TITANIUM is a chemical element with symbol TI and atomic number 22.
It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density,
and high strength.
Titanium is resistant to corrosion in sea water ,
aqua regia , and chlorine .
Titanium was discovered in
Cornwall , Great Britain , by William
Gregor in 1791, and it is named by
Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Martin Heinrich Klaproth for the
Greek mythology . The element occurs within a number of
mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite , which are widely
distributed in the Earth\'s crust and lithosphere , and it is found in
almost all living things, water bodies, rocks, and soils. The metal
is extracted from its principal mineral ores by the Kroll and Hunter
processes . The most common compound, titanium dioxide , is a popular
photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments. Other
compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a component of smoke
screens and catalysts ; and titanium trichloride (TiCl3), which is
used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene .
Titanium can be alloyed with iron , aluminium , vanadium , and
molybdenum , among other elements, to produce strong, lightweight
alloys for aerospace (jet engines , missiles , and spacecraft ),
military, industrial process (chemicals and petrochemicals,
desalination plants , pulp, and paper), automotive, agri-food, medical
prostheses , orthopedic implants , dental and endodontic instruments
and files, dental implants , sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones ,
and other applications.
The two most useful properties of the metal are corrosion resistance
and strength-to-density ratio, the highest of any metallic element.
In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels , but
less dense. There are two allotropic forms and five naturally
occurring isotopes of this element, 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being
the most abundant (73.8%). Although they have the same number of
valence electrons and are in the same group in the periodic table ,
titanium and zirconium differ in many chemical and physical
* 1 Characteristics
* 1.1 Physical properties
* 1.2 Chemical properties
* 1.3 Occurrence
* 1.4 Isotopes
* 2 Compounds
* 2.1 Oxides, sulfides, and alkoxides
* 2.2 Nitrides, carbides
* 2.3 Halides
* 2.4 Organometallic complexes
* 3 History
* 4 Production and fabrication
* 5 Applications
* 5.1 Pigments, additives and coatings
* 5.2 Aerospace and marine
* 5.3 Industrial
* 5.4 Consumer and architectural
* 5.5 Jewelry
* 5.6 Medical
* 5.7 Nuclear waste storage
* 6 Bioremediation
* 7 Precautions
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 Bibliography
* 11 External links
As a metal , titanium is recognized for its high strength-to-weight
ratio . It is a strong metal with low density that is quite ductile
(especially in an oxygen -free environment), lustrous, and
metallic-white in color . The relatively high melting point (more
than 1,650 °C or 3,000 °F) makes it useful as a refractory metal .
It is paramagnetic and has fairly low electrical and thermal
Commercial (99.2% pure) grades of titanium have ultimate tensile
strength of about 434 MPa (63,000 psi ), equal to that of common,
low-grade steel alloys, but are less dense.
Titanium is 60% denser
than aluminium, but more than twice as strong as the most commonly
used 6061-T6 aluminium alloy . Certain titanium alloys (e.g., Beta C )
achieve tensile strengths of over 1400 MPa (200000 psi). However,
titanium loses strength when heated above 430 °C (806 °F).
Titanium is not as hard as some grades of heat-treated steel; it is
non-magnetic and a poor conductor of heat and electricity. Machining
requires precautions, because the material might gall unless sharp
tools and proper cooling methods are used. Like steel structures,
those made from titanium have a fatigue limit that guarantees
longevity in some applications.
The metal is a dimorphic allotrope of an hexagonal α form that
changes into a body-centered cubic (lattice) β form at 882 °C (1,620
°F). The specific heat of the α form increases dramatically as it
is heated to this transition temperature but then falls and remains
fairly constant for the β form regardless of temperature. Similar to
zirconium and hafnium, an additional omega phase exists, which is
thermodynamically stable at high pressures, but metastable at ambient
pressures. This phase is usually hexagonal (ideal) or trigonal
(distorted) and can be considered to be due to a soft longitudinal
acoustic phonon of the β phase causing collapse of (111) planes of
Pourbaix diagram for titanium in pure water, perchloric acid
or sodium hydroxide
Like aluminium and magnesium , titanium metal and its alloys oxidize
immediately upon exposure to air.
Titanium readily reacts with oxygen
at 1,200 °C (2,190 °F) in air, and at 610 °C (1,130 °F) in pure
oxygen, forming titanium dioxide . It is, however, slow to react with
water and air at ambient temperatures because it forms a passive oxide
coating that protects the bulk metal from further oxidation. When it
first forms, this protective layer is only 1–2 nm thick but
continues to grow slowly; reaching a thickness of 25 nm in four years.
