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Tampere (, , ; sv, Tammerfors ; la, Tammerforsia) is a
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a pe ...
in Pirkanmaa in the western part of
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland , ), officially the Republic of Finland (, ), is a Nordic country located in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the G ...
. Tampere is the most populous inland city in the
Nordic countries The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe Northern Europe is a loosely defined Geography, geographical and cultural region in Europe. Narrower definitions may describe Northern Europe ...
; it has a population of 238,140 with the urban area holding 334,112 people and the metropolitan area, also known as the Tampere sub-region, holding 385,301 inhabitants in an area of . Tampere is the second-largest urban area and third most-populous individual municipality in Finland, after the cities of
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the Capital city, capital, primate city, primate and List of cities and towns in Finland, most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of ...
and Espoo and the most populous Finnish city outside the
Greater Helsinki Greater Helsinki ( fi, Helsingin seutu, Suur-Helsinki, Swedish: ''Helsingforsregionen'', ''Storhelsingfors'') is the metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its le ...
area, within which both Helsinki and Espoo are located. Today, Tampere is one of a major urban, economic, and cultural hubs in the whole inland region. Tampere is wedged between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. Since the two lakes differ in level by , the rapids linking them,
Tammerkoski
Tammerkoski
, have been an important power source throughout history, most recently for generating electricity. Tampere is dubbed the "
Manchester Manchester () is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. The city has the country’s List of English districts by population, fifth-largest population at 547,627 (as of 2018) and lies within the United Kingdom's Greater ...
of the North" for its industrial past as the former center of Finnish industry, and this has given rise to its Finnish nickname "Manse"YLE: Tampere on Manse ja Nääsville
(in Finnish)
and terms such as "Manserock".Tampere Economy
Tampere International Business Office
Also, Tampere has been officially declared the "Sauna Capital of the World", because it has the most public saunas in the world. Helsinki is approximately south of Tampere, and can be reached in 1 hr, 31 minutes by
Pendolino Pendolino (from Italian language, Italian ''pendolo'' "pendulum", and ''-ino,'' a diminutive suffix) is an Italy, Italian family of tilting trains used in Italy, Spain, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Finland, Russia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, the ...
high-speed rail service and 2 hours by car. The distance to
Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ; la, Aboa; russian: Турку, formerly ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social S ...
is roughly the same. Tampere–Pirkkala Airport is Finland's eighth-busiest airport, with over 230,000 passengers in 2017. Tampere also serves as an important transit route for three Highways in Finland, Finnish highways: Finnish national road 3, Highway 3 (European route E12, E12), Finnish national road 9, Highway 9 (European route E63, E63) and Finnish national road 12, Highway 12. Tampere ranked 26th in the list of 446 cities in the world's Hipster (contemporary subculture), hipster cities, and it has often been rated as the most popular city in Finland. By 2021, a new multi-purpose sports and entertainment center, Tampere Deck Arena, is nearing completion.


Names and etymology

Although the name Tampere is derived from the
Tammerkoski
Tammerkoski
rapids (both the city and the rapids are called Tammerfors in Swedish language, Swedish), the origin of the ''Tammer-'' part of that name has been the subject of much debate. Ánte accepts the "straightforward" etymology of Rahkonen and Heikkilä in Proto-Samic , meaning "deep, slow section of a stream" and "rapids" (cognate with the Finnish ''koski''). This has become the most accepted explanation in the academia, according to the Institute for the Languages of Finland. Other theories include that it comes from the Swedish word ''damber'', meaning milldam; another, that it originates from the ancient Scandinavian languages, Scandinavian words ''þambr'' ("thick bellied") and ''þambion'' ("swollen belly"), possibly referring to the shape of the rapids. Another suggestion links the name to the Swedish word ''Kvatemberdagar'', or more colloquially ''Tamperdagar'', meaning the Ember days of the Liturgical year#Liturgical calendar 2, Western Christian liturgical calendar. The Finnish word for oak, ''tammi'', also features in the speculation, although Tampere is situated outside the natural distribution range of the Quercus robur, European oak.


