TRIESTE (/triːˈɛst/ ; Italian pronunciation: listen (help
·info ); Slovene : Trst) is a city and seaport in northeastern Italy
. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of Italian
territory lying between the
Adriatic Sea and
Slovenia , which lies
almost immediately south and east of the city. It is also located near
Croatia some further 30 kilometres (19 mi) south.
Trieste is located
at the head of the
Gulf of Trieste
Gulf of Trieste and throughout history it has been
influenced by its location at the crossroads of Latin , Slavic , and
Germanic cultures. In 2009, it had a population of about 205,000 and
it is the capital of the autonomous region
Friuli-Venezia Giulia and
Province of Trieste .
Trieste was one of the oldest parts of the
Habsburg Monarchy ,
belonging to it from 1382 until 1918. In the 19th century, it was the
most important port of one of the
Great Powers of Europe. As a
prosperous seaport in the
Trieste became the
fourth largest city of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire (after
Budapest , and
Prague ). In the fin de siècle period at the end of
the 19th century it emerged as an important hub for literature and
Trieste underwent an economic revival during the 1930s, and
Trieste was an important spot in the struggle between the Eastern and
Western blocs after the
Second World War
Second World War .
Today, the city is in one of the richest regions of
Italy , and has
been a great centre for shipping, through the
Port of Trieste ,
shipbuilding and financial services.
* 1 Names and etymology
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 3 City districts
* 4 History
* 4.1 Ancient history
* 4.2 Late Antiquity
* 4.3 Middle Ages
* 4.4 Early modern period
* 4.5 19th century
* 4.6 20th century
* 4.7 World War I, annexation to
Italy and the Fascist era
World War II
World War II and aftermath
* 4.9 Zone A of the
Free Territory of Trieste (1947–54)
* 6 Demographics
* 7 Language
* 8 Main sights
* 8.1 Castles
* 8.1.1 Castello Miramare (Miramare Castle)
* 8.1.2 Castel San Giusto (Castle of San Giusto)
* 8.2 Places of worship
* 8.3 Archaeological remains
* 8.3.1 Roman theatre
* 8.4 Caves
* 8.5 Others
* 9 Culture
* 9.1 Media
* 9.2 Education
* 9.3 Sports
* 9.4 Film
* 10 Transport
* 10.1 Maritime transport
* 10.2 Rail transport
* 10.3 Air transport
* 10.4 Local transport
* 11 Notable people
* 12 International relations
* 12.1 Sister cities and twin towns
* 13 See also
* 14 Notes
* 15 References
* 16 External links
NAMES AND ETYMOLOGY
Names of Trieste in different languages
The original pre-Roman name of the city, Tergeste, with the -est-
suffix typical of Illyrian , is speculated to be derived from a
hypothetical Venetic word *terg- "market", etymologically related to
Old Church Slavonic tьrgъ "market" (whence Slovenian and Croatian
trg, tržnica, and the Scandinavian borrowing torg). Roman authors
also transliterated the name as Tergestum. Modern names of the city
include: Italian : Trieste, Slovene : Trst, German : Triest, Hungarian
: Trieszt, Croatian : Trst, Serbian : Трст/Trst, Greek :
Τεργέστη/Tergesti and Czech : Terst.
Trieste lies in the northernmost part of the high Adriatic in
northeastern Italy, near the border with
Slovenia . The city lies on
the Gulf of Trieste. Satellite view of
Built mostly on a hillside that becomes a mountain, Trieste's urban
territory lies at the foot of an imposing escarpment that comes down
abruptly from the
Karst Plateau towards the sea. The karst landforms
close to the city reach an elevation of 458 metres (1,503 feet) above
sea level .
It lies on the borders of the Italian geographical region, the Balkan
Peninsula , and the
The territory of
Trieste is composed of several different climate
zones depending on the distance from the sea and elevation. The
average temperatures are 5.4 °C (42 °F) in January and 23.3 °C (74
°F) in July. The climatic setting of the city is humid subtropical
climate (Cfa according to
Köppen climate classification ). On
average, humidity levels are pleasantly low (~65%), while only two
months (January it is noteworthy that no true summer drought occurs.
Snow occurs on average 0 – 2 days per year. Temperatures are very
mild - lows below zero are somewhat rare and highs above 30 °C (86
°F) aren't as common as in other parts of Italy. Winter maxima are
lower than in typical
Mediterranean zone (~ 5 - 11 °C) with quite
high minima (~2 - 8 °C). Two basic weather patterns interchange -
sunny, sometimes windy but often very cold days frequently connected
to an occurrence of northeast wind called Bora as well as rainy days
with temperatures about 6 to 11 °C (43 to 52 °F). Summer is very
warm with maxima about 28 °C (82 °F) and lows above 20 °C (68 °F),
with the hot nights being influenced by the warm sea water. The
absolute maximum of the last fifty years is 37.2 °C (99 °F) in 2003,
whereas the absolute minimum is − 14.6 °C (6 °F) in 1956.
Trieste area is divided into 8a-10a zones according to USDA
Villa Opicina (320 to 420 MSL) with 8a in upper
suburban area down to 10a in especially shielded and windproof valleys
close to the Adriatic sea.
The climate can be severely affected by the Bora , a very dry and
usually cool north-to-northeast katabatic wind that can last for
several days and reach speeds of up to 140 km/h (87 mph), thus
sometimes bringing subzero temperatures to the entire city.
