Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional
methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using
squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints
secured by large wooden pegs. It is commonplace in wooden buildings
from the 19th century and earlier. If the structural frame of
load-bearing timber is left exposed on the exterior of the building it
may be referred to as half-timbered, and in many cases the infill
between timbers will be used for decorative effect.
The method comes from working directly from logs and tree rather than
pre-cut dimensional lumber.
Hewing this with broadaxes, adzes, and
draw knives and using hand-powered braces and augers (brace and bit)
and other woodworking tools, artisans or framers could gradually
assemble a building.
Since this building method has been used for thousands of years in
many parts of the world, many styles of historic framing have
developed. These styles are often categorized by the type of
foundation, walls, how and where the beams intersect, the use of
curved timbers, and the roof framing details.
The market square of
Dornstetten (Germany) showing an ensemble of
The reconstructed market square of
Krämerbrücke in Erfurt, Germany, with half-timbered buildings
1 Box frame
3 Aisled frame
4.1 Infill materials
4.2 History of the term
4.3 Oldest examples
4.4 Alternative meanings
5.3 Post construction and frame construction
5.4 Modern features
6 History and traditions
Topping out ceremony
6.2 Carpenters' marks
6.4 British tradition
6.5 English styles
6.6 French tradition
6.7 German tradition (Fachwerkhäuser)
6.16.1 New France
6.16.2 New Netherland
6.16.3 New England
6.18 Revival styles in later centuries
8.1 Traditional or historic structures
9 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
A simple timber frame made of straight vertical and horizontal pieces
with a common rafter roof without purlins, the term box frame is not
well defined and has been used for any kind of framing other than
cruck framing. The distinction presented here is the roof load is
carried by the exterior walls. Purlins are also in a simple timber
A "true" or "full" cruck half-timbered building in Weobley,
Herefordshire, England: The cruck blades are the tall, curved timbers
which extend from near the ground to the ridge.
A cruck is a pair of crooked or curved timbers which form a bent
(U.S.) or crossframe (UK), the individual timbers are each called a
blade. More than 4,000 cruck frame buildings have been recorded in the
UK. Several types of cruck frames are used; more information follows
in English style below and at the main article Cruck.
True cruck or full cruck: blades, straight or curved, extend from
ground or foundation to the ridge acting as the principal rafters" A
full cruck does not need a tie beam.
Base cruck: tops of the blades are truncated by the first transverse
member such as by a tie beam.
Raised cruck: blades land on masonry wall, and extend to the ridge.
Middle cruck: blades land on masonry wall, and are truncated by a
Upper cruck: blades land on a tie beam, very similar to knee rafters.
Jointed cruck: blades are made from pieces joined near eaves in a
number of ways. See also: hammerbeam roof
End cruck is not a style, but on the gable end of a building.
Half-timbered houses, Marbach am Neckar, Germany
Half-timbered houses, Miltenberg im Odenwald, Germany
Rural old railway station timber framing style in Metelen, Germany
Interior of a two-aisled market hall
Aisled frames have one or more rows of interior posts. These interior
posts typically carry more structural load than the posts in the
exterior walls. This is the same concept of the aisle in church
buildings, sometimes called a hall church, where the center aisle is
technically called a nave. However, a nave is often called an aisle,
and three-aisled barns are common in the U.S., the Netherlands, and
Germany. Aisled buildings are wider than the simpler box-framed or
cruck-framed buildings, and typically have purlins supporting the
rafters. In northern Germany, this construction is known as variations
of a Ständerhaus.
Half-timbered wall with three kinds of infill, wattle and daub, brick,
and stone: The plaster coating which originally covered the infill and
timbers is mostly gone. This building is in the central German city of
Half-timbering refers to a structure with a frame of load-bearing
timber, creating spaces between the timbers called panels (in German
Gefach or Fächer), which are then filled-in with some kind of
nonstructural material known as infill. The frame is often left
exposed on the exterior of the building.
The earliest known type of infill, called opus craticum by the Romans,
was a wattle and daub type construction.
Opus craticum is now
confusingly applied to a Roman stone/mortar infill, also. Similar
methods to wattle and daub were also used and known by various names,
such as clam staff and daub, cat-and-clay, or torchis (French), to
name only three.
Wattle and daub
Wattle and daub was the most common infill in ancient times. The
sticks were not always technically wattlework (woven), but also
individual sticks installed vertically, horizontally, or at an angle
into holes or grooves in the framing. The coating of daub has many
recipes, but generally was a mixture of clay and chalk with a binder
such as grass or straw and water or urine. When the manufacturing
of bricks increased, brick infill replaced the less durable infills
and became more common. Stone laid in mortar as an infill was used in
areas where stone rubble and mortar were available.
Other infills include bousillage, fired brick, unfired brick such as
adobe or mudbrick, stones sometimes called pierrotage, planks as in
the German standerbohlenbau, timbers as in standerblockbau, or rarely
cob without any wooden support. The wall surfaces on the interior
were often “ceiled” with wainscoting and plastered for warmth and
Brick infill sometimes called nogging became the standard infill after
the manufacturing of bricks made them more available and less
Half-timbered walls may be covered by siding materials
including plaster, weatherboarding, tiles, or slate shingles.
The infill may be covered by other materials, including
weatherboarding or tiles. or left exposed. When left exposed, both
the framing and infill were sometimes done in a decorative manner.
Germany is famous for its decorative half-timbering and the figures
sometimes have names and meanings. The decorative manner of
half-timbering is promoted in
Germany by the German Timber-Frame Road,
several planned routes people can drive to see notable examples of
Gallery of infill types:
Decorative fired-brick infill with owl-holes
Ordinary brick infill left exposed
Stone infill called opus incertum by the Romans
Some stone infill left visible
The wattle and daub was covered with a decorated layer of plaster.
Like wattle and daub, but with horizontal stakes
Here, the plaster infill itself is sculpted and decorated.
Gallery of some named figures and decorations:
Simple saltires or St. Andrews crosses in Germany
Two curved saltires also called St. Andrews crosses during repairs to
a building in Germany: The infill has been removed.
Several forms of 'man' figures are found in Germany, this one is
called a 'wild man'.
A figure called an Alemannic woman
Wild man (center), half-man (at the corners)
Relief carvings adorn some half-timbered buildings.
The foot braces are carved with sun discs (Sonnenscheiben), a typical
design of the North-German Weser-Renaissance.
The collection of elements in half timbering are sometimes given
Upper German Fachwerk (Alemannisches Fachwerk)
An example of Fachwerk in
Franconia (Fränkisches Fachwerk). Image: I,
Fachwerk in Upper
Franconia is very detailed.
Close studding is found in England,
Spain and France
Square-panel half-timbering with fired brick infill: Square paneling
is typical of the Low German house, and is found in England.
Cruck framing can be built with half-timber walls. This house is in
the Ryedale Folk Museum in England.
