Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It
is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and
Titanium is resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua
regia, and chlorine.
Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, by William Gregor
in 1791, and was named by
Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Martin Heinrich Klaproth after the Titans of
Greek mythology. The element occurs within a number of mineral
deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely
distributed in the
Earth's crust and lithosphere, and it is found in
almost all living things, water bodies, rocks, and soils. The metal
is extracted from its principal mineral ores by the Kroll and
Hunter processes. The most common compound, titanium dioxide, is a
popular photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white
pigments. Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a
component of smoke screens and catalysts; and titanium trichloride
(TiCl3), which is used as a catalyst in the production of
Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, and
molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong, lightweight
alloys for aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft),
military, industrial processes (chemicals and petrochemicals,
desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agri-food, medical
prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental and endodontic instruments and
files, dental implants, sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones, and
The two most useful properties of the metal are corrosion resistance
and strength-to-density ratio, the highest of any metallic element.
In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels, but
less dense. There are two allotropic forms and five naturally
occurring isotopes of this element, 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being
the most abundant (73.8%). Although they have the same number of
valence electrons and are in the same group in the periodic table,
titanium and zirconium differ in many chemical and physical
1.1 Physical properties
1.2 Chemical properties
2.1 Oxides, sulfides, and alkoxides
2.2 Nitrides and carbides
2.4 Organometallic complexes
2.5 Anticancer therapy
4 Production and fabrication
5.1 Pigments, additives, and coatings
5.2 Aerospace and marine
5.4 Consumer and architectural
5.7 Nuclear waste storage
8 See also
11 External links
As a metal, titanium is recognized for its high strength-to-weight
ratio. It is a strong metal with low density that is quite ductile
(especially in an oxygen-free environment), lustrous, and
metallic-white in color. The relatively high melting point (more
than 1,650 °C or 3,000 °F) makes it useful as a refractory
metal. It is paramagnetic and has fairly low electrical and thermal
Commercially pure (99.2% pure) grades of titanium have ultimate
tensile strength of about 434 MPa (63,000 psi), equal to that of
common, low-grade steel alloys, but are less dense.
Titanium is 60%
denser than aluminium, but more than twice as strong as the most
commonly used 6061-T6 aluminium alloy. Certain titanium alloys (e.g.,
Beta C) achieve tensile strengths of over 1,400 MPa (20,0000 psi).
However, titanium loses strength when heated above 430 °C
Titanium is not as hard as some grades of heat-treated steel; it is
non-magnetic and a poor conductor of heat and electricity. Machining
requires precautions, because the material can gall unless sharp tools
and proper cooling methods are used. Like steel structures, those made
from titanium have a fatigue limit that guarantees longevity in some
The metal is a dimorphic allotrope of an hexagonal α form that
changes into a body-centered cubic (lattice) β form at 882 °C
(1,620 °F). The specific heat of the α form increases
dramatically as it is heated to this transition temperature but then
falls and remains fairly constant for the β form regardless of
Pourbaix diagram for titanium in pure water, perchloric acid, or
Like aluminium and magnesium, titanium metal and its alloys oxidize
immediately upon exposure to air.
Titanium readily reacts with oxygen
at 1,200 °C (2,190 °F) in air, and at 610 °C
(1,130 °F) in pure oxygen, forming titanium dioxide. It is,
however, slow to react with water and air at ambient temperatures
because it forms a passive oxide coating that protects the bulk metal
from further oxidation. When it first forms, this protective layer
is only 1–2 nm thick but continues to grow slowly; reaching a
thickness of 25 nm in four years.
Atmospheric passivation gives titanium excellent resistance to
corrosion, almost equivalent to platinum.
Titanium is capable of
withstanding attack by dilute sulfuric and hydrochloric acids,
chloride solutions, and most organic acids. However, titanium is
corroded by concentrated acids. As indicated by its negative redox
potential, titanium is thermodynamically a very reactive metal that
burns in normal atmosphere at lower temperatures than the melting
point. Melting is possible only in an inert atmosphere or in a vacuum.
At 550 °C (1,022 °F), it combines with chlorine. It
also reacts with the other halogens and absorbs hydrogen.
Titanium is one of the few elements that burns in pure nitrogen gas,
reacting at 800 °C (1,470 °F) to form titanium nitride,
which causes embrittlement. Because of its high reactivity with
oxygen, nitrogen, and some other gases, titanium filaments are applied
in titanium sublimation pumps as scavengers for these gases. Such
pumps inexpensively and reliably produce extremely low pressures in
ultra-high vacuum systems.
