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VARANASI (Hindustani pronunciation: ( listen )), also known as BENARES, BANARAS (Banāras ( listen )), or KASHI (Kāśī ( listen )), is a city on the banks of the Ganges
Ganges
in the Uttar Pradesh state of North India
India
, 320 kilometres (200 mi) south-east of the state capital, Lucknow
Lucknow
, and 121 kilometres (75 mi) east of Allahabad . A major religious hub in India
India
, it is the holiest of the seven sacred cities ( Sapta Puri ) in Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism
Jainism
, and played an important role in the development of Buddhism
Buddhism
. Varanasi
Varanasi
lies along National Highway 2 , which connects it to Kolkata
Kolkata
, Kanpur , Agra
Agra
, and Delhi
Delhi
, and is served by Varanasi Junction railway station and Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport .

Varanasi
Varanasi
is also one of 72 districts in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. At the time of the 2011 census, there were a total of 8 blocks and 1329 villages in this district.

Varanasi
Varanasi
grew as an important industrial centre, famous for its muslin and silk fabrics, perfumes, ivory works, and sculpture. Buddha is believed to have founded Buddhism
Buddhism
here around 528 BCE when he gave his first sermon, "The Setting in Motion of the Wheel of Dharma ", at nearby Sarnath
Sarnath
. The city's religious importance continued to grow in the 8th century, when Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
established the worship of Shiva
Shiva
as an official sect of Varanasi. During the Muslim rule through middle ages, the city continued as an important centre of Hindu
Hindu
devotion, pilgrimage, mysticism and poetry which further contributed to its reputation as a centre of cultural importance and religious education. Tulsidas wrote his epic poem on Rama's life called Ram Charit Manas in Varanasi. Several other major figures of the Bhakti movement were born in Varanasi, including Kabir
Kabir
and Ravidas
Ravidas
. Guru
Guru
Nanak visited Varanasi for Maha Shivaratri in 1507, a trip that played a large role in the founding of Sikhism
Sikhism
. In the 16th century, Varanasi
Varanasi
experienced a cultural revival under the Mughal emperor Akbar
Akbar
who patronised the city, and built two large temples dedicated to Shiva
Shiva
and Vishnu , though much of modern Varanasi
Varanasi
was built during the 18th century, by the Maratha and Brahmin
Brahmin
kings. The Kingdom of Benares was given official status by the Mughals in 1737, and continued as a dynasty-governed area until Indian independence in 1947. The city is governed by the Varanasi Nagar Nigam (Municipal Corporation) and is represented in the Parliament of India
India
by the current Prime Minister of India
India
Narendra Modi , who won the Lok Sabha elections in 2014 by a huge margin. Silk weaving , carpets and crafts and tourism employ a significant number of the local population, as do the Diesel Locomotive Works and Bharat Heavy Electricals . Varanasi
Varanasi
Hospital
Hospital
was established in 1964.

Varanasi
Varanasi
has been a cultural centre of North India
India
for several thousand years, and is closely associated with the Ganges. Hindus believe that death in the city will bring salvation , making it a major centre for pilgrimage. The city is known worldwide for its many ghats , embankments made in steps of stone slabs along the river bank where pilgrims perform ritual ablutions. Of particular note are the Dashashwamedh Ghat , the Panchganga Ghat, the Manikarnika Ghat and the Harishchandra Ghat, the last two being where Hindus cremate their dead and the Hindu
Hindu
genealogy registers at Varanasi
Varanasi
are kept here.

The Ramnagar Fort , near the eastern bank of the Ganges, was built in the 18th century in the Mughal style of architecture with carved balconies, open courtyards, and scenic pavilions. Among the estimated 23,000 temples in Varanasi
Varanasi
are Kashi Vishwanath Temple of Shiva, the Sankat Mochan Hanuman
Hanuman
Temple , and the Durga
Durga
Temple . The Kashi Naresh ( Maharaja
Maharaja
of Kashi) is the chief cultural patron of Varanasi, and an essential part of all religious celebrations. An educational and musical centre, many prominent Indian philosophers, poets, writers, and musicians live or have lived in the city, and it was the place where the Benares gharana form of Hindustani classical music was developed. One of Asia's largest residential universities is Banaras Hindu
Hindu
University
University
(BHU). The Hindi-language nationalist newspaper, Aj , was first published in 1920.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Archaeological evidence * 2.2 Ancient period * 2.3 Medieval period * 2.4 Modern history (1500 – present)

* 3 Geography and climate

* 3.1 Geography * 3.2 Climate

* 4 Administration

* 4.1 Politics and law * 4.2 Healthcare * 4.3 Public maintenance

* 5 Demographics * 6 Economy

* 7 Notable landmarks

* 7.1 Jantar Mantar * 7.2 Ramnagar Fort * 7.3 Ghats * 7.4 Temples * 7.5 Mosques * 7.6 Shri Guru
Guru
Ravidass Janam Asthan

* 8 Culture

* 8.1 Literature * 8.2 Art * 8.3 Music * 8.4 Festivals

* 9 Education * 10 Sport

* 11 Transport
Transport

* 11.1 Air transport * 11.2 Railways * 11.3 Roads * 11.4 Varanasi Metro

* 12 Twin towns – sister cities * 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Further reading * 16 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Traditional etymology links "Varanasi" to the names of two Ganges tributaries forming the city's borders: Varuna
Varuna
, still flowing in northern Varanasi, and Assi, today a small stream in the southern part of the city, near Assi Ghat. The old city is located on the north shores of the Ganges
Ganges
, bounded by Varuna
Varuna
and Assi.

In the Rigveda
Rigveda
, an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns, the city is referred to as Kāśī (Kashi) from the Sanskrit verbal root kaś- "to shine", making Varanasi
Varanasi
known as "City of Light", the "luminous city as an eminent seat of learning". The name was also used by pilgrims dating from Buddha
Buddha
's days.

Hindu
Hindu
religious texts use many epithets to refer to Varanasi, such as Kāśikā ( Sanskrit : "the shining one"), Avimukta (Sanskrit: "never forsaken" by Shiva), Ānandavana (Sanskrit: "the forest of bliss"), and Rudravāsa (Sanskrit: "the place where Rudra/Śiva resides").

