HOME
The Info List - Vaishnava


--- Advertisement ---



Arts

Bharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic music

Rites of passage

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Ashrama Dharma

Ashrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sannyasa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra

Raksha Bandhan Ganesh Chaturthi Vasant Panchami Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Makar Sankranti Kumbha Mela Pongal Ugadi Vaisakhi

Bihu Puthandu Vishu

Ratha Yatra

Gurus, saints, philosophers

Ancient

Agastya Angiras Aruni Ashtavakra Atri Bharadwaja Gotama Jamadagni Jaimini Kanada Kapila Kashyapa Pāṇini Patanjali Raikva Satyakama Jabala Valmiki Vashistha Vishvamitra Vyasa Yajnavalkya

Medieval

Nayanars Alvars Adi Shankara Basava Akka Mahadevi Allama Prabhu Siddheshwar Jñāneśvar Chaitanya Gangesha Upadhyaya Gaudapada Gorakshanath Jayanta Bhatta Kabir Kumarila Bhatta Matsyendranath Mahavatar Babaji Madhusudana Madhva Haridasa
Haridasa
Thakur Namdeva Nimbarka Prabhakara Raghunatha Siromani Ramanuja Sankardev Purandara Dasa Kanaka Dasa Ramprasad Sen Jagannatha Dasa Vyasaraya Sripadaraya Raghavendra Swami Gopala Dasa Śyāma Śastri Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Tyagaraja Tukaram Tulsidas Vachaspati Mishra Vallabha Vidyaranya

Modern

Aurobindo Bhaktivinoda Thakur Chinmayananda Dayananda Saraswati Mahesh Yogi Jaggi Vasudev Krishnananda Saraswati Narayana
Narayana
Guru Prabhupada Ramakrishna Ramana Maharshi Radhakrishnan Sarasvati Sivananda U. G. Krishnamurti Sai Baba Vivekananda Nigamananda Yogananda Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade Tibbetibaba Trailanga

Society

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Dalit Jati

Denominations Persecution Nationalism Hindutva

Other topics

Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

Balinese Hinduism Criticism Calendar Iconography Mythology Pilgrimage sites

Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism / and Buddhism / and Sikhism / and Judaism / and Christianity / and Islam

Glossary of Hinduism
Hinduism
terms Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
( Vaishnava
Vaishnava
dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism
Hinduism
along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism. It is also called Vishnuism, its followers are called Vaishnavas, and it considers Vishnu
Vishnu
as the Supreme Lord.[1][2] The tradition is notable for its avatar doctrine, wherein Vishnu
Vishnu
is revered in one of many distinct incarnations. Of these, ten avatars of Vishnu
Vishnu
are the most studied. Rama, Krishna, Narayana, Vāsudeva, Hari, Vithoba, Kesava, Madhava, Govinda
Govinda
and Jagannath
Jagannath
are among the popular names used for the same supreme.[3][4][5] The tradition has traceable roots to the 1st millennium BCE, as Bhagavatism, also called Krishnaism.[6] Later developments led by Ramananda
Ramananda
created a Rama-oriented movement, now the largest monastic group in Asia.[7][8] The Vaishnava
Vaishnava
tradition has many sampradayas (denominations, sub-schools) ranging from the medieval era Dvaita
Dvaita
school of Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
to Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
school of Ramanuja.[9][10] New Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
movements have been founded in the modern era such as the ISKCON
ISKCON
of A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami.[11] The tradition is known for the loving devotion to an avatar of Vishnu (often Krishna), and it has been key to the spread of Bhakti
Bhakti
movement in South Asia in the 2nd millennium CE.[12][13] Key texts in Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
include the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Pancaratra
Pancaratra
(Agama) texts and the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana.[14][15][16][17]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins

1.1.1 Northern India 1.1.2 Southern India

1.2 Gupta era 1.3 Early medieval period 1.4 Later medieval period 1.5 Modern times

2 Beliefs

2.1 Theism with many varieties

2.1.1 Vishnuism
Vishnuism
and Krishnaism 2.1.2 Vishnu 2.1.3 Krishna 2.1.4 Radha
Radha
Krishna 2.1.5 Dashavatara

2.2 Restoration of dharma

3 Texts

3.1 Scriptures

3.1.1 Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads

3.1.1.1 Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Upanishads

3.1.2 Bhagavad Gita 3.1.3 Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Agamas

3.2 Other texts

3.2.1 Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and Ramayana 3.2.2 Puranas 3.2.3 Sectarian texts

3.3 Attitude toward scriptures

4 Practices

4.1 Bhakti 4.2 Tilaka 4.3 Initiation 4.4 Pilgrimage sites 4.5 Holy
Holy
places

5 Traditions

5.1 Four sampradayas and other sects 5.2 Early traditions

5.2.1 Bhagavats 5.2.2 Pancaratra

5.2.2.1 Vaikhanasas

5.3 Medieval traditions

5.3.1 Smartism 5.3.2 Alvars

5.4 Contemporary traditions

5.4.1 Sri Vaishnava 5.4.2 Gaudiya Vaishnavism 5.4.3 Varkari-tradition and Vithoba-worship 5.4.4 Ramanandi
Ramanandi
tradition 5.4.5 Northern Sant tradition

6 Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
versus other Hindu
Hindu
traditions 7 Demography 8 Academic study

8.1 Krishnaism
Krishnaism
and Christianity

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Sources

12.1 Printed sources 12.2 Web-sources

13 Further reading 14 External links

History[edit]

Krishna
Krishna
with Gopis

Main article: Historical Vishnuism Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
originates in the latest centuries BCE and the early centuries CE, as an amalgam of the heroic Krishna
Krishna
Vasudeva, the "divine child" Bala Krishna
Krishna
of the Gopala traditions, and syncretism of these non-Vedic traditions with the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
canon, thus affiliating itself with Vedism
Vedism
in order to become acceptable to the orthodox establishment. Krishnaism
Krishnaism
becomes associated with bhakti yoga in the medieval period.[note 1] Origins[edit] Northern India[edit]

The inscription of the Heliodorus pillar
Heliodorus pillar
that was made by Indo-Greek envoy Heliodorus in 110 BCE, in what is modern Vidisha (Madhya Pradesh). The inscription states Heliodorus is a Bhagavata.[19][20]

See also: Bala Krishna Although Vishnu
Vishnu
was a Vedic solar deity,[21] he is mentioned less often compared to Agni, Indra
Indra
and other Vedic deities, thereby suggesting that he had a minor position in the Vedic religion.[22] Other scholars state that there are other Vedic deities, such as water deity Nara (also mentioned as Narayana- Purusha in the Brahmanas
Brahmanas
layer of the Vedas), who together form the historical roots of Vaishnavism.[23] In the late-Vedic texts (~1000 to 500 BCE), the concept of a metaphysical Brahman
Brahman
grows in prominence, and the Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
tradition considered Vishnu
Vishnu
to be identical to Brahman, just like Shaivism
Shaivism
and Shaktism
Shaktism
consider Shiva
Shiva
and Devi
Devi
to be Brahman respectively.[24] The ancient emergence of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
is unclear, the evidence inconsistent and scanty.[23] According to Dalal, the origins may be in Vedic deity Bhaga, who gave rise to Bhagavatism.[25] According to Preciado-Solís, the Vedic deities Nara and Narayana
Narayana
form one of the Vedic roots of Vaishnavism.[26] According to Dandekar, Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
may have emerged from merger of several ancient theistic traditions, where the various deities were integrated as different avatars of the same god. In Dandekar theory, Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
emerged at the end of the Vedic period, closely before the second urbanisation of northern India, in the 7th to 4th century BCE. Vasudeva
Vasudeva
and Krishna, "the deified tribal hero and religious leader of the Yadavas,"[27][21] gained prominence, merged into Bhagavan Vasudeva-Krishna,[27] due to the close relation between the Vrsnis and the Yadavas.[27] This was followed by a merger with the cult of Gopala- Krishna
Krishna
of the cowherd community of the Abhıras[27] at the 4th century CE.[28] The character of Gopala Krishna
Krishna
is often considered to be non-Vedic.[29] According to Dandekar, such mergers consolidated the position of Krishnaism
Krishnaism
between the heterodox sramana movement and the orthodox Vedic religion.[27] The "Greater Krsnaism", states Dandekar, then merged with the Rigvedic Vishnu.[27] Syncretism of various traditions and Vedism
Vedism
resulted in Vaishnavism.[30][31] At this stage that Vishnu
Vishnu
of the Rig Veda
Rig Veda
was assimilated into non-Vedic Krishnaism
Krishnaism
and became the equivalent of the Supreme God.[21] The appearance of Krishna
Krishna
as one of the Avatars of Vishnu
Vishnu
dates to the period of the Sanskrit epics
Sanskrit epics
in the early centuries CE. The Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
was incorporated into the Mahabharata as a key text for Krishnaism.[6] Finally, the Narayana-cult was also included, which further brahmanized Vaishnavism.[32] The Nara-Narayana
Nara-Narayana
cult may have originated in Badari, a northern ridge of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush, and absorbed into the Vedic orthodoxy as Purusa Narayana.[32] Purusa Narayana
Narayana
may have later been turned into Arjuna and Krsna.[32] This complex history is reflected in the two main historical denominations of Vishnavism. The Bhagavats, worship Vasudeva-Krsna, and are followers of brahmanic Vaishnavism, while the Pacaratrins regard Narayana
Narayana
as their founder, and are followers of Tantric Vaishnavism.[32] Southern India[edit] According to Hardy,[note 2] there is evidence of early "southern Krishnaism," despite the tendency to allocate the Krishna-traditions to the Northern traditions.[33] South Indian texts show close parallel with the Sanskrit traditions of Krishna
Krishna
and his gopi companions, so ubiquitous in later North Indian text and imagery.[35] Early writings in Dravidian culture such as Manimekalai
Manimekalai
and the Cilappatikaram present Krishna, his brother, and favourite female companions in the similar terms.[35] Hardy argues that the Sanskrit Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
is essentially a Sanskrit "translation" of the bhakti of the Tamil alvars.[36] Devotion to southern Indian Mal (Tirumal) may be an early form of Krishnaism, since Mal appears as a divine figure, largely like Krishna with some elements of Vishnu.[37] The Alvars, whose name can be translated "sages" or "saints", were devotees of Mal. Their poems show a pronounced orientation to the Vaishnava, and often Krishna, side of Mal. But they do not make the distinction between Krishna
Krishna
and Vishnu on the basis of the concept of the Avatars.[37] Yet, according to Hardy the term "Mayonism" should be used instead of "Krishnaism" when referring to Mal or Mayon.[33] Gupta era[edit] Most of the Gupta kings, beginning with Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
(Vikramaditya) (375-413 CE) were known as Parama Bhagavatas or Bhagavata Vaishnavas.[38][32] During the Gupta age, most of the Vaishnava Puranas
Puranas
and the Tantric Vaishnava
Vaishnava
samhitas were written.[32] Early medieval period[edit] Main article: Alvars After the Gupta age, Krishnaism
Krishnaism
rose to a major current of Vaishnavism,[18] and Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
developed into various sects and subsects, most of them emphasizing bhakti, which was strongly influenced by south Indian religiosity.[32] Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
in the 8th century came into contact with the Advaita doctrine of Adi Shankara. Many of the early Vaishnava
Vaishnava
scholars such as Nathamuni, Yamunacharya
Yamunacharya
and Ramanuja, contested the Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta doctrines and proposed Vishnu
Vishnu
bhakti ideas instead.[39][40] Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
flourished in predominantly Shaivite
Shaivite
South India
South India
during the seventh to tenth centuries CE with the twelve Alvars, saints who spread the sect to the common people with their devotional hymns. The temples that the Alvars
Alvars
visited or founded are now known as Divya Desams. Their poems in praise of Vishnu
Vishnu
and Krishna
Krishna
in Tamil language are collectively known as Naalayira Divya Prabandha(4000 divine verses).[41][42] Later medieval period[edit] See also: Bhakti
Bhakti
movement The Bhakti
Bhakti
movement of late medieval Hinduism
Hinduism
started in the 7th-century, but rapidly expanded after the 12th-century.[43] It was supported by the Puranic
Puranic
literature such as the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana, poetic works, as well as many scholarly bhasyas and samhitas.[44][45][46] This period saw the growth of Vashnavism Sampradayas (denominations or communities) under the influence of scholars such as Ramanujacharya, Vedantha Desikacharya, Madhvacharya, Nimbarkacharya
Nimbarkacharya
and Vallabhacharya.[47] Bhakti
Bhakti
poets or teachers such as Manavala Mamunigal, Namdev, Ramananda, Surdas, Tulsidas, Eknath, Tyagaraja, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
and many others influenced the expansion of Vaishnavism.Even Meera bai(princess of Mehwar and Rajasthan)took part in this specific movement.[48][49][50] These Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
sampradaya founders challenged the then dominant Shankara's doctrines of Advaita Vedanta, particularly Ramanuja
Ramanuja
in the 12th century, Vedantha Desikacharya and Madhva in the 13th, building their theology on the devotional tradition of the Alvars
Alvars
(Shri Vaishnavas).[51] In North and Eastern India, Krishnaism
Krishnaism
gave rise to various late Medieval movements: Nimbarka
Nimbarka
and Ramananda
Ramananda
in the 14th century, Kabir and Sankaradeva
Sankaradeva
in the 15th and Vallabha
Vallabha
and Chaitanya in the 16th century. Historically, it was Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
who founded congregational chanting of holy names of Krishna
Krishna
in the early 16th century after becoming a sannyasi.[52] Modern times[edit] During the 20th century, Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
has spread from India
India
and is now practiced in many places around the globe, including North America, Europe, Africa, Russia
Russia
and South America. This is largely due to the growth of the ISKCON
ISKCON
movement, founded by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
Prabhupada
in 1966.[53][54][55] Beliefs[edit] Theism with many varieties[edit] Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
is centered on the devotion of Vishnu
Vishnu
and his avatars. According to Schweig, it is a "polymorphic monotheism, i.e. a theology that recognizes many forms (ananta rupa) of the one, single unitary divinity," since there are many forms of one original deity, with Vishnu
Vishnu
taking many forms.[56] Okita, in contrast, states that the different denominations within Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
are best described as theism, pantheism and panentheism.[57] The Vaishnava
Vaishnava
sampradaya started by Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
is a monotheistic tradition wherein Vishnu
Vishnu
(Krishna) is omnipotent, omniscient and omnibenevolent.[58] In contrast, Sri Vaishnavism
Sri Vaishnavism
sampradaya associated with Ramanuja
Ramanuja
has monotheistic elements, but differs in several ways, such as goddess Lakshmi
Lakshmi
and god Vishnu
Vishnu
are considered as inseparable equal divinities.[59] According to some scholars, Sri Vaishnavism emphasizes panentheism, and not monotheism, with its theology of "transcendence and immanence",[60][61] where God
God
interpenetrates everything in the universe, and all of empirical reality is God's body.[62][63] The Vaishnava
Vaishnava
sampradaya associated with Vallabhacharya is a form of pantheism, in contrast to the other Vaishnavism traditions.[64] The Gaudiya Vaishnava
Gaudiya Vaishnava
tradition of Chaitanya, states Schweig, is closer to a polymorphic bi-monotheism because both goddess Radha
Radha
and god Krishna
Krishna
are simultaneously supreme.[65] Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
precepts include the avatar (incarnation) doctrine, wherein Vishnu
Vishnu
incarnates numerous times, in different forms, to set things right and bring back the balance in the universe.[66][67][68] These avatars include Narayana, Vasudeva, Rama
Rama
and Krishna; each the name of a divine figure with attributed supremacy, which each associated tradition of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
believes to be distinct.[69] Vishnuism
Vishnuism
and Krishnaism[edit] The term "Krishnaism" has been used to describe the sects focused on Krishna, while "Vishnuism" may be used for sects focusing on Vishnu
Vishnu
in which Krishna
Krishna
is an Avatar, rather than a transcended Supreme Being.[70] Vishnuism
Vishnuism
believes in Vishnu
Vishnu
as the supreme being, manifested himself as Krishna, while Krishnaism
Krishnaism
accepts Krishna
Krishna
to be Svayam bhagavan
Svayam bhagavan
or "authentic", that manifested himself as Vishnu. As such Krishnaism
Krishnaism
is believed to be one of the early attempts to make philosophical Hinduism
Hinduism
appealing to the masses.[71] In common language the term Krishnaism
Krishnaism
is not often used, as many prefer a wider term "Vaishnavism", which appeared to relate to Vishnu, more specifically as Vishnu-ism. Vishnu[edit] In Vishnu-centered sects Vishnu
Vishnu
or Narayana
Narayana
is the one supreme God. The belief in the supremacy of Vishnu
Vishnu
is based upon the many avatars (incarnations) of Vishnu
Vishnu
listed in the Puranic
Puranic
texts, which differs from other Hindu
Hindu
deities such as Ganesha, Surya
Surya
or Durga.[citation needed] To the devotees of the Sri Sampradaya
Sri Sampradaya
"Lord Vishnu
Vishnu
is the Supreme Being and the foundation of all existence."[72] Krishna[edit]