2011 production of rutile and ilmenite
% of total
Titanium is the ninth-most abundant element in
Earth's crust (0.63% by
mass) and the seventh-most abundant metal. It is present as oxides
in most igneous rocks, in sediments derived from them, in living
things, and natural bodies of water. Of the 801 types of igneous
rocks analyzed by the United States Geological Survey, 784 contained
titanium. Its proportion in soils is approximately 0.5 to 1.5%.
Common titanium-containing minerals are anatase, brookite, ilmenite,
perovskite, rutile, and titanite (sphene).
Akaogiite is an
extremely rare mineral consisting of titanium dioxide. Of these
minerals, only rutile and ilmenite have economic importance, yet even
they are difficult to find in high concentrations. About 6.0 and 0.7
million tonnes of those minerals were mined in 2011, respectively.
Significant titanium-bearing ilmenite deposits exist in western
Australia, Canada, China, India, Mozambique, New Zealand, Norway,
Sierra Leone, South Africa, and Ukraine. About 186,000 tonnes of
titanium metal sponge were produced in 2011, mostly in
t), Japan (56,000 t), Russia (40,000 t), United States (32,000 t) and
Kazakhstan (20,700 t). Total reserves of titanium are estimated to
exceed 600 million tonnes.
The concentration of titanium is about 4 picomolar in the ocean. At
100 °C, the concentration of titanium in water is estimated to
be less than 10−7 M at pH 7. The identity of titanium species in
aqueous solution remains unknown because of its low solubility and the
lack of sensitive spectroscopic methods, although only the 4+
oxidation state is stable in air. No evidence exists for a biological
role, although rare organisms are known to accumulate high
concentrations of titanium.
Titanium is contained in meteorites, and it has been detected in the
Sun and in M-type stars (the coolest type) with a surface
temperature of 3,200 °C (5,790 °F). Rocks brought back
Moon during the
Apollo 17 mission are composed of 12.1%
TiO2. It is also found in coal ash, plants, and even the human
body. Native titanium (pure metallic) is very rare.
Main article: Isotopes of titanium
Naturally occurring titanium is composed of 5 stable isotopes: 46Ti,
47Ti, 48Ti, 49Ti, and 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%
natural abundance). Eleven radioisotopes have been characterized, the
most stable being 44Ti with a half-life of 63 years; 45Ti, 184.8
minutes; 51Ti, 5.76 minutes; and 52Ti, 1.7 minutes. All the other
radioactive isotopes have half-lives less than 33 seconds and the
majority, less than half a second.
The isotopes of titanium range in atomic weight from 39.99 u (40Ti) to
57.966 u (58Ti). The primary decay mode before the most abundant
stable isotope, 48Ti, is electron capture and the primary mode after
is beta emission. The primary decay products before 48Ti are element
21 (scandium) isotopes and the primary products after are element 23
Titanium becomes radioactive upon bombardment with deuterons, emitting
mainly positrons and hard gamma rays.
See also: the categories
Titanium compounds and
TiN-coated drill bit
The +4 oxidation state dominates titanium chemistry, but compounds
in the +3 oxidation state are also common. Commonly, titanium
adopts an octahedral coordination geometry in its complexes, but
tetrahedral TiCl4 is a notable exception. Because of its high
oxidation state, titanium(IV) compounds exhibit a high degree of
covalent bonding. Unlike most other transition metals, simple aquo
Ti(IV) complexes are unknown.
Oxides, sulfides, and alkoxides
The most important oxide is TiO2, which exists in three important
polymorphs; anatase, brookite, and rutile. All of these are white
diamagnetic solids, although mineral samples can appear dark (see
rutile). They adopt polymeric structures in which Ti is surrounded by
six oxide ligands that link to other Ti centers.
The term titanates usually refers to titanium(IV) compounds, as
represented by barium titanate (BaTiO3). With a perovskite structure,
this material exhibits piezoelectric properties and is used as a
transducer in the interconversion of sound and electricity. Many
minerals are titanates, e.g. ilmenite (FeTiO3).
Star sapphires and
rubies get their asterism (star-forming shine) from the presence of
titanium dioxide impurities.