HISTORY

According to legend, Varanasi
Varanasi
was founded by the god Shiva
Shiva
. There happened a fight between the two supreme gods , Brahma
Brahma
and Shiva, and the succeeding combat resulted in one of the four heads of Brahma being torn off by Shiva. It was a custom of the time that the victor carried the slain adversary’s head in his hand and let it hang down from his hand as an act of ignominy and a sign of his own bravery. A bridle was also put into the mouth. Shiva
Shiva
thus dishonored Brahma's head, and kept it with him at all times. When he came to the city of Varanasi
Varanasi
in this state, the hanging head of Brahma
Brahma
dropped from Shiva's hand and disappeared in the ground. The land of Varanasi
Varanasi
is therefore considered an extremely holy religious site.

The Pandavas , the mythic protagonists of the Hindu
Hindu
epic Mahabharata , are said to have visited the city in search of Shiva
Shiva
to atone for their sin of fratricide and Brāhmanahatya that they had committed during the climactic Kurukshetra War
Kurukshetra War
. It is regarded as one of seven holy cities ( Sapta Puri ) which can provide Moksha
Moksha
; Ayodhya , Mathura , Bodh Gaya , Kashi, Kanchi
Kanchi
, Avanti , and Dvārakā
Dvārakā
are the seven cities known as the givers of liberation.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

Archaeological evidence of the earliest known settlements in the vicinity of Varanasi
Varanasi
suggest that such urban settlement of the area began ca. 2000 BCE, placing Varanasi
Varanasi
among the world\'s oldest continuously inhabited cities according to Kenneth Fletcher. These archaeological remains suggest that the Varanasi
Varanasi
area was populated by Vedic people . The oldest known text referencing the city, the Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda
, also dates to approximately the same period, and suggests that the area was populated by indigenous tribes. It is possible that additional archaeological evidence of these previous inhabitants may also yet be discovered. Recent excavations at Aktha and Ramnagar , two sites very near to Varanasi, show them to be from 1800 BCE, also supporting the view that the Varanasi
Varanasi
area was inhabited by this time.

ANCIENT PERIOD

Varanasi
Varanasi
grew as an important industrial centre, famous for its muslin and silk fabrics, perfumes, ivory works, and sculpture. During the time of Gautama Buddha
Buddha
, Varanasi
Varanasi
was the capital of the Kingdom of Kashi . The Buddha
Buddha
is believed to have founded Buddhism
Buddhism
here around 528 BCE when he gave his first sermon, "The Setting in Motion of the Wheel of Dharma ", at nearby Sarnath
Sarnath
. The celebrated Chinese traveller Xuanzang , also known as Hiuen Tsiang, who visited the city around 635 CE, attested that the city was a centre of religious and artistic activities, and that it extended for about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) along the western bank of the Ganges. When Xuanzang, visited Varanasi
Varanasi
in the 7th century, he named it "Polonisse" and wrote that the city had some 30 temples with about 30 monks. The city's religious importance continued to grow in the 8th century, when Adi Shankara established the worship of Shiva
Shiva
as an official sect of Varanasi.

MEDIEVAL PERIOD

Kabir
Kabir

Chandradeva , founder of the Gahadavala
Gahadavala
dynasty made Banaras a second capital in 1090.

During the Mauryan era , Varanasi
Varanasi
was connected by a road starting from Taxila
Taxila
and ending at Pataliputra
Pataliputra
.

Varanasi
Varanasi
remained the centre of activity for intellectuals and theologians during the Middle Ages, which further contributed to its reputation as a cultural centre of religion and education. Several major figures of the Bhakti movement were born in Varanasi, including Kabir
Kabir
who was born here in 1389, and Ravidas
Ravidas
, a 15th-century socio-religious reformer, mystic, poet, traveller, and spiritual figure, who was born and lived in the city and employed in the tannery industry.

MODERN HISTORY (1500 – PRESENT)

A lithograph by James Prinsep (1832) of a Brahmin
Brahmin
placing a garland on the holiest location in the city A painting by Edwin Lord Weeks (1883) of Varanasi, viewed from the Ganges
Ganges
An illustration (1890) of Bathing Ghat
Ghat
in Varanasi
Varanasi

Numerous eminent scholars and preachers visited the city from across India
India
and south Asia. Guru
Guru
Nanak visited Varanasi
Varanasi
for Maha Shivaratri in 1507, a trip that played a large role in the founding of Sikhism
Sikhism
.

Varanasi
Varanasi
experienced a Hindu
Hindu
cultural revival in the 16th century under the Muslim Mughal emperor Akbar
Akbar
, who invested in the city and built two large temples dedicated to Shiva
Shiva
and Vishnu . The Raja of Pune
Pune
established the Annapurna Mandir, and the 200-metre (660 ft) Akbari Bridge was also completed during this period. The earliest tourists began arriving in the city during the 16th century. In 1665, the French traveller Jean-Baptiste Tavernier described the architectural beauty of the Vindu Madhava temple on the side of the Ganges. The road infrastructure was also improved during this period. It was extended from Kolkata
Kolkata
to Peshawar by Emperor Sher Shah Suri ; later during the British Raj it came to be known as the famous Grand Trunk Road . In 1656, Emperor Aurangzeb ordered the destruction of many temples and the building of mosques, causing the city to experience a temporary setback. However, after Aurangazeb's death, most of India
India
was ruled by a confederacy of pro- Hindu
Hindu
kings. Much of modern Varanasi
Varanasi
was built during this time, especially during the 18th century by the Maratha and Bhumihar (Brahmin). The kings governing Varanasi
Varanasi
continued to wield power and importance through much of the British Raj period, including the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Benares, or Kashi Naresh . Majaraja of Benares and Suite, 1870s Map of the city, ca 1914

The Kingdom of Benares was given official status by the Mughals in 1737, and continued as a dynasty-governed area until Indian independence in 1947, during the reign of Dr. Vibhuti Narayan Singh. In the 18th century, Muhammad Shah ordered the construction of an observatory on the Ganges, attached to Man Mandir Ghat, designed to discover imperfections in the calendar in order to revise existing astronomical tables. Tourism in the city began to flourish in the 18th century. In 1791, under the rule of the British Governor-General Warren Hastings
Warren Hastings
, Jonathan Duncan founded a Sanskrit College in Varanasi. In 1867, the establishment of the Varanasi
Varanasi
Municipal Board led to significant improvements in the city's infrastructure and basic amenities of health services, drinking water supply and sanitation An 1895 photograph of the Varanasi
Varanasi
riverfront

In 1897, author Mark Twain said of Varanasi, "Benares is older than history, older than tradition, older even than legend, and looks twice as old as all of them put together." In 1910, the British made Varanasi
Varanasi
a new Indian state, with Ramnagar as its capital but with no jurisdiction over the city of Varanasi
Varanasi
itself. The religious head, Kashi Naresh, has had his headquarters at the Ramnagar Fort since the 18th century, also a repository of the history of the kings of Varanasi, which is situated to the east of Varanasi, across the Ganges. The Kashi Naresh is deeply revered by the local people and the chief cultural patron; some devout inhabitants consider him to be the incarnation of Shiva.