Atmospheric passivation gives titanium excellent resistance to
corrosion, almost equivalent to platinum , titanium is capable of
withstanding attack by dilute sulfuric and hydrochloric acids ,
chloride solutions, and most organic acids. However, titanium is
corroded by concentrated acids. As indicated by its negative redox
potential, titanium is thermodynamically a very reactive metal that
burns in normal atmosphere at lower temperatures than the melting
point. Melting is possible only in an inert atmosphere or in a vacuum.
At 550 °C (1,022 °F), it combines with chlorine. It also reacts
with the other halogens and absorbs hydrogen.
Titanium is one of the few elements that burns in pure nitrogen gas,
reacting at 800 °C (1,470 °F) to form titanium nitride , which
causes embrittlement. Because of its high reactivity with oxygen,
nitrogen, and some other gases, titanium filaments are applied in
titanium sublimation pumps as scavengers for these gases. Such pumps
inexpensively and reliably produce extremely low pressures in
ultra-high vacuum systems.
2011 production of rutile and ilmenite
tonnes % OF TOTAL
Titanium is the ninth-most abundant element in
Earth 's crust (0.63%
by mass ) and the seventh-most abundant metal. It is present as
oxides in most igneous rocks , in sediments derived from them, in
living things, and natural bodies of water. Of the 801 types of
igneous rocks analyzed by the
United States Geological Survey
United States Geological Survey , 784
contained titanium. Its proportion in soils is approximately 0.5 to
Common titanium-containing minerals are minerals anatase , brookite ,
ilmenite , perovskite , rutile , and titanite (sphene).
an extremely rare mineral consisting of titanium dioxide. Of these
minerals, only rutile and ilmenite have economic importance, yet even
they are difficult to find in high concentrations. About 6.0 and 0.7
million tonnes of those minerals were mined in 2011, respectively.
Significant titanium-bearing ilmenite deposits exist in western
New Zealand , Norway
Sierra Leone ,
South Africa and
Ukraine . About 186,000 tonnes of
titanium metal sponge were produced in 2011, mostly in
t), Japan (56,000 t), Russia (40,000 t), United States (32,000 t) and
Kazakhstan (20,700 t). Total reserves of titanium are estimated to
exceed 600 million tonnes.
The concentration of titanium is about 4 picomolar in the ocean. At
100 °C, the concentration of titanium in water is estimated to be
less than 10−7 M at pH 7. The identity of titanium species in
aqueous solution remains unknown because of its low solubility and the
lack of sensitive spectroscopic methods, although only the 4+
oxidation state is stable in air. No evidence exists for a biological
role, although rare organisms are known to accumulate high
concentrations of titanium.
Titanium is contained in meteorites , and it has been detected in the
Sun and in M-type stars (the coolest type) with a surface
temperature of 3,200 °C (5,790 °F). Rocks brought back from the
Moon during the
Apollo 17 mission are composed of 12.1% TiO2. It is
also found in coal ash, plants , and even the human body. Native
titanium (pure metallic) is very rare.
Isotopes of titanium
Naturally occurring titanium is composed of 5 stable isotopes : 46Ti,
47Ti, 48Ti, 49Ti, and 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%
natural abundance ). Eleven radioisotopes have been characterized, the
most stable being 44Ti with a half-life of 63 years; 45Ti, 184.8
minutes; 51Ti, 5.76 minutes; and 52Ti, 1.7 minutes. All the other
radioactive isotopes have half-lives less than 33 seconds and the
majority, less than half a second.
The isotopes of titanium range in atomic weight from 39.99 u (40Ti)
to 57.966 u (58Ti). The primary decay mode before the most abundant
stable isotope, 48Ti, is electron capture and the primary mode after
is beta emission . The primary decay products before 48Ti are element
21 (scandium ) isotopes and the primary products after are element 23
(vanadium ) isotopes.
Titanium becomes radioactive upon bombardment with deuterons ,
emitting mainly positrons and hard gamma rays .
See also: the categories
Titanium compounds , and
Titanium minerals .
TiN-coated drill bit
The +4 oxidation state dominates titanium chemistry, but compounds
in the +3 oxidation state are also common. Commonly, titanium adopts
an octahedral coordination geometry in its complexes, but tetrahedral
TiCl4 is a notable exception. Because of its high oxidation state,
titanium(IV) compounds exhibit a high degree of covalent bonding .
