The State Railways of the Turkish Republic (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları) or TCDD is the government-owned national railway carrier in the Republic of Turkey, headquartered in Ankara. The TCDD was formed on 1 June 1927 by the Turkish government to take over the administration of the existing rail lines within the borders of the Republic of Turkey after the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, and to build new ones.
The Turkish State Railways own and operate all public railways in Turkey. In 2011, TCDD controlled 12,532 km (7,787 mi) of railways, making it the 22nd-largest railway system in the world. In 2014, TCDD carried 78 million passengers (ranking as the 24th-largest passenger carrier in the world) and 26 million tons of freight (ranking as the 34th-largest freight carrier in the world). In 2009, the Turkish State Railways employed 25,593 people.
After World War I and the Turkish Independence War, the Republic of Turkey was a new-formed country. Even though Turkey had a railway network, most of it was operated by foreign companies. The State Railways of the Republic of Turkey (TCDD) was formed on 31 May 1927. TCDD took over the Chemin de fer d'Anatolie-Baghdad, a holding company formed in 1924 by Turkey to take over some rail lines in Turkey, on 1 June 1927 and had control over the tracks of the former Anatolian Railway (CFOA) and the Transcaucasus Railway line in Turkish borders. TCDD now had rail lines to the cities İstanbul, İzmit, Ankara, Afyon, Adapazarı and Konya. On 1 January 1929, TCDD took over the rail line from Mersin to Adana (formerly the Mersin-Tarsus-Adana Railway). Apart from taking over already built lines, TCDD needed to build more line because many important cities were still not serviced by rail. In 1926, TCDD started to build a rail line east to Sivas, reaching Kayseri in 1927 and Sivas in 1930. TCDD continued to acquire from the other rail companies; taking over the Mudanya-Bursa Railway in 1931, the Smyrna Cassaba Railway in 1934, the Ottoman Railway Company in 1935 and the Oriental Railway in 1937. With most of the railways in Turkey under TCDD control, TCDD connected lines such as Kütahya with Balıkesir in 1932 and the former SCP line in Afyon with the former CFOA line. In 1932 TCDD completed the railway to Samsun heading north at Sivas. TCDD continued to build lines, reaching Zonguldak, Erzurum, Erzincan, Diyarbakır and Elazığ in the following years. World War II broke out in 1938, slowing down the building. Between 1938 and 1996 TCDD building decreased. The railway only extended to Gaziantep (1955) and Van (1962).
In 1948 the State Railways released a plan of railway lines that were to be constructed to "ensure national progression and safety". The plan included 5,538 km (3,441 mi) of new railway lines that only 96 km (60 mi) were actually completed; the Gaziantep-Karkamış section of the Narlı-Nusaybin railway was completed in 1960.
|Revenue||2 billion (2015)|
|1.26 billion (2014)|
|−1.5 billion (2015)|
|Owner||Republic of Turkey|
Number of employees
|Website||TCDD Official Website – Homepage (English/Turkish)|
The Turkish State Railways operate most trains in the country. Intercity, regional, suburban, freight and most industrial lines are owned and operated by the State Railways. The only other railways in Turkey include İZBAN (TCDD holds 50% of the company's shares) which operates commuter rail service around İzmir and a few other industrial railways. In addition to rail services, TCDD has been responsible since 1927 for operating several major ports which handle 30% of Turkish port activities.
The Turkish State Railways operate passenger services on 90% of their system. These are intercity, regional, commuter and international services. In the railways first year 52% of passenger travel in Turkey was by rail, despite the system lacking connections to many parts of the country. Rail transport was the main mode of transport for passengers in the following two decades, reaching an all-time high of 57% of passenger transport in 1947, but then started to decline after 1950, due to the mass construction of roads. Today, the passenger ratio is slowly increasing with the opening of high-speed rail lines in Turkey.
In 2013, almost 21 million of people traveled by train in Turkey. 16.7 million on main lines, 4.2 million on high speed lines (25% increase compared to 2012). The share of railway in domestic travels is about 2.2%.