CLIMATE DATA FOR TRIESTE BARCOLA
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM)
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico dell\'Aeronautica Militare, data
Source #2: Rivista Ligure "La neve sulle coste del Maditerraneo"
Seven sections of
Trieste is administratively divided in seven districts:
* Altipiano Ovest: Borgo San Nazario · Contovello (Kontovel) ·
Prosecco (Prosek) · Santa Croce (Križ)
* Altipiano Est: Banne (Bani) · Basovizza (Bazovica) · Gropada
(Gropada) · Opicina (Opčine) · Padriciano (Padriče) · Trebiciano
Barcola (Slovene : Barkovlje) · Cologna (Slovene : Kolonja) ·
Conconello (Ferlugi) · Gretta (Slovene : Greta) · Grignano (Grljan)
· Guardiella (Slovene : Verdelj) · Miramare · Roiano (Slovene :
Rojan) · Scorcola (Škorklja)
* Barriera Nuova ·
Borgo Giuseppino · Borgo Teresiano · Città
Nuova · Città Vecchia · San Vito · San Giusto · Campi Elisi ·
Sant'Andrea · Cavana
* Barriera Vecchia (Stara Mitnica) · San Giacomo (Sveti Jakob) ·
Santa Maria Maddalena Superiore (Sveta Marija Magdalena Zgornja)
* Cattinara (Katinara) · Chiadino (Slovene : Kadinj) · San Luigi
· Guardiella (Verdelj) · Longera (Slovene : Lonjer) · San Giovanni
Rozzol (Slovene : Rocol) · Melara
* Chiarbola (Slovene : Čarbola) · Coloncovez (Kolonkovec) ·
Santa Maria Maddalena Inferiore (Slovene : Spodnja Sveta Marija
Magdalena) - Raute · Santa Maria Maddalena Superiore (Slovene :
Zgornja Sveta Marija Magdalena) · Servola (Škedenj) · Poggi Paese
· Poggi Sant'Anna (Sveta Ana)· Valmaura · Altura · Borgo San
The iconic city center is Piazza Unità d'Italia, which is between
the large 19th-century avenues and the old medieval city, composed of
many narrow and crooked streets.
History of Trieste and
Timeline of Trieste
Remains of a Roman arch in Trieste's Old City
Since the second millennium BC, the location was an inhabited site.
Originally an Illyrian settlement, the Veneti entered the region in
the 10th-9th c. BC and seem to have given the town its name, Tergeste,
since terg* is a Venetic word meaning market (q.v.
ancient name was Opitergium). Still later, the town was later captured
Carni , a tribe of the
Eastern Alps , before becoming part of
Roman republic in 177 BC during the Istrian War .
Between 52 and 46 BC, it was granted the status of Roman colony under
Julius Caesar , who recorded its name as Tergeste in Commentarii de
Bello Gallico (51 BC), his work which recounts events of the Gallic
In imperial times the border of Roman
Italy moved from the Timavo
river to Formione (today Risano). Roman Tergeste flourished due to its
position on the road from
Aquileia , the main Roman city in the area,
Istria , and as a port, some ruins of which are still visible.
Augustus built a line of walls around the city in 33–32 BC,
Trajan built a theatre in the 2nd century. At the same time, the
citizens of the town were enrolled in the tribe Pupinia. In 27 BC,
Trieste was incorporated in Regio X of Augustan Italia.
In the early Christian era
Trieste continued to flourish. Between AD
138 and 161, its territory was enlarged and nearby
Carni and Catali
were granted Roman citizenship by the Roman Senate and Emperor
Antoninus Pius at the pleading of a leading Tergestine citizen, the
quaestor urbanus, Fabius Severus.
The city was witness to the
Battle of the Frigidus in Vipava valley
in AD 397, in which Theodosius defeated Eugene. Despite the deposition
Romulus Augustulus at
Ravenna in 476 and the ascension to power of
Odoacer in Italy,
Trieste was retained for a time by the Roman Emperor
Constantinople , and thus, became a Byzantine military
outpost. In 539, the Byzantines annexed it to the Exarchate of Ravenna
and despite Trieste's being briefly taken by the
Lombards in 567 in
the course of their invasion of northern Italy, held it until the time
of the coming of the Franks .
Trieste submitted to
Charlemagne who placed it under the
authority of their count-bishop who in turn was under the Duke of
Friùli . From 1081 the city came loosely under the Patriarchate of
Aquileia , developing into a free commune by the end of the 12th
During the 13th and 14th centuries,
Trieste became a maritime trade
rival to the
Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice which briefly occupied it in
1283–87, before coming under the patronage of the Patriarchate of
Aquileia. After committing a perceived offence against Venice, the
Venetian State declared war against
Trieste in July 1368 and by
November had occupied the city.
Venice intended to keep the city and
began rebuilding its defenses, but was forced to leave in 1372. By the
Turin in 1381,
Venice renounced its claim to
Trieste and the
leading citizens of
Trieste petitioned Leopold III of
Habsburg , Duke
Austria , to make
Trieste part of his domains. The agreement of
voluntary submission (dedizione) was signed at the castle of
30 September 1382.
The city maintained a high degree of autonomy under the Habsburgs,
but was increasingly losing ground as a trade hub, both at the expense
Venice and Ragusa (
Dubrovnik ). In 1463, a number of Istrian
Venice to attack Trieste.
Trieste was saved
from utter ruin by the intervention of
Pope Pius II
Pope Pius II who had previously
been bishop of
Trieste . However,
Venice limited Trieste's territory
to three miles (4.8 kilometres) outside the city.
Trieste would be
assaulted again in 1468-1469 by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III . His
sack of the city is remembered as the "Destruction of Trieste."
Trieste was fortunate to be spared another sack in 1470 by the
Ottomans who burned the village of Prosecco, only about 5.3 miles (8.5
kilometres) from Trieste, while on their way to attack
Trieste in the 17th century, in a contemporary image by the Carniolan
Johann Weikhard von Valvasor
EARLY MODERN PERIOD
Following an unsuccessful
Habsburg invasion of
Venice in the prelude
to the 1508–16
War of the League of Cambrai , the Venetians occupied
Trieste again in 1508, and were allowed to keep the city under the
terms of the peace treaty. However, the
Habsburg Empire recovered
Trieste a little over one year later, when the conflict resumed. By
the 18th century
Trieste became an important port and commercial hub
for the Austrians. In 1719, it was granted status as a free port
Habsburg Empire by Emperor Charles VI , and remained a free
port until 1 July 1891. The reign of his successor, Maria Theresa of
Austria , marked the beginning of a very prosperous era for the city.