Unlike most other transition metals, simple aquo Ti(IV) complexes are
OXIDES, SULFIDES, AND ALKOXIDES
The most important oxide is TiO2, which exists in three important
polymorphs ; anatase , brookite , and rutile . All of these are white
diamagnetic solids, although mineral samples can appear dark (see
rutile ). They adopt polymeric structures in which Ti is surrounded by
six oxide ligands that link to other Ti centers.
The term titanates usually refers to titanium(IV) compounds, as
represented by barium titanate (BaTiO3). With a perovskite structure,
this material exhibits piezoelectric properties and is used as a
transducer in the interconversion of sound and electricity . Many
minerals are titanates, e.g. ilmenite (FeTiO3).
Star sapphires and
rubies get their asterism (star-forming shine) from the presence of
titanium dioxide impurities.
A variety of reduced oxides of titanium are known. Ti3O5, described
as a Ti(IV)-Ti(III) species, is a purple semiconductor produced by
reduction of TiO2 with hydrogen at high temperatures, and is used
industrially when surfaces need to be vapour-coated with titanium
dioxide: it evaporates as pure TiO, whereas TiO2 evaporates as a
mixture of oxides and deposits coatings with variable refractive
index. Also known is Ti2O3 , with the corundum structure, and TiO ,
with the rock salt structure, although often nonstoichiometric.
The alkoxides of titanium(IV), prepared by reacting TiCl4 with
alcohols, are colourless compounds that convert to the dioxide on
reaction with water. They are industrially useful for depositing solid
TiO2 via the sol-gel process .
Titanium isopropoxide is used in the
synthesis of chiral organic compounds via the
Sharpless epoxidation .
Titanium forms a variety of sulfides, but only TiS2 has attracted
significant interest. It adopts a layered structure and was used as a
cathode in the development of lithium batteries . Because Ti(IV) is a
"hard cation" , the sulfides of titanium are unstable and tend to
hydrolyze to the oxide with release of hydrogen sulfide.
Titanium nitride (TiN) has a hardness equivalent to sapphire and
carborundum (9.0 on the
Mohs Scale ), and is often used to coat
cutting tools, such as drill bits . It is also used as a gold-colored
decorative finish and as a barrier metal in semiconductor fabrication
Titanium carbide , which is also very hard, is found in cutting
tools and coatings. Titanium(III) compounds are
characteristically violet, illustrated by this aqueous solution of
titanium trichloride .
Titanium tetrachloride (titanium(IV) chloride, TiCl4 ) is a colorless
volatile liquid (commercial samples are yellowish) that, in air,
hydrolyzes with spectacular emission of white clouds. Via the Kroll
process , TiCl4 is produced in the conversion of titanium ores to
titanium dioxide, e.g., for use in white paint. It is widely used in
organic chemistry as a Lewis acid , for example in the Mukaiyama aldol
condensation . In the van Arkel process , titanium tetraiodide (TiI4)
is generated in the production of high purity titanium metal.
Titanium(III) and titanium(II) also form stable chlorides. A notable
example is titanium(III) chloride (TiCl3), which is used as a catalyst
for production of polyolefins (see
Ziegler-Natta catalyst ) and a
reducing agent in organic chemistry.
Owing to the important role of titanium compounds as polymerization
catalyst, compounds with Ti-C bonds have been intensively studied. The
most common organotitanium complex is titanocene dichloride
((C5H5)2TiCl2). Related compounds include Tebbe\'s reagent and Petasis
Titanium forms carbonyl complexes , e.g. (C5H5)2Ti(CO)2 .
Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Martin Heinrich Klaproth named titanium for the Titans of Greek
Titanium was discovered in 1791 by the clergyman and amateur
William Gregor , as an inclusion of a mineral in
Great Britain . Gregor recognized the presence of a new element in
ilmenite when he found black sand by a stream and noticed the sand
was attracted by a magnet . Analyzing the sand, he determined the
presence of two metal oxides: iron oxide (explaining the attraction to
the magnet) and 45.25% of a white metallic oxide he could not
identify. Realizing that the unidentified oxide contained a metal
that did not match any known element, Gregor reported his findings to
the Royal Geological Society of
Cornwall and in the German science
journal Crell\'s Annalen .