Relationship between different forms of Krishna
Krishna
as paripurna avatara of Vishnu
Vishnu
and as Svayam Bhagavan
Svayam Bhagavan
in Chaitanya school of Vaishnavism.[73]

Main article: Krishna In the Krishnaism
Krishnaism
branch of Vaishnavism, such as the Gaudiya Vaishnava, Nimbarka
Nimbarka
and Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya
traditions, devotees worship Krishna
Krishna
as the One Supreme form of God, and source of all avatars, Svayam Bhagavan.[72][74] Krishnaism
Krishnaism
is often also called Bhagavatism, after the Bhagavata Purana
Purana
which asserts that Krishna
Krishna
is "Bhagavan Himself," and subordinates to itself all other forms: Vishnu, Narayana, Purusha, Ishvara, Hari, Vasudeva, Janardana, etc.[75] Krishna
Krishna
is often described as having the appearance of a dark-skinned person and is depicted as a young cowherd boy playing a flute or as a youthful prince giving philosophical direction and guidance, as in the Bhagavad Gita.[76] Krishna
Krishna
is also worshiped across many other traditions of Hinduism, and Krishna
Krishna
and the stories associated with him appear across a broad spectrum of different Hindu
Hindu
philosophical and theological traditions, where it is believed that God
God
appears to his devoted worshippers in many different forms, depending on their particular desires. These forms include the different avataras of Krishna
Krishna
described in traditional Vaishnava
Vaishnava
texts, but they are not limited to these. Indeed, it is said that the different expansions of the Svayam bhagavan are uncountable and they cannot be fully described in the finite scriptures of any one religious community.[77][78] Many of the Hindu scriptures
Hindu scriptures
sometimes differ in details reflecting the concerns of a particular tradition, while some core features of the view on Krishna
Krishna
are shared by all.[79] Radha
Radha
Krishna[edit] Main article: Radha
Radha
Krishna Radha
Radha
Krishna
Krishna
is the combination of both the feminine as well as the masculine aspects of God. Krishna
Krishna
is often referred as svayam bhagavan in Gaudiya Vaishnavism
Gaudiya Vaishnavism
theology and Radha
Radha
is Krishna's supreme beloved.[80] With Krishna, Radha
Radha
is acknowledged as the Supreme Goddess, for it is said that she controls Krishna
Krishna
with Her love.[81] It is believed that Krishna
Krishna
enchants the world, but Radha
Radha
"enchants even Him. Therefore She is the supreme goddess of all. Radha Krishna".[82][83] While there are much earlier references to the worship of this form of God, it is since Jayadeva
Jayadeva
Goswami wrote a famous poem Gita Govinda
Gita Govinda
in the twelfth century CE, that the topic of the spiritual love affair between the divine Krishna
Krishna
and his devotee Radha, became a theme celebrated throughout India.[84] It is believed that Krishna
Krishna
has left the "circle" of the rasa dance to search for Radha. The Chaitanya school believes that the name and identity of Radha
Radha
are both revealed and concealed in the verse describing this incident in Bhagavata Purana.[85] It is also believed that Radha
Radha
is not just one cowherd maiden, but is the origin of all the gopis, or divine personalities that participate in the rasa dance.[86] Dashavatara[edit] Main article: Dashavatara According to the Bhagavatas, there are ten avatars of Vishnu, including Rama
Rama
and Krishna.[32] In contrast, the Pancaratrins follow the vyuhas doctrine, which says that God
God
has four manifestations (vyuhas), namely Vasudeva, Samkarsana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha. These four manifestations represent "the Highest Self, the individual self, mind, and egoism."[32] Restoration of dharma[edit] Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
theology has developed the concept of avatar (incarnation) around Vishnu
Vishnu
as the preserver or sustainer. His avatars, asserts Vaishnavism, descend to empower the good and fight evil, thereby restoring Dharma. This is reflected in the passages of the ancient Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
as:[87][88]

Whenever righteousness wanes and unrighteousness increases I send myself forth. For the protection of the good and for the destruction of evil, and for the establishment of righteousness, I come into being age after age.

—  Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
4.7–8, [89][90]

In Vaishnava
Vaishnava
mythology, such as those presented in the Bhagavata Purana
Purana
and the Pancaratra, whenever the cosmos is in crisis, typically because the evil has grown stronger and has thrown the cosmos out of its balance, an avatar of Vishnu
Vishnu
appears in a material form, to destroy evil and its sources, and restore the cosmic balance between the everpresent forces of good and evil.[87][68] The most known and celebrated avatars of Vishnu, within the Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
traditions of Hinduism, are Krishna, Rama, Narayana
Narayana
and Vasudeva. These names have extensive literature associated with them, each has its own characteristics, legends and associated arts.[87] The Mahabharata, for example, includes Krishna, while the Ramayana
Ramayana
includes Rama.[4] Texts[edit] The Vedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
and the Agamas are the scriptural sources of Vaishnavism,[16][91][92] while the Bhagavata Purana
Purana
is a revered and celebrated popular text, parts of which a few scholars such as Dominic Goodall include as a scripture.[91] Other important texts in the tradition include the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the Ramayana, as well as texts by various sampradayas (denominations within Vaishnavism). In many Vaishnava
Vaishnava
traditions, Krishna
Krishna
is accepted as a teacher, whose teachings are in the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
and the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana.[18][note 1] Scriptures[edit] Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads[edit] Vaishnavism, just like all Hindu
Hindu
traditions, considers the Vedas
Vedas
as the scriptural authority.[93][94] All traditions within Vaishnavism consider the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the Upanishads
Upanishads
embedded within the four Vedas
Vedas
as Sruti, while Smritis, which include all the epics, the Puranas
Puranas
and its Samhitas, states Mariasusai Dhavamony, are considered as "exegetical or expository literature" of the Vedic texts.[94] The Vedanta
Vedanta
schools of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, that interpreted the Upanishads
Upanishads
and the Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, provided the philosophical foundations of Vaishnavism. Given the ancient archaic language of the Vedic texts, each school's interpretation varied, and this has been the source of differences between the sampradayas (denominations) of Vaishnavism.[95] These interpretations have created different traditions within Vaishnavism, from dualistic (Dvaita) Vedanta
Vedanta
of Madhvacharya,[96] to nondualistic (Advaita) Vedanta
Vedanta
of Madhusudana Sarasvati.[97]

Axiology in a Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Upanishad

The charity or gift is the armour in the world, All beings live on the gift of the other, Through gifts strangers become friends, Through gifts, they ward off difficulties, On gifts and giving, everything rests, That is why charity is the highest.

—Mahanarayana Upanishad
Upanishad
63.6 [98][99]

Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Upanishads[edit] Along with the reverence and exegetical analysis of the ancient Principal Upanishads, Vaishnava-inspired scholars authored 14 Vishnu avatar-focussed Upanishads
Upanishads
that are called the Vaishnava Upanishads.[100] These are considered part of 95 minor Upanishads
Upanishads
in the Muktikā
Muktikā
Upanishadic corpus of Hindu
Hindu
literature.[100][101] The earliest among these were likely composed in 1st millennium BCE, while the last ones in the late medieval era.[102][103][104] All of the Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Upanishads
Upanishads
either directly reference and quote from the ancient Principal Upanishads
Upanishads
or incorporate some ideas found in them; most cited texts include the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Chandogya Upanishad, Katha Upanishad, Isha Upanishad, Mundaka Upanishad, Taittiriya Upanishad
Upanishad
and others.[105][106] In some cases, they cite fragments from the Brahmana
Brahmana
and Aranyaka
Aranyaka
layers of the Rigveda
Rigveda
and the Yajurveda.[105] The Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Upanishads
Upanishads
present diverse ideas, ranging from bhakti-style theistic themes to a synthesis of Vaishnava
Vaishnava
ideas with Advaitic, Yoga, Shaiva and Shakti
Shakti
themes.[105][107]

Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Upanishads

Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Upanishad Vishnu
Vishnu
Avatar Composition date Topics Reference

Mahanarayana Upanishad Narayana 500 BCE - 100 CE Narayana, Atman, Brahman, Rudra, Sannyasa [105][107]

Narayana
Narayana
Upanishad Narayana Medieval Mantra, Narayana
Narayana
is one without a second, eternal, same as all gods and universe [108]

Rama
Rama
Rahasya Upanishad Rama ~17th century CE Rama, Sita, Hanuman, Atman, Brahman, mantra [109][110]

Rama
Rama
tapaniya Upanishad Rama ~11th to 16th century Rama, Sita, Atman, Brahman, mantra, sannyasa [109][111]

Kali-Santarana Upanishad Rama, Krishna ~14th century Hare Rama
Rama
Hare Krishna
Krishna
mantra [112]

Gopala Tapani Upanishad Krishna before the 14th century Krishna, Radha, Atman, Brahman, mantra, bhakti [113]

Krishna
Krishna
Upanishad Krishna ~12th-16th century Rama
Rama
predicting Krishna
Krishna
birth, symbolism, bhakti [114]

Vasudeva
Vasudeva
Upanishad Krishna, Vasudeva ~2nd millennium Brahman, Atman, Vasudeva, Krishna, Urdhva Pundra, Yoga [115]

Garuda Upanishad Vishnu Medieval The kite-like bird vahana (vehicle) of Vishnu [116][117]

Hayagriva
Hayagriva
Upanishad Hayagriva medieval, after the 10th century CE Mahavakya of Principal Upanishads, Pancaratra, Tantra [106][118]

Dattatreya
Dattatreya
Upanishad Narayana, Dattatreya 14th to 15th century Tantra, yoga, Brahman, Atman, Shaivism, Shaktism [119]

Tarasara Upanishad Rama, Narayana ~11th to 16th century Om, Atman, Brahman, Narayana, Rama, Ramayana [120]

Avyakta Upanishad Narasimha before the 7th century Primordial nature, cosmology, Ardhanarishvara, Brahman, Atman [103]

Nrisimha Tapaniya Upanishad Narasimha before the 7th century CE Atman, Brahman, Advaita, Shaivism, Avatars of Vishnu, Om [121]

Bhagavad Gita[edit] The Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
is a central text in Vaishnavism, and especially in the context of Krishna.[122][123][124] The Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
is an important scripture not only within Vaishnavism, but also to other traditions of Hinduism.[125][126] It is one of three important texts of the Vedanta
Vedanta
school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, and has been central to all Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
sampradayas.[125][127] The Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
is a dialogue between Krishna
Krishna
and Arjuna, and presents Bhakti, Jnana and Karma
Karma
yoga as alternate ways to spiritual liberation, with the choice left to the individual.[125] The text discusses dharma, and its pursuit as duty without craving for fruits of one's actions, as a form of spiritual path to liberation.[128] The text, state Clooney and Stewart, succinctly summarizes the foundations of Vaishnava
Vaishnava
theology that the entire universe exists within Vishnu, and all aspects of life and living is not only a divine order but divinity itself.[129] Bhakti, in Bhagavad Gita, is an act of sharing, and a deeply personal awareness of spirituality within and without.[129] The Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
is a summary of the classical Upanishads
Upanishads
and Vedic philosophy, and closely associated with the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
and related traditions of Vaishnavism.[130][131] The text has been commented upon and integrated into diverse Vaishnava
Vaishnava
denominations, such as by the medieval era Madhvacharya's Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
school and Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
school, as well as 20th century Vaishnava movements such as the Hare Krishna
Krishna
movement by Swami Prabhupada.[11] Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Agamas[edit] The Pancaratra
Pancaratra
Samhitas
Samhitas
(literally, five nights) is a genre of texts where Vishnu
Vishnu
is presented as Narayana
Narayana
and Vasudeva, and this genre of Vaishnava
Vaishnava
texts is also known as the Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Agamas.[14][15] Its doctrines are found embedded in the stories within the Narayaniya section of the Mahabharata.[132] Narayana
Narayana
is presented as the ultimate unchanging truth and reality (Brahman), who pervades the entirety of the universe and is asserted to be the preceptor of all religions.[132][133] The Pancaratra
Pancaratra
texts present the Vyuhas theory of avatars to explain how the absolute reality (Brahman) manifests into material form of ever changing reality ( Vishnu
Vishnu
avatar).[132][134] Vasudeva, state the Pancaratra
Pancaratra
texts, goes through a series of emanations, where new avatars of him appear. This theory of avatar formation syncretically integrates the theories of evolution of matter and life developed by the Samkhya
Samkhya
school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy.[135][134] These texts also present cosmology, methods of worship, tantra, Yoga
Yoga
and principles behind the design and building of Vaishnava
Vaishnava
temples (Mandira nirmana).[135][136][137] These texts have guided religiosity and temple ceremonies in many Vaishnava
Vaishnava
communities, particularly in South India.[135] The Pancaratra
Pancaratra
Samhitas
Samhitas
are tantric in emphasis, and at the foundation of tantric Vaishnava
Vaishnava
traditions such as the Sri Vaishnava tradition.[138][139] They complement and compete with the vedic Vaishnava
Vaishnava
traditions such as the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
tradition, which emphasize the more ancient Vedic texts, ritual grammar and procedures.[138][137] While the practices vary, the philosophy of Pancaratra
Pancaratra
is primarily derived from the Upanishads, its ideas synthesize Vedic concepts and incorporate Vedic teachings.[140][141] The three most studied texts of this genre of Vaishnava
Vaishnava
religious texts are Paushkara Samhita, Sattvata Samhita
Samhita
and Jakakhya Samhita.[135][142] The other important Pancaratra
Pancaratra
texts include the Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Tantra
Tantra
and Ahirbudhnya Samhita.[15][143] Scholars place the start of this genre of texts to about the 7th or 8th century CE, and later.[135][144] Other texts[edit] Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and Ramayana[edit] Main articles: Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and Ramayana The two Indian epics, the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the Ramayana
Ramayana
present Vaishnava
Vaishnava
philosophy and culture embedded in legends and dialogues.[145] The epics are considered the fifth Veda, in Hindu culture.[146] The Ramayana
Ramayana
describes the story of Rama, an avatara of Vishnu, and is taken as a history of the 'ideal king', based on the principles of dharma, morality and ethics.[147] Rama's wife Sita, his brother Lakshman, with his devotee and follower Hanuman
Hanuman
all play key roles within the Vaishnava
Vaishnava
tradition as examples of Vaishnava etiquette and behaviour. Ravana, the evil king and villain of the epic, is presented as an epitome of adharma, playing the opposite role of how not to behave.[148] The Mahabharata
Mahabharata
is centered around Krishna, presents him as the avatar of transcendental supreme being.[149] The epic details the story of a war between good and evil, each side represented by two families of cousins with wealth and power, one depicted as driven by virtues and values while other by vice and deception, with Krishna
Krishna
playing pivotal role in the drama.[150] The philosophical highlight of the work is the Bhagavad Gita.[151][93] Puranas[edit] Main articles: Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
and Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana

Left: The Puranas
Puranas
include numerous legends of Krishna
Krishna
as a child, a teenager and as an adult. Right: The Krishna
Krishna
stories have inspired numerous dramatic and dance arts in Indian culture.[152][153]

The Puranas
Puranas
are an important source of entertaining narratives and folk mythology, states Mahony, that are embedded with "philosophical, theological and mystical modes of experience and expression" as well as reflective "moral and soteriological instructions".[154] More broadly, the Puranic
Puranic
literature is encyclopedic,[155][156] and it includes diverse topics such as cosmogony, cosmology, genealogies of gods, goddesses, kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, folk tales, travel guides and pilgrimages,[157] temples, medicine, astronomy, grammar, mineralogy, humor, love stories, as well as theology and philosophy.[158][159][160] The Puranas
Puranas
were a living genre of texts because they were routinely revised,[161] their content is highly inconsistent across the Puranas, and each Purana
Purana
has survived in numerous manuscripts which are themselves inconsistent.[162][163] The Hindu
Hindu
Puranas
Puranas
are anonymous texts and likely the work of many authors over the centuries.[162][163] Of the 18 Mahapuranas (great Puranas), many have titles based on one of the avatars of Vishnu. However, quite many of these are actually, in large part, Shiva-related Puranas, likely because these texts were revised over their history.[164] Some were revised into Vaishnava treatises, such as the Brahma
Brahma
Vaivarta Purana, which originated as a Puranic
Puranic
text dedicated to the Surya
Surya
(Sun god). Textual cross referencing evidence suggests that in or after 15th/16th century CE, it went through a series of major revisions, and almost all extant manuscripts of Brahma
Brahma
Vaivarta Purana
Purana
are now Vaishnava
Vaishnava
(Krishna) bhakti oriented.[165] Of the extant manuscripts, the main Vaishnava Puranas
Puranas
are Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana, Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana, Nāradeya Purana, Garuda Purana, Vayu
Vayu
Purana
Purana
and Varaha
Varaha
Purana.[166] The Brahmanda Purana
Brahmanda Purana
is notable for the Adhyatma-ramayana, a Rama-focussed embedded text in it, which philosophically attempts to synthesize Bhakti
Bhakti
in god Rama with Shaktism
Shaktism
and Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta.[167][168][169] While an avatar of Vishnu
Vishnu
is the main focus of the Puranas
Puranas
of Vaishnavism, these texts also include chapters that revere Shiva, Shakti
Shakti
(goddess power), Brahma
Brahma
and a pantheon of Hindu
Hindu
deities.[170][171][172] The philosophy and teachings of the Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Puranas
Puranas
are bhakti oriented (often Krishna, but Rama
Rama
features in some), but they show an absence of a "narrow, sectarian spirit". To its bhakti ideas, these texts show a synthesis of Samkhya, Yoga
Yoga
and Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta ideas.[173][174][175] In Gaudiya Vaishnava, Vallabha
Vallabha
Sampradaya
Sampradaya
and Nimbarka
Nimbarka
sampradaya, Krishna
Krishna
is believed to be a transcendent,Supreme Being and source of all avatars in the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana.[176] The text describes modes of loving devotion to Krishna, wherein his devotees constantly think about him, feel grief and longing when Krishna
Krishna
is called away on a heroic mission.[177]

Jiva
Jiva
Gosvami's Bhajan Kutir at Radha-kunda. Jiva
Jiva
Goswamis Sandarbhas summarize Vedic sources of Gaudiya Vaishnava
Gaudiya Vaishnava
tradition's accretion of the concept Krishna
Krishna
to be the supreme Lord.[178]

Sectarian texts[edit] In the Varkari
Varkari
movement the following scriptures are considered sacred in addition to general body of the common writing:[citation needed]

Dyaneshawri Tukaram-Gatha Sopandevi Namdev-Gatha Eknathi-Bhagwat

The Chaitanya movement has the following texts.

Sad Sandarbhas Brahma
Brahma
Samhita

Attitude toward scriptures[edit] Vaishnava
Vaishnava
traditions refer to the writings of previous acharyas in their respective lineage or sampradya as authoritative interpretations of scripture.[179] While many schools like Smartism
Smartism
and Advaitism encourage interpretation of scriptures philosophically and metaphorically and not too literally,[citation needed] Vaishnavism stresses the literal meaning (mukhya vṛitti) as primary and indirect meaning (gauṇa vṛitti) as secondary: sākṣhād upadesas tu shrutih - "The instructions of the shruti-shāstra should be accepted literally, without fanciful or allegorical interpretations."[179][180] Practices[edit] Bhakti[edit] The Bhakti
Bhakti
movement originated among Vaishnavas
Vaishnavas
of South India
South India
during the 7th-century CE,[181] spread northwards from Tamil Nadu through Karnataka
Karnataka
and Maharashtra
Maharashtra
towards the end of 13th-century,[182] and gained wide acceptance by the fifteenth-century throughout India during an era of political uncertainty and Hindu-Islam conflicts.[183][184][185] The Alvars, which literally means "those immersed in God", were Vaishnava
Vaishnava
poet-saints who sang praises of Vishnu
Vishnu
as they travelled from one place to another.[186] They established temple sites such as Srirangam, and spread ideas about Vaishnavism. Their poems, compiled as Divya Prabhandham, developed into an influential scripture for the Vaishnavas. The Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana's references to the South Indian Alvar
Alvar
saints, along with its emphasis on bhakti, have led many scholars to give it South Indian origins, though some scholars question whether this evidence excludes the possibility that bhakti movement had parallel developments in other parts of India.[187][188] Vaishnava
Vaishnava
bhakti practices involve loving devotion to a Vishnu
Vishnu
avatar (often Krishna), an emotional connection, a longing and continuous feeling of presence.[189] All aspects of life and living is not only a divine order but divinity itself in Vaishnava
Vaishnava
bhakti.[129] Community practices such as singing songs together (kirtan or bhajan), praising or ecstatically celebrating the presence of god together, usually inside temples, but sometimes in open public are part of varying Vaishnava
Vaishnava
practices.[190] These help Vaishnavas
Vaishnavas
socialize and form a community identity.[191] Tilaka[edit]

Left: A Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Hindu
Hindu
with Tilaka
Tilaka
(Urdhva Pundra).[192] Right: A Shaiva Hindu
Hindu
with Tilaka
Tilaka
(Tripundra)[193][194]

Vaishnavas
Vaishnavas
mark their foreheads with tilaka, either as a daily ritual, or on special occasions. The different Vaishnava
Vaishnava
sampradayas each have their own distinctive style of tilaka, which depicts the siddhanta of their particular lineage. The general tilaka pattern is of a parabolic shape resembling the letter U or two or more connected vertical lines on and another optional line on the nose resembling the letter Y, which usually represents the foot of Vishnu
Vishnu
and the centre vertical line symbolizing his manhood. Alternate interpretations suggest that the symbol is representation of male and female parts in union.[195][196] Initiation[edit]

Nathdwara

Rameshwaram

Guruvayur

Dwarka

Ayodhya

Mathura

Vrindavan

Varanasi

Vaishno Devi

Pandharpur

Udupi

Tirupati

Srirangam

Badrinath

Jagannath

Mayapur

Major pilgrimage and temple sites in Vaishnavism. Orange markers are UNESCO world heritage sites.

In tantric traditions of Vaishnavism, during the initiation (diksha) given by a guru under whom they are trained to understand Vaishnava practices, the initiates accept Vishnu
Vishnu
as supreme. At the time of initiation, the disciple is traditionally given a specific mantra, which the disciple will repeat, either out loud or within the mind, as an act of worship to Vishnu
Vishnu
or one of his avatars. The practice of repetitive prayer is known as japa. In the Gaudiya Vaishnava
Gaudiya Vaishnava
group, one who performs an act of worship with the name of Vishnu
Vishnu
or Krishna
Krishna
can be considered a Vaishnava
Vaishnava
by practice, "Who chants the holy name of Krishna
Krishna
just once may be considered a Vaishnava."[197] Pilgrimage sites[edit] Important sites of pilgrimage for Vaishnavs include Guruvayur
Guruvayur
Temple, Sri Rangam, Vrindavan, Mathura, Ayodhya, Tirupati, Pandharpur (Vitthal), Puri
Puri
(Jaggannath), Nira Narsingpur (Narasimha), Mayapur, Nathdwara, Dwarka
Dwarka
and Muktinath
Muktinath
(NEPAL).[198][199] Holy
Holy
places[edit] Main articles: Vrindavana
Vrindavana
and Goloka Vrindavana
Vrindavana
is often considered to be a holy place by majority of traditions of Krishnaism. It is a center of Krishna
Krishna
worship and the area includes places like Govardhana and Gokula associated with Krishna
Krishna
from time immemorial. Many millions of bhaktas or devotees of Krishna
Krishna
visit these places of pilgrimage every year and participate in a number of festivals that relate to the scenes from Krishna's life on Earth.[18][note 3] On the other hand, Goloka is considered the eternal abode of Krishna, Svayam bhagavan
Svayam bhagavan
according to some Vaishnava
Vaishnava
schools, including Gaudiya Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
and the Swaminarayan
Swaminarayan
Sampraday. The scriptural basis for this is taken in Brahma
Brahma
Samhita
Samhita
and Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana.[200] Traditions[edit] Four sampradayas and other sects[edit] The Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
traditions may be grouped within four sampradayas, each exemplified by a specific Vedic personality. They have been associated with a specific founder, providing the following scheme: Brahma Sampradaya (Madhvacharya), Sri Sampradaya
Sri Sampradaya
(Ramanuja), Rudra Sampradaya
Sampradaya
(Vishnuswami, Vallabhacharya),[201] Kumaras sampradaya (Nimbarka).[202][note 4] These four sampradayas emerged in early centuries of the 2nd millennium CE, by the 14th century, influencing and sanctioning the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement.[47] The philosophical systems of Vaishnava
Vaishnava
sampradayas range from theistic Dvaita
Dvaita
of Madhvacharya, to qualified monistic Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
of Ramanuja, to pure nondualistic Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita
of Vallabhacharya. They all revere an avatar of Vishnu, but have varying theories on the relationship between the soul (jiva) and Brahman,[154][204] on the nature of changing and unchanging reality, methods of worship, as well as on spiritual liberation for the householder stage of life versus sannyasa (renunciation) stage.[9][10] Beyond the four major sampradayas, the situation is more complicated,[205] with the Vaikhanasas
Vaikhanasas
being much older[206] than those four sampradayas, and a number of additional traditions and sects which originated later,[207] or aligned themselves with one of those four sampradayas.[web 1] Krishna
Krishna
sampradayas continued to be founded late into late medieval and during the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
era, such as the Radhavallabha, Haridasi, Gaudiya and others.[208]

Sampradaya Main Theological Preceptor Philosophy Founder (Sub)sects Founded (Sub)sect-founder Worship

Vaikhanasa Visnu

Sage Vaikhanasa

4th century CE

Vishnu

Smartism

Syncretistic/ Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta

Classical Period of Hinduism (pre Gupta Era - Early Medieval Period)

Krishna
Krishna
worship as Ishta-deva

Sri Vaishnavism (Sri Sampradaya) Laksmi Vishishtadvaita ("qualified monism") Nathamuni (10th century)[209] Ramanujacharya
Ramanujacharya
(1017–1137) Iyengar
Iyengar
Thenkalai 12th-14th century Pillai Lokacharya Manavala Mamunigal Vishnu

Iyengar
Iyengar
Vadakalai 14th century Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Vishnu
Vishnu
+ Lakshmi

Brahma
Brahma
sampradaya Brahma Dvaita
Dvaita
("dualism") Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
(1238–1317) Haridasa 13th-14th century Unknown Lord Hari

Achintya Bheda Abheda ("difference and non-difference")

Gaudiya Vaishnavism[note 5] 16th century Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
(1486-1534) Radha
Radha
Krishna

Rudra
Rudra
sampradaya Shiva Shuddhadvaita ("pure nondualism") Vishnuswami[note 6] Pushti sect ca. 1500 Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya
(1479–1531) Krishna
Krishna
radha ,balarama

Charan Dasi 18th century[211] Charan Das a Dhusar of Dehra Radha
Radha
Krishna

Nimbarka
Nimbarka
sampradaya (Kumara-sampradaya) Four Kumaras
Four Kumaras
Narada Dvaitadvaita ("duality in unity") Nimbarka
Nimbarka
(13th century)

13th century

Radha
Radha
Krishna

Sant traditions

Varkari
Varkari
sect 13th century Dnyaneshwar (Jñāneśvar) (1275–1296)[note 7] Vithoba
Vithoba
(Krisna)

Ramanandi
Ramanandi
Sect 14th century Ramananda Rama

Kabir
Kabir
panth 15th century Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Saint
Saint
Kabir, a student of Ramananda Vishnu, Narayana, Govinda[213]

Other traditions

Ekasarana Dharma 16th century Srimanta Sankardeva
Srimanta Sankardeva
(1449–1568) Krishna
Krishna
worship alone without Radha

Vaishnava-Sahajiya (tantric) 16th century vidyapati Chandidasa Radha
Radha
Krishna

Lalpanthi Sampradaya (Lal Dasi sect) 17th century[214] Laldas a Meo of Dhaoli Dub

Pranami
Pranami
Sampraday (Nijanand Sampradaya)[note 8] 17th century Devchandra Maharaj (1581–1655) Shree Raj-Shyamaji The Supreme Lord (Purna Brahm Parmatma)

Swaminarayan
Swaminarayan
Faith 19th century Swaminarayan
Swaminarayan
(1781-1830) Swaminarayan