History of the term
The term half-timbering is not as old as the German name Fachwerk or
the French name colombage, but it is the standard English name for
this style. One of the first people to publish the term
Mary Martha Sherwood
Mary Martha Sherwood (1775–1851), who employed
it in her book, The Lady of the Manor, published in several volumes
from 1823 to 1829. She uses the term picturesquely: "...passing
through a gate in a quickset hedge, we arrived at the porch of an old
half-timbered cottage, where an aged man and woman received us." By
1842, half-timbered had found its way into The Encyclopedia of
Joseph Gwilt (1784–1863). This juxtaposition of
exposed timbered beams and infilled spaces created the distinctive
"half-timbered", or occasionally termed, "Tudor" style, or
The most ancient known half-timbered building is called the House of
opus craticum. It was buried by the eruption of
Mount Vesuvius in 79
AD in Herculaneum, Italy.
Opus craticum was mentioned by
his books on architecture as a timber frame with wattlework infill.
However, the same term is used to describe timber frames with an
infill of stone rubble laid in mortar the Romans called opus
A variation of the second meaning of half-timbered: the ground floor
is log and the upper floor is framed (half-timbered in the first
sense). Kluge House, Montana, U.S.
A less common meaning of the term "half-timbered" is found in the
fourth edition of John Henry Parker's Classic Dictionary of
Architecture (1873) which distinguishes full-timbered houses from
half-timbered, with half-timber houses having a ground floor in
stone or logs such as the
Kluge House which was a log cabin with a
timber-framed second floor.
Joints in an ancient French roof; the wooden pegs hold the mortise and
tenon joinery together.
Projecting ("jettied") upper storeys of an English half-timbered
village terraced house, the jetties plainly visible
This is a part of a timber frame, before pegs are inserted.
Traditional timber framing is the method of creating framed structures
of heavy timber jointed together with various joints, commonly and
originally with lap jointing, and then later pegged mortise and tenon
joints. Diagonal bracing is used to prevent "racking", or movement of
structural vertical beams or posts.
Originally, German (and other) master carpenters would peg the joints
with allowance of about an inch (25 mm), enough room for the wood
to move as it 'seasoned', then cut the pegs, and drive the beam home
fully into its socket.
To cope with variable sizes and shapes of hewn (by adze or axe) and
sawn timbers, two main carpentry methods were employed: scribe
carpentry and square rule carpentry.
Scribing or coping was used throughout Europe, especially from the
12th century to the 19th century, and subsequently imported to North
America, where it was common into the early 19th century. In a scribe
frame, timber sockets are fashioned or "tailor-made" to fit their
corresponding timbers; thus, each timber piece must be numbered (or
Square-rule carpentry was developed in
New England in the 18th
century. It used housed joints in main timbers to allow for
interchangeable braces and girts. Today, standardized timber sizing
means that timber framing can be incorporated into mass-production
methods as per the joinery industry, especially where timber is cut by
precision computer numerical control machinery.
Further information: Jettying
A jetty is an upper floor which sometimes historically used a
structural horizontal beam, supported on cantilevers, called a
bressummer or 'jetty bressummer' to bear the weight of the new wall,
projecting outward from the preceding floor or storey.
In the city of
York in the United Kingdom, the famous street known as
The Shambles exemplifies this, where jettied houses seem to almost
touch above the street.
The completed frame of a modern timber-frame house
Ridge-post framing (left) and story framing (right, with jetties)
Historically, the timbers would have been hewn square using a felling
axe and then surface-finished with a broadaxe. If required, smaller
timbers were ripsawn from the hewn baulks using pitsaws or frame saws.
Today, timbers are more commonly bandsawn, and the timbers may
sometimes be machine-planed on all four sides.
The vertical timbers include:
posts (main supports at corners and other major uprights),
wall studs (subsidiary upright limbs in framed walls), for example,
The horizontal timbers include:
sill-beams (also called ground-sills or sole-pieces, at the bottom of
a wall into which posts and studs are fitted using tenons),
noggin-pieces (the horizontal timbers forming the tops and bottoms of
the frames of infill panels),
wall-plates (at the top of timber-framed walls that support the
trusses and joists of the roof).
When jettying, horizontal elements can include:
The jetty bressummer (or breastsummer), where the main sill
(horizontal piece) on which the projecting wall above rests, stretches
across the whole width of the jetty wall. The bressummer is itself
cantilevered forward, beyond the wall below it.
The dragon-beam which runs diagonally from one corner to another, and
supports the corner posts above and supported by the corner posts
The jetty beams or joists conform t floor dimensions above, but are at
right angles to the jetty-plates that conform to the shorter
dimensions of "roof" of the floor below. Jetty beams are mortised at
45° into the sides of the dragon beams. They are the main
constituents of the cantilever system, and determine how far the jetty
The jetty-plates are designed to carry the jetty beams. The jetty
plates themselves are supported by the corner posts of the recessed
The sloping timbers include:
Trusses (the slanting timbers forming the triangular framework at
gables and roof)
Braces (slanting beams giving extra support between horizontal or
vertical members of the timber frame)
Herringbone bracing (a decorative and supporting style of frame,
usually at 45° to the upright and horizontal directions of the frame)
Post construction and frame construction
There were two different systems of the position of posts and studs:
In the older manner, called post construction, the vertical elements
continue from the groundwork to the roof. This post construction in
German is called Geschossbauweise or Ständerbauweise. It is somewhat
similar to balloon framing method common in North America until the
middle of the 20th century.
In the advanced manner, called frame construction, each story is
constructed like a case, and the whole building is constructed like a
pile of such cases. This frame construction in German is called
Rähmbauweise or Stockwerksbauweise.
Ridge-post framing is a structurally simple and ancient post and
lintel framing where the posts extend all the way to the ridge beams.
Germans call this Firstsäule or Hochstud.
Interior of a modern hand-hewn post-and-beam home.
Porch of a modern timber-framed house
A modern Fachwerk made by
Huf Haus near West Linton, Scotland
United States and Canada, timber-frame construction has been
revived since the 1970s, and is now experiencing a thriving
renaissance of the ancient skills. This is largely due to such
practitioners as Steve Chappell, Jack Sobon, and Tedd Benson, who
studied old plans and techniques and revived a long-neglected
technique. Once a handcrafted skill passed down, timber-frame
construction has now been modernized with the help of modern
industrial tools such as
CNC machines. These machines and
mass-production techniques have assisted growth and made for more
affordable frames and shorter lead-times for projects.
Timber-framed structures differ from conventional wood-framed
buildings in several ways.
Timber framing uses fewer, larger wooden
members, commonly timbers in the range of 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12
in), while common wood framing uses many more timbers with dimensions
usually in the 5- to 25-cm (2- to 10-in) range. The methods of
fastening the frame members also differ. In conventional framing, the
members are joined using nails or other mechanical fasteners, whereas
timber framing uses the traditional mortise and tenon or more complex
joints that are usually fastened using only wooden pegs. Modern
complex structures and timber trusses often incorporate steel joinery
such as gusset plates, for both structural and architectural purposes.