A variety of reduced oxides of titanium are known. Ti3O5, described as
a Ti(IV)-Ti(III) species, is a purple semiconductor produced by
reduction of TiO2 with hydrogen at high temperatures, and is used
industrially when surfaces need to be vapour-coated with titanium
dioxide: it evaporates as pure TiO, whereas TiO2 evaporates as a
mixture of oxides and deposits coatings with variable refractive
index. Also known is Ti2O3, with the corundum structure, and TiO,
with the rock salt structure, although often nonstoichiometric.
The alkoxides of titanium(IV), prepared by reacting TiCl4 with
alcohols, are colourless compounds that convert to the dioxide on
reaction with water. They are industrially useful for depositing solid
TiO2 via the sol-gel process.
Titanium isopropoxide is used in the
synthesis of chiral organic compounds via the Sharpless epoxidation.
Titanium forms a variety of sulfides, but only TiS2 has attracted
significant interest. It adopts a layered structure and was used as a
cathode in the development of lithium batteries. Because Ti(IV) is a
"hard cation", the sulfides of titanium are unstable and tend to
hydrolyze to the oxide with release of hydrogen sulfide.
Nitrides and carbides
Titanium nitride (TiN) is a member of a family of refractory
transition metal nitrides and exhibits properties similar to both
covalent compounds including; thermodynamic stability, extreme
hardness, thermal/electrical conductivity, and a high melting
point. TiN has a hardness equivalent to sapphire and carborundum
(9.0 on the Mohs Scale), and is often used to coat cutting tools,
such as drill bits. It is also used as a gold-colored decorative
finish and as a barrier metal in semiconductor fabrication.
Titanium carbide, which is also very hard, is found in cutting tools
Titanium(III) compounds are characteristically violet, illustrated by
this aqueous solution of titanium trichloride.
Titanium tetrachloride (titanium(IV) chloride, TiCl4) is a
colorless volatile liquid (commercial samples are yellowish) that, in
air, hydrolyzes with spectacular emission of white clouds. Via the
Kroll process, TiCl4 is produced in the conversion of titanium ores to
titanium dioxide, e.g., for use in white paint. It is widely used
in organic chemistry as a Lewis acid, for example in the Mukaiyama
aldol condensation. In the van Arkel process, titanium tetraiodide
(TiI4) is generated in the production of high purity titanium metal.
Titanium(III) and titanium(II) also form stable chlorides. A notable
example is titanium(III) chloride (TiCl3), which is used as a catalyst
for production of polyolefins (see Ziegler-Natta catalyst) and a
reducing agent in organic chemistry.
Main article: Organotitanium chemistry
Owing to the important role of titanium compounds as polymerization
catalyst, compounds with Ti-C bonds have been intensively studied. The
most common organotitanium complex is titanocene dichloride
((C5H5)2TiCl2). Related compounds include
Tebbe's reagent and Petasis
Titanium forms carbonyl complexes, e.g. (C5H5)2Ti(CO)2.
Following the success of platinum-based chemotherapy, titanium(IV)
complexes were among the first non-platinum compounds to be tested for
cancer treatment. The advantage of titanium compounds lies in their
high efficacy and low toxicity. In biological environments, hydrolysis
leads to the safe and inert titanium dioxide. Despite these advantages
the first candidate compounds failed clinical trials. Further
development resulted in the creation of potentially effective,
selective, and stable titanium-based drugs. Unfortunately, their
mode of action is not yet well understood.
Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Martin Heinrich Klaproth named titanium for the Titans of Greek
Titanium was discovered in 1791 by the clergyman and amateur
geologist, William Gregor, as an inclusion of a mineral in Cornwall,
Great Britain. Gregor recognized the presence of a new element in
ilmenite when he found black sand by a stream and noticed the sand
was attracted by a magnet. Analyzing the sand, he determined the
presence of two metal oxides: iron oxide (explaining the attraction to
the magnet) and 45.25% of a white metallic oxide he could not
identify. Realizing that the unidentified oxide contained a metal
that did not match any known element, Gregor reported his findings to
the Royal Geological Society of
Cornwall and in the German science
journal Crell's Annalen.