Early traditions[edit] Bhagavats[edit] The Bhagavats were the early worshippers of Krishna, the followers of Bhagavat, the Lord, in the person of Krishna, Vasudeva, Vishnu
Vishnu
or Bhagavan.[216] The term bhagavata may have denoted a general religious tradition or attitude of theistic worship which prevailed until the 11th century, and not a specific sect,[206][217] and is best known as a designation for Vishnu-devotees.[217] The earliest scriptural evidence of Vaishnava
Vaishnava
bhagavats is an inscription from 115 BCE, in which Heliodoros, ambassador of the Greco-Bactrian king Amtalikita, says that he is a bhagavata of Vasudeva.[218] It was supported by the Guptas, suggesting a widespread appeal, in contrast to specific sects.[216] Pancaratra[edit] Main articles: Pancaratra
Pancaratra
and Narayana The Pāñcarātra is the tradition of Narayana-worship.[132] The term pāñcarātra means "five nights," from pañca, "five,"and rātra, "nights,"[219][132] and may be derived from the "five night sacrifice" as described in the Satapatha Brahmana, which narrates how Purusa- Narayana
Narayana
intends to become the highest being by performing a sacrifice which lasts five nights.[132] The Narayaniya section of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
describes the ideas of the Pāñcarātras.[132] Characteristic is the description of the manifestation of the Absolute through a series of manifestations, from the vyuha manifestations of Vasudeva
Vasudeva
and pure creation, through the tattvas of mixed creation into impure or material creation.[14] The Pāñcarātra Samhitas
Samhitas
developed from the 7th or 8th century onward, and belongs to Agamic or Tantras,[220][135] setting them at odds with vedic orthodoxy.[138] Vishnu
Vishnu
worshipers in south India
India
still follow the system of Pancharatra
Pancharatra
worship as described in these texts.[135] Although the Pāñcarātra originated in north India, it had a strong influence on south India, where it is closely related with the Sri Vaishnava
Vaishnava
tradition. According to Welbon, "Pāñcarātra cosmological and ritual theory and practice combine with the unique vernacular devotional poetry of the Alvars, and Ramanuja, founder of the Sri Vaishnava
Vaishnava
tradition, propagated Pāñcarātra ideas."[221] Ramananda was also influenced by Pāñcarātra ideas through the influence of Sri Vaishnavism, whereby Pāñcarātra re-entered north India.[221] Vaikhanasas[edit] Main article: Vaikhanasas The Vaikhanasas
Vaikhanasas
are associated with the Pāñcarātra, but regard themselves as a Vedic orthodox sect.[206][222] Modern Vaikhanasas reject elements of the Pāñcarātra and Sri Vaishnava
Vaishnava
tradition, but the historical relationship with the orthodox Vaikhanasa
Vaikhanasa
in south India
India
is unclear.[citation needed] The Vaikhanasas
Vaikhanasas
may have resisted the incorporation of the devotic elements of the Alvar
Alvar
tradition, while the Pāñcarātras were open to this incorporation.[221][full citation needed] Vaikhanasas
Vaikhanasas
have their own foundational text, the Vaikhanasasmarta Sutra, which describes a mixture of Vedic and non-Vedic ritual worship.[206] The Vaikhanasas
Vaikhanasas
became chief priests in a lot of south Indian temples, where they still remain influential.[206] Medieval traditions[edit] Smartism[edit] Main article: Smarta Tradition The Smarta tradition developed during the (early) Classical Period of Hinduism
Hinduism
around the beginning of the Common Era, when Hinduism
Hinduism
emerged from the interaction between Brahmanism
Brahmanism
and local traditions.[223][224] According to Flood, Smartism
Smartism
developed and expanded with the Puranas
Puranas
genre of literature.[225] By the time of Adi Shankara,[223] it had developed the pancayatanapuja, the worship of five shrines with five deities, all treated as equal, namely Vishnu, Shiva, Ganesha, Surya
Surya
and Devi
Devi
(Shakti),[225] "as a solution to varied and conflicting devotional practices."[223] Traditionally, Sri Adi Shankaracharya (8th century) is regarded as the greatest teacher and reformer of the Smarta.[226][227] According to Hiltebeitel, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
Acharya
Acharya
established the nondualist interpretation of the Upanishads
Upanishads
as the touchstone of a revived smarta tradition.[223][note 9] Alvars[edit]

Nammalvar

Main article: Alvars The Alvars, "those immersed in god," were twelve[184] Tamil poet-saints of South India
South India
who espoused bhakti (devotion) to the Hindu god Vishnu
Vishnu
or his avatar Krishna
Krishna
in their songs of longing, ecstasy and service.[228] The Alvars
Alvars
appeared between the 5th century to the 10th century CE, though the Vaishnava
Vaishnava
tradition regards the Alvars
Alvars
to have lived between 4200 BCE - 2700 BCE. The devotional writings of Alvars, composed during the early medieval period of Tamil history, are key texts in the bhakti movement. They praised the Divya Desams, 108 "abodes" (temples) of the Vaishnava deities.[229] The collection of their hymns is known as Divya Prabandha. Their Bhakti-poems has contributed to the establishment and sustenance of a culture that opposed the ritual-oriented Vedic religion and rooted itself in devotion as the only path for salvation.[230] Contemporary traditions[edit] Gavin Flood mentions five most important contemporary Vaisnava orders.[207] Sri Vaishnava[edit] Main article: Sri Vaishnavism The Sri Vaishnava
Vaishnava
community consists of both Smarta Brahmans and non-Brahmans.[231] It existed along with a larger purana-based Brahamanic worshippers of Vishnu, and non-Brahmanic groups who worshipped and felt possessed by non- Vishnu
Vishnu
village deities.[231] The Sri Vaishnavism
Sri Vaishnavism
movement grew with its social inclusiveness, where emotional devotionalism to personal god (Vishnu) has been open without limitation to gender or caste.[51][note 10] Sri Vaishnavism
Sri Vaishnavism
developed in Tamil Nadu in the 10th century.[233] It incorporated two different traditions, namely the tantric Pancaratra tradition and the puranic Vishnu
Vishnu
worship of northern India
India
with their abstract Vedantic theology, and the southern bhakti tradition of the Alvars
Alvars
of Tamil Nadu with their personal devotion.[233][51] The tradition was founded by Nathamuni (10th century), who along with Yamunacharya, combined the two traditions and gave the tradition legitimacy by drawing on the Alvars.[209] Its most influential leader was Ramanuja
Ramanuja
(1017-1137), who developed the Visistadvaita
Visistadvaita
("qualified non-dualism") philosophy.[234] Ramanuja
Ramanuja
challenged the then dominant Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
interpretation of the Upanishads
Upanishads
and Vedas, by formulating the Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
philosophy foundations for Sri Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
from Vedanta.[51] Sri Vaishnava
Vaishnava
includes the ritual and temple life in the tantra traditions of Pancaratra, emotional devotionalism to Vishnu, contemplative form bhakti, in the context of householder social and religious duties.[51] The tantric rituals, refers to techniques and texts recited during worship, and these include Sanskrit and Tamil texts in South Indian Sri Vaishnava
Vaishnava
tradition.[232] According to Sri Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
theology, moksha can be reached by devotion and service to the Lord and detachment from the world. When moksha is reached, the cycle of reincarnation is broken and the soul is united with Vishnu after death, though maintaining their distinctions, in vaikuntha, Vishnu's heaven.[235] Moksha
Moksha
can also be reached by total surrender and saranagati, an act of grace by the Lord.[236] Ramanuja's Sri Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
subscribes to videhamukti (liberation in afterlife), in contrast to jivanmukti (liberation in this life) found in other traditions within Hinduism, such as the Smarta and Shaiva traditions.[237] Two hundred years after Ramanuja, the Sri Vaishnava
Vaishnava
tradition split into the Vadakalai
Vadakalai
("northern culture") and Tenkalai
Tenkalai
("southern culture"). The Vatakalai relied stronger on the Sanskrit scriptures, and emphasized bhakti by devotion to temple-icons, while the Tenkalai relied more on the Tamil heritage and total surrender.[236] Gaudiya Vaishnavism[edit] Main article: Gaudiya Vaishnavism Gaudiya Vaishnavism, also known as Chaitanya Vaishnavism[238] and Hare Krishna, was founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
(1486–1534) in India. "Gaudiya" refers to the Gauḍa region
Gauḍa region
(present day Bengal/Bangladesh) with Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
meaning "the worship of Vishnu
Vishnu
or Krishna". Its philosophical basis is primarily that of the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
and Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana. The focus of Gaudiya Vaishnavism
Gaudiya Vaishnavism
is the devotional worship (bhakti) of Radha
Radha
and Krishna, and their many divine incarnations as the supreme forms of God, Svayam Bhagavan. Most popularly, this worship takes the form of singing Radha
Radha
and Krishna's holy names, such as "Hare", "Krishna" and "Rama", most commonly in the form of the Hare Krishna (mantra), also known as kirtan. It sees the many forms of Vishnu
Vishnu
or Krishna
Krishna
as expansions or incarnations of the one Supreme God, adipurusha. After decline in the 18-19th century, a started at the beginning of the 20th century, due to the efforts of Bhaktivinoda Thakur. His son Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati
Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati
Thakura founded sixty-four Gaudiya Matha
Matha
monasteries in India, Burma and Europe.[239] Thakura's disciple Srila Prabhupada
Prabhupada
went to the west and spread Gaudiya Vaishnavism
Gaudiya Vaishnavism
by the International Society for Krishna
Krishna
Consciousness (ISKCON). Varkari-tradition and Vithoba-worship[edit] Main articles: Vithoba
Vithoba
and Varkari The Varkari-tradition is a non-Brahamanical[240][241] tradition which worships Vithoba, also known as Vitthal, who is regarded as a form of Vishnu
Vishnu
or Krishna. Vithoba
Vithoba
is often depicted as a dark young boy, standing arms akimbo on a brick, sometimes accompanied by his main consort Rakhumai. The Varkari-tradition is geographically associated with the Indian states of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and northern Karnataka. The Varkari
Varkari
movement includes a duty-based approach towards life, emphasising moral behavior and strict avoidance of alcohol and tobacco, the adoption of a strict lacto-vegetarian diet and fasting on Ekadashi day (twice a month), self-restraint (brahmacharya) during student life, equality and humanity for all rejecting discrimination based on the caste system or wealth, the reading of Hindu
Hindu
texts, the recitation of the Haripath every day and the regular practice of bhajan and kirtan. The most important festivals of Vithoba
Vithoba
are held on the eleventh (ekadashi) day of the lunar months" Shayani Ekadashi in the month of Ashadha, and Prabodhini Ekadashi in the month of Kartik. The Varkari
Varkari
poet-saints are known for their devotional lyrics, the abhang, dedicated to Vithoba
Vithoba
and composed in Marathi. Other devotional literature includes the Kannada hymns of the Haridasa, and Marathi versions of the generic aarti songs associated with rituals of offering light to the deity. Notable saints and gurus of the Varkaris include Jñāneśvar, Namdev, Chokhamela, Eknath, and Tukaram, all of whom are accorded the title of Sant. Though the origins of both his cult and his main temple are debated, there is clear evidence that they already existed by the 13th century. Various Indologists have proposed a prehistory for Vithoba
Vithoba
worship where he was previously a hero stone, a pastoral deity, a manifestation of Shiva, a Jain saint, or even all of these at various times for various devotees. Ramanandi
Ramanandi
tradition[edit] Main articles: Ramananda
Ramananda
and Ramanandi
Ramanandi
Sampradaya The Ramanandi
Ramanandi
Sampradaya, also known as the Ramayats or the Ramavats,[242] is one of the largest and most egalitarian Hindu
Hindu
sects India, around the Ganges Plain, and Nepal
Nepal
today.[243] It mainly emphasizes the worship of Rama,[242] as well as Vishnu
Vishnu
directly and other incarnations.[244] Most Ramanandis consider themselves to be the followers of Ramananda, a Vaishnava
Vaishnava
saint in medieval India.[245] Philosophically, they are in the Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
(IAST Viśiṣṭādvaita) tradition.[242] Its ascetic wing constitutes the largest Vaishnava
Vaishnava
monastic order and may possibly be the largest monastic order in all of India.[246] Rāmānandī ascetics rely upon meditation and strict ascetic practices, but also believe that the grace of god is required for them to achieve liberation. Northern Sant tradition[edit] Main articles: Kabir
Kabir
and Nanak Kabir
Kabir
was a 15th-century Indian mystic poet and saint, whose writings influenced the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement, but whose verses are also found in Sikhism's scripture Adi Granth.[247][248][249] His early life was in a Muslim family, but he was strongly influenced by his teacher, the Hindu
Hindu
bhakti leader Ramananda.[247][248][250][251] Some scholars state Kabir's ideas were one of the many influences[252][253] on Guru
Guru
Nanak, who went on to found Sikhism in the fifteenth century. Other Sikh scholars disagree, stating there are differences between the views and practices of Kabir
Kabir
and Nanak.[254][255][256] Harpreet Singh, quoting Hew McLeod, states, "In its earliest stage Sikhism was clearly a movement within the Hindu
Hindu
tradition; Nanak
Nanak
was raised a Hindu
Hindu
and eventually belonged to the Sant tradition of northern India, a movement associated with the great poet and mystic Kabir."[257] Surjit Singh Gandhi[better source needed] disagrees, and writes " Guru
Guru
Nanak
Nanak
in his thought pattern as well as in action model was fundamentally different from Kabir
Kabir
and for that matter other radical Bhaktas or saints (saint has been erroneously used for such Bhaktas by Mcleod). Hence to consider Kabir
Kabir
as an influence on Guru
Guru
Nanak
Nanak
is wrong, both historically and theologically".[255] McLeod places Nanak
Nanak
in the Sant tradition that included Kabir, and states that their fundamental doctrines were reproduced by Nanak. JS Grewal contests this view and states that McLeod's approach is limiting in its scope because, "McLeod takes into account only concepts, ignores practices altogether, he concentrates on similarities and ignores all differences".[258] Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
versus other Hindu
Hindu
traditions[edit] The Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
sampradayas subscribe to various philosophies, are similar in some aspects and differ in others. When compared with Shaivism, Shaktism
Shaktism
and Smartism, a similar range of similarities and differences emerge.[259]

Comparison of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
with other traditions

Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Traditions Shaiva Traditions Shakta Traditions Smarta Traditions References

Scriptural authority Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads [67][94]

Supreme deity god Vishnu god Shiva goddess Devi None [259][260]

Creator Vishnu Shiva Devi Brahman
Brahman
principle [259][261]

Avatar Key concept Minor Significant Minor [67][262][263]

Monastic life Accepts Recommends Accepts Recommends [67][264][265]

Rituals, Bhakti Affirms Optional, Varies[266][267][268] Affirms Optional[269] [270]

Ahimsa
Ahimsa
and Vegetarianism Affirms (Recommends and optional in Ekasarana Dharma) Recommends,[266] Optional Optional Recommends, Optional [271][272]

Free will, Maya, Karma Affirms Affirms Affirms Affirms [259]

Metaphysics Brahman
Brahman
(Vishnu) and Atman (Soul, Self) Brahman
Brahman
(Shiva), Atman Brahman
Brahman
(Devi), Atman Brahman, Atman [259]