In the following decades,
Trieste was briefly occupied by troops of
the French Empire during the
Napoleonic Wars on several occasions, in
1797, 1805 and 1809. From 1809 to 1813,
Trieste was annexed into
Illyrian Provinces , interrupting its status of free port and losing
its autonomy. The municipal autonomy was not restored after the return
of the city to the
Austrian Empire in 1813. Following the Napoleonic
Trieste continued to prosper as the
Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City of
Trieste (German : Reichsunmittelbare Stadt Triest), a status that
granted economic freedom, but limited its political self-government.
The city's role as Austria's main trading port and shipbuilding centre
was later emphasized with the foundation of the merchant shipping line
Austrian Lloyd in 1836, whose headquarters stood at the corner of the
Piazza Grande and Sanità (today's Piazza Unità d\'Italia ). By 1913
Austrian Lloyd had a fleet of 62 ships comprising a total of 236,000
tons. With the introduction of the constitutionalism in the Austrian
Empire in 1860, the municipal autonomy of the city was restored, with
Trieste becoming capital of the
Austrian Littoral crown land (German :
Österreichisches Küstenland). The Stock Exchange Square in 1854
Stock market in
In the later part of the 19th century,
Pope Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII considered
moving his residence to
Salzburg because of what he
considered a hostile anti-Catholic climate in
Italy following the 1870
Capture of Rome by the newly established Kingdom of
Italy . However,
the Austrian monarch, Franz Josef I , rejected the idea. The modern
Austro-Hungarian Navy used
Trieste as a base and for shipbuilding. The
construction of the first major trunk railway in the Empire, the
Austrian Southern Railway
Austrian Southern Railway , was completed in 1857, a
valuable asset for trade and the supply of coal. A view of
Trieste in 1885
In 1882 an Irredentist activist,
Guglielmo Oberdan , attempted to
Franz Joseph , who was visiting Trieste. Oberdan
was caught, convicted, and executed. He was regarded as a martyr by
radical Irredentists, but as a cowardly villain by the supporters of
the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Franz Joseph, who reigned another
thirty-five years, never visited
At the beginning of the 20th century,
Trieste was a bustling
cosmopolitan city frequented by artists and philosophers such as James
Italo Svevo ,
Sigmund Freud ,
Zofka Kveder ,
Dragotin Kette ,
Ivan Cankar ,
Scipio Slataper , and
Umberto Saba . The city was the
major port on the
Austrian Riviera , and perhaps the only real enclave
Mitteleuropa (i.e. Central Europe) south of the Alps. Viennese
architecture and coffeehouses dominate the streets of
Trieste to this
WORLD WAR I, ANNEXATION TO ITALY AND THE FASCIST ERA
Battles of the Isonzo and
Italy, in return for entering
World War I
World War I on the side of the Allied
Powers , had been promised substantial territorial gains, which
included the former
Austrian Littoral and western Inner
Italy therefore annexed the city of
Trieste at the end of the war, in
accordance with the provisions of the 1915 Treaty of London and the
Italian-Yugoslav 1920 Treaty of Rapallo . While only a few hundred
Italians remained in the newly established South Slavic state, a
population of half a million Slavs, of which the annexed Slovenes
were cut off from the remaining three-quarters of total Slovene
population at the time, were subjected to forced
Trieste had a large Italian majority, but it had more ethnic Slovene
inhabitants than even Slovenia's capital of
Ljubljana at the end of
The Italian lower middle class—who felt most threatened by the
city's Slovene middle class—sought to make
Trieste a città
italianissima, committing a series of attacks led by Black Shirts
against Slovene-owned shops, libraries, and lawyers' offices, and even
Trieste National Hall , a central building to the Slovene
community. By the mid-1930s several thousand Slovenes, especially
members of the middle class and the intelligentsia from Trieste,
emigrated to the
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia or to
South America . Among the
notable Slovene émigrés from
Trieste were the author Vladimir Bartol
, the legal theorist
Boris Furlan and the Argentine architect Viktor
Sulčič . The political leadership of the around 70,000 émigrés
Julian March in
Yugoslavia was mostly composed by Trieste
Lavo Čermelj ,
Josip Vilfan and Ivan Marija Čok . In 1926,
claiming that it was restoring surnames to their original Italian
form, the Italian government announced the
Italianization of German,
Slovene and Croatian surnames. In the
Province of Trieste alone,
3.000 surnames were modified and 60.000 people had their surnames
amended to an Italian-sounding form. The psychological
trauma,experienced by more than 150'000 people, led to a massive
emigration of German and Slavic families from Triest. Despite the
exodus of the Slovene and German speakers, the city's population
increased because of the migration of Italians from other parts of
Italy. Several thousand ethnic Italians from
Dalmatia also moved to
Trieste from the newly created Yugoslavia.
In the late 1920s, resistance began with the Slovene militant
TIGR , which carried out several bomb
attacks in the city centre. In 1930 and 1941, two trials of Slovene
activists were held in
Trieste by the fascist
Special Tribunal for the
Security of the State. During the 1920s and 1930s, several monumental
buildings were built in the Fascist architectural style , including
University of Trieste and the almost 70 m (229.66 ft)
tall Victory Lighthouse (Faro della Vittoria), which became a city
landmark. The economy improved in the late 1930s, and several large
infrastructure projects were carried out.
The Fascist government encouraged some of the artistic and
intellectual subcultures that emerged in the 1920s and the city became
home to an important avant-garde movement in visual arts, centered
around the futurist
Tullio Crali and the constructivist Avgust
Černigoj . In the same period,
Trieste consolidated its role as one
of the centres of modern
Italian literature , with authors such as
Umberto Saba ,
Biagio Marin ,
Giani Stuparich , and
Salvatore Satta .
Intellectuals frequented the historic
Caffè San Marco , still open
today. Some non-Italian intellectuals remained in the city, such as
the Austrian author
Julius Kugy , the Slovene writer and poet Stanko
Vuk , the lawyer and human rights activist
Josip Ferfolja and the
anti-fascist clergyman Jakob Ukmar .
