political Society. Anthem Press. ISBN 9780857283504.  Vit-Suzan, Dr Ilan (28 March 2014). Architectural Heritage Revisited: A Holistic Engagement of its Tangible and Intangible Constituents. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4724-2064-0. 

Further reading

Banks, Marcus; Morphy, Howard (1999). Rethinking Visual Anthropology. Yale University
University
Press. ISBN 978-0-300-07854-1.  Kara, Siddharth (2010). Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery. Columbia University
University
Press. ISBN 978-0-231-13961-8.  Mukherjee, Neela (2002). Alternative Perspectives on Livelihood, Agriculture and Air Pollution. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-986-5.  Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2005). Introduction to World Religions. Fortress Press. ISBN 978-0-8006-3714-9.  Shetty, Rekha (1 May 2014). Innovation Sutra: The Secret of Good Business and a Good Life. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-93-5118-696-0.  Singh (2007). Longman Panorama History 7. Pearson Education India. ISBN 978-81-317-1175-0.  Trayler, Richard (2010). Life Is Short...Compared to Eternity. Xulon Press. ISBN 978-1-61215-343-8. 

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Varanasi

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Varanasi.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Varanasi.

Wikiversity has learning resources about The Varanasi
Varanasi
Heritage Dossier

Official website of Varanasi
Varanasi
District State Government Tourism Website Varanasi
Varanasi
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Banaras Bibliography at the Südasien-Institut, Heidelberg University

Places adjacent to Varanasi

Jaunpur Azamgarh Ghazipur

Sant Ravidas
Ravidas
Nagar

Varanasi

Chandauli

Chunar Mirzapur Chakia

Links to related articles

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Hindu
Hindu
holy cities

India

Char Dham

Badrinath

Badrinath
Badrinath
Temple

Dwarka

Dwarkadhish Temple

Puri

Jagannath Temple

Rameswaram

Ramanathaswamy Temple

Chota Char Dham

Badrinath

Badrinath
Badrinath
Temple

Kedarnath

Kedarnath
Kedarnath
Temple

Gangotri Yamunotri

Yamunotri
Yamunotri
Temple

Panch Kedar

Kedarnath Tungnath Rudranath Madhyamaheshwar Kalpeshwar

Pancharama Kshetras

Amararama Draksharama Ksheerarama Kumararama Somarama

Six Abodes of Murugan

Palani Swamimalai Thiruttani Pazhamudircholai Thiruchendur Tirupparankunram

Trilinga Kshetras

Draksharama Srisailam Kaleshwaram

Ashtavinayaka

Morgaon

Moreshwar

Lenyadri

Girijatmaj

Pali

Ballaleshwar

Mahad

Varadvinayak

Ranjangaon

Mahaganapati

Siddhatek

Siddhivinayak

Ozar

Vighneswar

Theur

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Jyotirlinga

Prabhas Patan

Somnath

Srisailam

Mallikājuna

Ujjain

Mahakaleshwar

Omkareshwar Kedarnath

Kedarnath

Shiradhon

Bhimashankar

Varanasi

Kashi Vishvanath

Trimbak

Trimbakeshwar

Deoghar

Vaidyanath

Dwarka

Nageshvara

Rameswaram

Ramanathaswamy

Ellora Caves

Grishneshwar

Panchabhuta Lingas

Srikalahasti
Srikalahasti
Temple

Srikalahasti

Thillai Nataraja
Nataraja
Temple, Chidambaram

Chidambaram

Annamalaiyar Temple

Tiruvannamalai

Ekambareswarar Temple

Kanchi

Jambukeswarar Temple, Thiruvanaikaval

Others

Pushpagiri Temple Complex Shakti
Shakti
Peethas Ahobilam Ambaji Ambalappuzha Arunachala Annavaram Ayodhya Akshardham (Delhi) Akshardham (Gandhinagar) Basar Bhadrachalam Chidambaram Chitrakoot Chottanikkara Dakor Dharmasthala Dakshineswar Kali
Kali
Temple Ettumanoor Gaya Gokul Guruvayur Haridwar Indraprastha Jageshwar Kalighat Kanchipuram Katra Vaishno Devi Khatu Kollur Kurukshetra Madurai Mangalagiri Mathura Mayapur Nashik Nathdwara Pandharpur Prayag
Prayag
(Triveni Sangam) Pushkar Rishikesh Ryali Sabarimala Sapta Puri Somnath Sringeri Shirdi Simhachalam Temple Sonamukhi Srirangam Sri Kurmam Tirumala Tirunavaya Tripunithura Udupi Jajpur Vrindavan Vijayawada Yadagirigutta