Epistemology (Pramana) 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Reliable testimony 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Reliable testimony 4. Self-evident[273] 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Reliable testimony 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Comparison and analogy 4. Postulation, derivation 5. Negative/cognitive proof 6. Reliable testimony [274][275][276]

Philosophy Dvaita, Vishishtadvaita(qualified advaita), advaita Dvaita, Vishishtadvaita, advaita Shakti-advaita Advaita [277][278]

Salvation (Soteriology) Videhamukti, Yoga, champions householder life Jivanmukta, Shiva
Shiva
is soul, Yoga, champions monastic life Bhakti, Tantra, Yoga Jivanmukta, Advaita, Yoga, champions monastic life [237][279]

Demography[edit] There is no data available on demographic history or trends for Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
or other traditions within Hinduism.[280] Estimates vary on the relative number of adherents in Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
compared to other traditions of Hinduism. Klaus Klostermaier and other scholars estimate Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
to be the largest.[281][282] According to a 2010 estimate by Johnson and Grim, the Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
tradition is the largest group with about 641 million or 67.6% of Hindus.[283] In contrast, Jones and Ryan estimate Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
to have perhaps 200 million followers, and it being the second largest tradition of Hinduism
Hinduism
after Shaivism.[93] The denominations of Hinduism, states Julius Lipner, are unlike those found in major religions of the world, because Hindu
Hindu
denominations are fuzzy, individuals revere gods and goddesses polycentrically, with many Vaishnava
Vaishnava
adherents recognizing Sri (Lakshmi), Shiva, Parvati
Parvati
and others reverentially on festivals and other occasions. Similarly, Shaiva, Shakta and Smarta Hindus revere Vishnu.[284][285] Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
is one of the major traditions within Hinduism.[286] Large Vaishnava
Vaishnava
communities exist throughout India, and particularly in Western Indian states, such as western Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Gujarat.[198][199] Other major regions of Vaishnava presence, particularly after the 15th century, are Odisha, Bengal
Bengal
and northeastern India
India
(Assam, Manipur).[287] Dvaita
Dvaita
school Vaishnava
Vaishnava
have flourished in Karnataka
Karnataka
where Madhavacharya established temples and monasteries, and in neighboring states, particularly the Pandharpur region.[288] Krishnaism
Krishnaism
has a limited following outside of India, especially associated with 1960s counter-culture, including a number of celebrity followers, such as George Harrison, due to its promulgation throughout the world by the founder-acharya of the International Society for Krishna
Krishna
Consciousness (ISKCON) A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.[289][290][291] Academic study[edit] Vaishnava
Vaishnava
theology has been a subject of study and debate for many devotees, philosophers and scholars within India
India
for centuries. Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
has its own academic wing in University of Madras-The department of Vaishnavism.[292] In recent decades this study has also been pursued in a number of academic institutions in Europe, such as the Oxford Centre for Hindu
Hindu
Studies, Bhaktivedanta College, and Syanandura Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Sabha, a moderate and progressive Vaishnava
Vaishnava
body headed by Gautham Padmanabhan in Trivandrum which intends to bring about a single and precise book called Hari-grantha to include all Vaishnava
Vaishnava
philosophies. Krishnaism
Krishnaism
and Christianity[edit] Debaters have often alleged a number of parallels between Krishnaism and Christianity, originating with Kersey Graves' The World's Sixteen Crucified Saviors claiming 346 parallels between Krishna
Krishna
and Jesus,[293] theorizing that Christianity emerged as a result of an import of pagan concepts upon Judaism. Some 19th- to early 20th-century scholars writing on Jesus
Jesus
Christ in comparative mythology (John M. Robertson, Christianity and Mythology, 1910) even sought to derive both traditions from a common predecessor religion.[294] See also[edit]

Heliodorus pillar
Heliodorus pillar
– a 2nd-century BCE Vaishnava
Vaishnava
inscription Hathibada Ghosundi Inscriptions
Hathibada Ghosundi Inscriptions
– a 1st-century BCE inscription mentioning Narayana
Narayana
and Vasudeva Hindu
Hindu
sects Brahmanas Shaivism Shaktism Vaikhanasas Divya Prabhandham Nanaghat Inscription – a 1st-century BCE Vaishnava
Vaishnava
inscription Vasu Doorjamb Inscription
Vasu Doorjamb Inscription
– a 1st-century CE inscription from Vaishnava
Vaishnava
temple

Notes[edit]

^ a b Klostermaier: "Present day Krishna
Krishna
worship is an amalgam of various elements. According to historical testimonies Krishna-Vasudeva worship already flourished in and around Mathura
Mathura
several centuries before Christ. A second important element is the sect of Krishna Govinda. Still later is the worship of Bala-Krishna, the Divine Child Krishna
Krishna
- a quite prominent feature of modern Krishnaism. The last element seems to have been Krishna
Krishna
Gopijanavallabha, Krishna
Krishna
the lover of the Gopis, among whom Radha
Radha
occupies a special position. In some books Krishna
Krishna
is presented as the founder and first teacher of the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
religion."[18] ^ Friedhelm Hardy
Friedhelm Hardy
in his "Viraha-bhakti" analyses the history of Krishnaism, specifically all pre-11th-century sources starting with the stories of Krishna
Krishna
and the gopi, and Mayon mysticism of the Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Tamil saints, Sangam Tamil literature
Tamil literature
and Alvars' Krishna-centered devotion in the rasa of the emotional union and the dating and history of the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana.[33][34] ^ Klostermaier: " Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
and the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana, certainly the most popular religious books in the whole of India. Not only was Krsnaism influenced by the identification of Krsna with Vishnu, but also Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
as a whole was partly transformed and reinvented in the light of the popular and powerful Krishna
Krishna
religion. Bhagavatism may have brought an element of cosmic religion into Krishna
Krishna
worship; Krishna
Krishna
has certainly brought a strongly human element into Bhagavatism
Bhagavatism
[...] The center of Krishna-worship has been for a long time Brajbhumi, the district of Mathura
Mathura
that embraces also Vrindavana, Govardhana, and Gokula, associated with Krishna
Krishna
from time immemorial. Many millions of Krishna
Krishna
bhaktas visit these places ever year and participate in the numerous festivals that reenact scenes from Krshna's life on Earth."[18] ^ (a) Steven Rosen and William Deadwyler III: "the word sampradaya literally means 'a community'."[web 1] (b) Federico Squarcini traces the semantic history of the word sampradaya, calling it a tradition, and adds, "Besides its employment in the ancient Buddhist literature, the term sampradaya circulated widely in Brahamanic circles, as it became the most common word designating a specific religious tradition or denomination".[203] ^ Based on a list of gurus found in Baladeva Vidyabhusana's Govinda-bhasya and Prameya-ratnavali, ISKCON
ISKCON
situates Gaudiya Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
within the Brahma
Brahma
sampradaya, calling it Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya Vaisnava
Vaisnava
Sampradaya.[web 1] ^ Stephen Knapp: "Actually there is some confusion about him, as it seems there have been three Vishnu
Vishnu
Svamis: Adi Vishnu
Vishnu
Svami (around the 3rd century BCE, who introduced the traditional 108 categories of sannyasa), Raja Gopala Vishnu
Vishnu
Svami (8th or 9th century CE), and Andhra Vishnu
Vishnu
Svami (14th century)."[210] ^ Gavin Flood notes that Jñāneśvar
Jñāneśvar
is sometimes regarded as the founder of the Varkari
Varkari
sect, but that Vithoba-worship predates him.[212] ^ See also Shri Krishna
Krishna
Pranami.[215] Gandhi's mother belonged to the Pranami
Pranami
tradition. ^ Hiltebeitel: "Practically, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
Acharya
Acharya
fostered a rapprochement between Advaita
Advaita
and smarta orthodoxy, which by his time had not only continued to defend the varnasramadharma theory as defining the path of karman, but had developed the practice of pancayatanapuja ("five-shrine worship") as a solution to varied and conflicting devotional practices. Thus one could worship any one of five deities (Vishnu, Siva, Durga, Surya, Ganesa) as one's istadevata ("deity of choice")."[223] ^ Vishnu
Vishnu
is regionally called by other names, such as Ranganatha at Srirangam
Srirangam
temple in Tamil Nadu.[232]

References[edit]