The types of passenger service are:
High-speed rail in Turkey began service in 2009. TCDD has branded its high-speed service as Yüksek Hızlı Tren or YHT. YHT currently operates on two lines: the Ankara–Istanbul high-speed railway and the Ankara–Konya high-speed railway. They had previously tried accelerated train, i.e. higher speed rail without necessary upgrades.
On 13 March 2009, the first phase of the Ankara–Istanbul high-speed railway entered service between Ankara and Eskişehir. The YHT service between Ankara and the Pendik railway station in Istanbul's Asian side began on 27 July 2014. The train has 6 daily departures in both directions. On 23 August 2011, the YHT service on the Ankara–Konya high-speed railway was inaugurated.
High-speed rail in Turkey is still developing, with two lines under construction and many more planned. Once the line to İstanbul is completed, travel between Ankara and İstanbul will drop to 3 and a half hours, compared to 5 hours by car. By 2023, the Ministry of Transport expects Turkey's high-speed rail system to increase to 10,000 kilometers.
Mainline service (Turkish: Anahat) is the railway's main service. In 2010 mainline services made up for 24% of the railways passenger traffic. Mainline service includes 3 types of trains: Express, Blue Train and Passenger.
Express service is between major cities and are fast, comfortable and equipped with modern air conditioned TVS2000 railcars and only stop at important stations. Express trains have an average operating speed of 100 km/h (62 mph) to 120 km/h (75 mph). The most express service is between İstanbul and Eskişehir with 8 trains daily in each direction. Express service also has overnight trains between major cities far apart (e.g. İstanbul-Kars). These trains have coaches, a dining car and a sleeping car or a couchette car or sometimes both.
The TVS2000 railcars used on mainline service are the most comfortable cars in TCDD's entire fleet. TVS2000 railcars may also be used on International service because international services are considered mainline services within Turkey.
As of 2011, the Turkish State Railways operate commuter rail in İstanbul and Ankara, with previous commuter service in İzmir from up to 2006, which is now operated by İZBAN. The railways use the E14000 and the E23000 EMUs on their commuter services. Previously, the newly retired E8000 EMUs and the E4000 electric locomotives were used as well. The first commuter rail service in Turkey was the İstanbul-Halkalı Line on the European side of İstanbul, operating from Sirkeci Terminal to Halkalı in 1955.
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From 1980 onwards, rail freight tonne-kilometers transported by the TCDD rose slightly from ~5000million tonne-km in 1980 to ~7000million tonne-km in 1990 and to ~9000million tonne-km in 2000. Approximately 50% of freight moved is minerals or ores, with construction materials increasing to ~10% in 2000 from less than 5% in 1980, food/agricultural products, chemicals/petroleum, and metal sectors each account for between 5 and 10%. International freight accounted for approximately 5% of totals in 2000.
As of 2012, 25.7 million ton is transported by rail in Turkey. Two steel companies, Erdemir and Kardemir, top 2 customers of TCDD, had transported 4.5 million ton in 2012, mainly iron ore and coal. 2.1 million tons of rail freight belong to international traffic. Most of international traffic is between Turkey and Europe, done via Kapikule. Several container trains are running in this route as well as conventional wagons.
As of 2014, 26.6 million ton is transported on rail in Turkey. 7.1 million of it is done by private wagons. International transport went down to 1.7 million.
Containers are widely used both in international and domestic transportation. 7.6 million ton is carried in containers. TCDD is supporting transportation by containers. Thus almost all of the private railway companies invested in container wagons, and carrying 20% of all rail freight by their own wagons.
TCDD has plans to strengthen freight traffic by adding 4000 km conventional lines until 2023. That includes new international rail connections to Georgia, Iraq and Iran. TCDD is also constructing 18 logistic centers to enable transportation of more loads by rail.
TCDD is planning to increase its transit traffic (11000 to in 2011) by constructing "iron silk road" to connect Europe to Asia. Marmaray is the most important part of this project which was completed in 2015 and now in service. Another project is Kars–Tbilisi–Baku railway which is planned to be completed in 2016 and start functioning in 2017. Also, plans for another supplying project to Kars-Tbilisi-Baku railway, the Kars-Igdir-Nakhcivan high speed railway has been completed. TCDD wants to have share from the freight traffic between Europe and China through this line.