Indonesia

Prambanan Gebang Gedong Songo Dieng Plateau Sukuh Ceto Temple Penataran Gunung Kawi Cangkuang Penataran
Penataran
Temple Candi Jawi Candi Kidal Candi Singhasari Candi Surawana Balinese temple Tanah Lot Marga Tirtha Empul Temple Denpasar Gianyar Pura Penataran
Penataran
Sasih Pejeng Gianyar Pura Besakih Pura Ulun Danu Bratan Pura Luhur Ulu Watu Pura Ulun Danu Batur

Sri Lanka

Ati Konanayakar Koneswaram Pathirakali Amman Temple Kataragama Munneswaram temple Thambiluvil Sri Kannaki amman temple Thambiluvil Sri Sivalinga Pillayar Temple Thirukkovil Sithira Velayutha Swami Kovil Tenavaram temple

Nepal

Kathmandu Janakpurdham Chataradham

Cambodia

Angkor Wat

v t e

Ancient Dharmic centres of higher learning

Early centres of learning

Taxila Nalanda Somapura Vikramashila

Further centres of learning

Bikrampur Vihara Jagaddala Mahavihara Kanchipuram Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics Manyakheta Nagarjunakonda Odantapuri Pandit Vihara Ratnagiri Shalban Vihara Sharada Peeth Sunethradevi Pirivena Vallabhi Varanasi Vidyalankara Pirivena Vidyodaya Pirivena Vikramashila

v t e

Cities and towns in Varanasi
Varanasi
district

Varanasi

Baragaon Gangapur Kandwa Kotwa Lohta Maruadih
Maruadih
Railway Settlement Phulwaria Ramnagar Shivdaspur Varanasi

Other districts

Agra Aligarh Allahabad Ambedkar Nagar Amethi Amroha Auraiya Azamgarh Badaun Bagpat Bahraich Ballia Balrampur Banda Barabanki Bareilly Basti Bhimnagar Bijnor Bulandshahr Chandauli Chitrakoot Deoria Etah Etawah Faizabad Farrukhabad Fatehpur Firozabad Gautam Buddha
Buddha
Nagar Ghaziabad Ghazipur Gonda Gorakhpur Hamirpur Hardoi Hathras Jalaun Jaunpur Jhansi Kannauj Kanpur
Kanpur
Dehat Kanpur
Kanpur
Nagar Kanshi Ram Nagar Kaushambi Kushinagar Lakhimpur Kheri Lalitpur Lucknow Maharajganj Mahoba Mainpuri Mathura Mau Meerut Mirzapur Moradabad Muzaffarnagar Panchsheel Nagar Pilibhit Prabuddhanagar Pratapgarh Raebareli Rampur Saharanpur Sant Kabir
Kabir
Nagar Sant Ravidas
Ravidas
Nagar Shahjahanpur Shravasti Siddharthnagar Sitapur Sonbhadra Sultanpur Unnao

v t e

Varanasi division
Varanasi division
topics

General

Purvanchal Banaras Hindu
Hindu
University Varanasi
Varanasi
Nagar Nigam

Mythology, history

2006 Varanasi
Varanasi
bombings 2010 Varanasi
Varanasi
bombing Jaunpur Sultanate

Districts

Chandauli Ghazipur Jaunpur Varanasi

Tehsils

Kerakat Jaunpur

Rivers, dams, lakes

Ganges Karmanasa Gomati

Languages, people

Bhojpuri Hindustani Khariboli Jaunpuri Standard Hindi Urdu

Transport

NH 2 Grand Trunk Road NH 29 NH 68 Howrah– Delhi
Delhi
main line Varanasi Junction
Varanasi Junction
railway station Jaunpur Junction Lal Bahadur Shastri Airport Malviya Bridge Shahi Bridge, Jaunpur

Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
constituencies

Chandauli Ghazipur Jaunpur Machhlishahr Varanasi

Vidhan Sabha
Vidhan Sabha
constituencies

Kerakat
Kerakat
( Vidhan Sabha
Vidhan Sabha
constituency)

See also

Cities and towns in Chandauli
Chandauli
district Cities and towns in Ghazipur
Ghazipur
district Cities and towns in Jaunpur district Cities and towns in Varanasi
Varanasi
district Villages in Chandauli
Chandauli
district Villages in Ghazipur
Ghazipur
district Villages in Jaunpur district Villages in Varanasi
Varanasi
district People from Chandauli People from Ghazipur People from Jaunpur People from Varanasi

Other Divisions

Agra Aligarh Allahabad Azamgarh Bareilly Basti Chitrakoot Devipatan Faizabad Gorakhpur Jhansi Kanpur Lucknow Meerut Mirzapur Moradabad Saharanpur

v t e

Million-plus agglomerations in India

North

Chandigarh Delhi Haryana: Faridabad Jammu and Kashmir: Srinagar Punjab: Ludhiana Amritsar Rajasthan: Jaipur Jodhpur Kota

Central

Chhattisgarh: Raipur Bhilai Madhya Pradesh: Indore Bhopal Jabalpur Gwalior Uttar Pradesh: Kanpur Lucknow Ghaziabad Agra Varanasi Meerut Allahabad

Eastern

Bihar: Patna Jharkhand: Jamshedpur Dhanbad Ranchi West Bengal: Kolkata Asansol

Western

Gujarat: Ahmedabad Surat Vadodara Rajkot Maharashtra: Mumbai Pune Nagpur Nashik Vasai-Virar Aurangabad

Southern

Andhra Pradesh: Visakhapatnam Vijayawada Karnataka: Bangalore Kerala: Kochi Kozhikode Thrissur Malappuram Thiruvananthapuram Kannur Kollam Tamil Nadu: Chennai Coimbatore Madurai Tiruchirappalli Telangana: Hyderabad

v t e

State of Uttar Pradesh

Capital: Lucknow

Topics

History Geography Government Economy Culture Achitecture Tourism Demographics Education

Administration

Government Legislative Assembly Chief Ministers Governors High Court Police Seal Political Party

Regions

Western Uttar Pradesh Eastern Uttar Pradesh Central Uttar Pradesh

Divisions

Agra Aligarh Allahabad Azamgarh Bareilly Basti Chitrakoot Devipatan Faizabad Gorakhpur Jhansi Kanpur Lucknow Meerut Mirzapur Moradabad Saharanpur Varanasi

Districts

Agra Aligarh Allahabad Ambedkar Nagar Amethi Amroha Auraiya Azamgarh Badaun Bagpat Bahraich Ballia Balrampur Banda Barabanki Bareilly Basti Bijnor Bulandshahr Chandauli Chitrakoot Devaria Etah Etawah Faizabad Farrukhabad Fatehpur Firozabad Gautam Buddha
Buddha
Nagar Ghaziabad Ghazipur Gonda Gorakhpur Hamirpur Hardoi Hathras Jalaun Jaunpur Jhansi Kannauj Kanpur
Kanpur
Dehat (Akbarpur) Kanpur
Kanpur
Nagar Kanshiram Nagar Kaushambi Kushinagar (Padrauna) Lakhimpur Kheri Lalitpur Lucknow Maharajganj Mahoba Mainpuri Mathura Mau Meerut Mirzapur Moradabad Muzaffarnagar Pilibhit Pratapgarh Raebareli Rampur Saharanpur Sambhal Sant Kabir
Kabir
Nagar Sant Ravidas
Ravidas
Nagar (Bhadohi) Shahjahanpur Shamli Shravasti Siddharthnagar Sitapur Sonbhadra Sultanpur Unnao Varanasi

Major cities

Kanpur Lucknow Ghaziabad Agra Varanasi Faizabad Meerut Allahabad Bareilly Aligarh Moradabad Saharanpur Gorakhpur Noida Jhansi Mathura