Around the same time,
Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein produced a
similar substance, but could not identify it. The oxide was
independently rediscovered in 1795 by Prussian chemist Martin Heinrich
Klaproth in rutile from Boinik (German name of Bajmócska) village of
Hungary (now Bojničky in Slovakia). Klaproth found that it
contained a new element and named it for the Titans of Greek
mythology. After hearing about Gregor's earlier discovery, he
obtained a sample of manaccanite and confirmed that it contained
The currently known processes for extracting titanium from its various
ores are laborious and costly; it is not possible to reduce the ore by
heating with carbon (as in iron smelting) because titanium combines
with the carbon to produce titanium carbide. Pure metallic
titanium (99.9%) was first prepared in 1910 by
Matthew A. Hunter at
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute by heating TiCl4 with sodium at
700–800 °C under great pressure in a batch process known
as the Hunter process.
Titanium metal was not used outside the
laboratory until 1932 when
William Justin Kroll
William Justin Kroll proved that it can be
produced by reducing titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) with calcium.
Eight years later he refined this process with magnesium and even
sodium in what became known as the Kroll process. Although
research continues into more efficient and cheaper processes (e.g.,
FFC Cambridge, Armstrong), the
Kroll process is still used for
Titanium sponge, made by the Kroll process
Titanium of very high purity was made in small quantities when Anton
Eduard van Arkel and
Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered the iodide, or
crystal bar, process in 1925, by reacting with iodine and decomposing
the formed vapours over a hot filament to pure metal.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the
Soviet Union pioneered the use of titanium
in military and submarine applications (Alfa class and Mike
class) as part of programs related to the Cold War. Starting
in the early 1950s, titanium came into use extensively in military
aviation, particularly in high-performance jets, starting with
aircraft such as the
F-100 Super Sabre
F-100 Super Sabre and
Lockheed A-12 and SR-71.
Recognizing the strategic importance of titanium, the U.S.
Department of Defense supported early efforts of
Throughout the period of the Cold War, titanium was considered a
strategic material by the U.S. government, and a large stockpile of
titanium sponge was maintained by the Defense National Stockpile
Center, which was finally depleted in the 2000s. According to 2006
data, the world's largest producer, Russian-based VSMPO-AVISMA, was
estimated to account for about 29% of the world market share. As
of 2015, titanium sponge metal was produced in six countries: China,
Japan, Russia, Kazakhstan, the US, Ukraine, and India. (in order of
In 2006, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
awarded $5.7 million to a two-company consortium to develop a new
process for making titanium metal powder. Under heat and pressure, the
powder can be used to create strong, lightweight items ranging from
armour plating to components for the aerospace, transport, and
chemical processing industries.
Production and fabrication
Titanium (mineral concentrate)
Basic titanium products: plate, tube, rods, and powder
The processing of titanium metal occurs in four major steps:
reduction of titanium ore into "sponge", a porous form; melting of
sponge, or sponge plus a master alloy to form an ingot; primary
fabrication, where an ingot is converted into general mill products
such as billet, bar, plate, sheet, strip, and tube; and secondary
fabrication of finished shapes from mill products.
Main article: Kroll process
Because it cannot be readily produced by reduction of its dioxide,
titanium metal is obtained by reduction of TiCl4 with magnesium metal
in the Kroll process. The complexity of this batch production in the
Kroll process explains the relatively high market value of
titanium, despite the
Kroll process being less expensive than the
Hunter process. To produce the TiCl4 required by the Kroll
process, the dioxide is subjected to carbothermic reduction in the
presence of chlorine. In this process, the chlorine gas is passed over
a red-hot mixture of rutile or ilmenite in the presence of carbon.
After extensive purification by fractional distillation, the TiCl4 is
reduced with 800 °C molten magnesium in an argon atmosphere.
Titanium metal can be further purified by the van Arkel–de Boer
process, which involves thermal decomposition of titanium tetraiodide.