The promulgation of the anti-Jewish racial laws in 1938 was a severe
blow to the city\'s Jewish community , at the time the third largest
in Italy. The fascist anti-semitic campaign resulted in a series of
attacks on Jewish property and individuals, culminating in July 1942
Synagogue of Trieste was raided and devastated by the Fascist
Squads and the mob.
WORLD WAR II AND AFTERMATH
Yugoslav Army entering
Trieste (the caption reads "Tito 's Army
With the annexation of Province of
Italy and the
subsequent deportation of 25,000 Slovenes, which equaled 7.5% of the
total population of the Province, the operation, one of the most
drastic in Europe, filled up
Rab concentration camp , Gonars
concentration camp , Monigo (Treviso), Renicci d'Anghiari,
Chiesanuova, and other
Italian concentration camps where altogether
World War II
World War II came close to Trieste. Following
trisection of Slovenia, starting from the winter of 1941, the first
Slovene Partisans appeared in
Trieste province although the resistance
movement did not become active in the city itself until late 1943.
Italian armistice in September 1943, the city was occupied
Wehrmacht troops .
Trieste became nominally part of the newly
Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic , but it was de facto ruled by
Germany , who created the
Operation Zone of the Adriatic Littoral out
of former Italian north-eastern regions, with
Trieste as the
administrative centre. The new administrative entity was headed by
Friedrich Rainer . Under German occupation, the only concentration
camp with a crematorium on Italian soil was built in a suburb of
Trieste, at the
Risiera di San Sabba
Risiera di San Sabba on 4 April 1944. About 5,000
Slavs , Italian anti-Fascists and Jews died at the Risiera,
while thousands were imprisoned before being transferred to other
The city saw intense Italian and Yugoslav partisan activity and
suffered from Allied bombings. The city's Jewish community was
deported to extermination camps , where most of them died.
On 30 April 1945, the Slovenian and Italian anti-Fascist OF
Osvobodilna fronta and National Liberation Committee (Comitato di
Liberazione Nazionale , or CLN) of Marzari and Savio Fonda, made up of
approximately 3,500 volunteers, incited a riot against the Nazi
occupiers. On 1 May Allied members of the
Yugoslav Partisans ' 8th
Dalmatian Corps took over most of the city, except for the courts and
the castle of San Giusto, where the German garrisons refused to
surrender to anyone other than New Zealanders. (The Yugoslavs had a
reputation for shooting German and Italian prisoners.) The 2nd New
Zealand Division continued to advance towards
Trieste along Route 14
around the northern coast of the Adriatic sea and arrived in the city
the following day (see official histories The Italian Campaign and
Through the Venetian Line). The German forces surrendered on the
evening of May 2, but were then turned over to the Yugoslav forces.
The Yugoslavs held full control of the city until 12 June, a period
known in the Italian historiography as the "forty days of Trieste".
During this period, hundreds of local Italians and anti-Communist
Slovenes were arrested by the Yugoslav authorities, and many of them
were never seen again. These included not only former Fascist and
German collaborators, but also Italian nationalists and any other real
or potential opponents of Yugoslav Communism . Some were interned in
Yugoslav concentration camps (in particular at Borovnica,
while others were simply murdered and thrown into potholes ("foibe")
Karst Plateau .
After an agreement between the Yugoslav leader
Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito and
Field Marshal Harold Alexander , the Yugoslav forces
withdrew from Trieste, which came under a joint British-U.S. military
Julian March was divided between Anglo-American
and Yugoslav military administration until September 1947 when the
Paris Peace Treaty established the
Free Territory of Trieste .
ZONE A OF THE FREE TERRITORY OF TRIESTE (1947–54)
Free Territory of Trieste
Trieste was declared an independent city state under the
protection of the
United Nations as the
Free Territory of Trieste .
The territory was divided into two zones, A and B, along the Morgan
Line established in 1945.
From 1947 to 1954, the A Zone was governed by the Allied Military
Government , composed of the American "
Trieste United States Troops "
(TRUST), commanded by Major General Bryant E. Moore , the commanding
general of the American 88th Infantry Division , and the "British
Trieste Forces" (BETFOR), commanded by Sir
Terence Airey ,
who were the joint forces commander and also the military governors.
Zone A covered almost the same area of the current Italian Province
of Trieste, except for four small villages south of
below), which were given to
Yugoslavia after the dissolution (see
London Memorandum of 1954) of the Free Territory in 1954. Zone B,
which was under the administration of Miloš Stamatović , then
colonel of the Yugoslav People\'s Army , was composed of the
north-westernmost portion of the Istrian peninsula, between the river
Mirna and the
Debeli Rtič cape.
In 1954, in accordance with the Memorandum of London, the vast
majority of Zone A - including the city of
Trieste - joined Italy,
while Zone B and four villages from Zone A (
Plavje , Spodnje Škofije
Hrvatini , and
Jelarji ) became a part of Yugoslavia, being divided
Croatia . The final border line with
the status of the ethnic minorities in the areas was settled
bilaterally in 1975 with the
Treaty of Osimo . This line now
constitutes the border between
Italy and Slovenia.
During the Austro-Hungarian era,
Trieste became a leading European
city in economy , trade and commerce , and was the fourth-largest and
most important centre in the empire, after Vienna,
Budapest and Prague
. The economy of Trieste, however, fell into a decline after the
city's annexation to
Italy at the end of
World War I
World War I . But Fascist
Italy promoted a huge development of
Trieste in the 1930s, with new
manufacturing activities related even to naval and armament industries
(like the famous "Cantieri Aeronautici Navali Triestini (CANT)").
Allied bombings during
World War II
World War II destroyed the industrial section
of the city (mainly the shipyards). As a consequence,
Trieste was a
mainly peripheral city during the
Cold War . However, since the 1970s,
Trieste has experienced a certain economic revival.
The city is part of the Corridor 5 project to establish closer
transport connections between Western and Eastern Europe, via
countries such as Slovenia,
Port of Trieste is a trade hub with a significant commercial
shipping business, busy container and oil terminals, and steel works.