Villages

Adhkatiya Kala Khas Aharak Ahiran, Pindra Ahirani, Pindra Airla Aitha Ajaipur Akhari Akorha Amaut Amawar Amilo, Varanasi Araji Line Babhanpura Baghirua Baliakheri Bhelupura Chadpur Dabethuwa Deorai Eshipur Harora Aht. Harora Must. Janakpatti Jayapur Kathiraon Khanzadipur Kudi Lamhi Mehdiganj Phoolpur Raghunathpur Rajpur Saifai Tisaura Vyaspur Zafarabad

Portal: Uttar Pradesh

v t e

Varanasi

History

Intentionally left blank for sometime

Administrative division

Divisions

Varanasi
Varanasi
division

Districts

Varanasi
Varanasi
district

Tehsils

Pindra, Varanasi

Census towns

Amara Khaira Chak, Benipur, Bhagawanpur, Birbhanpur, Dindaspur, Gangapur, Harpal Pur, Kakarmatta, Kandwa, Kotwa, Lohta, Maruadih, Phulwaria, Ramnagar, Salarpur, Shivdaspur, Sir Gobardhan, Susuwahi, Suzabad, Umarha, Varanasi, Varanasi
Varanasi
cantt.

Villages

v t e

Villages in Varanasi
Varanasi
district

Pindra
Pindra
Tehsil

A Adhkatiya Kala Khas Aharak Ahiran Ahirani Ajaipur Akorha Amaut Auraon Ausanpur Azoarepur B Babatpur Bachaura Badhauna Baghaita Baharipur Baliakheri Basni C Chadpur D Dabethuwa Deorai E Eshipur G Gang Khurd J Janakpatti Jayapur K Kathiraon Khalispur Khanzadipur Kudi L Lamhi M Mehdiganj Murdi P Phoolpur R Raghunathpur Rajpur S Sir Gobardhan T Tisaura V Vyaspur Z Zafarabad

Varanasi
Varanasi
Tehsil

A Adampur Airla Aitha Akhari Amara Khaira Chak Anantpur Araji Line B Babhanpura Benipur Bhagawanpur Birbhanpur D Dindaspur G Gangapur H Harpal Pur S Salarpur Susuwahi U Umarha

India : Uttar Pradesh : Varanasi

Languages & Dialects spoken

Bengali Bhojpuri English Hindi Hindustani Urdu

Political representation

MP

Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
(Incumbent Prime Minister of India)

MLA

Ajay Rai Jyotsana Srivastava Mahendra Singh Patel Ravindra Jaiswal Shyamdev Roy Chaudhari (Dada) Surendra Singh Patel Tribhuvan Ram Uday Lal Maurya

Constituency

Lok Sabha

Varanasi

Vidhan Sabha

Ajagara Pindra Rohaniya Sevapuri Shivpur Varanasi
Varanasi
Cantt. Varanasi
Varanasi
North Varanasi
Varanasi
South

Transportation

Air

Lal Bahadur Shastri Airport

Rail

Babatpur Bhulanpur Kashi Manduadih Varanasi
Varanasi
Junction Varanasi
Varanasi
City Varanasi
Varanasi
Metro

Road

Grand Trunk Road National Highway 28 National Highway 35 Malviya Bridge

Water

Varanasi
Varanasi
Multi-Modal Terminal

Education

Universities

Benaras Hindu
Hindu
University Central University
University
for Tibetan Studies Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Kashi Vidyapith Sampurnanand Sanskrit
Sanskrit
University

Medical colleges

Faculty of Ayurveda Institute of Medical Sciences

Colleges

Arya Mahila Mahavidyalaya DAV Post Graduate College Faculty of Arts Faculty of Commerce Faculty of Science Faculty of Social Sciences Harish Chandra Postgraduate College Mahila Maha Vidyalaya SMS Sri Agrasen Kanya P.G. College Subhash Chandra Mahavidyalaya Sunbeam College for Women Udai Pratap Autonomous College Vasant Kanya Mahavidyalaya Vasanta College for Women