FFC Cambridge process
A more recently developed batch production method, the FFC Cambridge
process, consumes titanium dioxide powder (a refined form of
rutile) as feedstock and produces titanium metal, either powder or
sponge. The process involves fewer steps than the
Kroll process and
takes less time. If mixed oxide powders are used, the product is
Common titanium alloys are made by reduction. For example,
cuprotitanium (rutile with copper added is reduced), ferrocarbon
titanium (ilmenite reduced with coke in an electric furnace), and
manganotitanium (rutile with manganese or manganese oxides) are
2 FeTiO3 + 7 Cl2 + 6 C → 2 TiCl4 + 2 FeCl3 + 6 CO (900 °C)
TiCl4 + 2 Mg → 2 MgCl2 + Ti (1,100 °C)
About fifty grades of titanium and titanium alloys are designed and
currently used, although only a couple of dozen are readily available
ASTM International recognizes 31 grades of
titanium metal and alloys, of which grades one through four are
commercially pure (unalloyed). Those four vary in tensile strength as
a function of oxygen content, with grade 1 being the most ductile
(lowest tensile strength with an oxygen content of 0.18%), and grade 4
the least ductile (highest tensile strength with an oxygen content of
0.40%). The remaining grades are alloys, each designed for
specific properties of ductility, strength, hardness, electrical
resistivity, creep resistance, specific corrosion resistance, and
In addition to the ASTM specifications, titanium alloys are also
produced to meet aerospace and military specifications (SAE-AMS,
MIL-T), ISO standards, and country-specific specifications, as well as
proprietary end-user specifications for aerospace, military, medical,
and industrial applications.
Titanium powder is manufactured using a flow production process known
as the Armstrong process that is similar to the batch production
Hunter process. A stream of titanium tetrachloride gas is added to a
stream of molten sodium metal; the products (sodium chloride salt and
titanium particles) is filtered from the extra sodium.
then separated from the salt by water washing. Both sodium and
chlorine are recycled to produce and process more titanium
All welding of titanium must be done in an inert atmosphere of argon
or helium to shield it from contamination with atmospheric gases
(oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen). Contamination causes a variety
of conditions, such as embrittlement, which reduce the integrity of
the assembly welds and lead to joint failure.
Commercially pure flat product (sheet, plate) can be formed readily,
but processing must take into account the fact that the metal has a
"memory" and tends to spring back. This is especially true of certain
Titanium cannot be soldered without
first pre-plating it in a metal that is solderable. The metal can
be machined with the same equipment and the same processes as
A titanium cylinder of "grade 2" quality
Titanium is used in steel as an alloying element (ferro-titanium) to
reduce grain size and as a deoxidizer, and in stainless steel to
reduce carbon content.
Titanium is often alloyed with aluminium (to
refine grain size), vanadium, copper (to harden), iron, manganese,
molybdenum, and other metals.
Titanium mill products (sheet,
plate, bar, wire, forgings, castings) find application in industrial,
aerospace, recreational, and emerging markets. Powdered titanium is
used in pyrotechnics as a source of bright-burning particles.
Pigments, additives, and coatings
Titanium dioxide is the most commonly used compound of titanium
About 95% of all titanium ore is destined for refinement into titanium
2), an intensely white permanent pigment used in paints, paper,
toothpaste, and plastics. It is also used in cement, in gemstones,
as an optical opacifier in paper, and a strengthening agent in
graphite composite fishing rods and golf clubs.
2 powder is chemically inert, resists fading in sunlight, and is very
opaque: it imparts a pure and brilliant white colour to the brown or
grey chemicals that form the majority of household plastics. In
nature, this compound is found in the minerals anatase, brookite, and
rutile. Paint made with titanium dioxide does well in severe
temperatures and marine environments. Pure titanium dioxide has a
very high index of refraction and an optical dispersion higher than
diamond. In addition to being a very important pigment, titanium
dioxide is also used in sunscreens.
Aerospace and marine
Because titanium alloys have high tensile strength to density
ratio, high corrosion resistance, fatigue resistance, high
crack resistance, and ability to withstand moderately high
temperatures without creeping, they are used in aircraft, armour
plating, naval ships, spacecraft, and missiles. For these
applications, titanium is alloyed with aluminium, zirconium,
nickel, vanadium, and other elements to manufacture a variety of
components including critical structural parts, fire walls, landing
gear, exhaust ducts (helicopters), and hydraulic systems. In fact,
about two thirds of all titanium metal produced is used in aircraft
engines and frames. The titanium 6AL-4V alloy accounts for almost
50% of all alloys used in aircraft applications.
Lockheed A-12 and its development the
SR-71 "Blackbird" were two
of the first aircraft frames where titanium was used, paving the way
for much wider use in modern military and commercial aircraft. An
estimated 59 metric tons (130,000 pounds) are used in the Boeing 777,
45 in the Boeing 747, 18 in the Boeing 737, 32 in the Airbus A340, 18
in the Airbus A330, and 12 in the Airbus A320. The
Airbus A380 may use
77 metric tons, including about 11 tons in the engines. In aero
engine applications, titanium is used for rotors, compressor blades,
hydraulic system components, and nacelles. An early use in jet engines
was for the
Orenda Iroquois in the 1950's.:412
Because titanium is resistant to corrosion by sea water, it is used to
make propeller shafts, rigging, and heat exchangers in desalination
plants; heater-chillers for salt water aquariums, fishing line and
leader, and divers' knives.