Heraldry

The first coat of arms of Tampere was designed by Arvid von Cederwald in 1838, while the current coat of arms of 1960 in use is the handwriting of Olof Eriksson.Tampereen vaakunat
(in Finnish)
Changing the coat of arms was a controversial act and the restoration of the old coat of arms has from time to time been demanded even after the change. The new coat of arms has also been called Soviet-style in letters to the editor because of its colors. The blazon of the old coat of arms has either not survived or it has never been done, but the description of the current coat of arms is explained as follows: “In the red field, a corrugated counter-bar, above which is accompanied by a piled hammer, and below, a Caduceus; all gold”. The colors of the coat of arms are the same as in the coat of arms of Pirkanmaa. The hammer, which looks like the first letter of the city's name T, symbolizes Tampere's early Manufacturing, industry, Caduceus its Trade, trading activities38 § Erkki Axénin ja Peter Löfbergin ym. valtuustoaloite vanhan Arvid von Cedervallin suunnitteleman vaakunan käyttöönottamiseksi.
(in Finnish)
and the corrugated counter-bar the Tammerkoski, Tammerkoski rapids, which divides Tampere's industrial and commercial areas. The city received its first Seal (emblem), seal in 1803, and the seal depicted the city's buildings of that time and Tammerkoski.


History

The earliest known permanent settlements around Tammerkoski were established in 7th century, when settlers from the west of the region started farming land in Takahuhti. For many centuries, the population remained low. By the 16th century, the villages of Messukylä and Takahuhti had grown to be the largest settlements in the region. Other villages nearby were Laiskola, Pyynikkälä and Hatanpää. The early industries in the Pirkanmaa region in the 17th century were mainly watermills and sawmills, while in the 18th century other production began to emerge, as several small-scale ironworks, Tammerkoski distillery and Otavala Spinning wheel, spinning school were founded. Before the birth of the city of Tampere, its neighboring municipality of Pirkkala (according to which the current Pirkanmaa, Pirkanmaa region got its name) was the most administratively significant parish in the area throughout the Middle Ages. This all changed in the 18th century when Erik Edner, a Finnish pastor, proposed the establishment of a city of Tampere on the banks of the Tammerkoski channel in 1771–1772; it was officially founded as a market place in 1775 by Gustav III of Sweden and four years later, 1 October 1779, Tampere was granted full city rights. At this time, it was a rather small town, founded on the lands belonging to Tammerkoski manor, while its inhabitants were still mainly farmers. As Agriculture, farming on the city's premises was forbidden, the inhabitants began to rely on other methods of securing a livelihood, primarily trade and handicraft. Tampere grew as a major market town and Industrial city, industrial centre in the 19th century; the industrialization of Tampere was greatly influenced by the Finlayson (company), Finlayson textile factory, founded in 1820 by the Scotland, Scottish industrialist James Finlayson (industrialist), James Finlayson. By the year 1850, the factory employed around 2000 people, while the population of the city had increased to 4000 inhabitants. Other notable industries that followed Finlayson's success in the 1800s were Tampella blast furnace, machine factory and flax mill, Frenckell paper mill, and Tampere broadcloth factory. Tampere was the centre of many important political events of Finland in the early 20th century. On 1 November 1905, during the general strike, the famous ''Red Declaration'' was proclaimed on Tampere Central Square, Keskustori. In 1918, after Finland had gained independence, Tampere played a major role, being one of the strategically important sites during the Finnish Civil War, Civil War in Finland (28 January – 15 May 1918). Tampere was a red stronghold during the war, with Hugo Salmela in command. White Guard (Finland), White forces captured the town after the Battle of Tampere, seizing about 10,000 Red Guard (Finland), Red prisoners on 6 April 1918. Prevalent in Tampere's post-World War II municipal politics was the Brothers-in-Arms Axis (''aseveliakseli''), which mostly constituted of some of the municipal councilmembers of the National Coalition Party, People's Party of Finland (1951), People's Party of Finland, and right-wing Social Democratic Party of Finland, Social Democrats, trying to oppose the politics of Popular front, Popular Front coalition of the Centre Party (Finland), Centre Party, SKDL and left-wing SDP councilmembers. After World War II, Tampere was enlarged by joining some neighbouring areas. Messukylä was incorporated in 1947, Lielahti in 1950, Aitolahti in 1966 and finally Teisko in 1972. The limit of 100,000 inhabitants was crossed in Tampere in 1950. Tampere was long known for its textile and metal industries, but these have been largely replaced by information technology and telecommunications during the 1990s. The technology centre Hermia (Finland), Hermia in Hervanta is home to many companies in these fields. Tampere became a high school city when the Social University moved from Helsinki to Tampere in 1960 and became the University of Tampere in 1966.