Around the same time,
Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein produced
a similar substance, but could not identify it. The oxide was
independently rediscovered in 1795 by Prussian chemist Martin Heinrich
Klaproth in rutile from Boinik (German name of Bajmócska) village of
Hungary (now Bojničky in
Slovakia ). Klaproth found that it
contained a new element and named it for the Titans of Greek mythology
. After hearing about Gregor's earlier discovery, he obtained a
sample of manaccanite and confirmed it contained titanium.
The currently known processes for extracting titanium from its
various ores are laborious and costly; it is not possible to reduce
the ore by heating with carbon (as in iron smelting) because titanium
combines with the carbon to produce titanium carbide . Pure metallic
titanium (99.9%) was first prepared in 1910 by
Matthew A. Hunter at
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute by heating TiCl4 with sodium at
700–800 °C under great pressure in a batch process known as the
Hunter process .
Titanium metal was not used outside the laboratory
until 1932 when
William Justin Kroll proved that it can be produced by
reducing titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) with calcium . Eight years
later he refined this process with magnesium and even sodium in what
became known as the
Kroll process . Although research continues into
more efficient and cheaper processes (e.g.,
FFC Cambridge , Armstrong
Kroll process is still used for commercial production.
Titanium sponge, made by the
Titanium of very high purity was made in small quantities when Anton
Eduard van Arkel and
Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered the iodide, or
crystal bar , process in 1925, by reacting with iodine and decomposing
the formed vapors over a hot filament to pure metal.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the
Soviet Union pioneered the use of
titanium in military and submarine applications (Alfa class and Mike
class ) as part of programs related to the Cold War. Starting in the
early 1950s, titanium came into use extensively in military aviation,
particularly in high-performance jets, starting with aircraft such as
the F100 Super Sabre and
Lockheed A-12 and
Recognizing the strategic importance of titanium, the U.S.
Department of Defense supported early efforts of commercialization.
Throughout the period of the
Cold War , titanium was considered a
strategic material by the U.S. government, and a large stockpile of
titanium sponge was maintained by the Defense National Stockpile
Center , which was finally depleted in the 2000s. According to 2006
data, the world's largest producer, Russian-based
VSMPO-Avisma , was
estimated to account for about 29% of the world market share. As of
2015, titanium sponge metal was produced in six countries: China,
Japan, Russia, Kazakhstan, the USA, Ukraine, and India. (in order of
In 2006, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
awarded $5.7 million to a two-company consortium to develop a new
process for making titanium metal powder . Under heat and pressure,
the powder can be used to create strong, lightweight items ranging
from armor plating to components for the aerospace, transport, and
chemical processing industries.
PRODUCTION AND FABRICATION
Titanium (mineral concentrate) Basic titanium products:
plate, tube, rods and powder
The processing of titanium metal occurs in 4 major steps: reduction
of titanium ore into "sponge", a porous form; melting of sponge, or
sponge plus a master alloy to form an ingot; primary fabrication,
where an ingot is converted into general mill products such as billet
, bar, plate , sheet , strip, and tube ; and secondary fabrication of
finished shapes from mill products. Main article:
Because it cannot be readily produced by reduction of its dioxide,
titanium metal is obtained by reduction of TiCl4 with magnesium metal
in the KROLL PROCESS. The complexity of this BATCH PRODUCTION in the
Kroll process explains the relatively high market value of titanium,
Kroll process being less expensive than the Hunter
process. To produce the TiCl4 required by the Kroll process, the
dioxide is subjected to carbothermic reduction in the presence of
chlorine . In this process, the chlorine gas is passed over a red-hot
mixture of rutile or ilmenite in the presence of carbon. After
extensive purification by fractional distillation , the TiCl4 is
reduced with 800 °C molten magnesium in an argon atmosphere.
Titanium metal can be further purified by the van Arkel–de Boer
process , which involves thermal decomposition of titanium
tetraiodide. Main article:
FFC Cambridge process
A more recently developed batch production method, the FFC CAMBRIDGE
PROCESS, consumes titanium dioxide powder (a refined form of rutile)
as feedstock and produces titanium metal, either powder or sponge. The
process involves fewer steps than the
Kroll process and takes less
time. If mixed oxide powders are used, the product is an alloy.