Recently, it has become common practice to enclose the timber
structure entirely in manufactured panels such as structural insulated
panels (SIPs). Although the timbers can only be seen from inside the
building when so enclosed, construction is less complex and insulation
is greater than in traditional timber building. SIPs are "an
insulating foam core sandwiched between two structural facings,
typically oriented strand board" according to the Structural Insulated
Panel Association. SIPs reduce dependency on bracing and auxiliary
members, because the panels span considerable distances and add
rigidity to the basic timber frame.
An alternate construction method is with concrete flooring with
extensive use of glass. This allows a very solid construction combined
with open architecture. Some firms have specialized in industrial
prefabrication of such residential and light commercial structures
Huf Haus as low-energy houses or – dependent on
location – zero-energy buildings.
Straw-bale construction is another alternative where straw bales are
stacked for nonload-bearing infill with various finishes applied to
the interior and exterior such as stucco and plaster. This appeals to
the traditionalist and the environmentalist as this is using "found"
materials to build.
Mudbricks also called adobe are sometimes used to fill in timber-frame
structures. They can be made on site and offer exceptional fire
resistance. Such buildings must be designed to accommodate the poor
thermal insulating properties of mudbrick, however, and usually have
deep eaves or a veranda on four sides for weather protection.
History and traditions
Anne Hvides Gaard, Svendborg, Denmark, from 1560
Anne Hathaway's Cottage
Anne Hathaway's Cottage in Warwickshire: Its timber framing is typical
of vernacular Tudor architecture
The techniques used in timber framing date back to
and have been used in many parts of the world during various periods
such as ancient Japan, continental Europe, and
England, France, Germany, Spain, parts of the Roman Empire, and
Scotland. The timber-framing technique has historically been
popular in climate zones which favour deciduous hardwood trees, such
as oak. Its most northernmost areas are
Baltic countries and southern
Timber framing is rare in Russia, Finland, northern Sweden,
and Norway, where tall and straight lumber, such as pine and spruce,
is readily available and log houses were favored, instead.
Half-timbered construction in the Northern European vernacular
building style is characteristic of medieval and early modern Denmark,
England, Germany, and parts of
France and Switzerland, where timber
was in good supply yet stone and associated skills to dress the
stonework were in short supply. In half-timbered construction, timbers
that were riven (split) in half provided the complete skeletal framing
of the building.
Europe is full of timber-framed structures dating back hundreds of
years, including manors, castles, homes, and inns, whose architecture
and techniques of construction have evolved over the centuries. In
Asia, timber-framed structures are found, many of them temples that
have stood for centuries.
Some Roman carpentry preserved in anoxic layers of clay at
Romano-British villa sites demonstrate that sophisticated Roman
carpentry had all the necessary techniques for this construction. The
earliest surviving (French) half-timbered buildings date from the 12th
Important resources for the study and appreciation of historic
building methods are open-air museums.
Topping out ceremony
The topping out ceremony is a builders' rite, an ancient tradition
thought to have originated in Scandinavia by 700 AD. In the U.S.,
a bough or small tree is attached to the peak of the timber frame
after the frame is complete as a celebration. Historically, it was
common for the master carpenter to give a speech, make a toast, and
then break the glass. In Northern Europe, a wreath made for the
occasion is more commonly used rather than a bough. In Japan, the
"ridge raising" is a religious ceremony called the jotoshiki. In
Germany, it is called the Richtfest.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carpenters marks.
Carpenters' marks is a general term for markings left on the timbers
of wooden buildings during construction.
Assembly or marriage marks were used to identify the individual
timbers. Assembly marks include numbering to identify the pieces of
the frame. The numbering can be similar to Roman numerals except the
number four is IIII and nine is VIIII. These marks are chiseled, cut
with a race knife (a tool to cut lines and circles in wood), or saw
cuts. The numbering can also be in Arabic numerals which are often
written with a red grease pencil or crayon. German and French
carpenters made some unique marks. (Abbundzeichen (German assembly
Layout marks left over from marking out identify the place where to
cut joints and bore peg holes; carpenters also marked the location on
a timber where they had levelled it, as part of the building process,
and called these "level lines"; sometimes they made a mark two feet
from a critical location, which was then called the "two-foot mark".
These marks are typically scratched on the timber with an awl-like
tool until later in the 19th century, when they started using pencils.
Occasionally, carpenters or owners marked a date and/or their initials
in the wood, but not like masons left masons marks.
Boards on the building may have "tally marks" cut into them which were
numbers used to keep track of quantities of lumber (timber).
Other markings in old buildings are called "ritual marks", which were
often signs the occupants felt would protect them from harm.
German carpenters in 1880: The tools, from left to right, are: a cart
loaded with timbers, rough hewing with felling axes; in the green coat
is the master carpenter carrying his tools including a frame saw; on
the ground, a ring dog (precursor to the cant dog and peavey); in the
background sawyers pit sawing on trestles; on right carpenters
striking a mortising chisel with a mallet and boring a hole with a
T-auger; lower right on ground a two-man crosscut saw, steel square,
broadaxe, and (hard to see) a froe.
Many historic hand tools used by timber framers for thousands of years
have similarities, but vary in shape. Electrically powered tools first
became available in the 1920s in the U.S. and continue to evolve. See
the list of timber framing tools for basic descriptions and images of
unusual tools (The list is incomplete at this time).
Staple Inn in Holborn, London
Some of the earliest known timber houses in Europe have been found in
Great Britain, dating to
Balbridie and Fengate are
some of the rare examples of these constructions.
Molded plaster ornamentation, pargetting further enriched some
Tudor architecture houses. Half-timbering is characteristic of
English vernacular architecture in East Anglia,
Warwickshire, Worcestershire, Herefordshire,
Shropshire, and Cheshire, where one of the most elaborate
surviving English examples of half-timbered construction is Little
In South Yorkshire, the oldest timber house in Sheffield, the
"Bishops' House" (c. 1500), shows traditional half-timbered
Kent and Sussex, the half-timbered structure of
the Wealden hall house, consisted of an open hall with bays on
either side and often jettied upper floors.
Half-timbered construction traveled with British colonists to North
America in the early 17th century but was soon abandoned in New
England and the mid-Atlantic colonies for clapboard facings (an East
Anglia tradition). The original English colonial settlements, such as
Plymouth, Massachusetts and
Jamestown, Virginia had timber-framed
buildings, rather than the log cabins often associated with the
Living history programs demonstrating the building
technique are available at both these locations.
Farmhouse in Wormshill, England
Historic timber-framed houses in Warwick, England
Many of the surviving streets lined with almost-touching houses are
known as The Shambles, and are very popular tourist attractions.