Geography

Tampere is part of the Pirkanmaa region and is surrounded by the Municipalities of Finland, municipalities of Kangasala, Lempäälä, Nokia, Finland, Nokia, Orivesi, Pirkkala, Ruovesi, and Ylöjärvi. There are 180 lakes that are larger than 10,000 m2 (1 ha) in Tampere, and fresh water bodies make up 24% of the city's total area. The lakes have formed as separate basins from Ancylus Lake, Ancylus lake approximately 7500–8000 years ago. The northernmost point of Tampere is located in Vankavesi, Lake Vankavesi of Teisko, the southernmost at the eastern end of Hervantajärvi, Lake Hervanta, the easternmost at the northeast corner of Paalijärvi, Lake Paalijärvi of Teisko and the westernmost at the southeast corner of Haukijärvi, Lake Haukijärvi near the borders of Ylöjärvi and Nokia. The city center itself is surrounded by three lakes, Näsijärvi, Pyhäjärvi and much smaller Iidesjärvi. Tampere region is situated in the Kokemäki River drainage basin, which discharges into the Bothnian Sea through river which flows through Pori, the capital of Satakunta, Satakunta region. The bedrock of Tampere consists of Shale, mica shale and migmatite, and its building stone deposits are diverse: in addition to traditional granite, there is an abundance of quartz diorite, tonalite, mica shale and Gneiss, mica gneiss. One of the most notable geographical features in Tampere is Pyynikinharju, a large esker formed from moraine during the Weichselian glaciation. It rises 160 meters above sea level and is said to be one of the largest gravel eskers in the world. It is also part of Salpausselkä, a 200 km long ridge system left by the ice age. The Keskusta, Tampere, center of Tampere (''Keskusta''), as well as the Pyynikki, Ylä-Pispala and Ala-Pispala districts, are located on the isthmus between Lake Pyhäjärvi and Lake Näsijärvi. The location of the city on the edge of the Tammerkoski rapids between two long waterways was one of the most important stimuli for its establishment in the 1770s. The streets of central Tampere form a typical grid pattern. On the western edge of the city center, there is a north-south park street, Hämeenpuisto ("Häme Park" or "Tavastia Park"), which leads from the shore of Lake Pyhäjärvi near Lake Näsijärvi. The wide Hämeenkatu street leads east-west from the Tampere Central Station to Hämeenpuisto and crosses Tammerkoski along the Hämeensilta bridge. Also along Hämeenkatu is the longest street in the city center, Satakunnankatu, which extends from Rautatienkatu to Pyynikki, which crosses Tammerkoski along the Satakunnansilta bridge. The Tampere Central Square is located on the western shore of Tammerkoski, close to Hämeensilta. The traffic center of Tampere is the intersection of Itsenäisyydenkatu, Teiskontie, Sammonkatu, Kalevanpuisto park street, and Kaleva (Tampere), Kaleva and Liisankallio districts.


Neighbourhoods and other subdivisions

The city of Tampere is divided into Subdivisions of Tampere, seven subdivisions, each of which includes the many districts and their suburbs. There are a total of 111 statistical areas in Tampere. However, the statistical areas made for Tampere's statistics do not fully correspond to the Tampere district division or the residents' perception of the districts, as the Amuri, Tampere, Amuri, Kyttälä and Tammela, Tampere, Tammela districts, for example, are divided into two parts corresponding to the official district division, and in addition to this, Liisankallio and Kalevanrinne are often considered to belong to the Kaleva district.


Climate

Tampere has a warm-summer humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification ''Dfb''). Winters are cold and the average temperature from December to March is below . Summers are cool to warm. On average, snow cover lasts 4–5 months from late November to early April. Considering it being close to the subarctic threshold and inland, winters are, on average, quite mild for the classification, as is the annual mean temperature.


Temperature records of Tampere

Temperature records of Tampere and the near-by Tampere–Pirkkala Airport: Highest temperatures at the Tampere–Pirkkala Airport by month since 1980: Lowest temperatures in Tampere: Lowest temperatures at the Tampere–Pirkkala Airport by month since 1980:


Economy

The Tampere region, Pirkanmaa, which includes outlying municipalities, has around 509,000 residents, 244,000 employed people, and a turnover of 28 billion euros . According to the Tampere International Business Office, the area is strong in mechanical engineering and automation, information and communication technologies, and health and biotechnology, as well as pulp and paper industry education. Unemployment rate was 15.7% in August 2020. 70% of the areas jobs are in the service sector. Less than 20% are in the manufacturing sector. 34.5% of employed people live outside the Tampere municipality and commute to Tampere for work. Meanwhile, 15.6% of Tampere's residents work outside Tampere.''Ympäristön tila Tampereella 2014'', s. 14. In 2014 the largest employers were Kesko, Pirkanmaan Osuuskauppa, Alma Media and Posti Group. According to a study carried out by the Synergos Research and Training Center of the University of Tampere, the total impact of tourism in the Tampere region in 2012 was more than 909 million euros. Tourism also brought 4,805 person-years to the region. The biggest single attraction in Tampere is the Särkänniemi amusement park, which had about 630,000 visitors in 2016. In addition, in 2015, 1,021,151 overnight stays were made in Tampere hotels. The number exceeded the previous record year with more than 20,000 overnight stays. All that makes Tampere the second most popular city in Finland after Helsinki in terms of hotel stays. Leisure tourism accounted for 55,4% of overnight stays and occupational tourism for 43,2%. The occupancy rate of all accommodation establishments with more than 20 rooms was 57,0%, while that of accommodation establishments in the whole country was 48,3%. Tampere's economic profit in 2015 was the worst of big Finnish cities. In 2016 the loss of the fiscal year was 18,8 million euros. In the city’s economy, the largest revenues come from taxes and government contributions. In 2015, the city received 761 million euros in municipal tax revenue. In addition, 61,4 million euros came from corporate taxes and 64 million euros from property taxes. Tax revenues have not increased as expected in the 2010s, although the city’s population has increased. This has been affected by high unemployment.


Demographics

Tampere has 238,671 inhabitants, making it the third most populous municipality in Finland and the tenth in the Nordics. The Tampere region, which has 410,689 inhabitants, is the second largest urban area after
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the Capital city, capital, primate city, primate and List of cities and towns in Finland, most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of ...
. 8% of the population has a foreign background, which is lower than Helsinki and
Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ; la, Aboa; russian: Турку, formerly ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social S ...
but higher than Oulu.


Education

The Primary school, comprehensive education is given mainly in Finnish but the city has special bilingual groups where students study in Finnish and a second language (English language, English, French language, French or German language, German). Furthermore there is a private Swedish-speaking school (Swedish Svenska samskolan i Tammerfors) that covers all levels of education from preschool to Gymnasium (school), high school. There are three institutions of higher education in the Tampere area totaling 40,000 students: the university and two polytechnic institutions ( fi, ammattikorkeakoulu). Tampere University (TUNI) has over 20,000 students and is located in two campuses, one in the Kalevanharju district, close to the city centre, and one in Hervanta, in the southern part of the city. The institution was formed in 2019 as a result of the merge of University of Tampere (UTA) and Tampere University of Technology (TUT). TUNI is also the major shareholder of the Tampere University of Applied Sciences (''Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulu'', TAMK), a polytechnic counting about 10,000 students. The Police University College (Finland), Police University College, the polytechnic institution serving all of Finland in its field of specialization, is also located in Tampere. Tampere University Hospital (''Tampereen yliopistollinen sairaala'', TAYS) in the Kauppi (district), Kauppi district, one of the main hospitals in Finland, is affiliated with Tampere University. It is a teaching hospital with 34 medical specializations.


Arts and culture

Tampere is known for its active cultural life. Some of the most popular writers in Finland, such as Väinö Linna, Kalle Päätalo, and Hannu Salama, hail from Tampere. These authors are known particularly as writers depicting the lives of working-class people, thanks to their respective backgrounds as members of the working class. Also from such a background was the poet Lauri Viita of the Pispala district, which was also the original home of the aforementioned Hannu Salama. On October 1, Tampere celebrates the annual Tampere Day ( fi, Tampereen päivä), which hosts a variety of public events.


Media

Tampere has a strong ''media city'', as the television center in Tohloppi and Ristimäki districts has had a nationwide Yle TV2 television channel since the 1970s, and Finnish radio, for example, began in Tampere when Arvi Hauvonen founded the first broadcasting station in 1923. Yle TV2 has its roots in Tamvisio, which was transferred to Yleisradio in 1964. ''Kakkoskanava'' ("Channel 2") has been a major influence in Tampere, and several well-known television programs and series have been shot in the city, such as TV comedies ''Tankki täyteen'', ''Reinikainen (television series), Reinikainen'' and ''Kummeli''. Tampere Film Festival, The Tampere Film Festival, an annual international short film event, is held every March. In 2014, ''Aamulehti'', which was published in Tampere, was the third largest newspaper in Finland in terms of circulation, after ''Helsingin Sanomat'' and ''Ilta-Sanomat''. The circulation of the magazine was 106,842 (2014). In addition, a free city newspaper ''Tamperelainen'' (literally translated "Tamperean", meaning person who live in Tampere) will be published in the city. The city is also known as the home of the popular Hydraulic Press Channel on YouTube, which originates from a machine shop owned by Lauri Vuohensilta.