The State Railways own and operate seven ports throughout the country and has connections to two more ports. The ports TCDD owns are the Port of Haydarpaşa in Istanbul on the southern mouth of the Bosphorus, the Port of Izmir on the Aegean Sea, the Port of Mersin and the Port of İskenderun on the Mediterranean Sea, the Port of Bandırma on the Sea of Marmara, the Port of Derince on the Gulf of İzmit, and the Port of Samsun on the Black Sea. The railways have connections to the Port of Zonguldak, owned by Türkiye Taşkömürü Kurumu (Turkish Coal Company), the Port of Tekkeköy and the Port of Tekirdağ, owned by AKPORT AŞ. In 2004, the privatization of all ports except Haydarpaşa began.
The ports TCDD owns are the most important in Turkey. The country's five largest ports are owned by the state railways. The Port of Haydarpaşa will soon be decommissioned, when the Marmaray project is complete.
Since 1950, the railway system's market share of freight transportation dropped from 70% to ~55% (1960), ~25% (1970), ~10% (1980, 1990) and to less than 10% in 2000. A similar trend was observed in the percentage of passenger transport performed by rail – dropping from a share of greater than 40% in 1950 to ~25% in 1960; less than 10% in 1970; ~5% by 1980; and reaching an all-time low of 2% by 2000. This was partly due to major investment and expansion in the road network.
The TCDD receives subsidies from the government for socially necessary operations, but has registered increasing losses in all its areas of business except for port operations; which have high port tariffs (higher than 36%). By 2000, the cost to the Turkish government had exceeded $500 million per year in addition to a subsidy of over $100 million. In addition to the problems caused by the lack of investment from 1950 onwards, the TCDD organisation has been characterised as suffering from the common problems associated with state-owned enterprises; i.e. emphasis on production rather than customer needs; subject to government reliance and interference; and an inward-looking corporate culture.
As of 2008, the amount of freight transported was the highest ever (18.343 million tonne-kilometers); though actual growth was small over the previous 10 years, and passenger figures had risen slightly overall over the past decade.
As of 2008, the TCDD administers the Ankara Railway Factory, Sivas Concrete Sleeper factory, Afyon Concrete Sleeper factory, Behiçbey rail welding and track machinery repair factory and Çankırı Switch factory. Additionally, the state owned companies TÜLOMSAŞ, TÜDEMSAŞ and TÜVASAŞ are affiliates. The TCDD has a 50% share in the İzmir Banliyö Taşımacılığı Sistemi A.Ş. (İZBAN A.Ş.) which operates the metro in İzmir, and a 15% share in EUROTEM.
|DE18000||18001-18005||1970||1970||Diesel Electric||1800 hp (1320 kW)||MTE|
|DE24000||24001-24418||1970–84||1970–84||Diesel Electric||2360 hp (1760 kW)||TÜLOMSAŞ (MTE)||Ordered for TCDD's complete dieselization of its fleet|
|DE18100||18101-18120||1978||1978||Diesel Electric||1800 hp (1320 kW)||MTE||Ordered for use in District 3|
|DE11000||11001-11085||1985||1985||Diesel Electric||1065 hp (780 kW)||Krauss-Maffei, TÜLOMSAŞ||First 20 built by Krauss-Maffei later 60 built by TÜLOMSAŞ|
|DE22000||22001-22086||1985–89||1985–89||Diesel Electric||2200 hp (1620 kW)||TÜLOMSAŞ (Electro-Motive Division)|
|DH7000||7001–7020||1994||1994||Diesel Hydraulic||710 hp (522 kW)||TÜLOMSAŞ|