Common titanium alloys are made by reduction. For example,
cuprotitanium (rutile with copper added is reduced), ferrocarbon
titanium (ilmenite reduced with coke in an electric furnace), and
manganotitanium (rutile with manganese or manganese oxides) are
reduced. 2 FeTiO3 + 7 Cl2 + 6 C → 2 TiCl4 + 2 FeCl3 + 6 CO (900
°C) TiCl4 + 2 Mg → 2 MgCl2 + Ti (1100 °C)
About 50 grades of titanium and titanium alloys are designed and
currently used, although only a couple of dozen are readily available
ASTM International recognizes 31 Grades of titanium
metal and alloys, of which Grades 1 through 4 are commercially pure
(unalloyed). Those four vary in tensile strength as a function of
oxygen content, with Grade 1 being the most ductile (lowest tensile
strength with an oxygen content of 0.18%), and Grade 4 the least
ductile (highest tensile strength with an oxygen content of 0.40%).
The remaining grades are alloys, each designed for specific properties
of ductility, strength, hardness, electrical resistivity, creep
resistance, specific corrosion resistance, and combinations thereof.
In addition to the ASTM specifications, titanium alloys are also
produced to meet Aerospace and Military specifications (SAE-AMS,
MIL-T), ISO standards, and country-specific specifications, as well as
proprietary end-user specifications for aerospace, military, medical,
and industrial applications.
Titanium powder is manufactured using a FLOW PRODUCTION process known
as the Armstrong process that is similar to the BATCH PRODUCTION
Hunter process. A stream of titanium tetrachloride gas is added to a
stream of molten sodium metal; the products (sodium chloride salt and
titanium particles) is filtered from the extra sodium.
then separated from the salt by water washing. Both sodium and
chlorine are recycled to produce and process more titanium
All welding of titanium must be done in an inert atmosphere of argon
or helium to shield it from contamination with atmospheric gases
(oxygen, nitrogen , and hydrogen ). Contamination causes a variety of
conditions, such as embrittlement , which reduces the integrity of the
assembly welds and leads to joint failure.
Commercially pure flat product (sheet, plate) can be formed readily,
but processing must take into account the fact that the metal has a
"memory" and tends to spring back. This is especially true of certain
Titanium cannot be soldered without first
pre-plating it in a metal that is solderable . The metal can be
machined with the same equipment and the same processes as stainless
A titanium cylinder, "Grade 2" quality
Titanium is used in steel as an alloying element (ferro-titanium ) to
reduce grain size and as a deoxidizer, and in stainless steel to
reduce carbon content.
Titanium is often alloyed with aluminium (to
refine grain size), vanadium , copper (to harden), iron , manganese ,
molybdenum , and other metals.
Titanium mill products (sheet, plate,
bar, wire, forgings, castings) find application in industrial,
aerospace, recreational, and emerging markets. Powdered titanium is
used in pyrotechnics as a source of bright-burning particles.
PIGMENTS, ADDITIVES AND COATINGS
Titanium dioxide is the most commonly used compound of titanium
About 95% of all titanium ore is destined for refinement into
titanium dioxide (TiO
2), an intensely white permanent pigment used in paints , paper ,
toothpaste , and plastics . It is also used in cement , in gemstones
, as an optical opacifier in paper , and a strengthening agent in
graphite composite fishing rods and golf clubs.
2 powder is chemically inert, resists fading in sunlight, and is very
opaque: it imparts a pure and brilliant white color to the brown or
gray chemicals that form the majority of household plastics. In
nature, this compound is found in the minerals anatase , brookite ,
Paint made with titanium dioxide does well in severe
temperatures and marine environments. Pure titanium dioxide has a
very high index of refraction and an optical dispersion higher than
diamond . In addition to being a very important pigment, titanium
dioxide is also used in sunscreens .
AEROSPACE AND MARINE
Because titanium alloys have high tensile strength to density ratio,
high corrosion resistance , fatigue resistance, high crack
resistance, and ability to withstand moderately high temperatures
without creeping , they are used in aircraft , armor plating , naval
ships, spacecraft , and missiles . For these applications, titanium
is alloyed with aluminium, zirconium, nickel, vanadium, and other
elements to manufacture a variety of components including critical
structural parts, fire walls, landing gear , exhaust ducts
(helicopters), and hydraulic systems. In fact, about two thirds of all
titanium metal produced is used in aircraft engines and frames. The
SR-71 "Blackbird" was one of the first aircraft frames where titanium
was used, paving the way for much wider use in modern military and
commercial aircraft. An estimated 59 metric tons (130,000 pounds) are
used in the
Boeing 777 , 45 in the
Boeing 747 , 18 in the
Boeing 737 ,
32 in the
Airbus A340 , 18 in the
Airbus A330 , and 12 in the Airbus
A320 . The
Airbus A380 may use 77 metric tons, including about 11 tons
in the engines. In engine applications, titanium is used for rotors,
compressor blades, hydraulic system components, and nacelles . The
titanium 6AL-4V alloy accounts for almost 50% of all alloys used in
Because titanium is resistant to corrosion by sea water , it is used
to make propeller shafts, rigging, and heat exchangers in desalination
plants ; heater-chillers for salt water aquariums , fishing line and
leader, and divers' knives.