Food

A local food speciality is ''mustamakkara'', which resembles the black pudding of northern England. It is a black sausage made by mixing pork, pig's blood and crushed rye and flour and is stuffed into the intestines of an animal. It is commonly eaten with lingonberry sauce. Especially Tammelantori square in the district of Tammela, Tampere, Tammela is known for its ''mustamakkara'' kiosks. A newer Tampere tradition are ''munkki'', fresh sugary doughnuts that are sold in several cafés around Tampere, but most traditionally in Pyynikki observation tower.


Music

Tampere is home to the Tampere Philharmonic Orchestra (''Tampere Filharmonia''), which is one of only two full-sized symphony orchestras in Finland; Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra, the other one is located in
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the Capital city, capital, primate city, primate and List of cities and towns in Finland, most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of ...
. The orchestra's home venue is the Tampere Hall, and their concerts include classical, popular, and film music. Tampere Music Festivals organises three international music events: Tampere Jazz Happening, The Tampere Jazz Happening each November, and in alternate years Tampere Vocal Music Festival, The Tampere Vocal Music Festival and the Tampere Biennale. Professional education in many fields of classical music, including performing arts, pedagogic arts, and composition, is provided by Tampere University of Applied Sciences and Tampere Music school, Conservatoire. Tammerfest, Tampere's urban rock festival, is held every July. The Tampere Floral Festival is an annual event, held each Summer. ''Manserock'' became a general term for rock music from Tampere, which was essentially rock music with Finnish lyrics. Manserock was especially popular during the 1970s and 1980s, and its most popular artists included Juice Leskinen, Virtanen, Kaseva, Popeda, and Eppu Normaali. In 1977, Poko Records, the first record company in Tampere, was founded. In the 2010s, there has been a lot of popular musical activity in Tampere, particularly in the fields of rock and Heavy metal music, heavy/black metal; one of the most important metal music events in Tampere is the Sauna Open Air Metal Festival. Some of the most popular bands based in Tampere include Negative (Finnish band), Negative, Uniklubi, and Lovex. Tampere also has an active electronic music scene. Tampere hosts an annual World of Tango Festival (''Maailmantango'').


Theatre

Tampere has a lengthy tradition of theater, with established institutions such as Tampere Workers' Theatre, Tampereen Työväen Teatteri, Tampere Theatre, Tampereen Teatteri, and Pyynikin Kesäteatteri, which is an open-air theatre with the oldest revolving auditorium in Europe. Tampere Theatre Festival, The Tampere Theatre Festival (''Tampereen teatterikesä'') is an international theatre festival held in the city each August.


Religion

As is the case with most of the rest of Finland, most Tampere citizens belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. One Lutheran church in Tampere is Finlayson Church in the Finlayson (district), district by the same name. Tampere also has a variety of other religious services spanning from traditional to Charismatic Christianity, charismatic. There are also some English speaking services, such as the Tampere English Service, an international community affiliated with the Tampere Pentecostal Church. English services of the International Congregation of Christ the King (ICCK) are organized by the Anglican Church in Finland and the Lutheran Parishes of Tampere. The Catholic parish of the Holy Cross also offers services in Finnish, Polish and English. Other churches may also have English speaking ministries. Tampere is the center of a The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, LDS stake (Latter Day Saints), stake (diocese). Other churches in Tampere are the Baptist Church, the Evangelical Free Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Mission Diocese of Finland, the Finnish Orthodox Church and the Nokia Revival. The Jews had an organized community until 1981. Though a small number of Jews remain in Tampere, organized communal life ended at that time.


City rivalry with Turku

Tampere ostensibly has a long-standing mutual feud with the city of
Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ; la, Aboa; russian: Турку, formerly ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social S ...
, the first capital of Finland, and they tend to compete for the title of being the "second grand city of Finland" after
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the Capital city, capital, primate city, primate and List of cities and towns in Finland, most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of ...
. This hostility is largely expressed in jokes in one city about the other; prominent targets are the traditional Tampere food, ''mustamakkara'', the state of the Aura River (Finland), Aura River in Turku, and the regional accents. Tampere is well known as a food destination because of its food culture. Since 1997, students at Tampere have made annual excursions to Turku to jump on the market square, doing their part to undo the post-glacial rebound and push the city back into the Baltic Sea.