In 1857, the British Army
British Army
committed a massacre of Indian troops and city residence during the early stages of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 . Annie Besant
Annie Besant
founded the Central Hindu
Hindu
College , which later became a foundation for the creation of Banaras Hindu University in 1916. Besant founded the Central Hindu
Hindu
College because she wanted to bring men of all religions together under the ideal of brotherhood in order to promote Indian cultural values and to remove ill-will among different sections of the Indian population."

Varanasi
Varanasi
was ceded to the Union of India
India
in 1947, and Dr. Vibhuti Narayan Singh incorporated his territories into the United Provinces in 1949.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

Location in India
India

GEOGRAPHY

Varanasi
Varanasi
is located at an elevation of 80.71 metres (264.8 ft) in the centre of the Ganges
Ganges
valley of North India
India
, in the Eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh, along the left crescent-shaped bank of the Ganges, averaging between 15 metres (50 ft) and 21 metres (70 ft) above the river. The city is the headquarters of Varanasi district . By road, Varanasi
Varanasi
is located 797 kilometres (495 mi) south-east of New Delhi
Delhi
, 320 kilometres (200 mi) south-east of Lucknow
Lucknow
, 121 kilometres (75 mi) east of Allahabad , and 63 kilometres (39 mi) south of Jaunpur . The " Varanasi
Varanasi
Urban Agglomeration" – an agglomeration of seven urban sub-units – covers an area of 112.26 km 2 (approximately 43 mi²). Neighbourhoods of the city include Adampura, Anandbagh, Bachchhaon, Bangali Tola, Bhelpura, Bulanala, Chaitganj, Chaukaghat, Chowk, Dhupchandi, Dumraon, Gandhinagar, Gautam Nagar, Giri Nagar, Gopal Vihar, Guru
Guru
Nanak Nagar, Jaitpura, Kail Garh, Khanna, Kotwali, Lanka Manduadih, Luxa, Maheshpur, Mahmoorganj, Maulvibagh, Nagwar, Naipokhari, Shivala, Siddhagiribagh, and Sigra.

Being located in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of North India, the land is very fertile because low level floods in the Ganges
Ganges
continually replenish the soil. Varanasi
Varanasi
is located between the Ganges
Ganges
confluences with two rivers: the Varuna
Varuna
and the Assi stream. The distance between the two confluences is around 2 miles (4 km), and serves as a sacred journeying route for Hindus, which culminates with a visit to a Sakshi Vinayak Temple.

CLIMATE

Varanasi
Varanasi
experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa) with large variations between summer and winter temperatures. The dry summer starts in April and lasts until June, followed by the monsoon season from July to October. The temperature ranges between 22 and 46 °C (72 and 115 °F) in the summers. Winters in Varanasi
Varanasi
see very large diurnal variations, with warm days and downright cold nights. Cold waves from the Himalayan region cause temperatures to dip across the city in the winter from December to February and temperatures below 5 °C (41 °F) are not uncommon. The average annual rainfall is 1,110 mm (44 in). Fog is common in the winters, while hot dry winds, called loo , blow in the summers. In recent years, the water level of the Ganges
Ganges
has decreased significantly; upstream dams, unregulated water extraction, and dwindling glacial sources due to global warming may be to blame.

CLIMATE DATA FOR VARANASI AIRPORT (1971–2000)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 32.3 (90.1) 35.8 (96.4) 42.4 (108.3) 45.3 (113.5) 46.8 (116.2) 48.0 (118.4) 43.9 (111) 39.8 (103.6) 42.3 (108.1) 39.0 (102.2) 35.3 (95.5) 32.7 (90.9) 48.0 (118.4)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 23.0 (73.4) 26.2 (79.2) 32.6 (90.7) 38.5 (101.3) 40.3 (104.5) 38.4 (101.1) 33.7 (92.7) 32.9 (91.2) 32.8 (91) 32.7 (90.9) 29.4 (84.9) 24.7 (76.5) 32.1 (89.8)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 9.2 (48.6) 11.6 (52.9) 16.2 (61.2) 21.9 (71.4) 25.5 (77.9) 27.2 (81) 25.7 (78.3) 25.4 (77.7) 24.4 (75.9) 20.6 (69.1) 14.4 (57.9) 10.1 (50.2) 19.2 (66.6)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 0.3 (32.5) 2.4 (36.3) 7.9 (46.2) 11.4 (52.5) 17.8 (64) 14.3 (57.7) 21.4 (70.5) 21.7 (71.1) 19.1 (66.4) 8.9 (48) 4.3 (39.7) 2.3 (36.1) 0.3 (32.5)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 19.0 (0.748) 18.2 (0.717) 8.3 (0.327) 6.1 (0.24) 10.3 (0.406) 107.3 (4.224) 309.3 (12.177) 288.4 (11.354) 244.9 (9.642) 32.3 (1.272) 9.3 (0.366) 4.8 (0.189) 1,058.2 (41.661)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 1.6 1.7 1.0 0.6 1.2 5.4 13.9 13.1 10.0 1.8 0.6 0.5 51.5

Source: India
India
Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)

ADMINISTRATION

POLITICS AND LAW

Varanasi
Varanasi
is governed by a number of bodies, the most important being the Varanasi Nagar Nigam (Municipal Corporation) and the Varanasi Development Authority, which is responsible for the master planning of the city. Water supply and sewage system is operated by the Jal Nigam. Varanasi
Varanasi
is represented in the Parliament of India
India
by the current Prime Minister of India
India
Narendra Modi who won the Lok Sabha elections in 2014 by a huge margin.