The oil terminal feeds the
Transalpine Pipeline which covers 40% of
Germany's energy requirements (100% of the states of Bavaria and
Baden-Württemberg), 90% of
Austria and more than 30% of the Czech
Republic's. The sea highway connecting the ports of
Istanbul is one of the busiest RO/RO routes in the Mediterranean.The
port is also Italy's and the
Mediterranean 's (and one of
greatest coffee ports, supplying more than 40% of Italy's coffee .
The thriving coffee industry in
Trieste began under
with the Austro-Hungarian government even awarding tax-free status to
the city in order to encourage more commerce. Some remnants of
Austria-Hungary 's coffee-driven economic ambition remain, such as the
Trieste coffee company. As a result, present-day Trieste
boasts many cafes, and is still known to this day as "the coffee
capital of Italy". Companies active in the coffee sector have given
birth to the
Coffee Cluster as their main umbrella
organization, but also as an economic actor in its own right.
Fortune Global 500 companies have their global or national
headquarters in the city, respectively:
Assicurazioni Generali (BIT:
Allianz (BIT: ALV). Other megacompanies based in
Fincantieri (BIT: FCT), one of the world's leading shipbuilding
companies and the Italian operations of
Wärtsilä . Prominent
Trieste include: AcegasApsAmga (
Hera Group ),
Banca Generali SpA (BIT: BGN), Genertel ,
Genertellife , HERA Trading,
Italia Marittima , Modiano , Nuovo
Arsenale Cartubi Srl,
Jindal Steel and Power Italia SpA; Pacorini SpA,
Siderurgica Triestina (Arvedi Group), TBS Group (BIT: TBS), Telit
(AIM: TCM), and polling and marketing company SWG. Supported by a
dynamic banking institution, the Zadružna Kraška Banka (ZKB), the
local Slovene community contributes vigorously to the economy.
Source: ISTAT 2001
Under 18 years old
Over 65 years old
As of July 2013 , there were 204,849 people residing in Trieste,
located in the province of Trieste,
Friuli-Venezia Giulia , of whom
46.7% were male and 53.3% were female.
Trieste had lost roughly ⅓ of
its population since the 1970s, due to the crisis of the historical
industrial sectors of steel and shipbuilding, a dramatic drop in
fertility rates and fast population aging. Minors (children aged 18
and younger) totalled 13.78% of the population compared to pensioners
who number 27.9%. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06%
(minors) and 19.94% (pensioners).
The average age of
Trieste residents is 46 compared to the Italian
average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population
Trieste declined by 3.5%, while
Italy as a whole grew by 3.85%.
However, in the last two years the city has shown signs of stabilizing
thanks to growing immigration fluxes. The crude birth rate in Trieste
is only 7.63 per 1,000, one of the lowest in eastern Italy, while the
Italian average is 9.45 births.
Since the annexation to
Italy after World War I, there has been a
steady decline in the Trieste's demographic weight compared to other
cities. In 1911,
Trieste was the 4th largest city in the
Austro-Hungarian Empire (3rd largest in the Austrian part of the
Monarchy ). In 1921,
Trieste was the 8th largest city in the country,
in 1961 the 12th largest, in 1981 the 14th largest, while in 2011 it
dropped to the 15th place.
The particular Friulian dialect , called Tergestino, spoken until the
beginning of the 19th century, was gradually overcome by the Triestine
dialect of Venetian (a language deriving directly from
Vulgar Latin )
and other languages, including standard Italian , Slovene , and German
. While Triestine and Italian were spoken by the largest part of the
population, German was the language of the Austrian bureaucracy and
Slovene was predominantly spoken in the surrounding villages. From the
last decades of the 19th century, the number of speakers of Slovene
grew steadily, reaching 25% of the overall population of Trieste
municipality in 1911 (30% of the Austro-Hungarian citizens in
According to the 1911 census, the proportion of Slovene speakers
amounted to 12.6% in the city centre (15.9% counting only Austrian
citizens), 47.6% in the suburbs (53% counting only Austrian citizens),
and 90.5% in the surroundings. They were the largest ethnic group in
9 of the 19 urban neighbourhoods of Trieste, and represented a
majority in 7 of them. The Italian speakers, on the other hand, made
up 60.1% of the population in the city center, 38.1% in the suburbs,
and 6.0% in the surroundings. They were the largest linguistic group
in 10 of the 19 urban neighbourhoods, and represented the majority in
7 of them (including all 6 in the city centre). Of the 11 villages
included within the city limits, the Slovene speakers had an
overwhelming majority in 10, and the German speakers in one (Miramare
German speakers amounted to 5% of the city's population, with the
highest proportions in the city centre. A small proportion of
Trieste's population spoke Serbian (about 1.3% in 1911), and the city
also had several other smaller ethnic communities, including
Serbs , and
Greeks , who mostly assimilated either
into the Italian or the Slovene-speaking communities.
Today, the dominant local dialect of
Trieste is Triestine
("Triestin", pronounced ), influenced by a form of Venetian . This
dialect and the official
Italian language are spoken in the city,
while Slovene is spoken in some of the immediate suburbs . There are
also small numbers of Serbian , Croatian, German , and Hungarian
2012 LARGEST RESIDENT FOREIGN-BORN GROUPS
COUNTRY OF BIRTH
Bosnia and Herzegovina
At the end of 2012, ISTAT estimated that there were 16,279
foreign-born residents in Trieste, representing 7.7% of the total city
population. The largest autochthonous minority are
Slovenes , but
there is also a large immigrant group from
Romania ): 4.95%,
0.52%, and sub-saharan Africa : 0.2%. Serbian community consists of
both autochthonous and immigrant groups.
Trieste is predominantly
Roman Catholic , but also has large numbers of Orthodox Christians ,
mainly Serbs, due to the city's large migrant population from Eastern
Europe and its
Trieste seafront Piazza Unità d\'Italia
Piazza Unità d'Italia by night From left to right: Victory
Lighthouse, a part of the harbour, a street of the Old City
Lonely Planet listed the city of
Trieste as the world's most
underrated travel destination.