^ Pratapaditya Pal (1986). Indian Sculpture: Circa 500 BCE- 700 CE. University of California Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-520-05991-7.  ^ Stephan Schuhmacher (1994). The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala. p. 397. ISBN 978-0-87773-980-7.  ^ Matchett 2001, pp. 3-9. ^ a b Anna King 2005, pp. 32–33. ^ Avinash Patra 2011, pp. 12–16, 25. ^ a b G. Widengren (1997). Historia Religionum: Handbook for the History of Religions - Religions of the Present. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. p. 270. ISBN 90-04-02598-7.  ^ Selva Raj and William Harman (2007), Dealing with Deities: The Ritual Vow in South Asia, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791467084, pages 165-166 ^ James G Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0823931804, pages 553-554 ^ a b Beck 2012, pp. 76-77. ^ a b Jeaneane D. Fowler 2002, pp. 288-304, 340–350. ^ a b Flood 1996, pp. 124-125. ^ John Stratton Hawley (2015). A Storm of Songs. Harvard University Press. pp. 10–12, 33–34. ISBN 978-0-674-18746-7.  ^ James G Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0823931804, pages 731-733 ^ a b c Flood 1996, p. 121-122. ^ a b c F Otto Schrader (1973). Introduction to the Pāñcarātra and the Ahirbudhnya Saṃhitā. Adyar Library and Research Centre. pp. 2–21. ISBN 978-0-8356-7277-1.  ^ a b Klaus Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791470824, pages 46-52, 76-77 ^ Johnson, Todd M; Grim, Brian J (2013). The World's Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography. John Wiley & Sons. p. 400. ISBN 9781118323038.  ^ a b c d e Klostermaier 2007. ^ F. R. Allchin; George Erdosy (1995). The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. Cambridge University Press. pp. 303–304. ISBN 978-0-521-37695-2.  ^ Radhakumud Mookerji (1959). The Gupta Empire. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-208-0440-1.  ^ a b c "Vaishnava". philtar.ucsm.ac.uk. Retrieved 2008-05-22.  ^ Dandekar 1977, p. 9498. ^ a b Benjamín Preciado-Solís (1984). The Kṛṣṇa Cycle in the Purāṇas: Themes and Motifs in a Heroic Saga. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 1–16. ISBN 978-0-89581-226-1.  ^ William K. Mahony (1998). The Artful Universe: An Introduction to the Vedic Religious Imagination. State University of New York Press. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-7914-3579-3.  ^ Roshen Dalal (2010). The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths. Penguin Books. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-0-14-341517-6.  ^ Benjamín Preciado-Solís (1984). The Krishna
Krishna
Cycle in the Purāṇas: Themes and Motifs in a Heroic Saga. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 6–16. ISBN 978-0-89581-226-1.  ^ a b c d e f Dandekar 1977, p. 9499. ^ Flood 1996, p. 120. ^ Ramkrishna Gopal Bhandarkar, Ramchandra Narayan Dandekar (1976). Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Gopal Bhandarkar as an Indologist: A Symposium. India: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. pp. 38–40.  ^ Gonda 1993, p. 163. ^ Klostermaier 2007, pp. 206-217, 251-252. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dandekar 1977, p. 9500. ^ a b c Hardy, Friedhelm (2001). Viraha-Bhakti: The Early History of Krsna Devotion in South India
South India
( Oxford University
Oxford University
South Asian Studies Series). Oxford University
Oxford University
Press, USA. ISBN 0-19-564916-8.  ^ "Book review - FRIEDHELM HARDY, Viraha Bhakti: The Early History of Krishna
Krishna
Devotion in South India. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press, Nagaswamy 23 (4): 443 -- Indian Economic & Social History Review". ier.sagepub.com. Retrieved 2008-07-29.  ^ a b MONIUS, Anne E.: Dance Before Doom. Krishna
Krishna
In The Non-Hindu Literature of Early Medieval South India. In: Beck, Guy L., ed. Alternative Krishnas. Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu Deity. Albany: State University of New York Press 2005; Ch. 8. pp. 139-149. ^ Norman Cutler (1987) Songs of Experience: The Poetics of Tamil Devotion, p. 13 ^ a b "Devotion to Mal (Mayon)". philtar.ucsm.ac.uk. Retrieved 2008-05-22.  ^ Ganguli 1988, p. 36. ^ S. M. Srinivasa Chari (1988). Tattva-muktā-kalāpa. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 2–5. ISBN 978-81-208-0266-7.  ^ Klaus K. Klostermaier (1984). Mythologies and Philosophies of Salvation in the Theistic Traditions of India. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. pp. 101–103. ISBN 978-0-88920-158-3.  ^ Annangaracariyar 1971. ^ Seth 1962. ^ Bardwell L. Smith (1976). Hinduism: New Essays in the History of Religions. Brill Archive. pp. 143–156. ISBN 90-04-04495-7.  ^ Schomer, Karine; McLeod, W. H., eds. (1987). The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 1–5. ISBN 9788120802773.  ^ Ravi Gupta; Kenneth Valpey (2013). The Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana: Sacred Text and Living Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 2–10. ISBN 978-0-231-14999-0.  ^ C. J. Bartley (2013). The Theology of Ramanuja: Realism and Religion. Routledge. pp. 1–4, 52–53, 79. ISBN 978-1-136-85306-7.  ^ a b Beck 2012, p. 6. ^ Jackson 1992. ^ Jackson 1991. ^ John Stratton Hawley (2015), A Storm of Songs: India
India
and the Idea of the Bhakti
Bhakti
Movement, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0674187467, pages 304-310 ^ a b c d e C. J. Bartley (2013). The Theology of Ramanuja: Realism and Religion. Routledge. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-1-136-85306-7.  ^ Delmonico, Neal (April 4, 2004). " Caitanya
Caitanya
Vais.n. avism and the Holy
Holy
Names" (PDF). Bhajan
Bhajan
Kutir. Retrieved 29 May 2017.  ^ Selengut, Charles (1996). "Charisma and Religious Innovation: Prabhupada
Prabhupada
and the Founding of ISKCON". ISKCON Communications Journal. 4 (2). Archived from the original on 13 July 2011.  ^ Herzig, T.; Valpey, K (2004). "Re—visioning Iskcon". The Hare Krishna
Krishna
Movement: the Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant. ISBN 978-0-231-12256-6. Retrieved 2008-01-10.  ^ Prabhupada
Prabhupada
- He Built a House, Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1983, ISBN 0-89213-133-0 p. xv ^ Schweig 2013, p. 18. ^ Kiyokazu Okita (2010), Theism, Pantheism, and Panentheism: Three Medieval Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Views of Nature and their Possible Ecological Implications, Journal of Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Studies, Volume 18, Number 2, pages 5-26 ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 360-361. ^ William Wainwright (2013), Monotheism, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University Press ^ Harold Coward; Daniel C. Maguire (2000). Visions of a New Earth: Religious Perspectives on Population, Consumption, and Ecology. State University of New York Press. pp. 113–114. ISBN 978-0-7914-4457-3.  ^ Ankur Barua (2010), God's body at work: Ramanuja
Ramanuja
and Panentheism, International Journal of Hindu
Hindu
Studies, Volume 14, Number 1, pages 1-30 ^ Anne Hunt Overzee (1992). The Body Divine: The Symbol of the Body in the Works of Teilhard de Chardin and Ramanuja. Cambridge University Press. pp. 63–85. ISBN 978-0-521-38516-9 ^ Julius Lipner (1986). The Face of Truth: A Study of Meaning and Metaphysics in the Vedantic Theology of Ramanuja. State University of New York Press. pp. 37–48. ISBN 978-0-88706-038-0.  ^ Ursula King (2011). Teilhard De Chardin and Eastern Religions. New York: Paulist Press. pp. 267–268.  ^ Schweig 2013, pp. 18-19. ^ Kinsley, David (2005). Lindsay Jones, ed. Gale's Encyclopedia of Religion. 2 (Second ed.). Thomson Gale. pp. 707–708. ISBN 0-02-865735-7.  ^ a b c d Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase. p. 474. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5.  ^ a b Lochtefeld 2002, p. 228. ^ Matchett, Freda (2000). Krishna, Lord or Avatara?: The Relationship Between Krishna
Krishna
and Vishnu. Surrey: Routledge. p. 254. ISBN 0-7007-1281-X. p. 4 ^ Flood 1996, p. 117. ^ Wilson, Bill; McDowell, Josh (1993). The best of Josh McDowell: a ready defense. Nashville: T. Nelson. pp. 352–353. ISBN 0-8407-4419-6.  ^ a b Page 1– Ramanuja
Ramanuja
and Sri Vaishnavism
Sri Vaishnavism
Archived 25 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Schweig 2013, p. 17–19. ^ Review: by Kenneth Scott Latourette India
India
and Christendom: The Historical Connections between Their Religions. by Richard Garbe; Lydia Gillingham Robinson Pacific Affairs, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Autumn, 1961), pp. 317-318. ^ "It becomes clear that the personality of Bhagvan Krishna subordinates to itself the titles and identities of Vishnu, Narayana, Purusha, Ishvara, Hari, Vasudeva, Janardana etc. The pervasive theme, then, of the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Puran is the identification of Bhagavan with Krishna."(Sheridan 1986, p. 53) ^ Geoffrey Parrinder (1996). Sexual Morality in the World's Religion. Oneword. pp. 9–10. ISBN 978-1-85168-108-2.  ^ Chaitanya Charitamrita Madhya 20.165 ^ Richard Thompson; Ph. D. (December 1994). "Reflections on the Relation Between Religion and Modern Rationalism". Retrieved 2008-04-12.  ^ Mahony, W.K. (1987). "Perspectives on Krsna's Various Personalities". History of Religions. 26 (3): 333–335. doi:10.1086/463085. JSTOR 1062381.  ^ Schweig 2005, p. 3. ^ Rosen 2002, p. 50. ^ Rosen 2002, p. 52. ^ Chaitanya-charitamritaAdi-lila 4.95 ^ Schwartz 2004, p. 49. ^ Schweig 2005, pp. 41–42. ^ Schweig 2005, p. 43. ^ a b c Matchett 2001, pp. 3-4. ^ Kinsley 2005, p. 15. ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 339-340. ^ Mircea Eliade; Charles J. Adams (1987). The Encyclopedia of religion. 2. Macmillan. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-02-909710-6.  ^ a b Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu
Hindu
Scriptures, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520207783, page ix-xliii ^ RC Zaehner (1992), Hindu
Hindu
Scriptures, Penguin Random House, ISBN 978-0679410782, pages 1-11 and Preface ^ a b c Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase. p. 474. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5.  ^ a b c Mariasusai Dhavamony (1999). Hindu
Hindu
Spirituality. Gregorian Press. pp. 32–34. ISBN 978-88-7652-818-7.  ^ Ronald B. Inden (1990). Imagining India. Indiana University Press. pp. 109–115. ISBN 978-0-253-21358-7.  ^ Jeaneane D. Fowler 2002, pp. 288-309. ^ Sanjukta Gupta (2013). Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and Vaisnavism: The Philosophy of Madhusudana Sarasvati. Routledge. pp. 1–12. ISBN 978-1-134-15774-7.  ^ Deussen, Paul (1997). Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Volume 1. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 264. ISBN 978-8120814677. ; Note: This hymn appears in Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as well. ^ Sanskrit original: Quote: दानं यज्ञानां वरूथं दक्षिणा लोके दातार सर्वभूतान्युपजीवन्ति दानेनारातीरपानुदन्त दानेन द्विषन्तो मित्रा भवन्ति दाने सर्वं प्रतिष्ठितं तस्माद्दानं परमं वदन्ति ॥ ६॥; Source: Hattangadi, Sunder (1999). "महानारायणोपनिषत् (Mahanarayana Upanishad)" (PDF) (in Sanskrit). Retrieved 23 January 2016.  ^ a b Ayyangar, TRS (1941). The Vaisnavopanisads. Jain Publishing Co. (Reprint 2006). pp. i–vi, 1–11. ISBN 978-0895819864.  ^ Peter Heehs (2002), Indian Religions, New York University Press, ISBN 978-0814736500, pages 60-88 ^ Olivelle, Patrick (1998). Upaniṣads. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. pp. 11–14. ISBN 978-0192835765.  ^ a b Dumont, PE (Translator) (1940). "The Avyakta Upaniṣad". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 60 (3): 338–355.  ^ Bryant, Edwin, Maria Ekstrand (2013). The Hare Krishna
Krishna
Movement: The Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant. Columbia University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-231-50843-8.  ^ a b c d Deussen, Paul (1997). Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Volume 1. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. pp. 247–268 with footnotes. ISBN 978-8120814677.  ^ a b Ayyangar, TRS (1941). The Vaisnavopanisads. Jain Publishing Co. (Reprint 2006). ISBN 978-0895819864.  ^ a b Srinivasan, Doris (1997). Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes. BRILL Academic. pp. 112–120. ISBN 978-9004107588.  ^ Paul Deussen (Translator), Sixty Upanisads of the Veda, Vol. 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814691 (2010 Reprint), pages 803–805 ^ a b Lamb, Ramdas (2002). Rapt in the Name. SUNY Press. pp. 191–193. ISBN 978-0-7914-5386-5.  ^ Catherine Ludvik (1994). Hanumān in the Rāmāyaṇa of Vālmīki and the Rāmacaritamānasa of Tulasī Dāsa. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 10–13. ISBN 978-8120811225.  ^ Deussen, Paul (1997). Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Volume 2. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. pp. 859–864, 879–884. ISBN 978-8120814677.  ^ Bryant, Edwin Francis, Maria Ekstrand (2013). The Hare Krishna Movement: The Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant. Columbia University Press. pp. 35–45. ISBN 978-0-231-50843-8.  ^ B. V. Tripurari (2004). Gopala-tapani Upanisad. Audarya. pp. xi–xiii, 3–11. ISBN 1-932771-12-3.  ^ Ayyangar, TRS (1941). The Vaisnavopanisads. Jain Publishing Co. (Reprint 2006). pp. 22–31. ISBN 978-0895819864.  ^ Jacob, George (1887). "The Vasudeva
Vasudeva
and Gopichandana Upanishads". The Indian Antiquary, A Journal of Oriental Research. XVI (March, Part CXCIV).  ^ Jean Varenne (1972), The Garuda Upanishad, Brill, ISBN 978-2020058728 ^ Paul Deussen (1997), Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7, page 663-664 ^ DS Babu (1990), Hayagriva
Hayagriva
- the horse headed deity, Oriental Research Institute, Tirupati ^ Rigopoulos, Antonio (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu
Hindu
Deity. State University of New York Press. pp. 64–77. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7.  ^ Aiyar, Narayanasvami (1914). "Thirty minor Upanishads". Archive Organization. pp. 124–127. Retrieved 16 January 2016.  ^ Deussen, Paul (1997). Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 809–858. ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7.  ^ James Mulhern (1959) A History of Education: A Social Interpretation p. 93 ^ Franklin Edgerton (1925) The Bhagavad Gita: Or, Song of the Blessed One, India's Favorite Bible pp. 87-91 ^ Charlotte Vaudeville has said, it is the 'real Bible of Krsnaism'. Quoted in: Matchett, 2000 ^ a b c Flood 1996, pp. 124-128. ^ Richard H. Davis (2014). The "Bhagavad Gita": A Biography. Princeton University Press. pp. 4–8. ISBN 978-1-4008-5197-3.  ^ E. Allen Richardson (2014). Seeing Krishna
Krishna
in America: The Hindu Bhakti
Bhakti
Tradition of Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya
in India
India
and Its Movement to the West. McFarland. pp. 5–6, 11–14, 134–145. ISBN 978-0-7864-5973-5.  ^ Flood 1996, pp. 125-126. ^ a b c Francis Clooney & Tony Stewart 2004, p. 163. ^ Richard H. Davis (2014). The "Bhagavad Gita": A Biography. Princeton University Press. pp. 58–59, 170. ISBN 978-1-4008-5197-3.  ^ Georg Feuerstein; Brenda Feuerstein (2011). The Bhagavad-Gita. Shambhala Publications. pp. 64–69. ISBN 978-1-59030-893-6.  ^ a b c d e f g Flood 1996, p. 121. ^ Guy L. Beck (1995). Sonic Theology: Hinduism
Hinduism
and Sacred Sound. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 173–180. ISBN 978-81-208-1261-1.  ^ a b F Otto Schrader (1973). Introduction to the Pāñcarātra and the Ahirbudhnya Saṃhitā. Adyar Library and Research Centre. pp. 31–49, 79–118. ISBN 978-0-8356-7277-1.  ^ a b c d e f g Flood 1996, p. 122. ^ F Otto Schrader (1973). Introduction to the Pāñcarātra and the Ahirbudhnya Saṃhitā. Adyar Library and Research Centre. pp. 30, 150–157. ISBN 978-0-8356-7277-1.  ^ a b Dennis Hudson (2012). Katherine Anne Harper; Robert L Brown, eds. The Roots of Tantra. State University of New York Press. pp. 133–156. ISBN 978-0-7914-8890-4.  ^ a b c Flood 1996, p. 122-123. ^ Teun Goudriaan; Sanjukta Gupta (1981). Hindu
Hindu
Tantric and Śākta Literature. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 105–111. ISBN 978-3-447-02091-6.  ^ Harvey P. Alper (1989). Mantra. State University of New York Press. pp. 242–243. ISBN 978-0-88706-599-6.  ^ S. M. Srinivasa Chari (1994). Vaiṣṇavism: Its Philosophy, Theology, and Religious Discipline. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. xxviii–xxxi. ISBN 978-81-208-1098-3.  ^ H Daniel Smith (1972), The three gems of the Pancharatra
Pancharatra