HEALTHCARE

Sushruta , the great surgeon and author of the Sushruta Samhita , the Sanskrit text of surgery, lived in Varanasi
Varanasi
and practised medicine and surgery sometime during the 5th century BCE. Since 1922, Ayurveda has been a subject of training in the Banaras Hindu University and in 1927 a separate Ayurvedic College was established. There are many Ayurvedic centres in Varanasi
Varanasi
like Sparsa Ayurvedic Centre which provide Ayurvedic treatments such as Panchakarma and other methods. S S Ayurveda Hospital
Hospital
operates a Panchakarma treatment centre, in association with Kerala Ayurveda Ltd.

Varansi has several hospitals, including Heritage Hospital, Marwari Hospital, Pitambari Hopspital, Mata Anand Mai Hospital, Rajkiya Hospital, Ram Krishna
Krishna
Mission Hospital, Shiv Prasad Gupta Hospital, Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyay hospital (managed by state govt.) the largest and superspeciality hospital is Sir Sundar Lal Hospital ( University
University
Hospital) having more 1150 beds 92,000,000 US gal) per day of sewage and 425 tonnes (418 long tons; 468 short tons) per day of solid waste. The solid wastes are disposed in one landfill site.

DEMOGRAPHICS

See also: List of cities in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh

According to provisional data from the 2011 census , the Varanasi urban agglomeration had a population of 1,435,113, with 761,060 men and 674,053 women.

The population of the Varanasi
Varanasi
urban agglomeration in 2001 was 1,371,749 with a ratio of 879 females every 1,000 males. However, the area under Varanasi Nagar Nigam has a population of 1,100,748 with a ratio of 883 females for every 1,000 males. The literacy rate in the urban agglomeration is 77% while that in the municipal corporation area is 78%. Approximately 138,000 people in the municipal area live in slums.

ECONOMY

Banarasi sari
Banarasi sari

According to the 2006 City Development Plan for Varanasi, approximately 29% of Varanasi's population is employed. Approximately 40% are employed in manufacturing, 26% work in trade and commerce, 19% work in other services, 8% work in transport and communication, 4% work in agriculture, 2% work in construction, and 2% are marginal workers (working for less than half of the year).

Among manufacturing workers, 51% work in spinning and weaving, 15% work in metal, 6% work in printing and publishing, 5% work in electrical machinery, and the rest work in a wide variety of industry sectors. Varanasi's manufacturing industry is not well developed and is dominated by small-scale industries and household production. Tourists shopping for jewellery in Varanasi
Varanasi

Silk weaving is the dominant industry in Varanasi. Muslims are the influential community in this industry with nearly half a million of them working as weavers, dyers, sari finishers, and salespersons. Weaving is typically done within the household, and most weavers are Momin Ansari Muslims. Varanasi
Varanasi
is known throughout India
India
for its production of very fine silk and Banarasi saris , brocades with gold and silver thread work, which are often used for weddings and special occasions. The production of silk often uses bonded child labour, though perhaps not at a higher rate than elsewhere in India. The silk weaving industry has recently been threatened by the rise of power looms and computer-generated designs and by competition from Chinese silk imports.

In the metal manufacturing sector, Diesel Locomotive Works is a major employer. Bharat Heavy Electricals , a large power equipment manufacturer, also operates a heavy equipment maintenance plant. Other major commodities manufactured and traded in Varanasi
Varanasi
include hand-knotted Mirzapur
Mirzapur
carpets, rugs, dhurries , brassware, copperware, wooden and clay toys, handicrafts, gold jewellery, and musical instruments. Important agricultural products include betel leaves (for paan ), langra mangoes and khoa (solidified milk). DLW manufactured locomotives hauling load across the nation

Tourism is Varanasi's second most important industry. Over 3 million domestic and 200,000 foreign tourists visit annually (in 2005 and 2010, respectively), most commonly for religious purposes. Most domestic tourists are from Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh, while the majority of foreign tourists are from Sri Lanka and Japan. The peak tourist season falls between October and March. In total, there are around 12,000 beds available in the city, of which about one half are in inexpensive budget hotels and one third in dharamsalas . Overall, Varanasi's tourist infrastructure is not well developed.

The prominent malls and multiplexes in Varanasi
Varanasi
are JHV Mall in the Varanasi
Varanasi
Cantonment area, IP Mall in Sigra, IP Vijaya Mall in Bhelupur, and PDR in Luxa. The city has several banks, including the Allahabad Bank , Andhra Bank
Andhra Bank
, Bank of Baroda , Canara Bank , Central Bank of India
India
, Corporation Bank , Indian Overseas Bank , and State Bank of India
India
.

NOTABLE LANDMARKS

Ramnagar Fort

Apart from the 19 archaeological sites identified by the Archaeological Survey of India
India
, some of the prominent places of interest are the Aghor Peeth, the Alamgir Mosque, the Ashoka Pillar , the Bharat Kala Bhavan (Art Museum), the Bharat Mata Mandir , the Central University for Tibetan Studies , the Dhanvantari Temple , the Durga
Durga
Temple , the Jantar Mantar , the Kashi Vishwanath Temple , the Sankat Mochan Hanuman
Hanuman
Temple , the Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith , the New Vishwanath Temple on the BHU campus, the Ramnagar Fort , the Riverfront Ghats , the Tulsi Manas Temple .

JANTAR MANTAR

The Jantar Mantar observatory , constructed in 1737, is located above the ghats along the Ganges, and is adjacent to the Manmandir and Dasaswamedh Ghats and near the palace of Jai Singh II
Jai Singh II
of Jaipur
Jaipur
. While less equipped than the observatories at Jaipur
Jaipur
and Delhi, the Jantar Mantar has a unique equatorial sundial which is functional and allows measurements to be monitored and recorded by one person.