Miramare Castle . The
Trieste Cathedral dedicated to
Saint Justus Serbian Orthodox Saint Spyridon Church , mid 19th
Trieste City Hall. The old city stock
exchange The Ponterosso Square
Castello Miramare (Miramare Castle)
The Castello Miramare, or Miramare Castle, on the waterfront 8
kilometres (5 miles) from Trieste, was built between 1856 and 1860
from a project by
Carl Junker working under Archduke Maximilian . The
Castle gardens provide a setting of beauty with a variety of trees,
chosen by and planted on the orders of Maximilian, that today make a
remarkable collection. Features of particular attraction in the
gardens include two ponds, one noted for its swans and the other for
lotus flowers, the Castle annexe ("Castelletto"), a bronze statue of
Maximilian, and a small chapel where is kept a cross made from the
remains of the "Novara", the flagship on which Maximilian, brother of
Emperor Franz Josef , set sail to become Emperor of Mexico .
Much later, the castle was also the home of Prince Amedeo, Duke of
Aosta , the last commander of Italian forces in East Africa during the
Second World War
Second World War . During the period of the application of the
Instrument for the Provisional Regime of the Free Territory of
Trieste, as established in the Treaty of Peace with
10/02/1947), the castle served as headquarters for the United States
Army 's TRUST force.
Castel San Giusto (Castle Of San Giusto)
The Castel San Giusto, or Castle of San Giusto, was designed on the
remains of previous castles on the site, and took almost two centuries
to build. The stages of the development of the Castle's defensive
structures are marked by the central part built under Frederick III
(1470-1), the round Venetian bastion (1508-9), the Hoyos-Lalio bastion
and the Pomis, or "Bastione fiorito" dated 1630.
PLACES OF WORSHIP
* The St. Justus Cathedral . Symbol of Italian
Trieste during the
Risorgimento . Named after the city's Patron, St Justus . This church
dates back to 1320: its interiors are decorated by beautiful Byzantine
* The Serbian Orthodox Church of the Holy Trinity and St Spyridon
(1869). The building adopts the Greek-cross plan with five cupolas in
the Byzantine tradition.
* The Anglican Chiesa di Cristo (Christ Church) (1829)
* The Waldensian and Helvetian Evangelical Basilica of St Silvester
* The Church of Santa Maria Maggiore (1682)
* The Augustan Evangelical-Lutheran Church (1874)
* The Greek Orthodox Church of San Nicolò dei Greci (1787). This
church by the architect
Matteo Pertsch (1818), with bell towers on
both sides of the façade, follows the Austrian late baroque style.
The interiors are full of golden ornaments.
Synagogue of Trieste (1912). This synagogue is the
second-largest in Europe.
Temple of Monte Grisa (1960)
* Arch of Riccardo (33 BC). It is a Roman gate built in the Roman
walls in 33. It stands in Piazzetta Barbacan, in the narrow streets of
the old town. It's called Arco di Riccardo ("Richard's Arch"), where
Riccardo is a corruption of "Cardus ", the Roman street which crossed
it. Folk etymology created a local legend, which says that it was
crossed by King Richard I of
England on the way back from the
* Basilica Forense (2nd century)
* Palaeochristian basilica
* Roman Age Temples" : one dedicated to Athena, one to Zeus, both on
the S.Giusto hill.
The ruins of the temple dedicated to Zeus are next to the Forum,
those of Athena's temple are under the basilica, visitors can see its
The Roman theatre lies at the foot of the San Giusto hill, facing the
sea. The construction partially exploits the gentle slope of the hill,
and much of the theatre is made of stone. The topmost portion of the
steps and the stage were supposedly made of wood.
The statues that adorned the theatre, brought to light in the 1930s,
are now preserved at the town museum. Three inscriptions from the
Trajanic period mention a certain Q. Petronius Modestus, someone
closely connected to the development of the theatre, which was erected
during the second half of the 1st century.
In the entire
Province of Trieste , there are 10 speleological groups
out of 24 in the whole
Friuli-Venezia Giulia region. The Trieste
plateau (Altopiano Triestino), called Kras or the
Carso and covering
an area of about 200 square kilometres (77 sq mi) within
approximately 1,500 caves of various sizes (like that of Basovizza,
now a monument to the
Foibe massacres ).
Among the most famous are the
Grotta Gigante , the largest tourist
cave in the world, with a single cavity large enough to contain St
Peter's in Rome, and the Cave of Trebiciano , 350 metres (1,150 ft)
deep, at the bottom of which flows the
Timavo River . This river dives
Škocjan Caves in
Slovenia (they are on UNESCO list and
only a few kilometres from Trieste) and flows about 30 kilometres (19
mi) before emerging about 1 kilometre (0.6 mi) from the sea in a
series of springs near Duino, reputed by the Romans to be an entrance
to Hades ("the world of the dead").
* The Austrian Quarter - Half of the city was built under
Austro-Hungarian dominion, so there is present a very large number of
avenues and palaces that resemble
Vienna . The most present
architecture styles are Neoclassical ,
Art Nouveau , Eclectic ,
* Città Vecchia (Old City) -
Trieste boasts an extensive old city:
there are many narrow and crooked streets with typical medieval
houses. Nearly the entire area is closed to traffic.
* Piazza Unità d\'Italia , Trieste's central majestic square
surrounded by 19th century architecture, and the largest seafront
square in Europe.
Val Rosandra , a national park on the border between the Province
Caffè San Marco , historical cafè in the centre of the city.
Cafès play an important role in the Triestine economy, as Trieste
developed a thriving coffee industry under
Austria-Hungary , and is
still known to this day as "the coffee capital of Italy".
Caffe degli Specchi opened 1839 is one of the most famous caffes
Trieste has a lively cultural scene with various theatres. Among
these are the Opera
Teatro Lirico Giuseppe Verdi , Politeama Rossetti
, the Teatro La Contrada, the
Slovene theatre in Trieste (Slovensko
stalno gledališče, since 1902), Teatro Miela, and a several smaller
There are also numerous museums. Among these are:
* Diego de Henriquez war museum
Revoltella Museum modern art gallery
Civico Museo di Storia Naturale di Trieste (natural history
museum) containing fossils of early man .