For Timber-framed houses in Wales see:
Architecture of Wales
Historic timber frame construction in
England (and the rest of the
United Kingdom) showed regional variation  which has been divided
into the "eastern school", the "western school", and the "northern
school", although the characteristic types of framing in these schools
can be found in the other regions (except the northern school). A
characteristic of the eastern school is close studding which is a
half-timbering style of many studs spaced about the width of the studs
apart (for example six inch studs spaced six inches apart) until the
middle of the 16th century and sometimes wider spacing after that
Close studding was an elite style found mostly on expensive
buildings. A principal style of the western school is the use of
square panels of roughly equal size and decorative framing utilizing
many shapes such as lozenges, stars, crosses, quatrefoils, cusps, and
many other shapes. The northern school sometimes used posts which
landed on the foundation rather than on a sill beam, the sill joining
to the sides of the posts and called an interrupted sill. Another
northern style was to use close studding but in a herring-bone or
Roof structure of the Barley Barn, Cressing Temple, Essex
As houses were modified to cope with changing demands there sometimes
were a combination of styles within a single timber frame
construction. The major types of historic framing in
'cruck frame', box frame, and aisled construction. From the
box frame, more complex framed buildings such as the Wealden House and
Jettied house developed.
The cruck frame design is among the earliest, and was  in use by
the early 13th century, with its use continuing to the present day,
although rarely after the 18th century. Since the 18th century
however, many existing cruck structures have been modified, with the
original cruck framework becoming hidden. Aisled
barns are of two or three aisled types, the oldest surviving aisled
barn being the barley barn at Cressing Temple dated to
Jettying was introduced in the 13th century and continued to be used
through the 16th century.
Generally speaking, the size of timbers used in construction, and the
quality of the workmanship reflect the wealth and status of their
owners. Small cottages often used quite small cross-section timbers
which would have been deemed unsuitable by others. Some of these small
cottages also have a very 'home-made' - even temporary - appearance.
Many such example can be found in the English shires. Equally, some
relatively small buildings can be seen to incorporate substantial
timbers and excellent craftsmanship, reflecting the relative wealth
and status of their original owners. Important resources for the study
of historic building methods in the UK are open-air museums.
Coupesarte Manor (Normandy, France)
Elaborately half-timbered houses of the 13th through 18th centuries
still remain in Bourges, Troyes, Rouen, Thiers, Dinan, Rennes, and
many other cities, except in
Provence and Corsica.
Timber framing in
French is known colloquially as pan de bois and half-timbering as
The Normandy tradition features two techniques: frameworks were built
of four evenly spaced regularly hewn timbers set into the ground
(poteau en terre) or into a continuous wooden sill (poteau de sole)
and mortised at the top into the plate. The openings were filled with
many materials including mud and straw, wattle and daub, or horsehair
Old houses in
Troyes (Champagne, France)
Drosnay (Champagne, France)
Old houses in
Rennes (Brittany, France)
14th-century early corbelled house,
Rouen (Normandy, France)
15th-century manor, Saint-Sulpice-de-Grimbouville, (Normandy, France)
Framing of the roof, Notre-Dame, Paris. Illustration by Eugène
Trinity Church of
Langonnet (Brittany, France)
German tradition (Fachwerkhäuser)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Timber framing in Germany.
Germany has several styles of timber framing, but probably the
greatest number of half-timbered buildings in the world are to be
Germany and in
Alsace (France). There are many small towns
which escaped both war damage and modernisation and consist mainly, or
even entirely, of half-timbered houses.
Idstein, Hesse, on the German Timber-Frame Road.
The Spitzhäuschen, a very narrow, timber-frame house in Bernkastel at
the river Moselle, built in 1417.
German Timber-Frame Road
German Timber-Frame Road (Deutsche Fachwerkstraße) is a tourist
route that connects towns with remarkable fachwerk. It is more than
2,000 km (1,200 mi) long, crossing
Germany through the
states of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Hesse, Thuringia, Bavaria, and
Some of the more prominent towns (among many) include: Quedlinburg, a
UNESCO-listed town, which has over 1200 half-timbered houses spanning
five centuries; Goslar, another UNESCO-listed town; Hanau-Steinheim
(home of the Brothers Grimm); Bad Urach;
Eppingen ("Romance city" with
a half-timbered church dating from 1320); Mosbach; Vaihingen an der
Enz and nearby UNESCO-listed Maulbronn Abbey;
of Gottlieb Daimler); Calw; Celle; and Biberach an der Riß with both
the largest medieval complex, the Holy Spirit Hospital and one of
Southern Germany's oldest buildings, now the Braith-Mali-Museum, dated
German fachwerk building styles are extremely varied with a huge
number of carpentry techniques which are highly regionalized. German
planning laws for the preservation of buildings and regional
architecture preservation dictate that a half-timbered house must be
authentic to regional or even city-specific designs before being
A brief overview of styles follows, as a full inclusion of all styles
In general the northern states have fachwerk very similar to that of
England while the more southerly states
Bavaria and Switzerland) have more decoration using
timber because of greater forest reserves in those areas. During the
19th century, a form of decorative timber-framing called bundwerk
became popular in Bavaria,
Austria and South Tyrol.
The German fachwerkhaus usually has a foundation of stone, or
sometimes brick, perhaps up to several feet (a couple of metres) high,
which the timber framework is mortised into or, more rarely, supports
an irregular wooden sill.
The three main forms may be divided geographically:
Germany and Franconia:
In West Central German and Franconian timber-work houses (particularly
in the Central Rhine and Moselle): the windows most commonly lie
between the rails of the sills and lintels.
Northern Germany, Central
Germany and East German:
Saxony and around the
Harz foothills, angle braces often form fully
Lower Saxon houses have a joist for every post.
Holstein fachwerk houses are famed for their massive 12-inch
(30 cm) beams.
Germany including the Black and Bohemian Forests
In Swabia, Württemberg, Alsace, and Switzerland, the use of the
lap-joint is thought to be the earliest method of connecting the wall
plates and tie beams and is particularly identified with Swabia. A
later innovation (also pioneered in Swabia) was the use of
tenons — builders left timbers to season which were held in
place by wooden pegs (i.e., tenons). The timbers were initially placed
with the tenons left an inch or two out of intended position and later
driven home after becoming fully seasoned.
The most characteristic feature is the spacing between the posts and
the high placement of windows. Panels are enclosed by a sill, posts,
and a plate, and are crossed by two rails between which the windows
are placed—like "two eyes peering out".
In addition there is a myriad of regional scrollwork and fretwork
designs of the non-loadbearing large timbers (braces) peculiar to
particularly wealthy towns or cities.
A unique type of timber-frame house can be found in the region where
the borders of Germany, the Czech Republic, and
Poland meet - it is
Upper Lusatian house
Upper Lusatian house (Umgebindehaus, translates as
round-framed house). This type has a timber frame surrounding a log
structure on part of the ground floor.