Sites of interest

One of the main tourist attractions is the Särkänniemi amusement park, which includes the landmark Näsinneula tower, topped by a revolving restaurant. In addition to these, it used to house a dolphinarium. Other sites of interest are Tampere Cathedral, Tampere City Hall, Tampere Central Library ''Metso'' ("Western capercaillie, Capercaillie"), Kaleva Church (both designed by Reima Pietilä), Tampere Hall, the Tampere Hall (along Hämeenkatu) for conferences and concerts, the Tampere Market Hall and historical Pyynikki observation tower. Tampere has at least seven hotels, the most noteworthy of which are Hotel Tammer, Hotel Ilves, and Hotel Torni Tampere, Hotel Torni, the tallest hotel building in Finland. Tampere is also home to one of the last museums in the world dedicated to Vladimir Lenin. The museum is housed in the Tampere Workers' Hall (along Hallituskatu (Tampere), Hallituskatu) where during a subsequent Bolshevik conference in the city, Lenin met Joseph Stalin for the first time. Lenin moved to Tampere in August 1905, but eventually fled for Sweden in November 1907 when being pursued by the Russian Okhrana. Lenin would not return to any part of the Russian Empire until ten years later, when he heard of the start of the Russian Revolution of 1917. There are many museums and galleries, including: *The Vapriikki Museum Centre which includes the Natural History Museum of Tampere, Finnish Hockey Hall of Fame, Finnish Museum of Games, Post Museum and the ''Shoe Museum'' *Tampere Art Museum *Tampere Lenin Museum *The Moomin Museum, about Moomins *Rupriikki Media Museum *Spy Museum in Siperia *Workers' housing museum in Amuri, Tampere, Amuri. *Finland's largest glass sculpture, owned by the City of Tampere, "Timo Sarpaneva#Glass, Pack Ice / The Mirror of the Sea" by the renowned artist Timo Sarpaneva, was installed in the entrance lobby of the downtown shopping mall KoskiKeskus until it was moved to a warehouse.


Pispala

Pispala is a ridge located between the two lakes. It's the highest gravel ridge in the world, raising above Lake Pyhäjärvi and around above sea level. It was used to house the majority of industrial labour in the late 19th and early 20th century, when it was part of Pirkkala, Suur-Pirkkala and its successor Nokia, Finland, Pohjois-Pirkkala. It was a free area to be built upon by the working-class people working in Tampere factories. It joined Tampere in 1937. Currently it is a residential area undergoing significant redevelopment and together with neighbouring Pyynikki it forms an important historical area of Tampere.


Events


Sports

Tampere's sporting scene is mainly driven by ice hockey. The first Finnish ice hockey match was played in Tampere, on the ice of Pyhäjärvi. Tampere is nicknamed the hometown of Finnish ice hockey. Two exceptional ice hockey teams come from Tampere: Ilves and Tappara. They both have had a great impact on Finnish ice hockey culture and are among the most successful teams in Finland. The Finnish ice hockey museum, and the first ice hockey arena to be built in Finland, the Tampereen jäähalli, Hakametsä arena, are both located in Tampere. Construction of a new main ice hockey arena, Tampere Deck Arena, began in 2018, and is supposed to be finished by 2021. The name of the new arena will be UROS LIVE. Association football is also a popular sport in Tampere. Ilves (football), Ilves alone has over 4,000 players in its football teams, while Tampere boasts over 100 (mostly junior) football teams. Basketball is another popular sport in Tampere. The city has three basketball teams with big junior activity and one of them, Tampereen Pyrintö, plays on the highest level (Korisliiga) and was the Finnish Champion in 2010, 2011, and 2014. Tampere Saints is the American football club in the city. The Saints won division 2 in 2015 and plays in the Vaahteraliiga, Maple League (division 1) in summer 2017. Tampere hosted some of the Football at the 1952 Summer Olympics, preliminaries for the 1952 Summer Olympics, the 1965 World Ice Hockey Championships and was co-host of the EuroBasket 1967. The city also hosted two ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships, canoe sprint world championships, in 1973 and 1983. In 1977, Tampere hosted the World Rowing Junior Championships and in 1995 the Senior World Rowing Championships. Recently, Tampere was the host of the 10th European Youth Olympic Festival from 17 to 25 July 2009 and the 2010 World Ringette Championships from 1 to 6 November at Hakametsä arena.