RAMNAGAR FORT

The Ramnagar Fort, located near the Ganges
Ganges
on its eastern bank and opposite the Tulsi Ghat, was built in the 18th century by Kashi Naresh Raja Balwant Singh with cream-coloured chunar sandstone . The fort is a typical example of the Mughal architecture with carved balconies, open courtyards, and scenic pavilions. At present, the fort is in disrepair. The fort and its museum are the repository of the history of the kings of Benares. Cited as an "eccentric" museum, it contains a rare collection of American vintage cars , bejeweled sedan chairs , an impressive weaponry hall, and a rare astrological clock. In addition, manuscripts, especially religious writings, are housed in the Saraswati
Saraswati
Bhawan which is a part of a museum within the fort. Many books illustrated in the Mughal miniature style are also part of the collections. Because of its scenic location on the banks of the Ganges, it is frequently used as an outdoor shooting location for films. A view of the Ghats in Varanasi from the Ganges
Ganges

GHATS

Main article: Ghats in Varanasi Dashashwamedh Ghat Manikarnika Ghat

The Ghats in Varanasi are world-renowned embankments made in steps of stone slabs along the river bank where pilgrims perform ritual ablutions. The ghats are an integral complement to the Hindu
Hindu
concept of divinity represented in physical, metaphysical , and supernatural elements. Varanasi
Varanasi
has at least 84 ghats, most of which are used for bathing by pilgrims and spiritually significant Hindu
Hindu
puja ceremony , while a few are used exclusively as Hindu
Hindu
cremation sites. Steps in the ghats lead to the banks of Ganges, including the Dashashwamedh Ghat
Ghat
, the Manikarnika Ghat , the Panchganga Ghat, and the Harishchandra Ghat, where Hindus cremate their dead. Many ghats are associated with Hindu
Hindu
legends and several are now privately owned.

Many of the ghats were constructed under the patronage of the Marathas, Shindes (Scindias ), Holkars , Bhonsles , and Peshwas . Most are bathing ghats, while others are used as cremation sites. A morning boat ride on the Ganges
Ganges
across the ghats is a popular tourist attraction. The extensive stretches of ghats in Varanasi
Varanasi
enhance the riverfront with a multitude of shrines, temples, and palaces built "tier on tier above the water's edge".

THE DASHASHWAMEDH GHAT is the main and probably the oldest ghat of Varanasi
Varanasi
located on the Ganges, close to the Kashi Vishwanath Temple. It is believed that Brahma
Brahma
created this ghat to welcome Shiva
Shiva
and sacrificed ten horses during the Dasa- Ashwamedha yajna performed there. Above and adjacent to this ghat, there are also temples dedicated to Sulatankesvara, Brahmesvara, Varahesvara, Abhaya Vinayaka, Ganga (the Ganges), and Bandi Devi, which are all important pilgrimage sites. A group of priests perform " Agni
Agni
Pooja" (Sanskrit :"Worship of Fire") daily in the evening at this ghat as a dedication to Shiva, Ganga, Surya (Sun), Agni
Agni
(Fire), and the entire universe. Special
Special
aartis are held on Tuesdays and on religious festivals.

THE MANIKARNIKA GHAT is the Mahasmasana, the primary site for Hindu cremation in the city. Adjoining the ghat, there are raised platforms that are used for death anniversary rituals. According to a myth it is said that an earring of Shiva
Shiva
or his wife Sati fell here. Fourth-century Gupta period inscriptions mention this ghat. However, the current ghat as a permanent riverside embankment was built in 1302 and has been renovated at least three times throughout its existence. Bachraj Ghat
Ghat

THE JAIN GHAT : Varanasi
Varanasi
is believed to birthplace of Suparshvanatha (7th tirthankara) and Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
(23rd tirthankara). The Jain Ghat or Bachraj Ghat
Ghat
is a Jain Ghat
Ghat
and has three Jain Temples located on the banks of the River. It is believed that the Jain Maharajas used to own these ghats.Bachraj Ghat
Ghat
has three Jain temples near the river's banks and one them is a very ancient temple of Tirthankara Suparswanath.

TEMPLES

Main article: Hindu
Hindu
temples in Varanasi
Varanasi
further information at Religion in Varanasi

Among the estimated 23,000 temples in Varanasi, the temples most popular for worship are: the Kashi Vishwanath Temple of Shiva; the Sankat Mochan Hanuman
Hanuman
Temple ; and the Durga
Durga
Temple, known for monkeys that reside in the large trees nearby. The Kashi Vishwanath Temple , the most important temple in Varanasi
Varanasi

* THE KASHI VISHWANATH TEMPLE , on the Ganges, is one of the 12 Jyotirlinga Shiva
Shiva
temples in Varanasi. The temple has been destroyed and rebuilt several times throughout its existence. The Gyanvapi Mosque
Mosque
, which is adjacent to the temple, is the original site of the temple. The temple, which is also known as the Golden Temple, was built in 1780 by Queen Ahilyabai Holkar
Holkar
of Indore . The two pinnacles of the temple are covered in gold and were donated in 1839 by Ranjit Singh , the ruler of Punjab . The dome is scheduled to receive gold plating through a proposed initiative of the Ministry of Culture and Religious Affairs of Uttar Pradesh. Numerous rituals, prayers, and aartis are held daily at the temple between 02:30 and 23:00. * THE SANKAT MOCHAN HANUMAN TEMPLE , which is situated by the Asi River, is one of the sacred temples of the Hindu
Hindu
god Hanuman
Hanuman
. The present temple was built in the early 1900s by the educationist and Indian independence figure , Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya , the founder of Banaras Hindu
Hindu
University. According to Hindu
Hindu
legend the temple was built on the spot where the medieval Hindu
Hindu
saint Tulsidas had a vision of Hanuman. During a 7 March 2006 terrorist attack, one of three explosions hit the temple while a wedding was in progress, and resulted in injuries to 30 people apart from 23 deaths. Following the attack, a permanent police post was installed inside the temple.