Quedlinburg (Germany), Wordgasse 3, built in 1346; in
the past suggested as the oldest timber-frame house in Germany;
nowadays 3 older houses are known only in Quedlinburg !
Timber frame town hall of Wernigerode
House in Rothenburg (Bavaria)
The Plönlein (i.e. little place), the worldwide known timber frame
ensemble, as the southern end of the Old town in Rothenburg
Buildings in Hornburg
Buildings in Braubach, 16thC 1st half.
House in Schwerin, built in 1698
Gelbensande Castle, a hunting lodge built in 1887 near Rostock
The half-timbered houses in
Dinkelsbühl mostly have plastered and
Oybin (Saxony). The timber frame is outside a log
wall on the ground floor.
20th-century timber framing in Ribnitz (Mecklenburg)
Fachwerk (timber framing) under construction in 2013, Tirschenreuth
You can find some examples of half-timbered houses in Northern Italy,
especially in Piedmont, Lombardy, and in the city of
Bologna and in
Sardinia in the
Barbagia region and in the Iglesiente mining region.
Half-timbered house in Ozzano Monferrato, Piedmont.
Half-timbered house in Biella, Piedmont.
Half-timbered house in Arquata Scrivia, Piedmont.
Half-timbered house in Monza, Lombardy.
half-timbered house in Susa, Piedmont.
A very rare example of a half-timbered house in Central Italy, in
Timber-frame house in central Poznań, Poland
The Slavic tradition of vernacular architecture is rather log
building. Most half-timbered houses have been built in regions that
once belonged to Germany, had a lot of German immigrants or
significant German cultural influence. As these regions were at some
point parts of Prussia, half-timbered walls are called mur pruski. The
Slovincians, an autochthone Slavic group in the Prussian province of
Pomerania also built half-timbered houses. A distinctive type of house
associated with mostly
Mennonite immigrant groups from
Frisia and the
Netherlands, known as the Olędrzy, is called an arcade house (dom
Umgebindehaus rural housing tradition of south
Saxony (Germany) is
also found in the neighboring areas of
Poland (the Silesian region)
and the north of Czech Republic.
Another world-class type of wooden building
Poland shares with some
neighboring countries are its wooden church buildings.
Timber frame architecture, Mill Island, Bydgoszcz
Wheelwright croft in Zgorzelec
Antoniów, Lower Silesian Voivodeship
Granary in Bydgoszcz, built in 1795 upon 15th-century gothic cellar
Sts. Peter & Paul Church in Sułów
Mennonite arcade house
19th-century timber frame manor house in Toruń
The Spanish generally follow the Mediterranean forms of architecture
with stone walls and shallow roof pitch.
Timber framing is often of
the post and lintel style.
Castile and León
Castile and León and the Basque Country
have the most representative examples of the use of timber framing in
the Iberian Peninsula.
Most traditional Basque buildings with half-timbering elements are
detached farm houses (in Basque: baserriak). Their upper floors were
built with jettied box frames in close studding. In the oldest
farmsteads and, if existing, in the third floor the walls were
sometimes covered with vertical weatherboards. Big holes were left in
the gable of the main façade for ventilation. The wooden beams were
painted over, mostly in dark red. The vacancies were filled in with
wattle and daub or rubble laid in a clay mortar and then plastered
over with white chalk or nogged with bricks. Although the entire
supporting structure is made of wood, the timbering is only visible on
the main façade, which is generally oriented to the southeast.
Although the typical Basque house is now mostly associated with
half-timbering, the outer walls and the fire-walls were built in
masonry (rubble stone, bricks or, ideally, ashlars) whenever it could
be afforded. Timber was a sign of poverty. Oak-wood was cheaper than
masonry: that is why, when the money was running out, the upper floor
walls were mostly built timbered. Extant baserriak with half-timbered
upper-floor façades were built from the 15th to 19th centuries and
are found in all Basque regions with oceanic climate, except in
Zuberoa (Soule), but are concentrated in Lapurdi (Labourd).
Some medieval Basque tower houses (dorretxeak) feature an overhanged
upper floor in half-timbering.
To a lesser extent timbered houses are also found in villages and
towns as row houses, as the photo from the Uztaritz village shows.
Currently, it has again become popular to build houses resembling old
Basque farmsteads, with more or less respect for the principles of
traditional half-timbered building.
Inharri baserri in Ibarron (Lapurdi)
Aranguren dorretxea (Orozko, Bizkaia)
Half-timbered houses from Uztarritz (Lapurdi)
An exceptional fachwerk house called Eglihaus in Hombrechtikon,
Switzerland has many styles of timber framing which overlap with its
Nowadays, timber framing is primarily found in the provinces of
Limburg, Liège, and Luxemburg. In urban areas, the ground floor was
formerly built in stone and the upper floors in timber framing. Also,
as timber framing was seen as a cheaper way of building, often the
visible structures of noble houses were in stone and bricks, and the
invisible or lateral walls in timber framing. The open-air museums of
Bokrijk and Saint-Hubert (Fourneau Saint-Michel) show many examples of
Belgian timber framing. Many post-and-beam houses can be found in
cities and villages, but, unlike France, the United Kingdom, and
Germany, there are few fully timber framed cityscapes.
The house where
André Grétry was born in Liège
Sugny House (18th century), in the Fourneau Saint-Michel Museum
A House in
Theux (17th century)
The former water mill of Lierneux
Small "chapel" (shrine) at the
Bokrijk Open Air Museum
Unskilled worker's thatched cottage (Hingeon 19th century)
transplanted and reconstituted in the open-air museum Fourneau
Timber frame structure in Bruges
The Swedish mostly built log houses but they do have traditions of
several types of timber framing: Some of the following links are
written in Swedish. Most of the half-timbered houses in
built during the Danish time and are located in what until 1658 used
to be Danish territory in southern Sweden, primarily in the province
Skåne and secondarily in
Blekinge and Halland. In Swedish half-timber
is known as "korsvirke".
Stave construction is called "stavverk". Scandinavia is famous for its
ancient stave churches. Stave construction is a traditional timber
frame with walls of vertical planks, the posts and planks landing in a
sill on a foundation. Similar construction with earthfast posts is
called "stolpteknik". and
Palisade construction where many vertical
wall timbers or planks have their feet buried in the ground called
post in ground or earthfast construction is called "palissadteknik".
Swedish plank-frame construction is called skiftesverk. This is a
traditional timber frame with walls of horizontal planks.