Concerts

Ratina Stadium of Tampere has served as the venue for many of the most significant concerts, most notably in connection with the ''Endless Forms Most Beautiful World Tour'' in 2015 by the band Nightwish. Other noteworthy tours from other bands held at Ratina Stadium include Iron Maiden (''Somewhere Back in Time World Tour'', 2008), Bruce Springsteen (''Working on a Dream Tour'', 2009), AC/DC (''Black Ice World Tour'', 2010), Red Hot Chili Peppers (''I'm with You World Tour'', 2012), Bon Jovi (''Because We Can (concert tour), Because We Can World Tour'', 2013), Robbie Williams (''The Heavy Entertainment Show Tour'', 2017) and Rammstein (''Rammstein Stadium Tour'', 2019).


Transport

Tampere is an important railroad hub in Finland and there are direct railroad connections to, for example,
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the Capital city, capital, primate city, primate and List of cities and towns in Finland, most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of ...
,
Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ; la, Aboa; russian: Турку, formerly ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social S ...
and the Port of Turku, Oulu, Jyväskylä, and Pori. The Tampere Central Station, Tampere Central Railway Station is located in the city center. There are also frequent bus connections to destinations around Finland. To the south of Tampere, there is the Tampere Ring Road, which is important for car traffic and which is part of Highways in Finland, Finnish highways number Finnish national road 3, 3 (on the west side) and number Finnish national road 9, 9 (on the east side). Teiskontie, which runs east of the city center, is part of Finnish national road 12, Highway 12 in the direction of Lahti. Tampere is served by Tampere–Pirkkala Airport, located in neighboring municipality Pirkkala some southwest of the city. The public transport network in Tampere currently consists solely of a bus network. Between 1948 and 1976 the city also had an extensive trolleybus network, which was also the largest trolleybus system in Finland. As of 2017, construction is underway for a light rail system in the city to replace some of the more popular bus lines (''see Tampere light rail''), as well as initiating commuter rail service on the railroad lines connecting Tampere to the neighbouring towns of Nokia, Finland, Nokia and Lempäälä. Light rail traffic is expected to begin in August 2021.


Distances to other cities

*
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the Capital city, capital, primate city, primate and List of cities and towns in Finland, most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of ...
– * Hämeenlinna – * Joensuu – * Jyväskylä – * Kuopio – * Lahti – * Lappeenranta – * Oulu – * Pori – * Seinäjoki – *
Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ; la, Aboa; russian: Турку, formerly ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social S ...
– * Vaasa –


Government

In 2007, Tampere switched to a new model of government. Since then, a mayor and four deputy mayors have been chosen for a period of four years by the City Council of Tampere, city council. The mayor also becomes the seat of the city council for the duration of the tenure.


Mayors over time

* Kaarle Nordlund 1929–1943 * Sulo Typpö 1943–1957 * Erkki Lindfors 1957–1969 * Pekka Paavola 1969–1985 * Jarmo Rantanen 1985–2007 * Timo P. Nieminen (National Coalition Party, kok.) 2007–2012 * Anna-Kaisa Ikonen (National Coalition Party, kok.) 2013–2017 * Lauri Lyly (Social Democratic Party of Finland, sd.) 2017–present


Notable people


Born before 1900

* Emil Aaltonen (1869—1949), industrialist and philanthropist * Emanuel Aromaa (1873—1933), politician * Eero Berg (1898–1969), long-distance runner and Olympic gold medalist * Minna Canth (1844–1897), author and social activist * James Finlayson (industrialist), James Finlayson (1772–1852), Scottish Quakers, Quaker and industrialist * Väinö Hakkila (1882–1958), politician * Gustaf Idman (1885–1961), diplomat and a non-partisan Minister of Foreign Affairs (Finland), Minister of Foreign Affairs * Alma Jokinen (1882-1939), politician * Feliks Kellosalmi (1877-1939), politician * Augusta Laine (1867-1949), teacher of home economics and politician * Frans Oskar Lilius (1871-1928), politician * Wivi Lönn (1872–1966), architect * Kaapo Murros (1875–1951), journalist, lawyer, writer and politician * Juho Kusti Paasikivi (1870–1956), the Prime Minister of Finland and the President of Finland, 7th President of Finland * Aaro Pajari (1897–1949), Major General and the Knight of the Mannerheim Cross * Arvo Pohjannoro (1893–1963), Lutheran clergyman and politician * Anders Rajala (1891–1957), wrestler * Julius Saaristo (1891–1969) track and field athlete and Olympic gold medalist * Matti Schreck (1897–1946), banker and film producer * Frans Eemil Sillanpää (1888–1964), author and Nobel laureate * Bertel Strömmer (1890–1962), architect * Vilho Tuulos (1895–1967), triple jumper, long jumper and Olympic gold medalist * August Wesley (1887–?), journalist, trade unionist and revolutionary