canon - An appraisal, Journal: Vimarsa, Volume 1, Issue 1, pages 45-51; (Reprinted by Brill Academic in Ex Orbe Religionum, Editor: C. J. Bleeker (1972)) ^ Sanjukta Gupta (2000). Lakṣmī Tantra: A Pāñcarātra Text. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. xv–xix. ISBN 978-81-208-1735-7.  ^ F Otto Schrader (1973). Introduction to the Pāñcarātra and the Ahirbudhnya Saṃhitā. Adyar Library and Research Centre. pp. 22–27, 112–114. ISBN 978-0-8356-7277-1.  ^ J. Gordon Melton; Martin Baumann (2010). Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO. pp. 1417–1418. ISBN 978-1-59884-204-3.  ^ Alf Hiltebeitel (2011). Reading the Fifth Veda: Studies on the Mahābhārata. BRILL. pp. 59–60, 308. ISBN 90-04-18566-6.  ^ Ramashraya Sharma (1986). A Socio-political Study of the Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 149–150. ISBN 978-81-208-0078-6.  ^ Ashok Banker (2011). Vengeance of Ravana: Book Seven of the Ramayana. Penguin. pp. 270–271. ISBN 978-0-14-306699-6.  ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 113-115. ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 69 with note 150, 81-82, 95-98, 333-340. ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 77-94. ^ ML Varadpande (1987), History of Indian Theatre, Vol 1, Abhinav, ISBN 978-8170172215, pages 98-99 ^ Ravi Gupta and Kenneth Valpey (2013), The Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231149990, pages 162-180 ^ a b Mahony, William K. (1987). "Perspectives on Krsna's Various Personalities". History of Religions. 26 (3): 333–335. doi:10.1086/463085. JSTOR 1062381.  ^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature (1995 Edition), Article on Puranas, ISBN 0-877790426, page 915 ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225, pages 1-5, 12-21, 79-80, 96-98; Quote: "These are the true encyclopedic Puranas. in which detached chapters or sections, dealing with any imaginable subject, follow one another, without connection or transition." ^ Ariel Glucklich (2008). The Strides of Vishnu : Hindu
Hindu
Culture in Historical Perspective: Hindu
Hindu
Culture in Historical Perspective. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-19-971825-2. Quote: The earliest promotional works aimed at tourists from that era were called mahatmyas.  ^ Greg Bailey (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy (Editor: Oliver Leaman), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415172813, pages 437-439 ^ Gregory Bailey (2003), The Study of Hinduism
Hinduism
(Editor: Arvind Sharma), The University of South Carolina Press, ISBN 978-1570034497, page 139 ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225, pages 1-5, 12-21 ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225, page 153 ^ a b John Cort (1993), Purana
Purana
Perennis: Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu
Hindu
and Jaina Texts (Editor: Wendy Doniger), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791413821, pages 185-204 ^ a b Dimmitt, Cornelia; van Buitenen, J. A. B. (2012). Classical Hindu
Hindu
Mythology: A Reader in the Sanskrit Puranas. Temple University Press (1st Edition: 1977). pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-1-4399-0464-0.  ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225, pages 35, 185, 199, 239-242 ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225, pages 161-164 ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225, pages 59-61 ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225, pages=158-159 with footnotes, Quote: "Among the texts considered to be connected with the Brahmanda, the Adhyatma-ramayana is undoubtedly the most important one". ^ Winternitz, Maurice (1922). History of Indian Literature Vol 1 (Original in German, translated into English by VS Sarma, 1981). New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass (Reprint 2010). p. 552. ISBN 978-8120802643.  ^ Ramdas Lamb (1 February 2012). Rapt in the Name. State University of New York Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-0-7914-8856-0.  ^ Barbara Holdrege (2015), Bhakti
Bhakti
and Embodiment, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415670708, pages 113-114 ^ Edwin Bryant (2003), Krishna: The Beautiful Legend of God: Srimad Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana, Penguin, ISBN 978-0141913377, pages 10-12 ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225, pages 104-106 with footnotes, Quote: "I want to stress the fact that it would be irresponsible and highly misleading to speak of or pretend to describe the religion of the Puranas." ^ Rukmani, T. S. (1993). "Siddhis in the Bhāgavata Purāṇa and in the Yogasutras of Patanjali
Patanjali
– a Comparison". In Wayman, Alex. Researches in Indian and Buddhist philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 217–226. ISBN 978-81-208-0994-9. ; Brown, C. Mackenzie (1983). "The Origin and Transmission of the Two "Bhāgavata Purāṇas": A Canonical and Theological Dilemma". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. 51 (4): 551–567. JSTOR 1462581.  ^ Dasgupta, Surendranath (1979). A history of Indian philosophy. IV: Indian pluralism. Cambridge University Press. p. 49.  ^ Sheridan, Daniel (1986). The Advaitic Theism of the Bhāgavata Purāṇa. South Asia Books. pp. 1–2, 17–25. ISBN 81-208-0179-2.  ^ Matchett 2000, p. 153Bhag. Purana
Purana
1.3.28 :ete cāṁśa-kalāḥ puṁsaḥ kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam :indrāri-vyākulaṁ lokaṁ mṛḍayanti yuge yuge ^ Matchett 2000, 10th canto transl.. ^ Gupta, Ravi M. (2007). Caitanya
Caitanya
Vaisnava
Vaisnava
Vedanta
Vedanta
of Jiva
Jiva
Gosvami. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-40548-3.  ^ a b Gupta, Ravi M.; Edited by Gavin Flood, University of Stirling (2007). Chaitanya Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Vedanta
Vedanta
of Jiva
Jiva
Gosvami: When knowledge meets devotion. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-40548-3. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Jiva
Jiva
Goswami, Kṛiṣhna Sandarbha 29.26-27 ^ Bardwell L. Smith (1976). Hinduism: New Essays in the History of Religions. Brill Academic. pp. 143–144. ISBN 90-04-04495-7.  ^ Bardwell L. Smith (1976). Hinduism: New Essays in the History of Religions. Brill Academic. pp. 154–155. ISBN 90-04-04495-7.  ^ Schomer, Karine; McLeod, W. H., eds. (1987). The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 1–3. ISBN 9788120802773.  ^ a b Flood 1996, p. 131. ^ Bardwell L. Smith (1976). Hinduism: New Essays in the History of Religions. Brill Archive. pp. 143–169. ISBN 90-04-04495-7.  ^ Olson, Carl (2007). The many colors of Hinduism: a thematic-historical introduction. Rutgers University Press. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-8135-4068-9.  ^ J. A. B. van Buitenen (1996). "The Archaism of the Bhāgavata Purāṇa". In S.S Shashi. Encyclopedia Indica. pp. 28–45. ISBN 978-81-7041-859-7.  ^ Sheridan, Daniel (1986). The Advaitic Theism of the Bhagavata Purana. Columbia, Mo: South Asia Books. ISBN 81-208-0179-2.  ^ Karen Pechilis Prentiss (2000). The Embodiment of Bhakti. Oxford University Press. pp. 17–24. ISBN 978-0-19-535190-3.  ^ David N. Lorenzen. Bhakti
Bhakti
Religion in North India: Community Identity and Political Action. State University of New York Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-1-4384-1126-2.  ^ David N. Lorenzen. Bhakti
Bhakti
Religion in North India: Community Identity and Political Action. State University of New York Press. pp. 107–112. ISBN 978-1-4384-1126-2.  ^ James Lochtefeld (2002), "Urdhvapundra", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N–Z, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0823931798, page 724 ^ Deussen, Paul (1997). Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 789–790. ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7.  ^ Gautam Chatterjee (2003), Sacred Hindu
Hindu
Symbols, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 978-8170173977, pages 11, 42, 57-58 ^ britannica.com Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
Archived 27 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://www.stephen-knapp.com/tilak_why_wear_it.htm ^ Chaitanya Charitamrita: Madhya-lila, 15.106 ^ a b Klostermaier, Klaus K. (2000). Hinduism: A Short History. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-213-9.  ^ a b Valpey, K.R. (2004). The Grammar and Poetics of Murti-Seva: Chaitanya Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Image Worship as Discourse, Ritual, and Narrative. University of Oxford.  ^ SCHWEIG, G.M. (2005). Dance of divine love: The Rasa Lila of Krishna from the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana, India's classic sacred love story. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey; Oxford. p. 10. ISBN 0-691-11446-3.  ^ E. Allen Richardson (2014). Seeing Krishna
Krishna
in America: The Hindu Bhakti
Bhakti
Tradition of Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya
in India
India
and Its Movement to the West. McFarland. pp. 19–21. ISBN 978-0-7864-5973-5.  ^ Klostermaier 1998. ^ Federico Squarcini (2011). Boundaries, Dynamics and Construction of Traditions in South Asia. Anthem Press. pp. 20–27. ISBN 978-0-85728-430-3.  ^ Beck 2012, pp. 74-77. ^ Flood 1996, p. 134-135. ^ a b c d e Flood 1996, p. 123. ^ a b Flood 1996, p. 135. ^ Beck 2012, pp. 70-79. ^ a b Flood 1996, p. 136. ^ Stepehn Knapp, The Four Sampradayas ^ Lochtefeld 2002, p. 143. ^ Flood 1996, p. 143. ^ P. 661 The Ādi-Granth, Or: The Holy
Holy
Scriptures of the Sikhs edited by Ernst Trumpp. Quote: "On my tongue Vishnu, in my eyes Narayana, in my heart dwells Govinda." Adi Granth
Adi Granth
IV.XXV.I ^ Śrivastava 1981, p. 394. ^ Shri Krishna
Krishna
Pranami ^ a b Flood 1996, p. 123-124. ^ a b Welbon 2005a, p. 9501. ^ Welbon 2005a, p. 9502. ^ Jones & Ryan 2007, p. 321-322. ^ N.N.1 1940, p. 7. ^ a b c Welbon 2005b, p. 9509. ^ Jan Gonda (1977), Religious Thought and Practice in Vaikhānasa Viṣṇuism, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 40, No. 3, pages 550-571 ^ a b c d e Hiltebeitel 2013. ^ Flood 1996. ^ a b Flood 1996, p. 113. ^ Doniger 1999, p. 1017. ^ Popular Prakashan 2000, p. 52. ^ Andrea Nippard. "The Alvars" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-04-20.  ^ "Indian Literature Through the Ages". Indian literature , Govt of India. Retrieved 2013-04-20.  ^ "About Alvars". divyadesamonline.com. Archived from the original on 2007-06-21. Retrieved 2007-07-02.  ^ a b Flood 1996, p. 137-138. ^ a b Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5.  ^ a b Flood 1996, p. 135-136. ^ Flood 1996, pp. 133, 136. ^ Flood 1996, p. 136-137. ^ a b Flood 1996, p. 137. ^ a b Kim Skoog (1996). Andrew O. Fort; Patricia Y. Mumme, eds. Living Liberation in Hindu
Hindu
Thought. SUNY Press. pp. 63–84, 236–239. ISBN 978-0-7914-2706-4.  ^ Hindu
Hindu
Encounter with Modernity, by Shukavak N. Dasa " ^ Edwin Bryant, Maria Ekstrand, The Hare Krishna
Krishna
Movement: The Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant (2004) - 448 pages Page 130 ^ Zelliot (1988) p. xviii " Varkari
Varkari
cult is rural and non- Brahman
Brahman
in character" ^ Sand (1990) p. 34 "the more or less anti-ritualistic and anti-brahmanical attitudes of Varkari
Varkari
sampradaya." ^ a b c Michaels 2004, p. 254. ^ Burghart 1983, p. 362. ^ Tattwananda 1984, p. 10. ^ Raj & Harman 2007, p. 165. ^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia 1999. ^ a b Kabir
Kabir
Encyclopædia Britannica (2015)Accessed: July 27, 2015 ^ a b Hugh Tinker (1990). South Asia: A Short History. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 75–77. ISBN 978-0-8248-1287-4. Retrieved 12 July 2012.  ^ Ronald McGregor (1984), Hindi literature from its beginnings to the nineteenth century, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447024136, page 47 ^ Rekha Pande (2014), Divine Sounds from the Heart—Singing Unfettered in their Own Voices, Cambridge Scholars, ISBN 978-1443825252, page 77 ^ Ronald McGregor (1984), Hindi literature from its beginnings to the nineteenth century, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447024136, pages 43–44 ^ WH McLeod (2003), Exploring Sikhism: Aspects of Sikh Identity, Culture, and Thought, Oxford University
Oxford University
Press, ISBN 978-0195658569, pages 19–31 ^ David Lorenzen (1981), Religious change and cultural domination, Colegio Mexico, ISBN 978-9681201081, pages 173–191 ^ J. S. Grewal (2010), WH McLeod and Sikh Studies, Journal of Punjab Studies, Vol. 17, Issue 1–2, page 119, Archive ^ a b Gandhi, Surjit Singh (2008). History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1469-1606 C.E. English: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors Pvt Ltd. pp. 174 to 176. ISBN 8126908572.  ^ Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh (24 Sep 1993). The Feminine Principle in the Sikh Vision of the Transcendent. English: Cambridge University Press. pp. 114–116. ISBN 978-0521432870.  ^ Pashaura Singh and Louis E. Fenech (2014), The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies, Oxford University
Oxford University
Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, page 205 ^ J. S. Grewal (2010), WH McLeod and Sikh Studies, Journal of Punjab Studies, Volume 17, Issue 1–2, page 119 ^ a b c d e Jan Gonda (1970). Visnuism and Sivaism: A Comparison. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-4742-8080-8.  ^ Christopher Partridge (2013). Introduction to World Religions. Fortress Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-8006-9970-3.  ^ Sanjukta Gupta (1 February 2013). Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and Vaisnavism: The Philosophy of Madhusudana Sarasvati. Routledge. pp. 65–71. ISBN 978-1-134-15774-7.  ^ Lai Ah Eng (2008). Religious Diversity in Singapore. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore. p. 221. ISBN 978-981-230-754-5.  ^ Mariasusai Dhavamony (2002). Hindu-Christian Dialogue: Theological Soundings and Perspectives. Rodopi. p. 63. ISBN 90-420-1510-1.  ^ Stephen H Phillips (1995), Classical Indian Metaphysics, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0812692983, page 332 with note 68 ^ Olivelle, Patrick (1992). The Samnyasa Upanisads. Oxford University Press. pp. 4–18. ISBN 978-0195070453.  ^ a b Gavin Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0, pages 162–167 ^ "Shaivas". Overview Of World Religions. Philtar. Retrieved 13 December 2017.  ^ Munavalli, Somashekar (2007). Lingayat Dharma
Dharma
(Veerashaiva Religion) (PDF). Veerashaiva Samaja of North America. p. 83.  ^ Prem Prakash (1998). The Yoga
Yoga
of Spiritual Devotion: A Modern Translation of the Narada
Narada
Bhakti
Bhakti
Sutras. Inner Traditions. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-0-89281-664-4.  ^ Frazier, J. (2013). " Bhakti
Bhakti
in Hindu
Hindu
Cultures". The Journal of Hindu Studies. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. 6 (2): 101–113. doi:10.1093/jhs/hit028.  ^ Lisa Kemmerer; Anthony J. Nocella (2011). Call to Compassion: Reflections on Animal Advocacy from the World's Religions. Lantern. pp. 27–36. ISBN 978-1-59056-281-9.  ^ Frederick J. Simoons (1998). Plants of Life, Plants of Death. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 182–183. ISBN 978-0-299-15904-7.  ^ K. Sivaraman (1973). Śaivism in Philosophical Perspective. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 336–340. ISBN 978-81-208-1771-5.  ^ John A. Grimes, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791430675, page 238 ^ Flood 1996, p. 225. ^ Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy of Religion : Indian Philosophy Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112, pages 245-248 ^ McDaniel, June (2004). Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls. Oxford University Press. pp. 89–91. ISBN 978-0-19-534713-5.  ^ Matthew James Clark (2006). The Daśanāmī-saṃnyāsīs: The Integration of Ascetic Lineages Into an Order. Brill. pp. 177–225. ISBN 978-90-04-15211-3.  ^ Rajendra Prasad (2008). A Conceptual-analytic Study of Classical Indian Philosophy of Morals. Concept. p. 375. ISBN 978-81-8069-544-5.  ^ The global religious landscape: Hindus, Pew Research (2012) ^ L. Dankworth; A. David (2014). Dance Ethnography and Global Perspectives: Identity, Embodiment and Culture. Springer. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-137-00944-9. , Quote: "Klostermaier 1998, p.196 Vaishnavite - devotees of the deity Vishnu, and the largest, numerically, part of mainstream Hinduism, which is divided up into several sects." ^ Steven Rosen (2006). Essential Hinduism. Greenwood. p. xvi. ISBN 978-0-275-99006-0.  ^ Johnson, Todd M; Grim, Brian J (2013). The World's Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography. John Wiley & Sons. p. 400. ISBN 9781118323038.  ^ Julius J. Lipner (2009), Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7, pages 40-41, 302-315, 371-375 ^ Gavin Flood (2008). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 200–203. ISBN 978-0-470-99868-7.  ^ Férdia J. Stone-Davis (2016). Music and Transcendence. Routledge. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-317-09223-0.  ^ David Gordon White (2001). Tantra
Tantra
in Practice. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 308–311. ISBN 978-81-208-1778-4.  ^ B. N. Krishnamurti Sharma (2000). A History of the Dvaita
Dvaita
School of Vedānta and Its Literature: From the Earliest Beginnings to Our Own Times. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 514–521. ISBN 978-81-208-1575-9.  ^ RIDENOUR, Fritz (2001). So What's the Difference?. Gospel Light Publications. pp. 180–181. ISBN 0-8307-1898-2.  ^ Giuliano, Geoffrey (1997). Dark horse: the life and art of George Harrison. New York: Da Capo Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-306-80747-5.  ^ Graham M. Schweig (2005). Dance of Divine Love: The Rڄasa Lڄilڄa of Krishna
Krishna
from the Bhڄagavata Purڄa. na, India's classic sacred love story. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. pp. Front Matter. ISBN 0-691-11446-3.  ^ http://www.unom.ac.in/index.php?route=department/department/deptpage&deptid=73 ^ The World's Sixteen Crucified Saviors
The World's Sixteen Crucified Saviors
by Kersey Graves ^ Jackson, John (1985). Christianity Before Christ. American Atheist Press. p. 166. ISBN 0-910309-20-5. John M. Robertson
John M. Robertson
wrote a learned treatise entitled "Christ and Krishna", and in that work he argued that there was no direct contact between Krishnaism
Krishnaism
and Christianity; but that both sects were derived from an earlier common source. 