Norway has at least two significant types of timber framed structures:
1) The stave church and 2) grindverk. The term stave (= post or pole)
indicates that a stave church essentially means a framed church, a
distinction made in a region where log building is common. All but one
surviving stave churches are in Norway, one in Sweden. Replicas of
stave churches and other Norwegian building types have been reproduced
elsewhere, e.g. at the
Scandinavian Heritage Park
Scandinavian Heritage Park in North Dakota,
Grindverk translates as trestle construction, consisting of a series
of transversal frames of two posts and a connecting beam, supporting
two parallel wall plates bearing the rafters. Unlike other types of
timber framing in Europe, the trestle frame construction uses no
mortise and tenon joints. Archaeological excavations have uncovered
similar wooden joints from more than 3,000 years ago, suggesting that
this type of framing is an ancient unbroken tradition. Grindverk
buildings are only found on part of the western coast of Norway, and
most of them are boathouses and barns. There is currently no article
in English about grindverk framing, but see Norwegian
Borgund stave church
Borgund stave church in Lærdal, Sogn og Fjordane country, Norway.
Garmo stave church
Garmo stave church detail. Note how the sills lap and the post fits
around the sills. The post is the stave from which these buildings are
Kaupanger stave church
Kaupanger stave church interior, Kaupanger, Norway.
An example of grindverk framing. The tie beams are captured in slots
in the post tops.
A half timbered building without the infill in Limburg, Netherlands.
Netherlands is often overlooked for its timbered houses, yet many
exist, including windmills. It was in
North Holland where the import
of cheaper timber, combined with the Dutch innovation of
windmill-powered sawmills, allowed economically viable widespread use
of protective wood covering over framework. In the late 17th century
the Dutch introduced vertical cladding also known in Eastern England
as clasp board and in western
England as weatherboard, then as more
wood was available more cheaply, horizontal cladding in the 17th
century. Perhaps owing to economic considerations, vertical cladding
returned to fashion. Dutch wall framing is virtually always built
in bents and the three basic types of roof framing are the rafter
roof, purlin roof, and ridge-post roof.
Main article: American historic carpentry
Most "haft-timbered" houses existing in Missouri, Pennsylvania, and
Texas were built by German settlers.
Old Salem North Carolina has
fine examples of German fachwerk buildings. Many are still present
Colonia Tovar (Venezuela), Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul
(Brazil), where Germans settled. Later, they chose more suitable
building materials for local conditions (most likely because of the
great problem of tropical termites.)
In the historical region of North America known as New France,
colombage pierroté, also called maçonnerie entre poteaux,
half-timbered construction with the infill between the posts and studs
of stone rubble and lime plaster or bousillage and simply called
colombage in France. Colombage was used from the earliest settlement
until the 18th century but was known as bousillage entre poteaus sur
solle in Lower Louisiana. The style had its origins in Normandy, and
was brought to
Canada by very early Norman settlers. The Men's House
Lower Fort Garry
Lower Fort Garry is a good example. The exterior walls of such
buildings were often covered over with clapboards to protect the
infill from erosion. Naturally, this required frequent maintenance,
and the style was abandoned as a building method in the 18th century
in Québec. For the same reasons, half-timbering in New England, which
was originally employed by the English settlers, fell out of favour
soon after the colonies had become established.
Other variations of half-timbering are colombage à teurques
(torchis), straw coated with mud and hung over horizontal staves (or
otherwise held in place), colombage an eclisses, and colombage a
Poteaux-en-terre (posts in ground) is a type of timber framing with
the many vertical posts or studs buried in the ground called post in
ground or "earthfast" construction. The tops of the posts are joined
to a beam and the spaces between are filled in with natural materials
called bousillage or pierrotage.
Poteaux-sur-sol (posts on a sill) is a general term for any kind of
framing on a sill. However, sometimes it specifically refers to
"vertical log construction" like poteaux-en-terre placed on sills with
the spaces between the timbers infilled.
Piece-sur-piece also known as
Post-and-plank style or "corner post
construction" (and many other names) in which wood is used both for
the frame and horizontal infill; for this reason it may be incorrect
to call it "half-timbering". It is sometimes a blend of framing and
log building with two styles: the horizontal pieces fit into groves in
the posts and can slide up and down or the horizontal pieces fit into
individual mortises in the posts and are pegged and the gaps between
the pieces chinked (filled in with stones or chips of wood covered
with mud or moss briefly discussed in Log cabin.)
This technique of a timber frame walls filled in with horizontal
planks or logs proved better suited to the harsh climates of Québec
and Acadia, which at the same time had abundant wood. It became very
popular throughout New France, as far afield as southern Louisiana.
Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company used this technique for many of its trading
posts, and this style of framing becoming known as Hudson Bay style or
Hudson Bay corners. Also used by the
Red River Colony
Red River Colony this style also
became known as "Red River Framing". “The support of horizontal
timbers by corner posts is an old form of construction in Europe. It
was apparently carried across much of the continent from
the Lausitz urnfield culture in the late Bronze Age.” Similar
building techniques are apparently not found in France but exist
Switzerland known as Bohlenstanderbau when planks are
used or blockstanderbau when beams are used as the infill. In Sweden
known as sleppvegg or skiftesverk and in
Denmark as bulhus.
A particularly interesting example in the U.S. is the Golden Plough
Tavern (c. 1741), York,
York County, PA, which has the ground level of
corner-post construction with the second floor of fachwerk (half
timbered) and was built for a German with other Germanic features.
Settlers in New
France also built horizontal log, brick, and stone
Characteristics of traditional timber framing in the parts of the U.S.
formerly known as
New Netherland are H-framing also known as
dropped-tie framing in the U.S. and the similar anchor beam framing as
found in the New World Dutch barn.
Some time periods/regions within
New England contain certain framing
elements such as common purlin roofs, five sided ridge beams,
plank-frame construction and plank-wall construction. The English barn
always contains an "English tying joint" and the later New England
style barn were built using bents.
Wall framing of a Japanese house under construction
Japanese timber framing is believed to be descended from Chinese
framing (see Ancient Chinese wooden architecture). Asian framing is
significantly different from western framing, with its predominant use
of post and lintel framing and an almost complete lack of diagonal
Revival styles in later centuries
The Saitta House, Dyker Heights, Brooklyn, New
York built in 1899 has
When half-timbering regained popularity in Britain after 1860 in the
various revival styles, such as the Queen Anne style houses by Richard
Norman Shaw and others, it was often used to evoke a "Tudor"
atmosphere (see Tudorbethan), though in Tudor times half-timbering had
begun to look rustic and was increasingly limited to village houses
(illustration, above left).
In 1912, Allen W. Jackson published The Half-Timber House: Its Origin,
Design, Modern Plan, and Construction, and rambling half-timbered
beach houses appeared on dune-front properties in
Rhode Island or
under palm-lined drives of Beverly Hills. During the 1920s
increasingly minimal gestures towards some half-timbering in
commercial speculative house-building saw the fashion diminish.
In the revival styles, such as
Tudorbethan (Mock Tudor), the
half-timbered appearance is superimposed on the brickwork or other
material as an outside decorative façade rather than forming the main
frame that supports the structure.
The style was used in many of the homes built in Lake Mohawk, New
Jersey as well as all of the clubhouse, shops, and marina.
For information about "roundwood framing" see the book Roundwood
Timber Framing:Building Naturally Using Local Resources by Ben Law
(East Meon, Hampshire: Permanent Publications; 2010.