The 18th century Durga
Durga
Kund Temple , also known as the "Monkey temple"

* THERE ARE TWO TEMPLES NAMED "DURGA" IN VARANASI: Durga
Durga
Mandir built in the 16th century (exact date not known), and Durga
Durga
Kund ( Sanskrit 'kund' meaning "pond or pool") built in the 18th century. A large number of Hindu
Hindu
devotees visit Durga
Durga
Kund during Navratri to worship the goddess Durga
Durga
. The temple, built in the Nagara architectural style, has multi-tiered spires and is stained red with ochre , representing the red colour of Durga. The building has a rectangular tank of water called the Durga
Durga
Kund ("Kund" meaning a pond or pool). During annual celebrations of Nag Panchami
Nag Panchami
, the act of depicting the god Vishnu reclining on the serpent Shesha is recreated in the Kund. While the Annapurna Temple , located nearby to the Kashi Vishwanath Temple, is dedicated to Annapoorna devi , the goddess of food, the Sankatha Temple adjacent to the Sindhia Ghat
Ghat
is dedicated to Sankatha, the goddess of remedy. The Sankatha Temple has a large sculpture of a lion and a cluster of nine smaller temples dedicated to the nine planets . Other temples of note are: the Bharat Mata
Bharat Mata
Mandir , dedicated to the national personification of India, which was inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
in 1936, the Kalabhairav Temple, the Mrithyunjay Mahadev Temple, and the New Vishwanath Temple located in the campus of BHU, the Tulsi Manas Mandir .

Parshvanath Jain temple

* PARSHVANATH JAIN TEMPLE : The Parshvanath Jain temple, Varanasi is temple of Jain religion dedicated to Parshvanath, the 23rd Thirthankara who was born at Bhelpur in Varanasi. The idol deified in the temple is of black colour and 75 centimetres (30 inches) in height. It is located in Bhelapur about 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) from the centre of Varanasi
Varanasi
city and 3 kilometres (1.9 miles) from the Benares Hindu
Hindu
University. It belongs to the digambara sect of Jainism and is a holy tirtha or pilgrimage centre for Jains.

MOSQUES

Gyanvapi Mosque
Gyanvapi Mosque
Alamgiri Mosque
Mosque

There are 15 mosques of significant historical value in Varanasi. Of particular note are the Abdul Razzaq, Alamgir, Bibi Razia, Chaukhambha, Dhai Nim Kangore, Fatman, Ganje Shahada, Gyanavapi and Hazrat Sayyed Salar Masud Dargah. Many of these mosques were constructed from the components of the Hindu
Hindu
shrines which were destroyed under the auspices of subsequent Muslim invaders or rulers. The two well known mosques are the Gyanvapi Mosque
Gyanvapi Mosque
and the Alamgir Mosque
Mosque
.

The Gyanvapi Mosque
Gyanvapi Mosque
was built by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in 1664 CE, after destroying a Hindu
Hindu
temple. Gyan Vapi (Sanskrit: "the well of knowledge"), the name of the mosque, is derived from a well of the same name located within the precincts of the mosque. The remains of an erstwhile temple can be seen in the foundation, the columns and at the rear part of the mosque The façade of the mosque is modelled partially on the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
's entrance. The mosque is administered by the Anjuman Inthazamiya Masajid (AIM).

The Alamgiri Mosque
Mosque
was built in the 17th century by Aurangzeb over the ruins of a Hindu
Hindu
temple. The Hindu
Hindu
temple that was destroyed was dedicated to Vishnu , and had been built by Beni Madhur Rao Scindia, a Maratha chieftain. When emperor Aurangzeb had captured Banaras, he had ordered total destruction of all Hindu
Hindu
temples there. Aurangzeb then built a mosque over the ruins of this temple in 1669 and named it as Alamagir Mosque
Mosque
in the name of his own honorific title "Alamgir" which he had adopted after becoming the emperor of Mughal empire. The mosque is located at a prominent site above the Panchganga Ghat
Ghat
, which is a funerary ghat facing the Ganges. The mosque is architecturally a blend of Islamic and Hindu
Hindu
architecture, particularly because of the lower part of the walls of the mosque having been built fully with the remains of the Hindu
Hindu
temple. The mosque has high domes and minarets. Two of its minarets had been damaged; one minaret crashed killing a few people and the other minaret was officially brought down because of stability concerns. Non-Muslims are not allowed to enter the mosque. The mosque has a security cordon of a police force.

SHRI GURU RAVIDASS JANAM ASTHAN

Memorial of Sant Ravidas
Ravidas
at Sant Ravidas
Ravidas
Ghat
Ghat

Shri Guru
Guru
Ravidass Janam Asthan , at Sir Gobardhan is the ultimate place of pilgrimage or religious headquarters for followers of the Ravidassia religion . The foundation stone was laid on 14 June 1965 on Ashad Sankranti day at the birthplace of Ravidas. The temple was completed in 1994.

CULTURE

LITERATURE

Renowned Indian writers who have resided in the city were Kabir, Ravidas, and Tulsidas, who wrote much of his Ram Charit Manas here. Kulluka Bhatt wrote the best known account of Manusmriti in Varanasi in the 15th century, Later writers of the city have included Acharya Shukla , Baldev Upadhyaya , Bharatendu Harishchandra , Devaki Nandan Khatri , Hazari Prasad Dwivedi , Jaishankar Prasad , Kshetresa Chandra Chattopadhyaya , Sudama Pandey (Dhoomil), Vagish Shastri , and Vidya Niwas Mishra .

Several newspapers and journals are or were published in Varanasi such as Varanasi
Varanasi
Chandroday and its successor Kashivartaprakashika, which became a weekly journal, first published on 1 June 1851. The main newspaper is Aj , a Hindi-language nationalist newspaper first published in 1920. The newspaper was the bulwark of the Indian National Congress and is a major newspaper of Hindi
Hindi
northern India.

ART

Wall paintings , Varanasi, 1974

Varanasi
Varanasi
is a major centre of arts and designs. It is a producer of silks and brocades with gold and silver thread work, carpet weaving, wooden toys, bangles made of glass, ivory work, perfumes, artistic brass and copper ware and a variety of handicrafts. The cantonment graveyard of the British Raj is now the location of Varanasi's Arts and Crafts.

Notable artists (musicians and dancers) and historians who are connected with the city include Anand Krishna
Krishna
, Bismillah Khan , musicians Omkarnath Thakur, Ravi Shankar
Ravi Shankar
, Girija Devi , Gopal Shankar Misra , Gopi Krishna
Krishna
, Kishan Maharaj , Lalmani Misra , N. Rajam , Anand Krishna
Krishna
, Siddheshwari Devi , Samta Prasad
Samta Prasad
, Sitara Devi , and Pandit Vikash Maharaj .