Titanium is used in the housings and
components of ocean-deployed surveillance and monitoring devices for
science and the military. The former
Soviet Union developed techniques
for making submarines with hulls of titanium alloys forging titanium
in huge vacuum tubes.
Titanium is used in the walls of the Juno spacecraft's vault to
shield on-board electronics.
High-purity (99.999%) titanium with visible crystallites
Welded titanium pipe and process equipment (heat exchangers, tanks,
process vessels, valves) are used in the chemical and petrochemical
industries primarily for corrosion resistance. Specific alloys are
used in downhole and nickel hydrometallurgy for their high strength
(e. g.: titanium Beta C alloy), corrosion resistance, or both. The
pulp and paper industry uses titanium in process equipment exposed to
corrosive media, such as sodium hypochlorite or wet chlorine gas (in
the bleachery). Other applications include: ultrasonic welding , wave
soldering , and sputtering targets.
Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a colorless liquid, is important as
an intermediate in the process of making TiO2 and is also used to
Ziegler–Natta catalyst .
Titanium tetrachloride is also
used to iridize glass and, because it fumes strongly in moist air, it
is used to make smoke screens.
CONSUMER AND ARCHITECTURAL
Titanium metal is used in automotive applications, particularly in
automobile and motorcycle racing where low weight and high strength
and rigidity are critical. The metal is generally too expensive for
the general consumer market, though some late model Corvettes have
been manufactured with titanium exhausts, and a Corvette Z06\'s LT4
supercharged engine uses lightweight, solid titanium intake valves for
greater strength and resistance to heat.
Titanium is used in many sporting goods: tennis rackets , golf clubs
, lacrosse stick shafts; cricket , hockey, lacrosse, football helmet
grills, and bicycle frames and components. Although not a mainstream
material for bicycle production, titanium bikes have been used by
racing teams and adventure cyclists .
Titanium alloys are used in spectacle frames that are rather
expensive but highly durable, long lasting, light weight, and cause no
skin allergies. Many backpackers use titanium equipment, including
cookware, eating utensils, lanterns, and tent stakes. Though slightly
more expensive than traditional steel or aluminium alternatives,
titanium products can be significantly lighter without compromising
Titanium horseshoes are preferred to steel by farriers
because it is lighter and more durable.
Titanium has occasionally been used in architecture. The 42.5 m (139
Monument to Yuri Gagarin , the first man to travel in space,
(55°42′29.7″N 37°34′57.2″E / 55.708250°N
37.582556°E / 55.708250; 37.582556 ), as well as the 110 m (360.9
Monument to the Conquerors of Space
Monument to the Conquerors of Space on top of the Cosmonaut
Moscow are made of titanium for the metal's attractive color
and association with rocketry. The
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao and the
Cerritos Millennium Library were the first buildings in Europe and
North America, respectively, to be sheathed in titanium panels.
Titanium sheathing was used in the Frederic C. Hamilton Building in
Because of titanium's superior strength and light weight relative to
other metals (steel, stainless steel , and aluminium), and because of
recent advances in metalworking techniques, its use has become more
widespread in the manufacture of firearms. Primary uses include pistol
frames and revolver cylinders. For the same reasons, it is used in the
body of laptop computers (for example, in Apple 's Power
Some upmarket lightweight and corrosion-resistant tools, such as
shovels and flashlights, are made of titanium or titanium alloys.
Relation between voltage and color for anodized titanium.
Because of its durability, titanium has become more popular for
designer jewelry (particularly, titanium rings ). Its inertness makes
it a good choice for those with allergies or those who will be wearing
the jewelry in environments such as swimming pools.