The use of timber framing in buildings offers various aesthetic and
structural benefits, as the timber frame lends itself to open plan
designs and allows for complete enclosure in effective insulation for
energy efficiency. In modern construction, a timber-frame structure
offers many benefits:
It is rapidly erected. A moderately sized timber-frame home can be
erected within 2 to 3 days.
It is well suited to prefabrication, modular construction, and
mass-production. Timbers can be pre-fit within bents or wall-sections
and aligned with a jig in a shop, without the need for a machine or
hand-cut production line. This allows faster erection on site and more
precise alignments. Valley and hip timbers are not typically
As an alternative to the traditional infill methods, the frame can be
encased with SIPs. This stage of preparing the assembled frame for the
installation of windows, mechanical systems, and roofing is known as
it can be customized with carvings or incorporate heirloom structures
such as barns etc..
it can use recycled or otherwise discarded timbers
it offers some structural benefits as the timber frame, if properly
engineered, lends itself to better seismic survivability 
Consequently, there are many half-timbered houses which still stand
despite the foundation having partially caved in over the centuries.
The generally larger spaces between the frames enable greater
flexibility in the placement, at construction or afterwards, of
windows and doors with less resulting weakening of the structural
integrity and the need for heavy lintels.
In North America, heavy timber construction is classified Building
Code Type IV: a special class reserved for timber framing which
recognizes the inherent fire resistance of large timber and its
ability to retain structural capacity in fire situations. In many
cases this classification can eliminate the need and expense of fire
sprinklers in public buildings.
Traditional or historic structures
In terms of the traditional half-timber or fachwerkhaus there are
maybe more disadvantages than advantages today. Such houses are
notoriously expensive to maintain let alone renovate and restore, most
commonly owing to local regulations that do not allow divergence from
the original, modification or incorporation of modern materials.
Additionally, in such nations as Germany, where energy efficiency is
highly regulated, the renovated building may be required to meet
modern energy efficiencies, if it is to be used as a residential or
commercial structure (museums and significant historic buildings have
no semi-permanent habitade exempt). Many framework houses of
significance are treated merely to preserve, rather than render
inhabitable — most especially as the required heavy
insecticidal fumigation is highly poisonous.
In some cases, it is more economical to build anew using authentic
techniques and correct period materials than restore. One major
problem with older structures is the phenomenon known as
mechano-sorptive creep or slanting: where wood beams absorb moisture
whilst under compression or tension strains and deform, shift position
or both. This is a major structural issue as the house may deviate
several degrees from perpendicular to its foundations (in the x-axis,
y-axis, and even z-axis) and thus be unsafe and unstable or so out of
square it is extremely costly to remedy.
A summary of problems with Fachwerkhäuser or half-timbered houses
includes the following, though many can be avoided by thoughtful
design and application of suitable paints and surface treatments and
routine maintenance. Often, though when dealing with a structure of a
century or more old, it is too late.
"slanting"- thermo-mechanical (weather-seasonally induced) and
mechano-sorptive (moisture induced) creep of wood in tension and
poor prevention of capillary movement of water within any exposed
timber, leading to afore-described creep, or rot
eaves that are too narrow or non-existent (thus allowing total
exposure to rain and snow)
too much exterior detailing that does not allow adequate rainwater
timber ends, joints, and corners poorly protected through coatings,
shape or position
non-beveled vertical beams (posts and clapboards) allow water
absorption and retention through capillary action.
surface point or coatings allowed to deteriorate
traditional gypsum, or wattle and daub containing organic materials
(animal hair, straw, manure) which then decompose.
in both poteaux-en-terre and poteaux-sur-sol insect, fungus or
rot including dry rot.
infestation of xylophagous pest organisms such as (very common in
Anobiidae family particularly the common furniture beetle,
termites, cockroaches, powderpost beetles, mice, and rats (quite
famously so in many children's stories).
Noise from footsteps in adjacent rooms above, below, and on the same
floor in such buildings can be quite audible. This is often resolved
with built-up floor systems involving clever sound-isolation and
absorption techniques, and at the same time providing passage space
for plumbing, wiring, and even heating and cooling equipment.
Other fungi that are non-destructive to the wood, but are harmful to
humans such as black mold. These fungi may also thrive on many
"modern" building materials.
Wood burns more readily than some other materials, making timber-frame
buildings somewhat more susceptible to fire damage, although this idea
is not universally accepted: Since the cross-sectional dimensions of
many structural members exceed 15 cm × 15 cm (6"
× 6"), timber-frame structures benefit from the unique properties of
large timbers, which char on the outside forming an insulated layer
that protects the rest of the beam from burning.
prior flood or soil subsidence damage
American historic carpentry
German Timber-Frame Road
^ Oxford English Dictionary
^ Nikolas Davies, Erkki Jokiniemi: 2008. Dictionary of architecture
and building construction. Architectural Press.
ISBN 978-0-7506-8502-3. 726 pages: pp 181
^ Vitruvious, De Architectura, Book II, Chapter 8, paragraph 20
^ Sunshine, Paula. Wattle and daub. Princes Risborough: Shire
Publications, 2006. 7-8. Print. ISBN 0747806527
^ Glick, Thomas F., Steven John Livesey, and Faith Wallis. Medieval
science, technology, and medicine: an encyclopedia. New York:
Routledge, 2005. 229. Print. ISBN 0415969301
^ a b Pollard, Richard;
Nikolaus Pevsner (2006). The Buildings of
England: Lancashire: Liverpool and the South-West. New Haven and
London: Yale University Press. pp. 710–711.
^ Sherwood, Mary Martha. The lady of the manor being a series of
conversations on the subject of confirmation. Intended for the use of
the middle and higher ranks of young females, Volume 5. Wellington,
Salop. London: Printed by and for F. Houlston and Son. 1827. 168.
^ Vitruvious, De Architectura, Book II, Chapter 8, paragraph 20
^ Wilson, Nigel Guy. Encyclopedia of ancient Greece. London:
Routledge, 2006. 82. Print. ISBN 0415973341
^ Joyn Henry Parker, 1875. Classic Dictionary of Architecture, 4th ed.
Facsimile published in 1986 by New Orchard Editions, Poole, Dorset,
^ a b Nortrud G. Schrammel-Schäl, Karl Kessler, Paul-Georg Custodis,
Kreisverwaltung des Westerwaldkreises in Montabaur. Fachwerk im
Westerwald: Landschaftsmuseum Westerwald, Hachenburg, Ausstellung vom
11. September 1987 bis 30. April 1988. Landschaftsmuseum Westerwald:
1987. ISBN 978-3-921548-37-0. 78 pages
^ "joinery descriptives". Vermonttimberworks.com. Retrieved
^ "What Are SIPs?". Retrieved 1 February 2013.