Titanium is used in the housings and
components of ocean-deployed surveillance and monitoring devices for
science and the military. The former
Soviet Union developed techniques
for making submarines with hulls of titanium alloys forging
titanium in huge vacuum tubes.
Titanium is used in the walls of the Juno spacecraft's vault to shield
High-purity (99.999%) titanium with visible crystallites
Welded titanium pipe and process equipment (heat exchangers, tanks,
process vessels, valves) are used in the chemical and petrochemical
industries primarily for corrosion resistance. Specific alloys are
used in oil and gas downhole applications and nickel hydrometallurgy
for their high strength (e. g.: titanium beta C alloy), corrosion
resistance, or both. The pulp and paper industry uses titanium in
process equipment exposed to corrosive media, such as sodium
hypochlorite or wet chlorine gas (in the bleachery). Other
applications include ultrasonic welding, wave soldering, and
Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a colorless liquid, is important as an
intermediate in the process of making TiO2 and is also used to produce
the Ziegler–Natta catalyst.
Titanium tetrachloride is also used to
iridize glass and, because it fumes strongly in moist air, it is used
to make smoke screens.
Consumer and architectural
Titanium sealing stamps
Titanium metal is used in automotive applications, particularly in
automobile and motorcycle racing where low weight and high strength
and rigidity are critical. The metal is generally too expensive
for the general consumer market, though some late model Corvettes have
been manufactured with titanium exhausts, and a Corvette Z06's LT4
supercharged engine uses lightweight, solid titanium intake valves for
greater strength and resistance to heat.
Titanium is used in many sporting goods: tennis rackets, golf clubs,
lacrosse stick shafts; cricket, hockey, lacrosse, and football helmet
grills, and bicycle frames and components. Although not a mainstream
material for bicycle production, titanium bikes have been used by
racing teams and adventure cyclists.
Titanium alloys are used in spectacle frames that are rather expensive
but highly durable, long lasting, light weight, and cause no skin
allergies. Many backpackers use titanium equipment, including
cookware, eating utensils, lanterns, and tent stakes. Though slightly
more expensive than traditional steel or aluminium alternatives,
titanium products can be significantly lighter without compromising
Titanium horseshoes are preferred to steel by farriers
because they are lighter and more durable.
Titanium has occasionally been used in architecture. The 42.5-m
(139 foot) Monument to Yuri Gagarin, the first man to travel in
space (55°42′29.7″N 37°34′57.2″E / 55.708250°N
37.582556°E / 55.708250; 37.582556), as well as the 110-m (360.9
Monument to the Conquerors of Space
Monument to the Conquerors of Space on top of the Cosmonaut
Museum in Moscow are made of titanium for the metal's attractive
colour and association with rocketry. The Guggenheim Museum
Bilbao and the
Cerritos Millennium Library
Cerritos Millennium Library were the first buildings in
Europe and North America, respectively, to be sheathed in titanium
Titanium sheathing was used in the Frederic C. Hamilton
Building in Denver, Colorado.
Because of titanium's superior strength and light weight relative to
other metals (steel, stainless steel, and aluminium), and because of
recent advances in metalworking techniques, its use has become more
widespread in the manufacture of firearms. Primary uses include pistol
frames and revolver cylinders. For the same reasons, it is used in the
body of laptop computers (for example, in Apple's Power
Some upmarket lightweight and corrosion-resistant tools, such as
shovels and flashlights, are made of titanium or titanium alloys.
Relation between voltage and color for anodized titanium. (Cateb,
Because of its durability, titanium has become more popular for
designer jewelry (particularly, titanium rings). Its inertness
makes it a good choice for those with allergies or those who will be
wearing the jewelry in environments such as swimming pools. Titanium
is also alloyed with gold to produce an alloy that can be marketed as
24-carat gold because the 1% of alloyed Ti is insufficient to require
a lesser mark. The resulting alloy is roughly the hardness of 14-carat
gold and is more durable than pure 24-carat gold.