|DH9500||9501–9526||1999||1999||Diesel Hydraulic||950 hp (700 kW)||TÜLOMSAŞ||Diesel-hydraulic redesign of TCDD DE11000 to work around short of spare parts for the traction motors of TCDD DE11000|
|DE33000||33001-33089||2003–04||2003–04||Diesel Electric||3300 hp (2463 kW)||TÜLOMSAŞ (Electro-Motive Diesel)||Based on the DE22000|
|DE36000||36001-36020||2013–||2013–||Diesel Electric||3600 hp (2680 kW)||TÜLOMSAŞ (General Electric)||GE PowerHaul type|
|E43000||43001-43045||1987||1987||Electric||4260 hp (3180 kW)||TÜLOMSAŞ (Toshiba)|
|E68000||68001-68080||2013–||2013–||Electric||6800 hp (5000 kW)||Hyundai Rotem, TÜLOMSAŞ||First 8 built by Hyundai Rotem, later 72 are being build by TÜLOMSAŞ|
|E1000||1000||2015–||2016–||Electric||1360 hp (1000 kW)||TÜBİTAK MAM, TÜLOMSAŞ||Prototype, mainly used for shunting operations (electric-only adaptation of TCDD DE 11000)|
|MT15000||15001-15012||2008||DMU||650 kW||Hyundai Rotem||Used for regional services|
|MT15400||15401-15452||2011–||DMU||650 kW||TÜVASAŞ||Used for regional services|
|E23000||23001-23033||2009–????||EMU||EUROTEM||Will be used for Başkentray commuter rail|
|HT65000||65001-65012||2009–????||EMU||4800 kW||CAF||TCDD high-speed train sets|
|E32000||32001-32054||2011–????||EMU||EUROTEM||Used for Marmaray commuter rail|
|HT80000||800001 & 80101-80106||2013–2016||EMU||8000 kW||Siemens||TCDD high-speed train sets|
|MT5600||1990||Railcar||TÜVASAŞ||Used for regional services|
|MT5700||1993||Railcar||Fiat||Used for regional services|
|Intercity Fleet||1980–90||Coach, Couchette, Diner, Generator||TÜVASAŞ|
|TVS2000||1992||Coach, Diner, Couchette, Sleeper, Generator||TÜVASAŞ|
|DH33100||33101-33105||1953||1953||Diesel Hydraulic||350 hp (260 kW)||MaK||TCDD's first diesel locomotive.|
|DH44100||44101-44106||1955||1955||Diesel Hydraulic||800 hp (590 kW)||MaK|
|DE20000||20001-20005||1957–58||1957–58||Diesel Electric||1800 hp (1320 kW)||General Electric|
|DH6000||6001||1959||1959||Diesel Hydraulic||610 hp (445 kW)||Jenbacher||Type DH600C|
|DH4100||4101||1960||1960||Diesel Hydraulic||410 hp (300 kW)||Jenbacher||Type DH400C|
|DH6500||6501–6540||1960||1960||Diesel Hydraulic||650 hp (480 kW)||Krupp|
|DE21500||21501-21540||1964–65||1965||Diesel Electric||1580 hp (2150 kW)||General Electric|
|DH3600||3601–3624||1968||1968||Diesel Hydraulic||350 hp (260 kW)||MaK||Based on the DE22000.|
|DH11500||11501-11511||1960||1982||Diesel Hydraulic||1100 hp (810 kW)||MaK||Acquired from Deutsche Bahn in 1982.|
|E4000||4001–4003||1955||1955||Electric||2170 hp (1620 kW)||Alsthom||Ordered for use on TCDD's first electrified line.|
|E40000||40001-40015||1969||1971–1973||Electric||???? hp (2945 kW)||Alsthom and TÜVASAŞ (Groupement 50 Hz)|
|E52500||52501-52520||1967||1998–2005||Electric||5180 hp (3860 kW)||Končar (ASEA)||Originally built in 1967 as class 441, acquired and overhauled by TCDD in 1998. Returned after loan contract end.|
|E14000||14001-14075||1979||EMU||1040 kW||TÜVASAŞ (Groupement 50 Hz)|
|MT5400||5401–5420||1954||Railcar||340 hp||SCF Verney|
TCDD directly owns and operates 8,697 km (5,404 mi) of common carrier lines, of which 1,920 km (1,190 mi) are electrified, throughout 57 provinces. Along with this, the railways own and operate over 240 km (150 mi) of industrial lines and 206 km (128 mi) of high-speed lines, with 574 km (357 mi) of lines under construction. As of 2010, the railways consist of 763 tunnels, 25,441 bridges, 17 wyes and 7 loops. The railway's fleet consists of 467 main line Diesel locomotives, 67 Electric locomotives, 860 passenger coaches, 135 MUs, 33 High-speed rail sets and 15,384 freight cars. TCDD also owns 3 rail ferries.