CBSE schools

Central Hindu
Hindu
Boys School Central Hindu
Hindu
Girls School Delhi
Delhi
Public School Guru
Guru
Nanak English School Raj English School Sant Atulanand Convent School

UP board schools

C.M. Anglo Bengali College

ICSE schools

St Joseph's Convent School St.John's School,Varanasi W. H. Smith Memorial School

Places of worship

Buddhist temples

Sarnath

Churches

St. Mary's Cathedral of Varanasi

Hindu
Hindu
temples

Aghori

Baba Keenaram Sthal

Bharat Mata

Bharat Mata
Bharat Mata
Mandir

Durga
Durga
or her Avatar

Durga
Durga
Mandir Sankata Devi
Devi
Mandir

Hanuman

Sankat Mochan Mandir

Parvati
Parvati
or her Avatar

Annapurna Devi
Devi
Mandir Lalita Gauri Mandir Vishalakshi Temple

Shiva
Shiva
or his Avatar

Kaal Bhairav Mandir Kashi Vishwanath Temple Mrityunjay Mahadev Mandir Nepali Mandir New Vishwanath Mandir (Birla Mandir) Shri Tilbhandeshwar Mahadev Mandir

Others

Tulsi Manas Mandir

Mosques

Gyanvapi Mosque

Ravidasis

Shri Guru
Guru
Ravidass Janam Asthan

Ghats

Assi Ghat Dashashwamedh Ghat Ganga Mahal Ghat
Ghat
(I) Lalita Ghat Manikarnika Ghat Munshi Ghat Sant Ravidas
Ravidas
Ghat Scindia
Scindia
Ghat Tulsi Ghat

Point of interest

Ashoka Stambh Bharat Kala Bhawan Bharat Mata
Bharat Mata
Mandir Ganges Ghats Jantar Mantar Ramnagar Fort

Hospitals

Sir Sunderlal Hospital

v t e

Hinduism

Aum Chakra Dharma Gurus and saints Karma Mantra Moksha Yoga Worship

Portal

v t e

Shaivism

History

History of Shaivism

Deities

Shiva

Sadyojata Vamadeva Aghora Tatpurusha Ishana

Nataraja Dakshinamurthy Harihara

Shakti

Ardhanarishvara Parvati

Ganesha Kartikeya Nandi

Texts

Shvetashvatara Upanishad Shivarahasya Purana Shiva
Shiva
Purana Shiva
Shiva
Sutras of Vasugupta

Mantra/ Stotra

Om Namah Shivaya Rudrashtakam Mahamrityunjaya Mantra Shiva
Shiva
Tandava Stotram Shiva
Shiva
Sahasranama Shiv Chalisa Shri Rudram Chamakam Shiva
Shiva
mahimna stotram

Philosophical Traditions

Shaiva Siddhanta Pashupata Shaivism Kashmir Shaivism Veera Shaivism Siddha
Siddha
Siddhanta Shiva
Shiva
Advaita Shaiva Smartas

Jyotirlingas

Bhimāśankara Ghuṣmeśvara Kedāranātha Viśveśvara Mallikārjuna Mahākāleśvara Nāgeśvara Omkāreśvara Rāmeśvara Somanātha Tryambakeśvara Vaidyanātha

Pancha Bhoota Stalam

Chidambaram
Chidambaram
Temple (Ether) Sri Kalahasti Temple (Air) Annamalaiyar Temple
Annamalaiyar Temple
(Fire) Thiruvanaikaval Temple (Water) Ekambareswarar Temple
Ekambareswarar Temple
(Earth)

Temples

Amarnath Brihadeeswarar Kailash Mansarovar Katasraj temple Lingaraj Temple Meenakshi Tirunelveli Panch Kedar

Kedarnath Tungnath Rudranath Madhyamaheshwar Kalpeshwar

Pancha Sabhai

Ratna Sabai Pon Sabai Velli Sabai Thamira Sabai Chitira Sabai

Tiruchengode Thirukutralam Vadakkum Nathan List of Shiva
Shiva
temples in India

Traditional Observances

Kanwar Yatra Lingam

Rasalingam

Maha Shivaratri Pradosha Shiva
Shiva
Puja Siddha Vibhuti Other na

.