Civico Orto Botanico di Trieste , a municipal botanical garden
* Orto Botanico dell\'Università di
Trieste , the University of
Trieste 's botanical garden
Two important national monuments:
Risiera di San Sabba
Risiera di San Sabba (
Risiera di San Sabba
Risiera di San Sabba Museum)', a
National monument commemorating the holocaust. It was the only Nazi
concentration camp with crematorium in Italy.
* The Foiba di Basovizza , a National monument. It is a reminder of
the killings of Italians (and other ethnic groups) by Yugoslav
partisans after World War II, the last episode of an interethnic
violence begun in the 19th century, with the rise of nationalism , and
heavily intensified by the Fascist government.
The Slovenska gospodarsko-kulturna zveza - Unione Economica-Culturale
Slovena is the umbrella organization bringing together cultural and
economic associations belonging to the Slovene minority .
* La Gazzetta Giuliana
* Tele Quattro
* Radioattività Trieste
* Radio Fragola
* Radio Punto Zero
* Asterios Editore
* Lint Editoriale
University of Trieste , founded in 1924, is a medium-size
state-supported institution with 12 faculties, and boasts a wide and
almost complete range of courses. It currently has about 23,000
students enrolled and 1,000 professors.
Trieste also hosts the Scuola
Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (
SISSA ), a leading
graduate and postgraduate teaching and research institution in the
study of mathematics, theoretical physics, and neuroscience, and the
MIB School of Management Trieste , one of Italy's top-five business
There are three international schools offering primary and secondary
education programs in English in the greater metropolitan area: the
International School of Trieste, the European School of Trieste, and
United World College of the Adriatic . Liceo scientifico statale
France Prešeren" offers public secondary education in the Slovene
The city also hosts numerous national and international scientific
research institutions. Among these:
AREA Science Park , which
ELETTRA , a synchrotron particle accelerator with
free-electron laser capabilities for research and industrial
International Centre for Theoretical Physics
International Centre for Theoretical Physics , which
operates under a tripartite agreement among the Italian Government,
UNESCO, and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); the Trieste
Astronomical Observatory ; the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e
Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), which carries out research on oceans and
geophysics; the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and
Biotechnology , a
United Nations centre of excellence for research and
training in genetic engineering and biotechnology for the benefit of
developing countries; ICS-UNIDO, a UNIDO research centre in the areas
of renewable energies, biofuels, medicinal plants, food safety and
sustainable development; the
Carso Center for Advanced Research in
Space Optics ; and the secretariats of the Third World Academy of
Sciences (TWAS) and of the
InterAcademy Panel : The Global Network of
Science Academies (IAP).
The local calcio (football ) club in
Trieste is Triestina , one of
the oldest clubs in Italy. Notably, Triestina was runner-up in the
1947/1948 season of the Italian first division (
Serie A ), losing the
championship to Torino .
Trieste is notable for having had two football clubs participating in
the championships of two different nations at the same time during the
period of the
Free Territory of Trieste , due to the schism within the
city and region created by the post-war demarcation. Triestina played
in the Italian first division (
Serie A ). Although it faced relegation
after the first season after the Second World War, the
the rules to keep it in, as it was seen as important to keep a club of
the city in the Italian league, while
Yugoslavia had its eye on the
city. In the championship of next season the club played its best
season with a 3rd-place finish. Meanwhile,
Yugoslavia bought A.S.D.
Ponziana , a small team in Trieste, which under a new name, Amatori
Ponziana Trst, played in the Yugoslavian league for 3 years.
Triestina went bankrupt in the 1990s, but after being re-founded
regained a position in the Italian second division (
Serie B ) in 2002.
Ponziana was renamed as "
Circolo Sportivo Ponziana 1912 " and
currently plays in
Friuli-Venezia Giulia Group of
Promozione , which
is 7th level of the Italian league .
Trieste also boasts a famous basketball team,
Pallacanestro Trieste ,
which reached its zenith in the 1990s when, with large financial
backing from sponsors
Stefanel , it was able to sign players such as
Dejan Bodiroga ,
Fernando Gentile and
Gregor Fučka , all stars of
Many sailing clubs have roots in the city which contribute to
Trieste's strong tradition in that sport. The
Barcolana regatta ,
which had its first edition in 1969, is the world's largest sailing
race by number of participants.
Local sporting facilities include the
Stadio Nereo Rocco , a UEFA
-certified stadium with seating capacity of 32,500; the
an indoor sporting arena sitting 8,000 people, and Piscina Bruno
Bianchi, a large olympic size swimming pool.
Trieste has been portrayed on screen a number of times, with films
often shot on location in the area. In 1942 the early neorealist Alfa
Tau! was filmed partly in the city.
Cinematic interest in
Trieste peaked during the height of the "Free
Territory" era between 1947 and 1954 with international films such as
Sleeping Car to Trieste and
Diplomatic Courier portraying it as a
hotbed of espionage . These films, and the later The Yellow
Rolls-Royce (1964) conveyed an impression of the city as a
cosmopolitan place of conflict between
Great Powers , a portrayal
which resembled that of Casablanca (1943). Italian filmmakers, by
Trieste as unquestionably Italian in a series of
patriotic films including
Trieste mia! and
Ombre su Trieste .
The city hosted in 1963 the first International Festival of Science
Fiction Film (Festival internazionale del film di fantascienza), which
ran until 1982. Under the name Science Plus Fiction (now Trieste
Science+Fiction Festival ), the festival was brought back in 2000.
The Porto Vecchio, also showing
Trieste Centrale railway station
Trieste Centrale railway station A car of the Opicina
Port of Trieste
Trieste's maritime location and its former long term status as part
of the Austrian and, between 1867–1918, Austro-Hungarian empires
Port of Trieste the major commercial port for much of the
landlocked areas of central Europe. In the 19th century, a new port
district known as the Porto Nuovo was built northeast to the city
There is significant commercial shipping to the container terminal,
steel works and oil terminal, all located to the south of the city
centre. After many years of stagnation, a change in the leadership
placed the port on a steady growth path, recording a 40% increase in
shipping traffic as of 2007 .