Sources[edit] Printed sources[edit]

Anand (1992), Krishna: The Living God
God
of Braj, Abhinav Pubns, p. 162, ISBN 81-7017-280-2  Annangaracariyar, P.B. (1971), Nalayira tivviyap pirapantam, VN Tevanatan  Beck, Guy L. (2005), " Krishna
Krishna
as Loving Husband of God", Alternative Krishnas: Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu
Hindu
Deity, ISBN 978-0-7914-6415-1  Beck, Guy L. (2012), Alternative Krishnas: Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu
Hindu
Deity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-8341-1  Bryant, Edwin Francis (2007), Krishna: A Sourcebook, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-803400-1  Brzezinski, J.K. (1992). "Prabodhananda, Hita Harivamsa and the Radharasasudhanidhi". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 55 (3): 472–497. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00003669. JSTOR 620194.  Burghart, Richard (May 1983), "Wandering Ascetics of the Rāmānandī Sect", History of Religions, The University of Chicago Press, 22 (4): 361–80, doi:10.1086/462930  Chatterjee, Asoke: Srimadbhagavata and Caitanya-Sampradaya. Journal of the Asiatic Society 37/4 (1995)1-14. Francis Clooney; Tony Stewart (2004). Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby, ed. The Hindu
Hindu
World. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-60875-1.  Clementin-Ojha, Catherine: La renaissance du Nimbarka Sampradaya
Nimbarka Sampradaya
au XVIe siècle. Contribution à l'étude d'une secte Krsnaïte. Journal asiatique 278 (1990) 327-376. Couture, André: The emergence of a group of four characters (Vasudeva, Samkarsana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha) in the Harivamsa: points for consideration. Journal of Indian Philosophy 34,6 (2006) 571-585. Dandekar (1977), "Vaishnavism: an overview", in Jones, Lindsay, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion, MacMillan (Reprinted in 2005), ISBN 978-0028657332  Datta, Amaresh (1987), Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: A-Devo, Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 8126018038  Doniger, Wendy (1999), Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, Merriam-Webster  Elkman, S.M.; Gosvami, J. (1986), Jiva
Jiva
Gosvamin's Tattvasandarbha: A Study on the Philosophical and Sectarian Development of the Gaudiya Vaisnava
Vaisnava
Movement, Motilal Banarsidass Pub  Flood, Gavin (1996), An introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0  Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-898723-94-3.  Ganguli, Kalyan Kumar (1988), Sraddh njali, studies in Ancient Indian History. D.C. Sircar Commemoration: Puranic
Puranic
tradition of Krishna, Sundeep Prakashan, ISBN 81-85067-10-4  Gonda, Jan (1993) [1954], Aspects of Early Viṣṇuism, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 978-81-208-1087-7  Guy, John: New evidence for the Jagannatha sect in seventeenth century Nepal. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society [3rd Ser.] 2 (1992) 213-230. Hacker, Paul (1978), Lambert Schmithausen, ed., Zur Entwicklung der Avataralehre (in German), Otto Harrassowitz, ISBN 978-3447048606  Hardy, Friedhelm E.: Krsnaism. In: The Encyclopedia of Religion 8 (Ed. Mircea Eliade) (1987) 387/2 - 392/1 Hawley, John Stratton: Three Bhakti
Bhakti
Voices. Mirabai, Surdas, and Kabir in Their Time and Ours. 2nd impression. Oxford 2006 Hiltebeitel, Alf (2013), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge  Hudson, D. (1993). " Vasudeva
Vasudeva
Krsna in Theology and Architecture: A Background to Srivaisnavism". Journal of Vaisnava
Vaisnava
Studies (2). Jackson, W.J. (1992), "A Life Becomes a Legend: Sri Tyagaraja
Tyagaraja
as Exemplar", Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 60 (4): 717–736, doi:10.1093/jaarel/lx.4.717, JSTOR 1465591  Jackson, W.J. (1991), Tyagaraja: Life and Lyrics, Oxford University Press, USA  Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2007), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Infobase Publishing, ISBN 0816075646  Anna King (2005). The intimate other: love divine in Indic religions. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-250-2801-7.  Kinsley, David (2005). Lindsay Jones, ed. Gale's Encyclopedia of Religion. 2 (Second ed.). Thomson Gale. ISBN 0-02-865735-7.  Klostermaier, K.K. (1998), A concise encyclopedia of Hinduism, Oneworld  Klostermaier, Klaus K. (2007), A Survey of Hinduism, State University of New York Press; 3rd edition, ISBN 0-7914-7081-4  Lochtefeld, James G. (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M, The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1  Matchett, Freda (2001). Krishna, Lord or Avatara?: the relationship between Krishna
Krishna
and Vishnu. Routledge. ISBN 978-0700712816.  Matchett, Freda (2000), Krsna, Lord or Avatara? the relationship between Krsna and Visnu: in the context of the Avatara myth as presented by the Harivamsa, the Visnupurana and the Bhagavatapurana, Surrey: Routledge, p. 254, ISBN 0-7007-1281-X  Michaels, Alex (2004), Hinduism: Past and Present (English translation of the book first published in Germany under the title Der Hinduismus: Geschichte und Gegenwart (Verlag, 1998) ed.), Princeton: Princeton University Press  Mishra, Baba: Radha
Radha
and her contour in Orissan culture. In: Orissan history, culture and archaeology. In Felicitation of Prof. P.K. Mishra. Ed. by S. Pradhan. (Reconstructing Indian History & Culture 16). New Delhi 1999; pp. 243–259 Monius, Anne E.: Dance Before Doom. Krishna
Krishna
In The Non-Hindu Literature of Early Medieval South India. In: Beck, Guy L., ed. Alternative Krishnas. Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu Deity. Albany: State University of New York Press 2005; pp. 139–149 Mullick, Bulloram (1898), Krishna
Krishna
and Krishnaism, S.K. Lahiri & Co  Patel, Gautam: Concept of God
God
According to Vallabhacarya. In: Encyclopaedia of Indian Wisdom. Prof. Satya
Satya
Vrat Shastri Felicitation Volume. Vol. 2. Editor: Ramkaran Sharma. Delhi, Varanasi 2005, pp. 127–136 Avinash Patra (2011). Origin & Antiquity of the Cult of Lord Jagannath. Oxford University
Oxford University
Press.  Pauwels, Heidi: Paradise Found, Paradise Lost: Hariram Vyas's Love for Vrindaban and what Hagiographers made of it. In: Pilgrims, Patrons, and Place: Localizing Sanctity in Asian Religions. Ed. by Phyllis Granoff and Koichi Shinohara. (Asian Religions and Society Series). Vancouver, Toronto 2003; pp. 124–180. Popular Prakashan (2000), Students' Britannica India, Volumes 1-5, Popular Prakashan  Redington, James D.: Elements of a Vallabhite Bhakti-synthesis. Journal of the American Oriental Society 112 (1992) 287-294 Rosen, Steven (2002), The hidden glory of India, Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, ISBN 0-89213-351-1  Rosenstein, Ludmila L.: The Devotional Poetry of Svami Haridas. A Study of Early Braj
Braj
Bhasa Verse. (Groningen Oriental Studies 12). Groningen 1997 Roy Chaudhury, H.C.; Prajnananda, S. (2002), "Further Reading", Encyclopedia of Modern Asia  Schwartz, Susan (2004), Rasa: performing the divine in India, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-13145-3  Schweig, G.M. (2005), Dance of divine love: The Rasa Lila of Krishna from the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana, India's classic sacred love story, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-11446-3  Schweig, G.M. (2013), "Krishna. The IntimateDeity", in Bryant, Edwin; Ekstrand, Maria, The Hare Krishna
Krishna
Movement: The Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant, Columbia University Press  Seth, K.P. (1962), " Bhakti
Bhakti
in Alvar
Alvar
Saints", The University Journal of Philosophy  Sheridan, Daniel (1986), The Advaitic Theism of the Bhāgavata Purāṇa, Columbia, Mo: South Asia Books, ISBN 81-208-0179-2  Sinha, K.P.: A critique of A.C.Bhaktivedanta. Calcutta 1997 Śrivastava, Vijai Shankar (1981), Cultural Contours of India: Dr. Satya
Satya
Prakash Felicitation Volume, Abhinav Publications  Tattwananda, Swami (1984), Vaisnava
Vaisnava
Sects, Saiva Sects, Mother Worship (1st revised ed.), Calcutta: Firma KLM Private Ltd., p. 10  N.N.1 (1940), "Apabhraṃśa literature", Gaekwad Oriental Series, Issue 86, Oriental Institute, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda  Welbon, G.R. (2005a), "Vaishnavism: Bhagavatas", in Jones, Lindsay, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion, MacMillan, ISBN 978-0028657332  Welbon, G.R. (2005b), "Vaishnavism: Pancaratras", in Jones, Lindsay, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion, MacMillan, ISBN 978-0028657332 

Web-sources[edit]

^ a b c The Sampradaya
Sampradaya
of Sri Caitanya, by Steven Rosen and William Deadwyler III

Further reading[edit]

Flood, Gavin (1996), An introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0  Bryant, Edwin; Ekstrand, Maria, eds. (2013), The Hare Krishna Movement: The Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant, Columbia University Press 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vaishnavism.

Encyclopædia Britannica, "Vaishnavism" Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
(Tradition of Hinduism) Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
(Heart of Hinduism) Who is Vishnu? Vaishnava
Vaishnava
FAQ (dvaita.org) Nathamuni-Alavandar.org - Dedicated to Shriman Nathamunigal and Shri Alavandar Portal
Portal
for Vaishnav An Exclusive Portal
Portal
dedicated to Vaishnavism Portal
Portal
for Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
eClass Online elearning of Divya prabandham by themes.

v t e

Sampradayas of Vaishnavism

Traditions

Kumara-sampradaya of Nimbarka Brahma Sampradaya of Madhvacharya Sri Sampradaya
Sri Sampradaya
of Ramanuja Rudra
Rudra
sampradaya of Vishnuswami

Vedanta
Vedanta
Philosophies

Dvaitadvaita Dvaita Vishishtadvaita Shuddhadvaita Achintya Bheda Abheda

v t e

Krishna

Forms

Radha
Radha
Krishna Govinda Bala Krishna Jagannath Vithoba Shrinathji Other names

Worship

Krishnaism Vaishnavism Krishna
Krishna
Janmashtami Holi

Holy
Holy
sites

Dvārakā Mathura Vrindavan Gokul Govardhan Hill Puri Udupi Guruvayur Nathdwara Gupta Vrindavan Dakor

Texts

Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana Bhagavad Gita Gita Govinda Mahabharata Brahma
Brahma
Samhita Uddhava Gita

See also

Hinduism Avatar Svayam Bhagavan Vishnu Radha Rukmini Satyabhama

v t e

Avatars of Vishnu

Dashavatara

Matsya Kurma Varaha Narasimha Vamana Parashurama Rama Balarama1 Krishna1 Buddha1 Kalki

Other avatars

Four Kumaras Narada Nara-Narayana Kapila Dattatreya Yajna Rishabha Prithu Dhanvantari Mohini Vyasa Prsnigarbha Hayagriva Hamsa

1 The list of ten avatars varies regionally. The two substitutions involve Balarama, Krishna
Krishna
and Buddha is considered the avatar of Vishnu. Krishna
Krishna
is almost always included; in exceptions, he is considered the source of all avatars.

v t e

Vishnu
Vishnu
temples

Divya Desams

Andhra Pradesh, North India, Nepal

Tirupati
Tirupati
(AP) Ahobilam
Ahobilam
(AP) Muktinath
Muktinath
/ Saligramam (Nepal) Naimisaranya
Naimisaranya
(UP) Mathura
Mathura
(UP) Gokul
Gokul
(UP) Devprayag (UK) Thiruppirithi (UK) Badrinath
Badrinath
(UK) Ayodhya
Ayodhya
(UP) Dwarka
Dwarka
(GU)

Malai Nadu, Kerala

Thiruvananthapuram Thirukatkarai Moozhikkalam Tiruvalla Thirukadithanam Sengunroor Thiruppuliyoor Thiruvaaranvilai Thiruvanvandoor Thiru naavaay Viththuvakkodu

Madurai

Thirumeyyam Thirukoshtiyur Koodal Azhagar Temple Azhagar Kovil Tirumogoor Srivilliputhur Tiruththangal Thiruppullani

Kanchipuram

Tirukkacchi Ashtabujakaram Tiruvekkaa Tiruththanka Tiruvelukkai Tirukalvanoor Tiru oorakam Tiru neeragam Tiru kaaragam Tirukaarvaanam Tiru parameswara vinnagaram Tiru pavala vannam Tiru paadagam Tiru nilaaththingal thundam Thiruputkuzhi

Chennai

Thiruvallikeni Thiruneermalai Thiruvidandai Thirukadalmallai Thiruninravur Thiruvallur Thirukkadigai

Mayiladuthurai
Mayiladuthurai
and Sirkazhi

Thiruvazhunthoor Thiruindaloor Kazheesirama Vinnagaram Thirukkavalampadi Thiruchsemponsey Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram Thiru Vanpurushothamam Thiruvaikunda vinnagaram Thirumanimadam Thiruthevanartthogai Thiruthetriyambalam Thirumanikkoodam Thiruvellakkulam Thiruppaarththanpalli Thalai Sanga Nanmathiyam Thiruchsirupuliyur Thiruvali-Thirunagari

Thanjavur

Thiruccithra kootam Thirukkannangudi Thirunagai Thiru Thanjai Tirukkoilur Thirukkoodaloor Thiru Kavith Thalam Thiru Adhanoor Thirupullabhoothangudi Thirukkudandhai Thiruccherai Thirunandipura Vinnagaram ThiruNaraiyoor Thiruvinnagar Thiruvelliyangudi Thirukkanamangai Thirukkkannapuram Thirukkandiyur

Trichy

Srirangam Thirukkozhi Thirukkarambanoor Thiruvellarai Thiru Anbil Thirupper Nagar Thiruvanthipuram

Tirunelveli

Thiruvaramangai Thirukkurungudi Srivaikundam Thiruvaragunamangai Thiruppulingudi Thirukkurugoor Thirutthulaivillimangalam Thirukkoloor Thirukkulandhai Thentirupperai

Kanyakumari

Thiruvattaru Thiruvanparisaram

Vinnulagam (Outside the Earthly realm)

Thirupaarkadal Thiruparamapadham

Other

Guruvayur Ambalappuzha Bhadrachalam Annavaram Dwaraka Tirumala Gunaseelam Puri Simhachalam Shivanasamudra Srirangapatna

Pancharanga Kshetram

Tripunithura Thirunelli Udupi Varkala Vishnupad Mandir Vishnuprayag

Panch Prayag

v t e

Hinduism
Hinduism
topics

Glossary

Philosophy

Concepts

Brahman Om Ishvara Atman Maya Karma Samsara

Purusharthas

Dharma Artha Kama Moksha

Niti

Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Dāna Damah Dayā Akrodha

Schools

Astika: Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Dvaita Advaita Vishishtadvaita

Nastika: Charvaka

Texts

Classification

Śruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Aitareya Kaushitaki Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Maitri Shvetashvatara Chandogya Kena Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Vedanga

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Other

Bhagavad Gita Agamas Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Puranas Minor Upanishads Artha
Artha
Shastra Dharma
Dharma
Shastra

Manusmriti Nāradasmṛti Yājñavalkya Smṛti

Sutras Stotras Subhashita Tantras Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Ishvara Devi Deva Saraswati Lakshmi Parvati Shakti Durga Kali Ganesha Kartikeya Rama Krishna Hanuman Prajapati Rudra Indra Agni Dyaus Bhumi Varuna Vayu

Practices

Worship

Temple Murti Puja Bhakti Japa Bhajana Naivedhya Yajna Homa Tapa Dhyana Tirthadana

Sanskaras

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Varnashrama

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Ashrama

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sanyassa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Raksha Bandhan Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
(Dasara)

Ganesh Chaturthi Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Pongal Makar Sankranti New Year

Bihu Gudi Padwa Pahela Baishakh Puthandu Vaisakhi Vishu Ugadi

Kumbha Mela Ratha Yatra Teej Vasant Panchami Others

Other

Svādhyāya Namaste Bindi Tilaka

Related

Hindu Denominations Law Calendar Criticism Gurus, saints, philosophers Hindu
Hindu
studies Iconography Mythology Nationalism

Hindutva

Persecution Pilgrimage sites Glossary Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

.