^ J. H. Williams, 1971.Roman Building-Materials in South-East England
in Britannia, Vol. 2, (1971), pp. 166–195. Society for the Promotion
of Roman Studies. Accessed via jstor.org/stable/525807
^ "Timber Framing History". Retrieved 27 November 2013.
^ Robert J. Abrams in Why Do Clocks Run Clockwise? And Other
^ Tennessee Aquarium Newsroom - News Release
^ Pargetting on the White Horse, Pleshey (C) Colin Smith: Geograph
Britain and Ireland
Half-timbered house in Laxfield (C) Toby Speight: Geograph Britain
^ Shakespeare's Birthplace in Stratford... (C) Frederick Blake:
Geograph Britain and Ireland
^ "The Shakespeare Hotel- Stratford Upon Avon:: OS grid SP2054:
Geograph Britain and Ireland - photograph every grid square!".
Geograph.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-04-29.
^ Huddington Court (C) Richard Dunn: Geograph Britain and Ireland
^ West End Farm, Pembridge,
Herefordshire (C) Doug Elliot: Geograph
Britain and Ireland
^ "Pembridge, Market
Hall and New Inn:: OS grid SO3958: Geograph
Britain and Ireland - photograph every grid square!". Geograph.org.uk.
2006-04-10. Retrieved 2012-04-29.
^ The Feathers Hotel, Ludlow (C) Humphrey Bolton: Geograph Britain and
^ "Historic buildings in Ludlow:: OS grid SO5174: Geograph Britain and
Ireland - photograph every grid square!". Geograph.org.uk. 2007-02-24.
^ Half timbered building (C) Andy and Hilary: Geograph Britain and
^ Little Moreton Hall: Cheshire (C) Pam Brophy: Geograph Britain and
^ Spreadeagle Hotel 1430: Midhurst (C) Pam Brophy: Geograph Britain
^ "Wealden house". Geograph.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-04-29.
Cruck Construction: an introduction and catalogue (CBA Research
Report 42), pp. 61-92.
^ a b c d e Brown, R. J.. Timber-framed buildings of England. London:
R. Hale Ltd. 1997.46-48. ISBN 0709060920
^ a b c d e Vince, J.; The Timbered House; Sorbus, 1994;
^ Bettley, James, and Nikolaus Pevsner. Essex: The Buildings of
England. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007. 313.
^ a b Charles Van Ravenswaay: 2006. The arts and architecture of
German settlements in Missouri: a survey of a vanishing culture
University of Missouri Press: 2006. ISBN 978-0-8262-1700-4. 539
^ Heinrich Edel: 1928. Die Fachwerkhäuser der Stadt Braunschweig: ein
kunst und kulturhistorisches Bild. Druckerei Appelhaus, 1928
^ a b Wilhelm Süvern: 1971. Torbögen und Inschriften lippischer
Fachwerkhäuser in Volume 7 of Heimatland Lippe. Lippe Heimatbund:
1971. 48 pages
^ a b Heinrich Stiewe: 2007. Fachwerkhäuser in Deutschland:
Konstruktion, Gestalt und Nutzung vom Mittelalter bis heute. Primus
Verlag: 2007. ISBN 978-3-89678-589-3. 160 pages
^ Agnieszka Gaczkowska, Traditional Upper Lusatian Umgebinde House:
^ eu:Dorretxe dorretxe weblink to the Basque
^ fr:Néobasque Néobasque weblink to the French
^ a b Lars Boström editor 1st International RILEM Symposium on Timber
Engineering: Stockholm, Sweden, September 13–14, 1999 Volume 8 of
RILEM proceedings RILEM Publications, 1999.
ISBN 978-2-912143-10-5. 838 pages. 317–327.
^ Herman Janse, Houten kappen in Nederland 1000-1940. Delftse
Universitaire Pers, Delft / Rijksdienst voor de Monumentenzorg, Zeist
1989. translations are mine
^ Noble, Allen George, and M. Margaret Geib. Wood, brick, and stone:
the North American settlement landscape. Amherst: University of
Massachusetts Press, 1984. 42, 43.
^ a b c "colombage pierroté" def. 1. Edwards, Jay Dearborn, and
Nicolas Verton. A Creole lexicon architecture, landscape, people.
Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2004. 65. Print.
^ Upton, Dell, Vllach, John Michael, Common places: Readings in
American Vernacular Architecture, referencing V. Gordon Childe, The
Bronze Age, (NY, Macmillan, 1930, pp. 206-8.
^ Noble, Allen George, and M. Margaret Geib. Wood, brick, and stone:
the North American settlement landscape. Amherst: University of
Massachusetts Press, 1984. 121.
^ “Corner-Post Log Construction: Description, Analysis, and
Sources”, A Report to Early American Industries Association by Nancy
S. Shedd March 10, 1986. available online at
^ “Saitta House – Report Part
^ Gotz, Karl-Heinz; et al. (1989). Timber Design & Construction
Sourcebook. McGraw-Hall. ISBN 0-07-023851-0.
^ a b Charlotte Bengtsson: "Mechano-sorptive creep of wood in tension
and compression": in Lars Boström editor 1st International RILEM
Symposium on Timber Engineering: Stockholm, Sweden, September 13–14,
1999 Volume 8 of RILEM proceedings, RILEM Publications, 1999.
ISBN 978-2-912143-10-5. 838 pages. 317–327.
^ "Fire Safety" (PDF). Canadian
^ Bailey, Colin. "Timber". Structural Material Behavior in Fire.
University of Manchester. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
Richard Harris, Discovering Timber-framed Buildings (3rd rev. ed.),
Shire Publications, 1993, ISBN 0-7478-0215-7.
John Vince (1994). The Timbered House. Sorbus.
Ronald Brunskill (1992) . Traditional Buildings of England.
Gollancz. ISBN 0-575-05299-6.
A good introductory book on carpentry and joinery from 1898 in London,
England is titled
Carpentry & Joinery by Frederick G. Webber and
is a free ebook in the public domain:  or reprint
ISBN 9781236011923 or ISBN 9781246034189.
Timber Buildings. Low-energy constructions. Cristina Benedetti,
Bolzano 2010, Bozen-Bolzano University Press,
For an English summary of important points presented in the Dutch
language book Houten kappen in Nederland 1000-1940 (Wooden Roofs in
the Netherlands: 1000-1940) use this link .
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Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Half-timber Work". Encyclopædia
Britannica. 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Jackson, Allen W. (1912). The half-timber house. NY: McBride, Nast
Bow and arrow
Cedar (Calocedrus, Cedrus)
Linden (lime, basswood)
Crown of thorns
Mortise and tenon
Tongue and groove
American Association of Woodturners
Architectural Woodwork Institute
Wood Workers' International
Caricature Carvers of America
International Federation of Building and
Wood Carvers Association
Timber Framers Guild
Frame and panel
Glued laminated timber
Oriented strand board
Oriented structural straw board
Structural insulated panel
Ramial chipped wood
List of woods
Non-timber forest products