MUSIC

Main article: Music in Varanasi Sant Goswami Tulsidas Awadhi Hindi
Hindi
poet and propagator of Bhakthi music in Varanasi
Varanasi

Varanasi’s music tradition is traced to the Pauranic days. According to ancient legend, Shiva
Shiva
is credited with evolving music and dance forms. During the medieval era, Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
, a Bhakti movement , grew in popularity, and Varanasi
Varanasi
became a thriving center for musicians such as Surdas , Kabir
Kabir
, Ravidas
Ravidas
, Meera
Meera
and Tulsidas. During the monarchic rule of Govind Chandra in the 16th century, the Dhrupad style of singing received royal patronage and led to other related forms of music such as Dhamar, Hori, and Chaturang. Presently the Dhrupad maestro Pandit Ritwik Sanyal
Ritwik Sanyal
from Varanasi
Varanasi
is working for the revival of this art-music.

In recent times, Girija Devi, the native famous classical singer of thumris , was widely appreciated and respected for her musical renderings. Varanasi
Varanasi
is also associated with many great instrumentalists such as Ustad Bismillah Khan , Pandit Vikash Maharaj , and Pandit Ravi Shankar
Ravi Shankar
, the famous sitar player and musicologist who was given the highest civilian award of the country, the Bharat Ratna . Varanasi
Varanasi
has joined the global bandwagon of UNESCO "Cities of Music" under the Creative Cities Network.

FESTIVALS

On Maha Shivaratri (February), a procession of Shiva
Shiva
proceeds from the Mahamrityunjaya Temple to the Kashi Vishwanath Temple. Dhrupad Mela is a five-day musical festival devoted to dhrupad style held at Tulsi Ghat
Ghat
in February–March. The Sankat Mochan Hanuman
Hanuman
Temple celebrates Hanuman
Hanuman
Jayanti (March–April), the birthday of Hanuman. A special puja , aarti , and a public procession is organised. Since 1923, the temple has organised a five-day classical music and dance concert festival named Sankat Mochan Sangeet Samaroh, when iconic artists from all parts of India
India
are invited to perform.

The Ramlila
Ramlila
of Ramnagar is a dramatic enactment of Rama's legend, as told in Ramacharitamanasa. The plays, sponsored by Kashi Naresh, are performed in Ramnagar every evening for 31 days. On the last day, the festivities reach a crescendo as Rama
Rama
vanquishes the demon king Ravana . Kashi Naresh Udit Narayan Singh started this tradition around 1830. Krishna
Krishna
standing on serpent Kaliya
Kaliya
during Nag Nathaiya festival in Varanasi
Varanasi

Nag Nathaiya is celebrated on the fourth lunar day of the dark fortnight of the Hindu
Hindu
month of Kartik (October–November). It commemorates the victory of Krishna
Krishna
over the serpent Kaliya
Kaliya
. On this occasion, a large Kadamba tree (Neolamarckia cadamba) branch is planted on the banks of the Ganges
Ganges
so that a boy, playing the role of Krishna, can jump into the river on to the effigy representing Kaliya. He stands over the effigy in a dancing pose playing the flute , while an audience watches from the banks of the river or from boats. Bharat Milap celebrates the meeting of Rama
Rama
and his younger brother Bharata after the return of the former after 14 years of exile. It is celebrated during October–November, a day after the festival of Vijayadashami . Kashi Naresh attends this festival in his regal attire. The festival attracts a large number of devotees.

Ganga Mahotsav is a five-day music festival organised by the Uttar Pradesh Tourism Department, held in November–December. It culminates a day before Kartik Purnima , also called the Ganges
Ganges
festival . On this occasion the Ganges
Ganges
is attended by thousands of pilgrims, release lighted lamps to float in the river from the ghats.

The primary Muslim festivals celebrated annually in the city are the ld-ul-fitr' (Ramzan ), Bakrid , Mid-Sha\'ban , Bara Wafat and Muharram . Additional festivals include Alvida and Chehlum . A non-religious festival observed by Muslims is Ghazi-miyan-ka-byaha ("the marriage of Ghazi Miyan").

EDUCATION

Main article: Educational institutions in Varanasi
Varanasi
Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi
Varanasi
is an Institute of National Importance in Varanasi
Varanasi
Women's College, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
Varanasi
Bharat Kala Bhavan Museum, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
Varanasi

Historically, Varanasi
Varanasi
has been a centre for education in India, attracting students and scholars from across the country. Varanasi has an overall literacy rate of 80% (male literacy: 85%, female literacy: 75%). It is home to a number of colleges and universities. Most notably, it is the site of Banaras Hindu University (BHU), which is one of the largest residential universities in Asia with over 20,000 students. The Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi is designated an Institute of National Importance and is one of 16 Indian Institutes of Technology . Other colleges and universities in Varanasi include Jamia-e-Imania , the Institute of Integrated Management and Technology , Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith , Nav Sadhana Kala Kendra , Sampurnanand Sanskrit University
University
, Sri Agrasen Kanya P.G. College , and Udai Pratap Autonomous College . Various engineering colleges have been established in the outskirts of the city.

St. Joseph\'s Convent School , in Shivpur, Varanasi, was established by the Sisters of Our Lady of Providence of France as a Catholic (Christian) minority institution with the approval of the Government of Uttar Pradesh. It is an autonomous organisation under the diocese of the Bishop of Varanasi. It provides education not only to the Catholic Christian children but also to others who abide by its rules.

Another important institution is the Central Hindu
Hindu
School in Kamachha. This was established by Annie Besant
Annie Besant
in July 1898 with the objective of imparting secular education. It is affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education
Central Board of Secondary Education
and is open to students of all cultures.

Schools in Varanasi
Varanasi
are affiliated with the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) , the CBSE, or the Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Board of Technical Education (U.P Board). The overall "state of education in Varanasi
Varanasi
is ... not good." Schools in Varanasi
Varanasi
vary widely in quality, with private schools outperforming government schools. In government schools, many teachers fail to come to class or to teach children. Some government schools lack basic equipment, such as blackboards and sufficient desks and chairs for all students. Private schools vary in quality, with the most expensive conducting lessons in English (seen as a key to children's success) and having computers in classrooms. Pupils attending the more expensive private schools, tended to come from upper-class families. Lower-cost private schools attracted children from lower-income families or those lower-income families with higher education aspirations. Government schools tend to serve lower-class children with lower education aspirations.