Trieste Centrale railway station
Railways came early to Trieste, due to the importance of its port and
the need to transport people and goods inland. The first railroad line
Trieste was the Südbahn , launched by the Austrian
government in 1857. This railway stretches for 1,400 km (870 mi) to
Lviv , Ukraine, via
Ljubljana , Slovenia;
Hungary ; Vienna,
Austria ; and
Poland , crossing the backbone of the Alps
mountains through the
Semmering Pass near
Graz . It approaches Trieste
through the village of
Villa Opicina , a few kilometres from the big
city but over 300 metres (984 feet) higher in elevation. Due to this,
the line takes a 32 kilometres (20 miles) detour to the north,
gradually descending before terminating at the
railway station .
In 1887, the
Imperial Royal Austrian State Railways (German:
kaiserlich-königliche österreichische Staatsbahnen) opened a new
railway line, the Trieste–Hrpelje railway (German: Hrpelje-Bahn),
from the new port of
Trieste to Hrpelje-Kozina , on the Istrian
railway. The intended function of the new line was to reduce the
Austrian Empire's dependence on the Südbahn network. Its opening
Trieste a second station south of the original one, which was
Trieste Sant'Andrea (German: Triest Sankt Andrea). The two
stations were connected by a railway line that in the initial plans
had to be an interim solution: the Rive railway (German: Rive-Bahn),
but which survived until 1981, when it was replaced by the Galleria di
Circonvallazione, a 5.7-kilometre (3.5 mi) railway tunnel route to the
east of the city.
With the opening of the Transalpina
Railway from Vienna,
Jesenice and Nova Gorica in 1906, the St Andrea station was replaced
by a new, more capacious, facility, named
Trieste stazione dello Stato
(German: Triest Staatsbahnhof), later
Trieste Campo Marzio -now a
railway museum-, and the original station came to be identified as
Trieste stazione della Meridionale or
Trieste Meridionale (German:
Triest Südbahnhof). This railway also approached
Trieste via Villa
Opicina, but it took a rather shorter loop southwards towards the sea
front. Freight services from the dock area include container services
Italy and to Budapest,
Hungary , together with rolling
highway services to Salzburg,
Austria and Frankfurt,
Passenger rail service to
Trieste mostly consists of trains to and
Venice , connecting there with high-speed trains to
Milan at Mestre . There are also direct trains to
Bologna . These trains reach the
Trieste central station bypassing the Gulf of Trieste, connecting with
the Südbahn's northern loop. Passenger trains also run between Villa
Opicina and Ljubljana.
Trieste could in the remote future be connected to the Italian TAV
railway network: a 300-kilometre-per-hour (190 mph) fast train route
would possibly connect
Trieste with Venice. However, this project will
not be completed earlier than 2020.
Trieste is served by the
Friuli Venezia Giulia Airport
(IATA code: TRS), located 30 minutes away from the city, at Ronchi
Monfalcone at the head of the Gulf of Trieste. There are many
national and international destinations available.
Trieste are heavily used in personal transport.
Local public transport is operated by
Trieste Trasporti , which
operates a network of around 60 bus routes and two boat services. They
also operate the
Opicina Tramway , a hybrid between tramway and
funicular railway providing a more direct link between the city centre
List of people from Trieste
Trieste hosts the Secretariat of the
Central European Initiative , an
intergovernmental organization among Central and South-Eastern
European states. In July 2017,
Trieste was selected by
be European Science Capital for 2020.
In recent years,
Trieste was chosen to host a number of high level
bilateral and multilateral meetings such as: the Western Balkans
Summit in 2017; the Italo-Russian Bilateral Summit in 2013
(Letta-Putin) and the Italo-German Bilateral Summit in 2008
(Berlusconi-Merkel); the G8 meetings of Foreign Affairs and
Environment Ministers respectively in 2009 and 2001.
SISTER CITIES AND TWIN TOWNS
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
Trieste is twinned with:
* BEIRUT ,
Lebanon (since 1956)
* DOUALA ,
Cameroon (since 1971)
* GRAZ ,
Austria (since 1973)
* SANTOS ,
Brazil (since 1977)
* SOUTHAMPTON ,
United Kingdom (since 2002)
* LE HAVRE ,
International Centre for Theoretical Physics
International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP)
Bathyscaphe Trieste , Swiss-designed, Italian built deep sea
ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory
Free Territory of Trieste
Il Piccolo , Trieste's daily newspaper
INFN , (National Institute of Nuclear Physics), the nuclear
* International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
International School for Advanced Studies
International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA)
People from Trieste
Primorski dnevnik , Trieste's
Slovene language daily newspaper
Risiera di San Sabba
Risiera di San Sabba
Teatro Comunale Giuseppe Verdi
* Treaty of peace with
Trieste Astronomical Observatory
U.S. Triestina Calcio , Trieste's football club.
* ^ In the beginning called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and
Slovenes , renamed
Yugoslavia in 1929.
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Trenidicarta.it (in Italian). Alessandro Tuzza. Retrieved 17 December
2010. External link in work= (help )
* ^ Oberegger, Elmar. "Hrpelje-Bahn" . Zur Eisenbahngeschichte des
Alpen-Donau-Adria-Raumes (in German). Oberegger, Elmar. Retrieved 7
March 2011. External link in work= (help )
* ^ "Le linee Alta Velocità: Storia e traguardi" (PDF) (in
Italian). Ferrovie dello Stato. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
* ^ "
Trieste Trasporti S.p.A.".
Trieste Trasporti S.p.A. Retrieved
April 27, 2007.
* ^ "Twin Towns -
Graz Online - English Version". www.graz.at.
Archived from the original on 2009-11-08. Retrieved 2010-01-05.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to TRIESTE .
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* Municipality of
Trieste (in Italian)
Trieste Chamber of
Commerce (in Italian)
* University Of Trieste