Titanium's durability, light weight, and dent and corrosion resistance
make it useful for watch cases. Some artists work with titanium to
produce sculptures, decorative objects and furniture.
Titanium may be anodized to vary the thickness of the surface oxide
layer, causing optical interference fringes and a variety of bright
colors. With this coloration and chemical inertness, titanium is a
popular metal for body piercing.
Titanium has a minor use in dedicated non-circulating coins and
medals. In 1999, Gibraltar released world's first titanium coin for
the millennium celebration. The
Gold Coast Titans, an Australian
rugby league team, award a medal of pure titanium to their player of
Because titanium is biocompatible (non-toxic and not rejected by the
body), it has many medical uses, including surgical implements and
implants, such as hip balls and sockets (joint replacement) and dental
implants that can stay in place for up to 20 years. The titanium
is often alloyed with about 4% aluminium or 6% Al and 4% vanadium.
Medical screws and plate used for repair fracture of the wrist, scale
is in centimeters.
Titanium has the inherent ability to osseointegrate, enabling use in
dental implants that can last for over 30 years. This property is also
useful for orthopedic implant applications. These benefit from
titanium's lower modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) to more
closely match that of the bone that such devices are intended to
repair. As a result, skeletal loads are more evenly shared between
bone and implant, leading to a lower incidence of bone degradation due
to stress shielding and periprosthetic bone fractures, which occur at
the boundaries of orthopedic implants. However, titanium alloys'
stiffness is still more than twice that of bone, so adjacent bone
bears a greatly reduced load and may deteriorate.
Because titanium is non-ferromagnetic, patients with titanium implants
can be safely examined with magnetic resonance imaging (convenient for
long-term implants). Preparing titanium for implantation in the body
involves subjecting it to a high-temperature plasma arc which removes
the surface atoms, exposing fresh titanium that is instantly
Titanium is used for the surgical instruments used in image-guided
surgery, as well as wheelchairs, crutches, and any other products
where high strength and low weight are desirable.
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are widely used in electronics and the
delivery of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.
Nuclear waste storage
Because of it is corrosion resistance, containers made of titanium
have been studied for the long-term storage of nuclear waste.
Containers lasting more than 100,000 years are thought possible with
manufacturing conditions that minimize material defects. A
titanium "drip shield" could also be installed over containers of
other types to enhance their longevity.
The fungal species
Marasmius oreades and
Hypholoma capnoides can
bioconvert titanium in titanium polluted soils.
Nettles contain up to 80 parts per million of titanium.
Titanium is non-toxic even in large doses and does not play any
natural role inside the human body. An estimated quantity of 0.8
milligrams of titanium is ingested by humans each day, but most passes
through without being absorbed in the tissues. It does, however,
sometimes bio-accumulate in tissues that contain silica. One study
indicates a possible connection between titanium and yellow nail
syndrome. An unknown mechanism in plants may use titanium to
stimulate the production of carbohydrates and encourage growth. This
may explain why most plants contain about 1 part per million (ppm) of
titanium, food plants have about 2 ppm, and horsetail and nettle
contain up to 80 ppm.
As a powder or in the form of metal shavings, titanium metal poses a
significant fire hazard and, when heated in air, an explosion
hazard. Water and carbon dioxide are ineffective for
extinguishing a titanium fire; Class D dry powder agents must be used
When used in the production or handling of chlorine, titanium should
not be exposed to dry chlorine gas because it may result in a
titanium–chlorine fire. Even wet chlorine presents a fire
hazard when extreme weather conditions cause unexpected drying.
Titanium can catch fire when a fresh, non-oxidized surface comes in
contact with liquid oxygen. Fresh metal may be exposed when the
oxidized surface is struck or scratched with a hard object, or when
mechanical strain causes a crack. This poses a limitation to its use
in liquid oxygen systems, such as those in the aerospace industry.
Because titanium tubing impurities can cause fires when exposed to
oxygen, titanium is prohibited in gaseous oxygen respiration systems.
Steel tubing is used for high pressure systems (3,000 p.s.i.) and
aluminium tubing for low pressure systems.
List of countries by titanium production
Titanium in Africa
Titanium Metals Corporation
Titanium sublimation pump
Titanium in zircon geothermometry
View or order collections of articles
Period 4 elements
Group 4 elements
Chemical elements (sorted alphabetically)
Chemical elements (sorted by number)
Access related topics
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