SPORT

Basketball
Basketball
, cricket , and field hockey are popular sports in Varanasi. The main stadium in the city is the Dr Sampurnanda Stadium (Sigra Stadium), where first-class cricket matches are held. Local cricket matches are also played on the BHU Ground, Dr. Bheeem Rao Sports Complex.

The Physical Education Faculty of Arts of BHU offers diploma courses in Sports Management, Sports Physiotherapy, Sports Psychology and Sports Journalism.

Gymnastics is also popular in Varanasi, and many Indian girls practice outdoors at the ghats in the mornings which hosts akhadas , where "morning exercise, a dip in the Ganges
Ganges
and a visit to Lord Hanuman
Hanuman
" forms a daily ritual. Despite concerns regarding water quality, two swimming clubs offer swimming lessons in the Ganges.

The Varanasi
Varanasi
District
District
Chess Sports Association (VDCSA) is based in Varanasi, affiliated to the regional Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Chess Sports Association (UPCSA).

TRANSPORT

Cycle rickshaws in a busy street in Varanasi
Varanasi

Varanasi
Varanasi
is well-connected by air, rail and road. One of the major factors in Varanasi's is its access to all parts of the country. Within the city mobility is provided by taxis, rickshaws, cycle rickshaws and three wheelers but with certain restrictions in the old town area of the city. The Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport

AIR TRANSPORT

Varanasi
Varanasi
is served by Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport
Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport
, which is approximately 26 km (16 mi) from the city centre in Babatpur. The airport inaugurated a new terminal in 2010, and it was granted international airport status on 4 October 2012. Air India
India
, Buddha Air , Jet Airways
Jet Airways
, IndiGo
IndiGo
, Thai Smile , SriLankan Airlines and SpiceJet
SpiceJet
operate flights from Varanasi
Varanasi
to Bangkok
Bangkok
, Colombo
Colombo
, Delhi
Delhi
, Gaya , Kathmandu
Kathmandu
, Khajuraho
Khajuraho
, Sharjah
Sharjah
, Yangon
Yangon
, Bengaluru
Bengaluru
, Goa
Goa
, Mumbai
Mumbai
, Hyderabad and Kolkata
Kolkata
. Over 1,916,454 passengers passed through the airport in 2016-17, making it the 21st busiest airport in India
India
. Varanasi Junction

RAILWAYS

Varanasi Junction , commonly known as Varanasi
Varanasi
Cantt Railway Station, is the city's largest train station. More than 360,000 passengers and 240 trains pass through each day. Manduadih railway station is also a Terminal station of Varanasi. Because of huge rush at Varanasi Junction the railway developed the station as a high facilitated terminal. Varanasi City railway station is also one of the railway stations in Varanasi
Varanasi
district. It is 4 km North-East of Varanasi Junction railway station.It serves as Terminal station because of heavy rush at Varanasi
Varanasi
Junction. Mughalsarai Junction railway station is also the important station in Varanasi
Varanasi
suburban. Some of the important express trains operating from the Varanasi Junction railway station and Manduadih railway station are: Shiv Ganga Express runs between New Delhi
Delhi
Junction and Manduadih station while Mahamana Express runs between Varanasi
Varanasi
junction and New Delhi
Delhi
Junction; the Udhna Varanasi Express that runs between Udhna (Surat) junction and Varanasi, a distance of 1,398 kilometres (869 mi); the Kashi Vishwanath Express that runs between Varanasi
Varanasi
and New Delhi
Delhi
railway station ; the Kanpur Varanasi
Varanasi
InterCity express, also called Varuna express, which runs over a distance of 355 kilometres (221 mi) and connects with Lucknow
Lucknow
(the capital city of Uttar Pradesh) and Kanpur ; and the Sabarmati Express which runs between Varanasi
Varanasi
and Ahmedabad. Road in Varanasi
Varanasi
Cantonment

ROADS

Varanasi
Varanasi
lies along National Highway 19 (old number: NH 2), which connects it to Kolkata, Kanpur, Agra
Agra
, and Delhi. National Highway 28 connects Varanasi
Varanasi
to the Nepal- India
India
border. National Highway 31 connects Varanasi
Varanasi
to Unnao.

The Government is executing seven road projects connecting Varanasi, the total project cost being Rs 7,100 crore and the total length of the project being 524 km. Some of the important projects are:

* Six laning of Varanasi-Aurangabad NH-2 * Varanasi
Varanasi
Bypass (Ring Road) Phase-I * Ghagra Bridge- Varanasi
Varanasi
NH-233 * Four laning of Varanasi-Sultanpur NH-56

Auto rickshaws are the most widely available forms of public transport in old city. In the outer regions of the city, buses are common, and taxis are available.

VARANASI METRO

The Varanasi Metro is a rapid transit proposed for Varanasi. The proposed system consists of 2 corridors span from BHEL to Banaras Hindu
Hindu
University
University
and (19.35 km) and Benia Bagh to Sarnath
Sarnath
(9.885 km). The feasibility study of the project was done by RITES and was completed in June 2015. Metro Rail is likely to be completed around 2020. There will be 26 stations including 20 underground and six elevated in the two corridors which includes total length of 29.235 km consisting of 23.467 km underground, while 5.768 km will be elevated.

The total estimated completion cost for construction of Varanasi Metro is estimated to be Rs. 17,227 Crores including taxes and duties. The project is envisaged to be undertaken as a Joint Venture (JV) project between the Government of India
India
(GoI) and the Government of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
(GoUP) with 50:50 equity partnerships. To maintain the financial viability of the project, additional grants have been proposed from the two governments in addition to their equity contribution.

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

Main article: Kyoto-Varanasi Partner City Agreement

Varanasi
Varanasi
is twinned with:

* Kyoto
Kyoto
, Japan
Japan

SEE ALSO

* Bibliography of Varanasi * Guptakashi * List of people from Varanasi * Pradosha * Ramanathaswamy Temple * Rameswaram
Rameswaram
* Shivaratri * Shivdwar * Sonbhadra * Uttarkashi * Vibhuti

* Varanasi
Varanasi
portal * India
India
portal * Hinduism
Hinduism
portal * Buddhism
Buddhism
portal * Jainism
Jainism
portal

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

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