Turkey has chosen to electrify at the conventional 25 kV 50 Hz AC. The first electrified lines were the Istanbul suburban lines on the European side, from Sirkeci to Soğuksu, on 4 December 1955, and in the same period the E8000 electrical multiple units were taken into use. The suburban lines on the Asian side of Istanbul, from Haydarpaşa to Gebze, were electrified in 1969; while the Ankara suburban trains were electrified in 1972, on the line from Sincan to Kayaş.
On 6 February 1977 the tracks from Gebze to Adapazarı were made double track and electrified, allowing the first main line operation of electric trains in Turkey. The line from Arifiye outside Adapazarı to Eskişehir were further electrified in 1989 and in 1993 to Sincan, allowing electric train passages from Istanbul to Ankara. In 1994 the European lines from Istanbul to Edirne, Kapıkule and the Bulgarian border were also electrified. The same year the line from Divriği to İskenderun in eastern Turkey was also electrified, though this line is not connected to the rest of the electrified network. In 2006 the İzmir suburban system was also electrified.
TCDD is constructing 18 logistic centers to be completed till 2023 to increase the portion of railway in freight transportation. These centers (also called as freight villages) will have railway connected container yards, cranes, warehouses, customs service and other facilities. These 18 logistic centers are: Halkali, Samsun-Gelemen, Usak (completed) Kosekoy-Izmit, Hasanbey-Eskisehir, Kaklik-Denizli, Bogazkopru-Kayseri (partially completed) Yesilbayır-Istanbul, Template:Gökköy Logistics Center -Balikesir, Bozuyuk-Bilecek, Kayacik-Konya, Yenice-Mersin, Sivas, Turkoglu-Kahramanmaras, Kars, Palandoken-Erzurum, Mardin (under construction)
TCDD owns and operates many facilities throughout Turkey. These facilities are; yards for storing freight and passenger cars, depots and locomotive shops for repair and maintenance and freight facilities for transferring or storing freight.
Güvercinlik Yard in central Ankara is the largest railway facility in Turkey. This multi-use facility includes a marshaling yard, passenger yard, 3 repair shops, for passenger cars, freight cars and locomotives, freight transfer terminal and a grain silo siding. The Haydarpaşa Yard is the second largest yard in Turkey, consisting of a freight yard, passenger yard, 3 maintenance shops for locomotives, passenger cars and freight cars, and a loop for trains.
The Turkish State Railways own and operate two rail train ferries and connects to three others.
The most famous of these would be the Bosphorus train ferry in İstanbul. This ferry connects Haydarpaşa, on the Asian side, with Sirkeci, on the European side. Demiryolu and Demiryolu II are the two ferries that operate on the route and are owned by TCDD.
By starting the project of Marmaray, TCDD ended the Bosphorus train ferry and announced an alternative ferry for the freight trains passing from Europe to Asia or vice versa: Tekirdağ-Derince Ferry. It's a private ferry named Erdemir working as a subcontractor of TCDD. Ferry did trials in 2012, and had started regular transportation at the end of 2013. Ferry has 5 lines with 800-meter total length.
The other train ferry owned by TCDD would be the Lake Van ferry, connecting Tatvan and Van via Lake Van, Turkey's largest lake. This ferry is a part of the only railway connection between Turkey and Iran, and thereby between Europe and India. Van is the name of the ferry that operates on the route and is also fully owned by TCDD.
Other train ferries:
The Turkish State Railways currently has many network extension and modernization projects planned. TCDD is seeing the largest investment since the 1930s and with these investments is constructing new lines, primarily high-speed lines.
In addition to 5000 km high-speed line, Turkish Ministry of Transportation announced the construction of 4000 km new conventional rail lines as a part of 2023 strategy.
TCDD has also been renewing the existing lines, some to be electrified, signalized and/or made double tracked. The budget for renewals and infrastructure of existing lines is more than 1 billion TL in 2014.
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