Born after 1900

* Jonne Aaron (born 1983), singer * Sinikka Antila (born 1960), lawyer and diplomat * Aleksander Barkov (born 1995), Finnish-Russian professional ice hockey player * Anu Bradford (born 1975), Finnish-American author and law professor * Johanna Debreczeni (born 1980), singer * Henrik Otto Donner (1939–2013), composer and music personality * Anna Falchi (born 1972), Finnish-Italian model and film actress * Mauri Favén (1920–2006), painter * Jussi Halla-aho (born 1971), politician and current leader of the Finns Party * Seppo Jokinen (born 1949), author * Viljo Kajava (1909–1998), author and poet * Tapani Kalliomäki (born 1970), stage and film actor * Glen Kamara (born 1995), professional footballer * Jorma Karhunen (1913–2002), Finnish Air Force Flying ace, ace and the Knight of the Mannerheim Cross * Leo Kinnunen (1943–2017), Formula One driver * Mika Koivuniemi (born 1967), bowling coach and professional ten-pin bowling, ten-pin bowler * Kiira Korpi (born 1988), figure skater * Urpo Lahtinen (1931–1994), journalist and magazine publisher * Patrik Laine (born 1998), professional ice hockey player * Väinö Linna (1920–1992), author * Tiina Lymi (born 1971), actress, director, screenwriter and author * Taru Mäkelä (born 1959), film director and screenwriter * Eeva-Liisa Manner (1921–1995), poet, playwright and translator * Sanna Marin (born 1985), politician, current leader of the Social Democratic Party of Finland, Social Democratic Party and current Prime Minister of Finland * Sakari Mattila (born 1989), professional footballer * Matthau Mikojan (born 1982), rock musician, singer, guitarist and songwriter * Pate Mustajärvi (born 1956), rock singer * Mikko Nousiainen (born 1975), actor * Teppo Numminen (born 1968), professional ice hockey player * Erno Paasilinna (1935–2000), author and journalist * Pekka Paavola (born 1933), politician and Minister of Justice (Finland), Minister of Justice * Oiva Paloheimo (1910–1973), author, poet and aphorist * Veijo Pasanen (1930–1988), actor * Raisa Räisänen (1983–?), still missing 16-year-old girl, who was Presumption of death, declared dead in absentia in 2007 * Matti Ranin (1926–2013), actor * Leo Riuttu (1913–1989), actor * Seela Sella (born 1936), actress * Heikki Silvennoinen (born 1954), musician and actor * Kikka Sirén (1964–2005), pop and schlager singer * Armi Toivanen (born 1980), actress * Jussi Välimäki (born 1974), rally driver * Lauri Viita (1916–1965), poet * Sofia Vikman (born 1983), politician * Olavi Virta (1915–1972), singer * Hans Wind (1919–1995), fighter pilot, flying ace and the Knight of the Mannerheim Cross * Aki Yli-Salomäki (born 1972), composer, music critic and music journalist


International relations


Twin towns – sister cities

Tampere is Town twinning, twinned with:


Friendship cities

Tampere has two additional "friendship cities":


See also

* Battle of Tampere * ''Mustamakkara'' * Nokia, Finland * Pirkkala * Ratina Stadium * Särkänniemi * * Tampere Deck Arena * Tampere Film Festival * Tampere Tigers


Notes


Further reading

*


References


External links


City of Tampere
– Official website
The official Tampere Region visitor websiteVirtual City Guide: VirtualTampere.com1952 Summer Olympics official report
pp. 62–3.
Tammerkoski Heritage
– Town's Industrial Heritage Portal
CSSA Tampere RyLunch restaurants in Tampere
* * {{Authority control Tampere, Venues of the 1952 Summer Olympics Cities and towns in Finland Grand Duchy of Finland Olympic football venues Populated places established in 1779