Titanium is also
alloyed with gold to produce an alloy that can be marketed as 24-carat
gold because the 1% of alloyed Ti is insufficient to require a lesser
mark. The resulting alloy is roughly the hardness of 14-carat gold and
is more durable than pure 24-carat gold.
Titanium's durability, light weight, dent and corrosion resistance
makes it useful for watch cases. Some artists work with titanium to
produce sculptures, decorative objects and furniture.
Titanium may be anodized to vary the thickness of the surface oxide
layer, causing optical interference fringes and a variety of bright
colors. With this coloration and chemical inertness, titanium is a
popular metal for body piercing .
Titanium has a minor use in dedicated non-circulating coins and
medals. In 1999, Gibraltar released world's first titanium coin for
the millennium celebration. The
Gold Coast Titans , an Australian
rugby league team, award a medal of pure titanium to their player of
Because titanium is biocompatible (non-toxic and not rejected by the
body), it has many medical uses, including surgical implements and
implants, such as hip balls and sockets (joint replacement ) and
dental implants that can stay in place for up to 20 years. The
titanium is often alloyed with about 4% aluminium or 6% Al and 4%
vanadium. Medical screws and plate used for repair fracture of
Titanium has the inherent ability to osseointegrate , enabling use in
dental implants that can last for over 30 years. This property is also
useful for orthopedic implant applications. These benefit from
titanium's lower modulus of elasticity (Young\'s modulus ) to more
closely match that of the bone that such devices are intended to
repair. As a result, skeletal loads are more evenly shared between
bone and implant, leading to a lower incidence of bone degradation due
to stress shielding and periprosthetic bone fractures, which occur at
the boundaries of orthopedic implants. However, titanium alloys'
stiffness is still more than twice that of bone, so adjacent bone
bears a greatly reduced load and may deteriorate.
Because titanium is non-ferromagnetic , patients with titanium
implants can be safely examined with magnetic resonance imaging
(convenient for long-term implants). Preparing titanium for
implantation in the body involves subjecting it to a high-temperature
plasma arc which removes the surface atoms, exposing fresh titanium
that is instantly oxidized.
Titanium is used for the surgical instruments used in image-guided
surgery , as well as wheelchairs, crutches, and any other products
where high strength and low weight are desirable.
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are widely used in electronics and the
delivery of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.
NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE
Because of it is corrosion resistance, containers made of titanium
have been studied for the long-term storage of nuclear waste.
Containers lasting more than 100,000 years are thought possible with
manufacturing conditions that minimize material defects. A titanium
"drip shield" could also be installed over containers of other types
to enhance their longevity.
The fungal species
Marasmius oreades and
Hypholoma capnoides can bio
convert titanium in titanium polluted soils.
Nettles contain up to 80 parts per million of titanium.
Titanium is non-toxic even in large doses and does not play any
natural role inside the human body . An estimated quantity of 0.8
milligrams of titanium is ingested by humans each day, but most passes
through without being absorbed in the tissues. It does, however,
sometimes bio-accumulate in tissues that contain silica . One study
indicates a possible connection between titanium and yellow nail
syndrome . An unknown mechanism in plants may use titanium to
stimulate the production of carbohydrates and encourage growth. This
may explain why most plants contain about 1 part per million (ppm) of
titanium, food plants have about 2 ppm, and horsetail and nettle
contain up to 80 ppm.
As a powder or in the form of metal shavings, titanium metal poses a
significant fire hazard and, when heated in air , an explosion hazard.
Water and carbon dioxide are ineffective for extinguishing a titanium
fire; Class D dry powder agents must be used instead.
When used in the production or handling of chlorine , titanium should
not be exposed to dry chlorine gas because it may result in a
titanium/chlorine fire. Even wet chlorine presents a fire hazard when
extreme weather conditions cause unexpected drying.
Titanium can catch fire when a fresh, non-oxidized surface comes in
contact with liquid oxygen . Fresh metal may be exposed when the
oxidized surface is struck or scratched with a hard object, or when
mechanical strain causes a crack. This poses a limitation to its use
in liquid oxygen systems, such as those in the aerospace industry.
Because titanium tubing impurities can cause fires when exposed to
oxygen, titanium is prohibited in gaseous oxygen respiration systems.
Steel tubing is used for high pressure systems (3,000 p.s.i.) and
aluminium tubing for low pressure systems.
List of countries by titanium production
Titanium in Africa
Titanium Metals Corporation
Titanium sublimation pump
Titanium in zircon geothermometer
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